The over eleven cubic feet of papers (1857-2021) in this collection compiled by local historian Edward Ellis are related to the history of Havelock and New Bern, N.C., the Civil War (especially New Bern and Eastern North Carolina), Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station, Sir Henry Havelock and Ellis's publications. Items included are aerial photographs (1938/1939, 1950) of Craven, Pamlico and Carteret counties, N.C.; New Bern Civil War-related items; two issues of The New York Times (1862) related to the Civil War in New Bern; 1857 issues of The Illustrated London News, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, Harper's Weekly and The New York Times related to Sir Henry Havelock and the war in India; ephemera, engravings, prints and an image on glass related to Sir Henry Havelock; Havelock Tobacco caddy labels; Havelock Progress newspaper negatives (1981-1983); photographs used in Ellis's book Historic Images of Havelock and Cherry Point (2010); manuscripts for Ellis's books In This Small Place (2005), and New Bern History 101 (2009); and four cubic feet of historical files relating to Havelock and New Bern, N.C., Cherry Point, the Civil War, genealogy and other historical topics. Also included are a short history of the Second Marine Aircraft Wing, and ninety-seven photographs (1941) with corresponding indexes and map documenting property adjoining Havelock, N.C. prior to demolition of buildings for construction of Cherry Point Marine Air Station. The photographs include scenes of farm houses, barns, outbuildings, fishing camps, fields, roads, and waterways.
Edward Barnes Ellis, Jr., donor of this collection, has researched and preserved the history of Havelock, North Carolina, and the surrounding area for many decades. He was named the official historian of Havelock, North Carolina, in 1984. A Craven County, North Carolina, native, he served in the N.C. General Assembly for four years as a legislative representative for state employees, although for most of his career, he has engaged in the newspaper business as a reporter, photographer, columnist, editor and publisher. Ellise is the founder of the Havelock News and the former publisher of Cherry Point's Windsock, and he has written several books including In This Small Place, New Bern History 101, and Historic Images of Havelock and Cherry Point.
Havelock is located in Craven County, North Carolina. Its name is derived from Sir Henry Havelock (1795-1857), a British officer who became famous during the "Indian Rebellion of 1857-1859" (also known as the First War of Independence and Sepoy Mutiny). While the area had been inhabited at least since the 1850s when it was called "Havelock Station" when the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad built a depot there and the Cherry Point Marine Air Station had been established in 1941, Havelock was not formally established as a town until 1959. As of 2010, the town had a population of just over 20,000.
Cherry Point Marine Air Station is located at the foot of the great Outer Banks, approximately ninety miles west-southwest of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. In July 1941, after an authorization by Congress, clearing of swamps, farmland and timberland totaling some eight thousand acres began. In November (only seventeen days before the attack on Pearl Harbor) initial construction of the station commenced. The facility was originally commissioned on May 20, 1942 as Cunningham Field, in honor of Lt. Col. Alfred A. Cunningham, the Marine Corps' first aviator. The name Cherry Point, taken from a local post office set among cherry trees, was later applied to the facility.
The initial purpose of the station was a training facility during World War II for Marines bound for service in The Pacific Theater, as well as a base for anti-submarine operations. During the Korean and Vietnam wars, Cherry Point assisted by supplying a steady supply of replacement aviation personnel. With the deployment of several squadrons, the station played a major role in the victory in Southwest Asia during Operation Desert Storm.
Source: Official website of MCAS Cherry Point, NC
This collection contains ninety-seven photographs and a few documents pertaining to the future site of Cherry Point Marine Air Station. The photographs document land and structures before clearing took place to build the facility. The forty-two homes that existed on the property are shown in the photographs along with farmhouses, outbuildings, several vehicles, fields, roads, waterways and a service station. The area was photographed as part of government contract NOy 4957 during August and September 1941, a few months before the bombing of Pearl Harbor. The photographs contain tract numbers that correspond to a map still retained by Ellis. According to Ellis, by the time the photographs were taken most of the homes in the photographs had been abandoned and some had already been razed. Those that did remain were razed soon after the photographs were taken. At least one settlement that was dislocated by the construction of Cherry Point was Little Witness. Little Witness was a settlement at the intersection of Hancock Creek and the Beaufort Road (Highway 101). Ellis later recorded interviews of original residents, but these are not part of the collection.
The photographs in this collection were given to the donor, Edward B. Ellis Jr., by the Secretary to the Commanding General at Cherry Point. Ellis made copies of the photographs and gave sets to the Cherry Point Command Historian, the Alfred A. Cunningham Air Museum and the new Little Witness Church of Havelock, NC. He also kept some for his personal archives.
The photographs in Box 1, Folder c were taken on August 3, 1941 by Wooten-Moulton Studios of New Bern, North Carolina. Photograph #6 is missing from the collection and photograph #10 is signed and dated by G. Moulton on the back.
The photographs in Box 1, Folder d were taken on August 28-29, 1941. Roy Eubanks of Beaufort, North Carolina was the photographer. Photographs #8D, #24 are missing, and #28 is erroneously labeled as "another" #23. According to Ellis, the building in photograph #24 was the schoolhouse at the settlement of Little Witness.
The photographs in Box 1, Folder e were taken on September 15-16, 1941. The photographer is unknown. Photograph #4 is missing. According to Ellis, the church in photograph #4 was the church at the settlement of Little Witness.
Among the documents are three indexes (duplicated in the container list for the collection) by Ellis describing each photograph. Another document composed by Ellis offers further provenance of the photographs and history of the area. The last document is a short history of the Second Marine Aircraft Wing, first commissioned in July 1941 in San Diego, California. This division was moved to Cherry Point in 1946.
Also included is an ownership map (June 1941 Public Works Drawing No. 2063, 30.5" x 24") of lands taken by the U. S. Government for the proposed Cherry Point Marine Aviation Base at Cherry Point, North Carolina. This item was surveyed and mapped by the U. S. Forest Service. The map is keyed to photographs included in the collection.
Additions to this collection have further expanded on the history of Havelock and its neighboring areas and the Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station. Additionally, items regarding Ellis' own works and efforts in acquiring historical materials have been compiled in recent additions to the collection. Several of his published works are found within the Havelock Historical Files sections, alongside other published materials.
These additions have been organized into Series 3 through 13. Series 3 is Materials Related to Sir Henry Havelock, namesake for Havelock, North Carolina, which are found in box 2, part of box 4, and boxes 5 and 6. Included are several newspaper articles related to Sir Havelock during the British capture of India; these papers include Harper's Weekly, December 19, 1857; Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, December 19, 1857; The Illustrated London News, September 5, 1857, September 12, 1857, and September 19, 1857. The other items in this box related to Havelock included tobacco caddies from the 1880s. There is a good deal of material related to Ellis' work, How Havelock Got Its Name, including maps and portraits of Henry Havelock, alongside his notes. Additional Havelock items are excerpts from a notebook of Ellis, which contains photocopies of pictures, historical articles, books, and correspondence Ellis had with other historians.
Boxes 5 and 6 contain memorabilia related to Henry Havelock. Included in box five are a variety of tobacco related items with depictions of Havelock, or simply named after him. These include tins for Havelock brand cigarettes and other tobacco mixture products, and a steel match box. Box six contains a variety of memorabilia related to Havelock including several stereographic pictures of scenes relating to battles in Lucknow, India; poetry regarding the death of Havelock in India; a Union case (to hold a photograph) with a depiction of Havelock on the outside of each half of the case; a glass photograph of the S.S. Havelock; and collectible playing cards and tobacco cards bearing images of Havelock and his son.
Series 4 (Box 3) is Aerial Photographs of Craven, Carteret, and Pamlico Counties, North Carolina, 1938-1939. These photographs were taken by Talbert Adams and Ellis provided a brief biography of Adams and descriptions of the photographs included. The bulk of the photographs come from Pamlico County, and are organized by two series, AOK and AOS. A few photographs contain descriptions of locations, but the majority of the photographs are left blank. There are approximately 258 photos taken by Adams in this box.
Series 5 is Photographs (also some images in publications) and Negatives. U.S. military photographs include naval stations during the World War II and photographs related to aircraft stationed at Cherry Point are found in Box 2. Materials on Cherry Point Air Station found in Box 4 are primarily photographs (1940s) of aircraft, personnel, officers, and of airship carriers. Some of these photographs were taken by Marvin H. Gottlieb including the ones documenting President Truman's visit in 1948. There are also documents belonging to Gottlieb and information about him included here. Box 7 contains negatives taken or collected by Ellis for pictures found in the Havelock Progress from 1981 through 1983. These images depict everyday life in Havelock, N.C., and the surrounding area including holiday celebrations, high school events, civic groups, wrecks, disasters, military crashes of planes and helicopters, new construction, churches, and Senator John East's 1982 visit to Cherry Point. Box 8 contains images found in Ellis' Historic Images of Havelock and Cherry Point photo collection; a copy of the publication is also contained here. These photographs depict the people and places of Havelock in the early 20th century, as well as a few photocopies of portraits from the 19th century.
Series 6 (Box 8) is Materials relating to the publication of Windsock (weekly newspaper published at Cherry Point MCAS) which was published by Ellis Publishing Company (owned by Edward B. Ellis, Jr.) for many years. Materials document Ellis's dealings with the Cherry Point Air Station newspaper, the Windsock, including government contracts, applications, and correspondence. Notable items concern a dispute with the New Bern Sun Journal over coverage of the Cherry Point 50th anniversary program, the Department of Defense guidelines related to publishing military newspapers, and a portfolio for the Ellis' publishing company which was presented when his company applied to publish the Windsock paper.
The bulk of this collection is contained in Series 7, titled Havelock, North Carolina, Historical Files (roughly alphabetical by topic), which is comprised of ten boxes (Boxes 9-18) containing documents, brochures, ephemera, photographs, and clippings collected or written by Ellis regarding the town of Havelock and its history, Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station, and the surrounding areas. Each box has been sorted by the donor in a roughly alphabetical order of topics. Included in these boxes are materials related to a variety of individuals and families from the Havelock area, as well as major events and businesses related to the town.
Boxes 9, 10 and part of 11 of Havelock Historical Files (covering topics starting with the letters A through D) are notable for the volume of material related to Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station. This includes records on the acquisition of public lands to create the air station in the 1940s, and its general history into the 1990s. There is a good deal of memorabilia including comics (by General Electric) given out at air shows, DVDs, air show programs, and programs related to its 50th anniversary. There are several Archaeological Consultant Research papers and surveys on Cherry Point which outline the lands around Cherry Point and have information regarding items such as local graves in the area. Additionally, there is a report, History of U.S. Marine Corps Air Station at Cherry Point, NC 1941-1945, written by Florence K. Jacobs (1st Lt. USMCWR and the Air Station Historical Officer) included which details the beginnings of Cherry Point, and a publication titled "The Flying Marines" written by Gertrude Carraway. Of particular interest may be a flight manual from Cherry Point (1947). While the bulk of these boxes contains items on Cherry Point, there is also a considerable amount of material on Havelock at large. Ellis has collected a variety of newspapers, photographs, and general information on prominent residents and groups within Havelock including Ed Blair, Gertrude Carraway, Alice Bayer, Graham Barden, Donald Colglazier, Wallace Conner, the Civitan Club, and the Brimsley Brothers. Ellis has also collected materials on James Davis, North Carolina's first printer; there are photocopies of issues of the New Bern Gazette with this material (1751-1794).
General items include articles (1986, 1989) used in Havelock Community pages in the telephone books and in Carolina Telephone's "Cross Talk" issues, the creation of Camp Bryan (1899), material and photographs documenting the first shopping center established in Havelock (1948-1950), Photocopies of papers on Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp Patterson, Havelock, NC. 1994, 2011, undated. Records indicate it was a CCC Camp for white men only in 1934 and 1935, but by 1936, Black men were able to join. Additionally there are notes on the Croatan National Forest (1987-1998).
Boxes 12 and 13 and part of box 11 of Havelock Historical Files (covering topics starting with the letters E through H) similarly contain information on several individuals from Havelock and Craven County including Charles B. Ellis, Arthur W. Edwards, Joseph R. Forest, W. Jesse Gurganus, and Major General Paul J. Fontana. There are materials for the Ellis, Hardy-Hardee, Durant, Earp, Hancock, Slocumb, and Jones families in these boxes. The Ellis family material includes genealogical notes, correspondence, photographs, and family trees; it mainly pertains to Wayne County but also some to Craven County. There are also items related directly to Edward B. Ellis, Jr.'s life. The majority of the material found here is related to the city of Havelock history including documents on the creation of the 2007 Havelock Historical Exhibit, guidebooks and brochures on the town, transcripts of town historical program "Havelock Today", and items on Havelock's 50th anniversary. Several guidebooks are included which outline not only Havelock, but Cherry Point as well. (1954-1966) Furthermore there are a few maps regarding boundaries and property lines for Havelock and Cherry Point. Other materials are related to ECAHF (Eastern Carolina Aviation Heritage Foundation).
Boxes 14, 15, and part of 16 of Havelock Historical Files (covering topics starting with the letters H through M) contain information related to several individuals in Havelock and the surrounding area including Kenneth Jones, William and Louise Jackson, William Kleschick, and Tom Haywood (and the Kicking Machine at his country store in Croatan, NC). Also included here is a transcript of a 2008 interview conducted by Ellis with Jesse Helms. Family records included in this box relate to the Holton, Hunter, and Loftin families. This box contains a variety of community documents, including newspaper articles and ephemera related to the Havelock chili festival (1982-1985); materials associated with the Havelock Retail Merchant Association, a group which predated the Board of Commerce for Havelock, and ran from 1953 to 1960; condition codes and location codes for the Havelock rescue department; information on the use of the former Magnolia Plantation to create Carolina Pines golf course; and "Havelock Report on Incorporation" by Warren Wicker. Photographs, negatives, and slides (1983-2005), most produced by Ellis, document Gene Jackson's businesses in Havelock which are the Sherwood Motel and Westbook Shopping Center.
Ellis has collected materials related to the history of law enforcement in Havelock, especially as relates to the career of Detective William Dodson. The majority of the material concerns the 1979 disappearance of Rodney Ropp, the kidnapping of Bob Elting and murder of John Hein (1980) by Domenick "Butch" Krango, and the 1984 murder of Joel Long which wasn't solved until 1989.
Materials on the Tuscarora Nation related to the Tuscarora War have been included in this box as well. This box also contains a number of published materials. A collection of photographs by Ellis, entitled Historic images of Havelock and Cherry Point, documents scenes, locations, and people in the two areas; Abraham Lincoln, a Native of NC by G.G. Evans, Sr., discusses the longstanding rumor that Lincoln was originally born in Western North Carolina; and there is Ellis' book, In This Small Place, which discusses the history of Havelock and Craven Counties. Included are the final printed version, along with Ellis' manuscript with handwritten revisions.
Boxes 17, 18, and part of boxes 16 and 19 are the last of the boxes that make up the Havelock Historical Files (covering topics starting with the letters M through W). Individuals discussed in these boxes include Kissie Sykes (related to ghost stories around Cherry Point), Elmer P. Thompson, Eugene P. Smith, Richard Rice, Walter J. Wynne Jr., K. E. Tilton, Re. Henry H. Witten, brothers Johnny Dean Oliver and Braxton Oliver, Tom Mylett, and Charles H. Markey. Also discussed is Sebastián Francisco de Miranda y Rodríguez of Venezuela whose visit to New Bern in 1783 led to the preservation of John Hawks's plan for the grounds of Tryon Palace. Family history notes relate to the Physioc family of Havelock and the Slocum/Slocumb family. Military items in these boxes include photographs, handbooks and programs related to Cherry Point 1971-1993. There is also a transcript of President Truman's visit to Cherry Point in 1948. Three unofficial guidebooks (1971-1982) outline the history, purpose, and impacts of the Cherry Point station on the surrounding communities. Included as well is an economic brochure explaining Cherry Point's expenses and revenue with regards to the surrounding populations, and a 1964 East Carolina University Geography Dept. thesis entitled, The Impact of Cherry Point Marine Air Corps Station Upon Local Settlement, by Reuel Pietz which discusses the impact the base has had on Havelock. With regards to the Marine Corps, two small booklets outline details regarding the history of the marines from 1775-1981 and the weaponry used by the Marines as it was in 1981. A final point of interest regarding Cherry Point is several personnel lists for the base circa 1986. Broader Havelock materials included in this box are documents on moonshining in the region, newspaper articles on the Havelock Time Capsule buried in 1984, and a list of postmasters in Havelock and Craven County (1828-1900). There are numerous articles and notes related to early Havelock history including attempts to drill for oil near the town, descriptions of the town before the establishment of Cherry Point, railroads and railroad depots, and the history of Trader's Store in Havelock. A few 1950s issues of Havelock newspapers are here and there is a ledger containing information on zoning regulations, building codes, and various ordinances concerning Havelock (1966-1975).
Series 8 (portions of Boxes 18 and 19) includes materials related to Other Topics Researched by Ellis. There's information on Carraway Farms, a real estate venture by Ellis in the Harlowe area near Havelock; material related to the former Magnolia Plantation whose land was developed as Carolina Pines Golf Course; and photographs, information sheets, and correspondence about the restoration of Foscue Plantation House in Jones County, N.C. Two other interests documented here are Lauch Faircloth's 1984 N.C. gubernatorial campaign, and materials related to Operation Desert Storm in 1991 including letters from Marines stationed in Saudi Arabia, military cartoons, and an issue of "Brown Side Out" (newspaper of the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force). Also found here are some letters (1991) from the Confederate Knights of America (CKA) Klavern in Cheltenham, Maryland. This group was an offshoot of the Ku Klux Klan.
Series 9 (Box 20) includes Materials from Additions 3 and 4 contains further materials related to Havelock. Addition #3 is a publication by Ellis titled Memories of Old Havelock, N.C., Correspondence with Johnny Dean Oliver, which documents Havelock's past with photographs and interviews between Ellis and brothers Dean and Braxton Oliver. Addition #4 contains a variety of political stickers and pins relating to various North Carolina campaigns from the 1960s-1990s; these includes campaigns of Jim Gardner, Richardson Preyer, Terry Sanford, Jim Hunt, Skipper Banks, Tom Mylett, Lee K. Allen Gerald Anderson, Robert Morgan, Jimmy Green, Lauch Faircloth, Rufus Edmisten, Jesse Helms, Ike Andrews, John Nichols, Ruth Cook, John East, and Beverly Perdue.
Series 10 (Box 21) contains Materials from Havelock, North Carolina, Historical Files on the Civil War in North Carolina, especially related to Craven County and nearby areas. The majority of this material is collected from web pages related to the Civil War and other online sources. The major focus of this material is the Union capture of New Bern in 1862 and New Bern in 1864. Some materials refer to a "deserted cavalry camp" found when Union General Ambrose Burnside's troops landed at Slocum's Creek near New Bern on March 13, 1862. Other topics touched on are Croatan Station, forts at Havelock Station and Evan's Mill, Confederate spy Emeline Pigott, Confederate Scout Dickinson in eastern North Carolina in 1864, and the capture of the Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery Company A at New Bern. There are five original engravings (1862, undated) of and information about Union general Ambrose Burnside, who was prominent in the capture of New Bern; and a print made from an 1865 engraving of the "Capture of Roanoke Islands, Charge of Zouaves." Ellis also has a transcribed portion of the Union soldier Levi Kent's journal as related to New Bern in March of 1862. Original materials relating to the Havelock and New Bern regions during the nineteenth century include a page with an engraved image of turpentine gathering in North Carolina, an accounting of "Shelling of Fort Anderson" on March 14, 1863, told in lyric form by G. H. Sutherland, a February 4, 1862, invoice for supplies delivered to Wm. H. Sanford at Camp Graham, an 1858 letter from John D. Whitford in New Bern, and an 1883 broadside advertising a farm near New Bern called "Camp Palmer."
Series 11 (Box 22 and part of Box 23) deals with Materials from Havelock, North Carolina, Historical Files on New Bern, North Carolina. Notable among other materials related to New Bern is Ellis' own 2009 publication, New Bern History 101, The Essential Facts for the Native, Newcomer, or Visitor to the Colonial Capital of North Carolina. Besides the finished publication, there are also manuscript copies with handwritten notations. Other items include a photocopy of Hardy Bryan Croom's publication (which was published posthumously in 1837 by Dr. John Torrey) A Catalogue of plants, native or naturalized, in the vicinity of New Bern, North Carolina: with remarks and synonyms; a 1976 special edition of The Sun Journal titled "Tides;" March 1952 issue of New High School's newspaper "The Cub;" and two historical guidebooks (1939, 1947). There is material from a "Best in Our State" Seminar Ellis attended and spoke at in 2010. A 2021 publication written by Ellis is titled Whispers of the Long Departed and it documents the untold history of Southern Craven County.
Series 12 (Box 23 and part of Box 22) contains Materials from Havelock, North Carolina, Historical Files Related to World War II and Edward B. Ellis, Sr.'s Service. Included here are the official military records for Edward B. Ellis, Sr.'s post-World War II service in the U.S. Naval Reserve (1945-1953) and some booklets aimed at helping World War II veterans return to a post-war life. Certificates, ID cards, clippings photographs, and issues of Civilianaire newsletter document his life in the post-war era working at MCAS Cherry Point. Also here is a Daughters of the Confederacy medal awarded to Ellis, Sr. posthumously. There is a variety of material related to the Forrest family of New Bern during World War II including postcards related to Fort Bragg, Camp Haan, Scott Field in Illinois, Camp Lejeune, and Kessler Field (often containing Air Corps humor); correspondence; V-mail from France; ration books; and a book entitled The Seventy-First Came to Gunskirchen Lager which documents the 71st Infantry's liberation of the Gunskirchen Lager concentration camp, with photographs and firsthand accounts.
Series 13 includes the Oversize Materials. The first oversize folder contains a digital image of the 1941 map showing the ownership of lands that became MCAS Cherry Point; prints of scans of N.C. State Highway and Public Works Commission Maps (1940 map with revisions from 1946, 1954, and 1959) concerning land now part of Cherry Point; three issues of the New York Times: Dec. 31, 1857 (has an article about Gen. Havelock at Lucknow), Feb.12, 1862 (Gen. Burnside Expedition to N.C.), and March 20, 1862 (Battle of New Bern); a large reproduction of an 1899 map of J. A. Bryan's Lands in Craven, Carteret, and Jones Counties; 1955 proposed boundaries of Havelock; and a photocopy of front and back covers of May 1, 1952, issue of Havelock Journal saluting 10 years of progress for Havelock and Cherry Point. The second and third oversize folders include issues of the now discontinued Havelock Progress (1972, 1976, 1982, 1987), The Havelock News (1987, 1988, 1990; mostly related to Joel Long murder case), The Shopper (1975), and The Garner News (April 6, 1977). The second oversize folder also contains documents regarding the Havelock Historical Exhibit.
Series 14 contains the research documentation for Edward Ellis's 2021 publication "Whispers of the Long Departed: Untold History of Southern Craven County, NC." Of particular interest are documents related to the Woodbridge settlement set up in Craven County, NC, near present day Havelock by the American Missionary Association for the benefit of freed, formerly enslaved people, in the area. Among the many documents collected related to Woodbridge are photocopies of letters and reports in the American Missionary Association's archive held at Fisk University. Also present are papers related to the families that settled in Woodbridge. Simmons Surveying produced a map of present-day western Havelock for Ellis who produced an overlay of American Missionary Association's plat of Woodbridge to superimpose over it (use the stars to line up the overlay and the modern map).
Also of special interest are the many maps that document the changing boundaries through history of the area that now makes up Havelock and Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station.
April 19, 2022, (addition 6), 5.0 cubic feet; This addition includes research documentation for Ellis's book Whispers of the Long Departed: Untold History of Southern Craven County, NC published in 2021. Of particular interest are documents related to the Woodbridge settlement set up in Craven County, N.C., near present day Havelock by the American Missionary Association for the benefit of freed, formerly enslaved people, in the area. Also of special interest are the many maps that document the area of Havelock and Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station. Donor: Mr. Edward B. Ellis, Jr.
Gift of Edward B. Ellis, Jr.
Processed by Naomi Winkelman, April 29, 2003
Additional processing by Robert Hines, 2016
Revision and completion of processing by Martha Elmore and Matt Lowe, 2021-2022
Encoded by Mark Custer, January 8, 2008
Descriptions updated by Ashlyn Racine, May 2023
J.Y. Joyner Library, East Carolina University owns copyright to the collection. Literary rights to specific documents are retained by the authors or their descendants in accordance with U.S. copyright law.