County health departments have an important role in protecting water supplies; as more developers elect to construct private wastewater treatment facilities, the control of public health problems has county health departments worried. Issues of public management of private wastewater systems concern on-site disposal systems serving individual homes or several homes, as well as on or off-site community systems. Package treatment plants have recently received the most attention. Ongoing problems with malfunctioning private systems and package treatment plants go beyond public health concerns and hit the municipalities in the pocket. Who pays for necessary repairs or replacement when the private wastewater system fails and the public sector must step in to operate and manage?