The population of North Carolina will increase to twelve million in 2030. While growth has economic benefits, it can also be costly in terms of degraded land, water, and air quality. In 2000, the NC General Assembly mandated that a million acres of farmland, open space, and other conservation lands would be permanently protected by 2009. In 2002, the NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources created 'One North Carolina Naturally,' to promote and coordinate long-term programs and strategies to protect land and water resources. Smith discusses the program's goals and on-the-ground results in coastal preservation and restoration projects.