The State of North Carolina has three broad provinces with different soil characteristics—Blue Ridge, Piedmont, and the Coastal Plain. The Blue Ridge area is predominantly metamorphic rock while the Piedmont and Coastal Plain have a clay and sand mixture. Of these two materials, clay is the most difficult to work with. Despite its ability to hold water, clay’s clingy nature can be damaging to plants. The author recommends adding gypsum or compost to clay and silty soils.