The state is a natural haven for birds. For centuries huge flocks from the north have come down the eastern flyways to winter on the Outer Banks, sounds, and marshes. Starting in 1938, the federal government began establishing a number sanctuaries for birds and other wildlife. The first three were Pea Island, Mattamuskeet, and Swan Quarter. In the 1960s, three more were added--Pee Dee, Pungo, and Cedar Island. Green describes each refuge. Part of Mackay Island is also a refuge, and it is administered from Virginia's Back Bay Refuge.