In 1995, massive fish kills in the Neuse River focused national attention on the state, and the public demanded that the state clean up the waterways. In response to the outcry, Senator Marc Basnight of Dare County proposed an innovative and effective environmental initiative that is now known as the Clean Water Management Trust Fund. Basnight argued that the General Assembly should provide incentives and assistance to local governments, landowners, and others to protect and restore water quality. Holman examines what has been accomplished in the last decade. Grants from the fund have improved 142 wastewater collection and treatment systems and have funded 102 buffer, stream, and wetland restoration projects.