Lord William Berkeley was commissioned governor of Virginia in 1641. Berkeley encouraged exploration of the surrounding country while holding off Indian rebellions and a Dutch invasion. However, during the early years of his administration he relentlessly persecuted the Quakers and Puritans. Nathaniel Bacon led a rebellion against the government which forced Berkeley to flee to the Eastern shore of the colony. After Bacon's death, he set out on a course of execution and confiscation so violent as to cause his recall by the English government.