Eastern fox squirrels are the largest tree squirrels in the western hemisphere, weighing up to three pounds and being strikingly colored in silver, gray, and black. In North Carolina they are native to the longleaf pine forests of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. Eastern fox squirrels have been known since colonial times and were described and painted by Catesby and Audubon. Yet they are not as well known as the western fox squirrel, that weighs under two pounds and ranges from the Appalachians to the Rockies. The authors discuss what they have learned from their nine-year study of the eastern fox squirrel.