Orrin Pilkey, Duke University professor emeritus and world expert on beaches, says that when North Carolina tries to protect oceanfront homes through beach renourishment, the projects are actually destroying the beaches. The state must decide on what is more important, the homes or the beaches. At the moment the homes are winning. Pilkey discusses three ways to deal with a retreating beach and problems caused by renourishment. Problems include too much mud in sand pumped onto the beach (Atlantic Beach) and sharp shells that cause painful walking (Emerald Isle). Pilkey lists agencies that have been nonresponsive to the problems of beach renourishment.