In 1865, after the end of the Civil War, large-scale tobacco manufacturing developed in Winston-Salem and Durham. Roberts discusses inventions that helped to change the industry. One was the Bull Jack, a machine that filled muslin bags about the size of a pack of playing cards with smoking tobacco and applied labels to the bags. Rufus Lenoir Patterson of Salem was the inventor. John Thomas Dalton invented a bow tier to automatically tie the strings on the muslin bags. James Bonsack, a Virginia teenager, invented the Bonsack machine for making cigarettes, a device that eliminated the need to roll cigarettes by hand.