A strong building industry existed in New Bern between 1790 and 1840. A cluster of artisans -- free blacks and whites -- dominated the industry there. Hipps discusses the style of the buildings, individuals prominent in the industry, and how slaves were used and paid for their labors. Sometimes blacks and whites were apprenticed and lived in the same building. A list of African American apprentices for 1790-1835 and free black artisans is included. One well-known free black bricklayer and mason was Donum Mumford (Montford).