Under the auspices of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), University of North Carolina president Frank Porter Graham helped create the Institute for Nuclear Studies. Porter was then elected the institute's first president but his acceptance of the presidency began a series of dramatic events including a FBI probe, an AEC security clearance controversy, an investigation of loyalty procedures, and a failed bid for the US Senate in 1950. While not himself a Communist or Communist-sympathizer, Graham was associated with several organizations which were viewed as such. His support for these organizations stemmed from specific goals they championed that were not necessarily Communist related. The AEC's Personnel Security Review Board denied Graham clearance based on these affiliations, but not because for lack of loyalty. The AEC and its chairman, David Lilienthal, overruled the board and granted Graham the necessary clearance.