Flashes of Duplin's history and government

















FLASHES OF Duplin's History and GovernmentDuplin's outstanding events during the two hundred years leading up to the Bicentennial of our Freedom, and reminders of those brave Patriots, who gave unstintingly of their courage, valor, and devotion for our American Freedom.Edited ByFAISON WELLS MCGOWEN and PEARL CANADY MCGOWEN1971KENANSVILLE, NORTH CAROLINA




Copyright 1971

Faison Wells McGowen

and

Pearl Canady McGowen

The purpose of this book is to illuminate thousands of flashes across the voluminous pages of Duplin's rich history and its local government.

Printed in the United States of America by Edwards & Broughton Co., Raleigh, North Carolina

THE EDITORS
FAISON WELLS McGOWEN

Faison Wells McGowen was born July 20, 1903. He is the son of the late Thomas James and Julia Robert (Stokes) McGowen.

He attended the public schools of Duplin County, James Sprunt Institute (and received J. S. I. Scholarship Medal in 1918), Grove Institute, King's Business College, and the Institute of Government of the University of North Carolina. He has a Commercial Diploma and Certificates in County Administration, and the Fundamentals of Property Tax Listing and Assessing.

In 1932 he married Miss Pearl Cynthia Canady of Hope Mills, N. C.

He is a Baptist and has served as Sunday School Superintendent (at Johnson and Kenansville Churches) for a total of more than thirty-five years. He has been chairman of the Board of Deacons for more than thirty years. He served as moderator of the Eastern Baptist Association for fifteen years.

He is a thirty-second degree Mason and Past Master of St. John's Lodge No. 13, A.F.&A.M., and a member of Wilmington Consistory. In 1957 he received the Service Award from the Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of North Carolina.

He is a Member of the Order of the Eastern Star and has served four terms as Worthy Patron. He is a Woodman of the World; a member of the Jr. O.U.A.M., and Past Councilor of Warsaw Council; a member and past president of Warsaw Rotary Club; and was a former member of Kenansville Lion's Club.

He served as Deputy Sheriff-Treasurer (1924-1928), and as County Accountant and Tax Supervisor (1929-1968).

He is a past president of North Carolina Association of County Accountants; past president of North Carolina Association of Assessing Officers; past State Chairman of International Association of Assessing Officers; Member of National Association of County Treasurers and Finance Officers; member and Secretary of North Carolina Committee for Study of Public School Finance (1957-1958); Chairman of Duplin County Democratic Executive Committee for 29 years; received Service Award from the N. C. State Democratic Executive Committee (1965); county chairman of Civil Defense during World War II; member of Duplin County Industrial and Agricultural Council; Secretary of Duplin General Hospital Board of Trustees; Official Spokesman for County






Hospital Building Program (1968-1970); Trustee Emeritus of Duplin General Hospital; Secretary of Liberty Hall Historical Commission; member of Board of Trustees of James Sprunt; Member James Sprunt Institute Alumni Association; member and past treasurer of Duplin County Historical Society; Founding Associate of the National Historical Society; Member North Carolina Literary and Historical Association; Member of Board of Commissioners of Neuse River Regional Planning and Development Council; Service Award from N. C. Association of County Commissioners (1962); Outstanding County Official Award by N. C. Association of County Commissioners (1963); Certificate of Service From State Association of County Accountants (1965); Service and Leadership Award from N. C. Association of County Accountants (1967). He is a member of the International Platform Association.

He is listed in these:

Who's Who in American Politics; Dictionary of International Biography (also received a Certificate of Merit from Dictionary of International Biography, London, England); Personalities of the South (and received an award plaque in 1970 in recognition of past achievements and outstanding service to community and state by Editorial Board of Personalities of the South); The National Register of Prominent Americans and International Notables.

The first building at James Sprunt Institute was dedicated in 1970, and was named the Faison Wells McGowen Building in his honor.

PEARL CANADY McGOWEN

Pearl Canady McGowen is the daughter of the late David Murphy Canady and Martha (McNeill) Canady of Hope Mills, N. C. In 1932 she married Faison Wells McGowen of Kenansville, N. C.

Mrs. McGowen received her diploma from Grays Creek High School in Cumberland County, her B.A. Degree from Meredith College, and her M.A. Degree from East Carolina College (now East Carolina University). She did other graduate work at James Sprunt Institute and at U.N.C. in Chapel Hill.

Mrs. McGowen has taught High School English in Robeson, Bladen, Cumberland, and Duplin counties. As part of her school duties, she has coached girls’ basketball teams. One of her teams (Linden in Cumberland County) won the County and State District Tournaments for three successive years (1930, 1931, 1932).

During her career she has coached many outstanding high school plays.

Mrs. McGowen enjoyed coaching debating teams. Two of her teams placed second in the state debating contest.

For more than twenty years she has sponsored National Beta Club Chapters in high schools (B. F. Grady, Kenansville, and James Kenan).

She has sponsored high school year books in three schools (B. F. Grady, Kenansville, James Kenan), and high school papers in two schools (Linden and Kenansville). For many years she sponsored senior Educational Tours to Washington, D. C., and to New York City and the World's Fair. (B. F. Grady, Kenansville, and James Kenan.)

Mrs. McGowen is a life member of the National Education Association and regular member of the Duplin County Unit of the N.C.E.A. She has served as president of the Duplin County Unit of N.C.E.A.

She is a member of the Delta Kappa Gamma International Honor Society for teachers and has served as president of her chapter, Alpha Eta. (Alpha Eta comprises Duplin and Sampson counties.)

Mrs. McGowen has been active in the Kenansville Woman's Club. (She served as secretary and as president.)

She is a charter member of the Duplin County Historical Society. (She is now serving as vice-president of that organization.) She also served as Costume Supervisor and was a member of the cast of characters in the Duplin Story, a musical drama presented in 1949 and 1950, celebrating Duplin County's Bicentennial.

Mrs. McGowen is a charter member of Kenansville Chapter No. 215, Order of the Eastern Star, and has served as Martha, secretary, Associate Matron and as Worthy Matron of the chapter. She has served as District Deputy Grand Matron and as Grand Martha, and as a Grand Representative. For two years she served as Supreme Deputy of the Rainbows in North and South Carolina.

She is a member of the Kenansville Baptist Church and has served as Church Clerk, B.Y.P.U. Director, and teacher of the Young People's and Adult Ladies’ Classes. (Prior to her marriage she served as Southern Regional Director of B.Y.P.U. in North Carolina.)






DEDICATION

This book is fittingly dedicated to the loving memory of Julia Robert Stokes McGowen, known to her friends as “Frosty.”

This gracious lady was born near Kenansville June 13, 1873, the daughter of Robert James Stokes and Julia A. Churchill Stokes. She died November 25, 1963.

She received her formal education at Kenansville Female Seminary where she learned the fundamentals and grace that fitted her for a wife, mother, and teacher. Under the teachings of Mr. Dick Millard, she became skilled in imparting the lessons of life and scholarship to those entrusted to her wise counsel. (She taught school at Green Pond, about three miles north of Kenansville; at the Barbecue School, near Magnolia; and at the Peirce School at Peirceville, on Turkey Branch west of Warsaw.)

When she was a young lady, she became an excellent marksman with a pistol, a hobby that might have seemed foreign to her gentle nature.

She married Thomas James McGowen. They had two children, Faison Wells McGowen and Effie McGowen Boyette.

The real quality of this elegant woman was found in her devotion to the highest ideals. In her quiet and queenly nature she fulfilled her life's compulsion to become the virtuous woman of Proverbs 31. “Her children rise up and call her blessed.”—Proverbs 31:28.

THE EDITORS






FOREWORD

The editors have endeavored to compile and edit some legislative documents, excerpts from Colonial and State records, resolutions, reports, newspaper articles, etc., which depict Flashes of Duplin County's History and Government.

Some of these documents have been copied in full. Others have been quoted partially to give relevant parts. Capitalization, spelling, and punctuation have been used as in the originals.

We express our sincere appreciation to the following for their fine cooperation and helpfulness: John Alexander McMahon, Chapel Hill, N. C.; James H. Blackmore, Wake Forest, N. C.; Mrs. Virginia Southerland Marshall, Wilmington, N. C.; Marse Grant, Editor and Business Manager of the Biblical Recorder; Ike F. Riddick, Publisher of the Duplin Times-Progress Sentinel; H. L. Oswald, Publisher The Wallace Enterprise, and The Warsaw-Faison News; Thad Eure, Secretary of State; Department of Archives and History; W. C. Blackmore, Burgaw, N. C.; State Library; University of North Carolina Library; Duplin County Dorothy Wightman Library; County Officials and their assistants; all of those persons who have furnished biographical sketches, and all others who have supplied various and sundry items. We are most thankful to Dr. W. Dallas Herring for the country drawing, and his cooperation; and also to President Dixon Hall and the James Sprunt Library staff for their help.

The other drawings are the work of Richard C. Baxley of Raleigh. To him we are very grateful. We sincerely thank Mrs. Mary Anne Jenkins for the typing.

Over the years hundreds of students from all over the State have requested information about Duplin County. This compilation will be a partial answer to such requests in the future.

The editors sincerely hope that others will be encouraged and inspired to write a complete history of the county.

FAISON W. MCGOWEN

PEARL C. MCGOWEN

Editors.

Kenansville, North Carolina

December 15, 1970.






TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
The Editorsiii
Dedicationvii
Forewordix
Introductionxv
Chapter
1. Duplin County and Its Boundaries1
2. Location, Climate, Water Supply, and Vegetation19
3. The Carolina Charter; A Brief Description of Carolina—166622
Duplin County Seventeenth County in N. C. 25
4. The State of North Carolina26
5. Historical Glimpses—Colonial and Early American28
Duplin—Lord Dupplin's Namesake 28; Evolution of Duplin County as a Political Subdivision of North Carolina and its Early Inhabitants 29; An Act Re-establishing Duplin County 34; Number in Militia and Number of Taxable Persons in County in 1755 36; Deed—Henry McCullock to Thomas Kenan 36; Return of the List of Taxables, 1765 38; Doctor William Houston appointed Stamp Distributor for North Carolina 38; Doctor Houston's Resignation 39; News Story concerning Dr. Houston's Resignation 39; Letter from Governor Tryon to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury 40; Letter from Dr. Houston to Governor Tryon 41; Letter from Governor Tryon To Governor Bull 42; A List of Capt. William Burney's Company 42; A list of Duplin Troops 43; Early History 43; Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington 45; The War of the Revolution 45; John Grady of Albertson Township killed at Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge 46; Extract of a Letter from Bragadier James Moore to the Honorable Cornelius Harnett 46; Ordinances of Convention, 1776 49; General John Ashe to Governor Caswell, 1770 49; Colonel James Kenan to Governor Caswell, June 6, 1778 50; Colonel James Kenan to Governor Caswell, July 1, 1778 50; State Money 51; Letter From Capt. Robert Raiford 52; General Alex Lillington to Governor R. Caswell 53; Colonel James Kenan to Governor Caswell 53; Extract from Return of the Men in Camp Sept. 5, 1780 54; Letter to Colonel James Kenan, October 8, 1780 54; Message from the Commons, January 31, 1781 55; Message from the Governor to the Senate 56; Proceedings of A General Court Marshal 56; General Cornwallis to Major General Phillips 57; Excerpts from the Dickson Letters 58; Captain George Doherty to General Sumner 61; Major Molton to Governor Burke 62; Colonel Kenan to Governor Burke, July 6, 1781 62; Colonel James Kenan to Governor Burke, July 15, 1781 63; General Wm. Caswell to Governor Burke 63; The Battle of Rockfish 64; To Governor Burke From Colonel James Kenan 65; Peace—Nov. 30, 1782 65; Colonel James Kenan Elected Brigadier General 65; James Gillespie to Governor Caswell 66; Governor Caswell to James Gillespie 66; Town of Sarecto 67; Land Grant to Thomas Kenan 69
6. Glimpses of Colonial and Early Churches in Duplin71
Oldest Presbyterian Settlement in The State 71; Grove Presbyterian






ChapterPage
Church 71; St. Gabriel Parish 75; Wells Chapel Baptist Church 76; Rockfish Presbyterian Church 79; Bear Marsh Baptist Church 80; Methodists 84; Nahunga Baptist Church 84; Church Camp Meetings 87; Faison Presbyterian Church 88
7. Indian Burial Mounds92
8. The Spring in Kenansville95
9. The Bottomless Wells of Magnolia103
10. The First Federal Census, 1790105
11. Historical Markers in Duplin113
12. Glimpses of Public Schools115
Old or Extinct Schools 115; Partial List of the Most Prominent Teachers to 1850 116; Vote on School Law, 1839 116; Beginning of Public Schools in Duplin 116; Number of children in Duplin, 1882, and Total Allowances for all Schools 118; List of Private Schools in Duplin in 1890 119; List of Private Schools in Duplin in 1891 119; School Fund Disbursed by County Treasurer, Year Ending June 30, 1899 119; Private Schools and Academies in Duplin, 1900 120; Condition of Public Schools, 1900 120; Excerpts from The Inaugural Address of Governor Charles B. Aycock 121; R. W. Millard, Educator 122; Local School Tax Districts, 1909 123; History of Lanefield School 123; Duplin Teachers—1921 128; B. F. Grady High School Dedication 129; Schools in The Flourishing ’20's 141; Special Tax Districts, 1929 143; School Attendance, 1929-1969 144; Inventory of School Property 146; School Expenditures—County Funds 146; James Kenan Tigers 1960, State Champs 147; All-American High School Football Athlete 150; The O. P. Johnson Duplin County Public Schools Administration Building 150; Kenan Memorial Auditorium 151; Nomination and Election of the Members of the County Board of Education 152
13. Early Academies and Schools154
14. Grove Academy158
15. St. John's Lodge No. 13, A.F. & A.M.169
16. The Dickson Charity Fund178
17. Liberty Hall180
18. The Plank Road and Railroads192
19. Towns and Some of the Communities in Duplin County196
20. More Historical Glimpses198
County Agricultural Society and Fair 198; Hard Times in the mid 1800's 209
21. Glimpses of The Great War, 1861-1865:210
The Duplin Rifles 210; Confederate Greys 217; The Chaplain Service 232; Letter From a Confederate Soldier 233; Destruction in Duplin—Sword Factory In Kenansville and Freight House at Warsaw 235; Returns and Assessments on Property, 1864 (Two Assessments) 236; More Letters from Confederate Soldiers 239; Oath of Allegiance to United States of America (By Prisoners) 241; The Strength of Brotherhood 241; Destitute Conditions after the Civil War 242; The Old Hate 243
22. News Items—1874245
Glimpses of Life in Duplin the Latter Part of the Nineteenth Century 245
23. The Earthquake in 1886266

ChapterPage
24. James Sprunt Institute (Old and New)268
25. Total Solar Eclipses in Duplin291
26. Glimpses of Country Life in Duplin the First Part of the Twentieth Century294
27. More Historical Glimpses321
New Courthouse Dedicated—1913, and Presentation of Portrait of Colonel Thomas S. Kenan 321; More Portraits Presented 333; A Charge to the Grand Jury 338
28. Glimpses of The Great Depression360
29. The Duplin Story366
Advertising the Duplin Story 366; Background and Synopsis of This Historical Play 368; Characters in the Duplin Story 375; Rare Tapestry and Art Exhibit 382; Antique Display Committee 382; A Miracle In A Corn Field 384; Distinguished Guests at Pageant 386; Thanks for Duplin's Bicentennial Celebration 387; Editorial—The Duplin Story 388; 1950 Performances 389; As Heard in the Dressing Rooms 395; As Heard Back Stage During the Pageant 396; Sam Byrd Speaks 397; That Let-Down Feeling 398; What The Pageant Meant To People 399
30. Duplin General Hospital400
31. Profiles of Some of Duplin's Outstanding Citizens405
General James Kenan 405; James Gillespie 406; Charles Hooks 406; Thomas Kenan 407; General Stephen Miller 407; Owen R. Kenan 407; Dr. James Menzies Sprunt 408; Colonel William Anderson Allen 408; Captain William James Houston 409; Benjamin Franklin Grady 409; John Nicholas Stallings 410; John Dickson Stanford 410; Colonel Thomas Stephen Kenan 411; A. R. (Abe) Middleton 411; Dr. John Miller Faison 412; Mary Lyde Hicks Williams 412; Luther Addison Beasley 413; Robert Vivian Wells 416; Rivers Dunn Johnson 417; Dr. John Daniel Robinson 417; Albert Timothy Outlaw 418; Henry Leonidas Stevens, Jr. 419; John Willard Hoffler 422; Gordon Kennedy Middleton 422; Charles Fisher Carroll 423; Herman Ward Taylor 424; Bettie Hall Williams 426; Robert Myron Carr 427; Helen Brooks Boney 427; Dr. Guy Vernon Gooding 428; Owen Pearlie Johnson 429; Lewellyn Williams Robinson 429; LeRoy Gaston Simmons 430; Dr. James H. Blackmore 431; William Dallas Herring 432; Hugh Stewart Johnson, Jr. 432; David Newton Henderson 433; Christine Whaley Williams Davis 435; Lauren Ralph Sharpe 436; Myra Winifred Townson Wells 437; James Millard Smith 438; General William M. Buck 438
32. More Historical Glimpses440
James Kenan Chapter U.D.C. 440; Public Roads 444; Lanefield Community Fair 447; The Town of Faison 448; Strawberry Festival 450; Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt's visit to Wallace 450; Stevens Sworn In As Resident Judge of Sixth District 452; Magnolia—Flowers and Bulbs 453; John Ivey Thomas Chapter U.D.C. 453; Round-up of Hazel and Her Fury 456; Our Praise to the Men Who Dealt With Hazel 456; Hazel and The Pioneer Spirit 458; Duplin Man Chosen North Carolina's First “Man of the Year In Education” 458; Veterans’ Day—Successor to Armistice Day in Warsaw 460; Faison Fruits and Vegetables Known for High Quality 461; Future Farmers of America and Future Homemakers of America 462; Duplin Courthouse Annex 463; Duplin's Newly Renovated Courtroom 463; Judge Stevens, Emergency Judge 465; Duplin County Fair at Beulaville 465; Poultry Jubilee—World's Largest Frying Pan 467; The D. A. R. and the Jubilee 468; Wallace's Diamond Jubilee 469; Kenansville Firemen Winner—$750 Prize 477; Duplin Paralyzed by






ChapterPage
Snow and Ice 478; Plaque to Miss Dorothy Wightman 479; Resolution of Appreciation for Miss Wightman's Gift to the County Library 479; Duplin's Five County Commissioner Districts 480; Duplin County Historical Society 482; Faison Man First Duplin Astronaut 483; Famous Native Visits her Home Town 483; The Thelma Dingus Bryant Library in Wallace 485; Judge Henry L. Stevens, Jr. Honored by American Legion 487; Heritage Design Service—new Industry in Rose Hill 488; Beulaville Girl Wins “Miss Duplin” Title—1969 489; Legend of the Country Squire 491; Special Watershed Election 493; Local Option Additional Sales Tax Election 495; SENCland Awards In Duplin, 1969 495; Agricultural Growth in Duplin 495; History of Extension Homemakers Club Work in Duplin 497; Tribute to Mrs. Henry Middleton 499; Industrial Development 499; President of Southeastern Poultry and Egg Association 502; Art By Dr. Dallas Herring 504; Editorial Salute to the Boy Scouts in Duplin County 504; Tar Heel Fine Arts Society 504; Dr. Robinson, South's “Optometrist of the Year” 505
33. More Facts Relating to Duplin County507
Roster of Attorneys 507; Citizens Serving on Committees of the State Democratic Party 507; Citizens Serving on Committees of the State Republican Party 508; Citizens Currently Serving on Governmental Boards and Committees 508; Physicians, Dentists, Optometrists, and Chiropractors Registered 509; Population 511; Total Valuation All Property Listed and Assessed for County-wide Taxation 512; Bonded Indebtedness 512; Revenues and Expenditures of Other Than School Funds For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1969 513; Local Government Cost Lower 514; 74% of Public Funds For Schools 514; Agricultural Income 515; General Election Abstract of Votes, November 5, 1968 517; Payrolls—$22 Millions in 1969 517; More Spent in Duplin for Home Improvements 518; Social Security in Duplin 519; Duplin County Workers Retiring Earlier 520; Duplin County's Estimated Income—from Sale of Farm Products and Government Payments 521; Nearly One Hundred Thousand in Scholarships Awarded James Kenan Graduates 521; Veterans In Service 523; Banks and Building and Loan Associations in Duplin 523; Revelation Singers Big Success 524
34. GOVERNMENT IN DUPLIN COUNTY524
Preface 526; County Government—Historical Background 526; Editors’ Thanks to The Institute of Government 530; Members of Colonial Assembly 531; Members of Constitutional Conventions 531; Provincial Congress 531; Council of State 532; State Assembly—Senators and Representatives 532; Clerks of Superior Court of Law and Equity 534; Clerks and Masters in Equity 534; Clerk Inferior Court 534; County Treasurers 534; Board of County Commissioners 535; County Attorney 539; Clerk to the Board of Commissioners 539; County Finances 540; Tax Supervisor 541; Tax Collector 542; County Accountant 543; Sheriff 544; Coroner 545; Register of Deeds 547; The Courts 548; Clerk of Superior Court 549; District Court 550; Social Services (Public Welfare) 551; County Board of Education and Supts. 554; Public Health 557; Mental Health Program 559; County Library 559; County Jail 560; Electrical Inspector 560; Agricultural Extension 561; Rural Fire Protection 562; Civil Defense 563; Veterans Service Office 564; Alcoholic Beverage Control Stores 565; Elections 565; Conclusion 568

INTRODUCTIONS

We are, each of us, a part of our past. Whether or not we want to acknowledge it, or even to think of it in these tumultuous times, the truth inevitably will out. The subconscious reveals our heritage in many subtle ways. Our idioms and our mannerisms betray us—even our coming and our going—some of us as though we were still stepping across the wide lowland furrows, heading for home and the bright fireside at the end of a long winter's day.

Who am I? What inscrutable forces combined to make me the kind of person I am? For all who no longer want to avoid these inevitable questions, this book about our past is a mirror to the present and, we may hope, a preview of the years to come. It is the values that it upholds, as much as the people and the events it portrays, which will endear it to everyone who cherishes what has been achieved in this land of liberty—especially this small part of it which for so many in other parts of America is still home.

No one can really measure the vast impression which the culture and the commitment of the people of “Old Duplin” have made as their descendants joined other pioneers moving south and west. Perhaps it is not so important to measure it as it is simply to be aware of it and to understand and accept it—and always to believe in it, come what may.

Faison and Pearl McGowen have put together a treasure of incalculable value to everyone who can say with feeling that this too is “my own, my native land.”

—DALLAS HERRING.

FLASHES OF DUPLIN'S HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT makes the men and women of the past live and move and talk again. It is at once a fertile field for the student, for the researcher, and for pleasure reading. The book reveals that Duplin County has a glorious history. FLASHES OF DUPLIN'S HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT is a monumental work well done.

In editing this book, Mr. McGowen has spent years in diligent research, with his wife assisting, and as a result, they offer to lovers of history a most valuable book. It is the first full history to be written of Duplin County.

No man who has taken up his pen in the last half century is so well qualified to edit such a book.

DIXON S. HALL.






Duplin County Courthouse and Annex






Mrs. Julia Robert Stokes McGowen

Mr. and Mrs. Faison Wells McGowen
The Editors

Mr. and Mrs. Faison Wells McGowen
The Editors






Liberty Hall in Kenansville

1. DUPLIN COUNTY AND ITS BOUNDARIES
LAWS OF NORTH CAROLINA—1749

At a General Assembly, held at New Bern, the Seventeenth day of March, in the Year of Our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Forty Nine. Gabriel Johnston, Esq., Governor.

CHAPTER I.

An Act for Erecting the Upper Part of New-Hanover County into a County and Parish, by the Name of Duplin County, and St. Gabriel Parish, and for appointing a Place for building a Court-house, Prison and Stocks, in the said County.

I. Whereas the County of New-Hanover has now become so very extensive, that many of the Inhabitants thereof live very remote from the Place where the Court of the said County is held, whereby a great many Difficulties and Hardships arise to the upper Inhabitants thereof, not only in attending their Ordinary Business in the said Court, but also by being compelled to serve as Jurymen, and often Times as Evidences, at the said Court; For Remedy Whereof,

II. We pray that it may be Enacted, And be it Enacted by his Excellency Gabriel Johnston, Esq., Governor, by and with the Advice and Consent of his Majesty's Council, and General Assembly of this Province, and by the Authority of the same, That New-Hanover County be divided by a Line, beginning at the Mouth of Rock-Fish Creek, on the North-East River of Cape-Fear, running East to Onslow County, and Westward, by a Straight Line from the Mouth of the said Creek, to the Upper Forks of Black River, where Cohecry and the Six Runs meet, thence up Cohecry to the Head thereof; and that the Upper part of the said County be erected into a County, by the name of Duplin County, and St. Gabriel Parish: And that the said County and Parish shall enjoy all the Privileges and Advantages that any other County and Parish in this Province now holds or enjoys.

III. And be it further Enacted, by the Authority aforesaid, That the Courts of the said County shall be held on the Second Tuesdays in January, April, July, and October.






IV. And be it further Enacted, That the Justices of the said County, or the Majority of them, shall hold their first Court at the House of William McRee, at Goshen, and then and there nominate and appoint a certain Place for building a Courthouse, Prison, and Stocks, at the most proper Place in the said County; and shall further divide the said County into Districts and appoint Commissioners of the Roads for the same; and shall also make such Orders and Rules for erecting the said Buildings, and running the dividing Line aforesaid, at the proper and equal Expence of the Inhabitants of the same, by a Poll-Tax, not exceeding One Shilling Proclamation Money, per year, for the Three Years, and no longer.

V. And be it further Enacted, That Mr. John Sampson, and Capt. Henry Hyrne, be, and are hereby appointed and authorized Commissioners; and are hereby impowered and directed to run the said Dividing Line between the Counties of New-Hanover and Duplin.

VI. And be it further Enacted, by the Authority aforesaid, That William McRee, Jun., be, and is hereby appointed Sheriff of the said County, until the Time by Law prescribed for appointing Sheriffs for the several Counties in this Province, and shall be vested with all the Powers and Authorities any other Sheriff or Sheriffs in this Province is and are vested with. And to the End that no Action begun in New-Hanover County, be defeated by the Division aforesaid.

VII. Bt it Enacted, by the Authority aforesaid That Where any Action is already commenced in the said Court of New-Hanover County, and that the Parties or Evidences shall be Inhabitants of the County of Duplin, all subsequent Process against such Parties or Evidences, shall be directed to be executed by the Sheriff of New-Hanover County: Any Law, Usage, or Custom, to the contrary, notwithstanding.

VIII. And be it further Enacted, by the Authority aforesaid, That Mr. John Sampson, Mr. William McRee, Mr. George Meares, Mr. Francis Brice, Mr. William Houston, Mr. Joseph Williams, Mr. John Herring, Mr. Anthony Cox, Mr. Mark Phillips, Mr. John Turner, Mr. Thomas Suggs, and Mr. Charles Gavin, be, and are hereby appointed Vestrymen of St. Gabriel Parish aforesaid, until the General Election of Vestrymen, according to law; and that the said Vestrymen shall be summoned by the Sheriff of the said County of Duplin, to meet at the Place appointed by this Act where the Court is to be held, and qualify themselves as a Vestry, and proceed to Parish Business.

IX. And be it further Enacted, That all Public, County, and Parish Levies now due from many of the said Inhabitants of the said County of Duplin, shall be collected by the Sheriff of New-Hanover County, and accounted for in the same Manner as if this Act had not been made.

X. And be it further Enacted, by the Authority aforesaid, That the said County of Duplin be, and is hereby obliged to send Jurors to the Courts of Assize, Oyer, and Terminer, and General Gaol Delivery, to be held at Wilmington, in like Manner as the Counties of Bladen and Onslow.

(SR, Vol. XXIII, Page 342.)

. . . The caption of the law establishing Duplin County is dated March 17, 1749, S. R. XXIII, 342. The journals of the General Assembly, however, indicate a different date for the formation of the county. The General Assembly met March 28, 1750. C. R. IV, 1051. On April 2, 1750, “Mr. Sampson and McLewain brought up a bill for erecting the upper part of New-Hanover County into a County, and parish, by the name of ________________ and Parish of ________________ and for appointing a place for building a Court House. In the Lower House read the first time, and passed.” C. R. IV, 1054. On April 3, 1750, the bill was read the second time and passed with amendments. C. R. 1056. On April (4), 1750, the record reads as follows: “In the Lower House read the third time and passed. Ordered to be engrossed.” C. R. IV, 1057. On April 9, 1756, the governor gave his assent to “The Bill to divide the upper part of New-Hanover County into a County and Parish & c.” C. R. IV, 1064.

(Formation of N. C. Counties, By Corbitt, Page 91.)

LAWS OF NORTH CAROLINA—1766
CHAPTER XXVII

An Act for ascertaining the Boundary Lines between the Counties of New Hanover and Duplin.

I. Whereas desputes daily arise between the Inhabitants of New Hanover and Duplin, by reason of the boundary line not being sufficiently ascertained:

II. Be it therefore Enacted, by the Governor, Council and Assembly, and by the authority of the same, that the Honorable John Sampson, Esq., John Ashe, Felix Kenan, and Alexander Lillington, Esquires, are hereby appointed commissioners for running out the dividing Line Between the said counties of Duplin and New Hanover; which said commissioners, or any three of them, shall meet on some time within six months after the passing of this act, and shall run and lay off the boundaries between the said counties, in the following manner, to-wit, That Rock Fish Creek shall be the boundary, from the mouth thereof to where Doctor's Creek branches from the same; then up Doctor's Creek one mile above the house of Mr. George Maires; thence running a direct






line to the Corner made by Arthur McCoy on South River; and the said line when run, shall forever after be deemed the Boundary Line between the said counties of New Hanover and Duplin.

(SR, Vol. XXIII, Page 686.)

AN ACT FOR ADDING PART OF THE COUNTY OF DUPLIN
TO JOHNSTON

I. Whereas the upper part of Duplin County is very extensive in length, which renders it burthensome to the inhabitants of Johnston and Cumberland Counties, by reason of the said County of Duplin running up twenty miles between Johnston and Cumberland counties, not more than three miles wide, which obstructs the making of roads and keeping them in repair, much to the injury of the inhabitants of the aforesaid counties and damage of travellers:

II. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of North Carolina, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, That all that part of Duplin County above Dismal Creek be added to the County of Johnston, and that it be divided by said creek, beginning at the mouth of the creek, Cumberland County line, thence running up the meanders of the said creek and East course to Johnston County Line; and that from and after the passing of this Act, that all that part of Duplin County above said creek be annexed to, and made part of the County of Johnston, and the inhabitants thereof shall be subject and liable to the same Rules, Orders, Taxes, and Privileges, as any other of the inhabitants of the County of Johnston.

(State Records of North Carolina, by Walter Clark, Vol. XXIV, Chap. XXXIII, 1777.)

LAWS OF NORTH CAROLINA—1784.
CHAPTER LXXV.
An Act for dividing Duplin County.

I. Whereas by reason of the large extent of said county, it is greatly inconvenient for the inhabitants to attend the courts and other public duties by law required;

II. Be it therefore Enacted by the General Assembly of the State of North Carolina, and it is hereby Enacted by the authority of the same, That from and after the passing of this Act the said county of Duplin shall be divided into two distinct counties by a line beginning on the line that divides Duplin from New Hanover county where the main road crosses Bultail, a branch of Rockfish creek; and running thence a straight line to the lower bridge on Stewart's creek, from thence a direct line to Goshen swamp at the mouth of Young's swamp, thence due-north to

the Wayne line; and all that part of the said county of Duplin which lies west of the above line, shall be established into a separate and distinct county by the name of Sampson.

III. And be it further Enacted by the authority aforesaid, That Joseph Dickson, William Dickson, David Dodd, Edward Dickson and William Taylor, or a majority of them, be and they are hereby appointed commissioners to run and lay off the said dividing line between the said county of Duplin and Sampson, and the same shall be recorded in the courts of said counties.

IV. And for the due administration of justice, Be it further Enacted by the authority aforesaid, That justices of the peace shall be nominated and commissioned, and courts shall be held in the said county of Sampson in the same manner and with the same jurisdiction as justices in other courts have and exercise, and that the courts of the said county of Sampson shall be held on the third Monday of June, September, December and March in every year; and the courts of the said county of Duplin shall be held by the justices thereof on the third Mondays of January, April, July and October in each and every year.

V. And be it further Enacted by the authority aforesaid, That Thomas Hooks, John Whitehead, William Hubbard, Robert Southerland, Daniel Teachey, John Lanier, Edward Dickson and Daniel Hicks, or a majority of them, be and they are hereby appointed commissioners for fixing on the most centrical and convenient place in Duplin county for building a court house, prison and stocks, and for purchasing a quantity of land not exceeding five acres at such place and for the use and benefit of said county; and when the said place is fixed upon, and the said lands purchased, the said commissioners or a majority of them shall, and they are hereby impowered to contract with workmen for building and finishing thereat a court house, prison and stocks, and to take a deed or mesne conveyance for said land for the use of the county.

VI. And be it further Enacted by the authority aforesaid, That if any of the said commissioners appointed by this Act die, remove or refuse to act, it shall and may be lawful for the remaining commissioners to appoint another person in his stead, who shall and may use and exercise the same power and authority as the commissioners appointed by this Act.

VII. And as it will be a considerable time before the said buildings can be completed, Be it Enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the first court to be held for the county of Sampson shall be held at the house of James Myhand, and the justices when met and formed a court, shall either continue to hold their subsequent courts at the said house until the court house shall be built, or shall have power to adjourn to






any place more convenient in the said county, they having first duly qualified themselves by the oaths prescribed by law in such cases, and the said justices being so qualified, are hereby declared during their continuance in office, as well within their county courts as without, to have the same powers and authorities, and to be subject to the same forfeitures and penalties as justices of the peace in this State are liable to.

VIII. And be it further Enacted by the authority aforesaid, That Richard Herring, Thomas Thornton, John Fort, John Owens, John Holley, Jonathan Parker, and Thomas Ivey, be, and they or a majority of them are hereby appointed commissioners to fix on a centrical and convenient place to erect the public buildings in the said county of Sampson, and purchase five acres of land, and take a deed for the same as is directed for the county of Duplin, and to agree with a workman to build a court house, prison and stocks for the use of the said county of Sampson.

IX. And be it further Enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the first court of the said county of Duplin shall be held at the public store of James James's, and the justices thereof may when met either continue to hold the courts there or adjourn to a more convenient place as they may judge best, and have, hold and exercise all the powers and authorities that county courts in this State hold or enjoy; and that all causes, pleas and suits, and every species of controversy and litigation whatsoever now in the county court of Duplin, shall continue and be finally determined in the court of the said county of Duplin.

X. And be it further Enacted by the authority aforesaid, That a tax of one shilling specie be laid on every hundred pounds taxable property, and a tax of one shilling on every poll within the said counties of Duplin and Sampson who do not possess one hundred pounds taxable property for two years, for the purpose of defraying the expenses and purchasing said lands, erecting the public buildings thereon, and reimbursing the said commissioners what reasonable expences they may be at in the premises, which said taxes shall be collected in the same manner as other taxes are, and shall be paid into the hands of the commissioners for building the court house, &c. for the counties of Duplin and Sampson, the collector or collectors first deducting his or their commissions for the trouble of collecting and paying the same to the commissioners; in case there shall remain any surplus after defraying the expences aforesaid, the same shall be applied by the county courts towards defraying the contingent charges of the same.

XI. And be it further Enacted by the authority, That the said commissioners shall from time to time when called on by their county court

account for the monies by them received for the purposes aforesaid; and when the buildings shall be completed and other expences paid, their said county courts on settlement with them may make a reasonable allowance for their trouble and expence, and apply the surplus if any as before directed.

XII. And be it further Enacted by the authority aforesaid, That nothing herein contained shall be construed to stop or hinder the sheriff or collectors of Duplin, as the same stood undivided, to make distress for fees or other dues which may be owing from the inhabitants of said county at the time of passing this Act, in the same manner as if it had never been made.

XIII. And be it further Enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the said county of Sampson shall be and remain part of the district of Wilmington, and shall furnish four freeholders to attend the superior court as Jurors at Wilmington aforesaid; and the said county of Duplin shall after the passing of this Act nominate and appoint four jurymen to attend the said superior court of Wilmington.

(State Records, Vol. XXIV, Pages 642-644.)

Because of the uncertainty of the existence of the true boundary between Duplin and Wayne counties, an act was passed in 1831 authorizing the establishment of said line.

. . . That the said line shall commence at a pine stump near the house of John Elliot, it being the dividing corner between the counties of Sampson, Wayne and Duplin. . . .

(Formation of North Carolina Counties, Corbitt, Page 225.)

DUPLIN'S EASTERN BOUNDARY

The eastern boundary of Duplin County has been tacitly located and acted upon for many years, but there is no official record of its location, other than the acts of the public officials of the two counties, in assuming control up to a certain line, and land owners taking deeds calling for land along that line as the county line. To understand this, it will be necessary to give the early boundaries of Onslow County which was established in 1734, Revised statutes, Vol. 2, page 152, already mentioned above, “that a precinct be erected at New River, by the name of Onslow Precinct, that the said precinct be bounded to the northward by Whiteoak River, from the mouth to the head thereof and to the southward by a creek that comes out of the sound and comes across New River road, called the Bay Pond or Beasleys Creek.” The last mentioned boundary is a small stream just south of Holly Ridge on the road from Jacksonville to Wilmington. Just west of the highway and railroad at






this point, the water in that stream is at a standstill part of the year, and still further west flows westward in an ever widening stream into the Holly Shelter Pocosin. Nothing is said about the western boundary of Onslow County in that act, and we hear no mention of the western boundary line of Onslow until the year 1749, when Duplin embracing the territory of Sampson is cut off by Legislative enactment from New Hanover County, and the southern boundary of Duplin is there defined by a line beginning on the North East River, opposite the mouth of Rockfish Creek and running thence eastward to the Onslow County line, no distance being given and in fact the western boundary line of Onslow had never been located and was unknown. The head of Whiteoak River, called for as the end of the Northern boundary of Onslow, is south of Comfort in Jones County, and a straight line from that point to where the Boney pond or Beasley Creek enters Holly Shelter Pocosin or to where the water is at a standstill in said stream would be considerable in the boundary. However, the line has been acted upon for many years by both Duplin and Onslow and there is no dispute about the same, except between Pender and Onslow and claimants under the Allison grant in Onslow County and the State Board of Education which owns large tracts of swamp land in Pender County, under the James Caraway Grant.

(Court Minutes, Book 42, Pages 76 and 77.)

REPORT OF THE RESURVEY OF THE WAYNE-DUPLIN, WAYNE-LENOIR COUNTY LINES, ELLIS PRESTON LUPTON, BERNHARDT A. WALDENMAIER, MERIWETHER LEWIS, SURVEYORS, JULY 11, 1930.

To the Honorable Board of County Commissioners of Wayne, Duplin and Lenoir Counties; Greetings:

We, Ellis Preston Lupton, Bernhardt A. Waldenmaier, and Meriwether Lewis, having been appointed as surveyors by your honorable board, and each of us having qualified before a Justice of Peace of our respective Counties, did, without partiality or prejudice, re-run the dividing lines between Wayne and Duplin Counties, and between Wayne and Lenoir Counties, in exact accordance with the recorded survey of June 12, 1834, and in accordance with all the well known land marks along each line.

In order to re-establish the Common Corner between Wayne, Duplin and Lenoir Counties, we found it necessary to reproduce the line from the head of Sandy Run Branch, Northeastward, to an intersection with the Duplin, Lenoir line from a point near Rouse's Mill, in a North westwardly

direction, and in accordance with the recorded survey of 1823.

For a more complete information regarding the latter line you are respectfully referred to a report prepared by B. A. Waldenmaier, and Meriwether Lewis, entitled “The Retracing the Duplin, Lenoir County Line.”

The lines were run in the following order:

From the head of Sandy Run Branch through the old Barwick house, near Drummersville, to its corner in a field now owned by Sam Hines. The true bearing of this line was determined by an observation on Polaris at Elongation, and was found to be, North 69 degrees, 24.92 Minutes east. The magnetic declination was found to be 3 degrees and 29 minutes West, making the magnetic bearing of this line, North 72 degrees, 53.92 Minutes east, and its length was found to be 15,884.6 ft.

For a more complete description of this line and the obstacles encountered thereon, you are respectfully referred to the map attached hereto, and made a part of this report.

In Conclusion, we respectfully call your attention to the fact that in the beginning, and near the end of this line we encountered two objects which have been regarded for several generations as being on the County line. One of these points, the head of Sandy Run Branch, is described in the report of 1834. The other point is the old Barwick house, which has been recognized for several generations by the older residents of that section as being on the County line.

Your surveyors next proceeded to investigate the existence of the stake which had been described by the report of 1834 as being in Alfred Flowers’ field. Our investigation led us to a Mr. John Flowers of Mt. Olive, N. C., who stated that he cleared the land adjacent to this field, and that he had inherited the land from his father, who in turn had inherited it from Alfred Flowers. Mr. John Flowers further stated that in breaking this land he had turned out the original stake as set by the Commissioners in 1834, and realizing the importance of the Point, had immediately driven down a large cart axle at the very point where this stake had been plowed out.

We proceeded further down the line at a point between Burke Barfield and Clyde Flowers. We found the stump of an old long leaf yellow pine, which according to the reports of the older residents had shown the fore and aft chops of the original survey. Your surveyors then ran a line joining these two irrefutable points.

This line was found to have a magnetic bearing of South 74 degrees, and 43 Minutes east. The report of 1834 gave this line of South 80 degrees East. The mean declination of the Magnetic Needle was found






to be 3 degrees and 12 Minutes west, and the mean declination of the Magnetic Needle for 1834 was found from the bulletin issued by the Department of Commerce entitled “A Magnetic Survey of North Carolina,” to be 2 degrees and 5 Minutes east making a total of 5 degrees and 17 Minutes. In simpler words, the bearing of the line joining these two irrefutable points was found to be essentially as the bearing reported in the report of 1834.

The report of 1834 called for a Corner Pine at the head of Thunder Swamp Poquosin. We found that Messrs. Jim and Jess Albritton had cleared and drained this Poquosin some twenty-five years ago, and consequently we found no corner in evidence, so we proceeded to re-establish a corner by running a line from a Black Gum on the run of the Northeast Cape Fear river, just above the mouth of Calf Pasture Branch. This point had been definitely described as above in the report of 1834.

By applying the correction of 5 degrees and 17 Minutes to the North, 56 degrees east, given in the report of 1834, we ran North 61 degrees and 17 Minutes east to an intersection with the first line. This line intersected the old Elmore house now owned by W. B. and Roy Jones of Wallace, N. C., and we found by inquiry of the older residents that for several generations this old house had been considered on the County line. This line also intersected the house of Major Graham, colored, and Cleveland Grimes, colored, in the suburbs of Mt. Olive, and came to an intersection on a very slight ridge on Messrs. Jim and Jess Albritton's field, and from the position of this intersection it was agreed by all disinterested observers that it came at a point which agreed very closely with the description given in the report of 1834. This line was 11,922 ft. long.

For a more complete description of these two lines you are respectfully referred to the map attached hereto, and made a part hereof.

This completed the re-running of the line between Duplin and Wayne County.

Your surveyors marked their line at each Corner, and at each point where it crossed a public road by means of reinforced concrete monuments triangular in cross section, and 4 ft. long, set solidly in the ground about three feet, and marked on top with the letters “W” and “D” for Wayne and Duplin Counties.

Your surveyors next proceeded to investigate the line dividing Wayne and Lenoir Counties.

They found that an act of Legislature dated in 1779 called for the division to be a due North line. They began the survey at the corner as established by them and previously described in this report, and ran

a north line corrected for the difference in declination from 1779 to 1930, which was seven degrees. They, therefore, ran North 7 degrees East to the Neuse River.

Just north of the Neuse River they encountered a Water Oak which had been recognized for several generations as being a point on the County line.

For complete data on the obstacles encountered on this survey you are respectfully referred to the map attached hereto and made a part hereof.

This line was also marked by concrete monuments triangular in cross section similar to the ones previously described except with the letters “L” and “W” for Lenoir and Wayne engraved on the top thereof.

Attached hereto you will please find a list of property owners along the line, and the amount of acreage lying in each County.

Respectfully Submitted:

B. A. Waldenmaier, Duplin County Surveyor

Ellis P. Lupton, Wayne County Surveyor

Meriwether Lewis, Lenoir County Surveyor

The authority to retrace the Duplin-Lenoir County line was given to B. A. Waldenhaier for Duplin County by an order from the Duplin County Board of County Commissioners, dated Monday, February the 3rd, 1930.

A similar order was given Meriwether Lewis by the Lenoir County Board of County Commissioners, dated Monday, March the 3rd, 1930.

Qualifications:

Having received the order the two Surveyors—Commissioners Named, were each qualified before a Justice of the Peace of his respective county, and each swore to weigh the evidence which might be brought to his attention, to do equal and impartial justice to all parties concerned according to their several rights and according to law, and each swore also to do the work to the best of his knowledge and belief.

Agreement As To Procedure:

Your surveyors met and agreed to retrace the line under the following plan:

That in along the boundary line as originally run Natural objects are Controlling Calls; artificial objects second in importance; course third; and distance fourth. Where there is still doubt or uncertainty, that rule should be adapted most consistent with the intent of the original Commissioners.






Data on The Legal Line:

Upon investigation Your surveyors found the following data on the line in question:

1. This line was ordered run by an Act of Legislature dated December 24th, 1819. (See Volume 11—Laws of North Carolina Page 1503—printed by J. Gales of Raleigh in 1821). This Act appointed two Commissioners from each County to lay off and mark the line and provided further that the said Commissioners were to report the result of their work to the Court of Pleas and Quarter sessions when completed.

2. The report of the Commissioners was returned to the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions of Duplin County during the January session of 1824, and the Court ordered this report recorded. (See North Carolina Historical Commission Records).

Agreeable to an act of the General Assembly passed in the year of 1819 appointing Daniel Glisson, Edward Alberson, Job Leary, and Joel Hines Commissioners to lay off and survey and mark the county line between Duplin and Lenoir.

We, Edward Alberson of the County of Duplin and Joel Hines & Job Leary of the County of Lenoir three of the Commissioners with Samuel Davis County Surveyor of Duplin and Stephen Herring Surveyor of Lenoir with Thomas Fleetwood Hardy & Calvin Davis of Duplin County & John Leary, Wm. Hines & Alford Ellis of the County of Lenoir Chain Carriers and Markers did on the 13th day of Nov., 1823 convene at a pine the corner of Wayne & Proceed to run and mark the lines agreeable to the above plan as follows viz:

South sixty East 1350 poles to some small pines near Croom's old road, thence South 25 East Crossing the road at the Mile post # 6 810 poles to a lightwood stump on the ridge between Matthew's Branch Pond and Trent, then South 5 East 1780 poles to a stooping pine on the Beaverdam of Tuckyeho, then South 42 East 400 poles to the Corner of Jones, which line we have marked with three chops:

Given under our hands and seals this 5th day of January, 1824.

Edw. Alberson (SEAL)

Joel Hines (SEAL)

J. Leary (SEAL)

A true copy as taken from the original. Now on file in this office.

R. V. Wells,

C.S.C. of

Duplin County

3. This report was discovered in the old files of the Clerk of the Superior Court of Duplin County on March 20th, 1930 by your surveyors.

No record of its having ever been previously recorded was found. It was then entered on the records of the Division of Lands Book “A” Duplin County by Mr. R. V. Wells, Clerk of Superior Court of Duplin County.

Your surveyors found it necessary to make two trips to Raleigh to investigate the records in the office of the Secretary of State and of the North Carolina Historical Commission to trace this valuable document to its final discovery.

Your surveyors upon investigation were unable to locate in the records of Lenoir County any information relative to the running of this line. This is probably due to the burning of all of the County records about 1877.

Your surveyors feel that it would be fitting and proper at this point to commend the efforts made by Mr. L. A. Beasley, Mr. H. D. Williams, Dr. A. R. Newsome and Mr. R. V. Wells who materially assisted them to discover the original document.

Location of Natural and Artificial Objects on The Line:

Your surveyors next proceeded to view the line in an attempt to locate as many valid natural objects and artificial objects as possible. They found the following:

1. That the graveyard on the old Hardy Place was located as being just in Lenoir County and as Thomas Fleetwood Hardy was in the original crew of surveyors they accepted this point as valid.

2. An old post oak on the Hardy plantation was marked and while it is now down and destroyed several creditable persons vouched for its former location. This was accepted as valid.

3. A marked pine tree on the road near the old Rouse Mill was shown and the chops therein were uncovered and found to be about seventy-five years old. A pine stump vouched for as having shown the original side line chops when split into rails over twenty years ago was viewed and checked closely with the first marked pine. These were accepted as valid.

4. An old chopped pine now down located on the Burn Coat Road on Paul Outlaw's plantation was vouched for by several Creditable persons and was accepted as valid.

5. A pine stump on the ridge between Matthews Branch Pond and The head of Trent River was shown and vouched for by several Creditable persons as being a corner in the line and this was accepted as valid.

6. An iron axle on the old New Bern Road on the Isaac Stroud place was vouched for by Creditable persons as having replaced a post set by Job Leary, one of the original Commissioners and this was accepted as valid.






7. A pine stump on the road to Mince Howard's was shown and another point fifty yards east on the same road was shown. It was accepted that the line must be near this point.

8. A pine stump in the old Deer Glade on the L. Harvey & Son tract of land was shown by the former owner who had known this point for forty-five years as the Jones-Duplin-Lenoir County Corner. This stump showed the chops entering, leaving, and entering from the Jones-Lenoir side. This person's knowledge of the point was vouched for by three very crediable persons and this point was accepted.

Several other points were also viewed—for example, the line as supposed to pass The Smith plantation.

One point which your surveyors reserved judgment upon was a certain well fork in the rear of T. A. Turner's store in the town of Pink Hill. They found later that if they had accepted this point they would have had to reject it as it would not conform to other and more reliable information. The same is true of an old pine stump shown by T. A. Turner on road near old Tam road on the edge of the Town of Pink Hill, west of the line as run.

As yet your surveyors had not discovered the Duplin-Wayne-Lenoir Corner. They found that many persons differed in opinion in respect to this corner and that this corner had been in question in Court a short time before.

Your surveyors decided then to replace this point by intersecting the Duplin-Wayne Line with the Duplin-Lenoir Line. In this way they were concurred with by the Wayne Board of Commissioners. They accordingly located two unrefutable points on the Duplin-Wayne line—one on the plantation of John Will Outlaw, the other on the old Alex Barwick plantation. These points define a line and this is intersected with the Duplin-Lenoir Line for the beginning corner of this survey.

Method of Survey:

Your surveyors used a “K” and “E” one Minute transit which they kept in perfect adjustment. They also used a one hundred foot steel tape as a measuring instrument.

They proceeded to work according to the plans of procedure used by Mr. George Syme (Senior Highway Engineer of the N. C. State Highway Commission) on the boundary survey recently made by him between North and South Carolina, and they refer you to his report for more complete details.

Your surveyors connected two known points on each line of the County Line by a precise traverse and computed the direct line that would connect these two points. This direct line was then run very carefully.

Your surveyors assumed the geographical coordinates of Drummersville to be latitude 35 degrees 17 minutes North, longitude 77 degrees 50 minutes west. They then computed the azimuth of Polaris at elongation for March 31st, 1930, and at the time of elongation made a series of observations which determined the true or astronomical bearing of the lines of the survey.

The computed intersection angles of the connected line of the County Line were found to check the actual measured angle to less than one quarter of a minute in each case.

The distance computed from corner to corner of the County Line traverse checked to the measured distance to an average of one in twelve thousand five hundred, (or considerable less than one half of a foot for each Mile Measured).

The bearings of the lines returned to you by your suryeyors vary from the bearings as recorded by the original surveyors by an average of one degree 38 minutes of declination from the true North.

The lines returned to you by your surveyors in each case, excepting one, pass through two bonafide points on the original survey.

In No Case Could the line have been shifted Materially at one point and not have disturbed one or more perfectly acceptable points.

In all Cases your surveyors have found the people along the line anxious to help and only too happy to cooperate with them.

Plat:

Your surveyors have prepared a plat of their work showing the true bearings of the lines they have run and much other descriptive Matter. Since this plat is self explanatory they have incorporated it into and as a part of this report in lieu of a detailed verbal description.

Marking The Line:

Your surveyors caused to be made twenty-six reinforced Concrete Monuments thirty-six inches long, triangular in shape and wider at the base than at the top. These Monuments have been placed at points where the several roads Cut the line and at the several corners. The location of these Monuments is clearly shown on the accompanying plat. They have caused every tree within reach of the Act along the line to be marked with three chops.

Property Owners Along The Line:

Your surveyors have prepared a list of all property owners along the line and have attempted to approximate the acreage lying in each County.






This list is appended hereto as an appendix to this report and will be found in Appendix “A.”

Personnel of Surveying Party:

Your surveyors wish to report the following personnel of the survey:

Duplin County:

B. A. Waldenmaier, Engineer-Surveyor, J. E. Waters, J. N. Waters, B. A. Waters, E. L. Waters, and J. G. Southerland.

Lenoir County:

Meriwether Lewis, Engineer-Surveyor, Frank Crary, Garland Waller, James C. Yates, Clarence Davis.

Addenda: (The situation around Pink Hill)

After your surveyors had completed the survey as herein before described there appeared some dissatisfaction to it among the Citizens of the town of Pink Hill. A delegation from Pink Hill was granted a hearing before a joint meeting of the County Commissioners of Duplin and Lenoir Counties on February 9th, 1931, at Kenansville, N. C., at which Meeting the joint decision of the County Commissioners was that Duplin County should cede to Lenoir County a strip of land, beginning at the point which the City limits of Pink Hill Cut the County line on the North and running from thence at right angles to the County line a sufficient distance to allow a line parallel to the County line to be tangent to the City limits, said line to run south far enough to intersect a line running west at right angles from the southern intersection of the County line with the City limits.

Your surveyors proceeded to the field and in accordance with the above instructions placed a Monument on the County line S. 1 deg. 57.28 Min. E. 18341.0 ft. from the monument near the head of Trent River and Mathews Branch, and running from thence S. 88 deg. 02.72 Min. W-501.4 ft. to another Monument; thence S. 1 deg. 57.28 Min. E. 2492.9 ft. to another Monument; thence N. 88 deg. 02.72 Min. E. 501.4 ft. to Monument on the County line which is 20833.9 ft. measured S 1 deg. 57.28 Min. E. from the Monument near the head of Trent River and Mathews Branch. The area of the land so ceded is 28.8 acres.

Conclusion:

Your surveyors feel that they have discharged their Commission as well as could be expected after an elapse of one hundred and seven years and respectfully ask that you accept their report and discharge them.

Very Respectfully,

B. A. Waldenmaier, Surveyor

Meriwether Lewis, Surveyor.

Approved:

Duplin County Board of Commissioners

I. J. Sandlin, Chairman

G. A. Outlaw

G. D. Bennett (LS)

Attest: Lawrence Southerland,

Clerk Board County

Commissioners

See Minute Record # 9, regular

Meeting of August 4, 1930.

Approved:

Lenoir County Board of Commissioners

W. H. Howell, Chairman

J. R. Fields

J. F. Skinner

J. N. Jones

J. D. Brothers

Attest: C. W. Pridgen

Register of Deeds,

Lenoir Co., N. C.

(Duplin County Public Registry, Book 356, Pages 276-278; 285-290.)

AN ACT TO ESTABLISH THE COUNTY LINE BETWEEN DUPLIN AND SAMPSON COUNTIES AS THAT SHOWN ON THE OFFICIAL MAPS OF THE STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION ISSUED PRIOR TO JANUARY 1, 1961.

WHEREAS, there has been dispute as to the location of the boundary line between Duplin and Sampson Counties, and confusion as to the exact location of said boundary has resulted in difficulty in determining matters of jurisdiction, venue, and in governmental affairs; and

WHEREAS, the County Commissioners of the Counties of Duplin and Sampson have agreed upon the location of the boundary line separating the two counties, and the agreed location has met with the general approval of the residents of the areas of each county affected: Now, therefore,

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact:

Section 1. That the county line between Duplin and Sampson Counties is hereby established upon the location shown on maps of the State Highway Commission issued prior to January 1, 1961.

Section 2. That the location of the county line dividing the two said counties on the county road maps issued since January 1, 1961, be






disregarded, and that the true location be as the same is shown upon maps issued prior to the January 1, 1961, issue of the said county road maps.

Section 3. All laws and clauses of laws in conflict with this Act are hereby repealed.

Section 4. This Act shall be in full force and effect from and after its ratification.

In the General Assembly read three times and ratified, this the 12th day of March, 1963.

(Session Laws of North Carolina, 1963, Chapter 35.)

2. LOCATION, DRAINAGE, CLIMATE, WATER
SUPPLY AND VEGETATION

Duplin County lies entirely within the Coastal Plain. The Northwestern part of the County is in the Middle Coastal Plain; the Southern and Eastern parts are in the lower Coastal Plain or flatwoods.

The lowest elevation in the County is 20 feet at the point where the Northeast Cape Fear River flows out. The highest reported elevation is 167 feet at Bowden.

The greater part of the County is drained by the Northeast Cape Fear River and its tributaries. The main tributaries of this river are: Doctors Creek, Maxwell Swamp, Muddy Creek, Limestone Creek, Grove Swamp, and Goshen Swamp. A small area in the Western part near Warsaw and Baltic is drained by Stewarts Creek and by Turkey Swamp.

CLIMATE

The Atlantic Ocean and other bodies of water tend to reduce daily and seasonal changes in temperatures in Duplin County.

Precipitation and temperature are uniform throughout the County. The summers are long and commonly have short periods of very hot weather. The weather is generally humid. The average frost-free period is from April 9 to November 1.

Short droughts occasionally injure crops and interfere with transplanting. Snow is very unusual and rarely remains on the ground for more than 24 hours. Ice storms occasionally damage trees and communication and power lines.

WATER SUPPLY

There are many streams in Duplin County, but some of the smaller ones flow only in wet weather. Most of the larger streams flow through wide areas of bottom land that are swampy and covered by water much of the time. Goshen Swamp and Northeast Cape Fear River have several channels through which water flows most of the time. All of the streams in the county flow slowly and often overflow surrounding lands. In some of the smaller streams, ponds have been built for the production of fish and for irrigation. Streams in the county are silted because of soil erosion on the uplands.






Well water is available throughout the County from wells that are mostly 25 feet or less in depth. Flowing wells in the swamps and on uplands provide a good supply of water. Many flowing wells in the Southern part of the county are less than 100 feet deep, but on the upland many are 200 feet deep or more.

VEGETATION

The uplands of Duplin County were covered originally by growths of oak, hickory, dogwood, wild grape, persimmon, and a mixture of pine and shrubs. The low areas along the watercourses are either swamp or marsh, and the natural growth of these areas consists of gum, ash, water and white oaks, cypress, poplar, elm, maple, and various kinds of shrubs. Beech, birch, and juniper grow in a few parts of the county, but these trees are scarce.

All of the original timber has been cut. At the present time, only second and third growth trees are in the county, and most of these are young and small. The trees are cut as soon as they are large enough for saw logs. Much of the present stand is being cut for pulpwood.

There are three forest types in Duplin County. The loblolly pine-hardwood forest type is the most extensive. It is widely distributed because trees of this type have restocked abandoned fields and cutover areas formerly in long leaf pine. The bottom land-hardwoods forest type is next in extent in the county and it occurs along all major streams. The largest areas of this type are along the Northeast Cape Fear River and along Goshen Swamp, and they range from ¼ mile to 2 miles, in width. The pond pine-hardwood type is next in extent. It occurs in the Southeastern part of the county in Angola Bay and in small bays in other parts of the county. Angola Bay and the swampland have not been cleared for cultivation and are all in forest.

All land now in cultivation was covered originally by the loblolly pine-hardwood forest type. In the Southeastern corner of the County, however, there is a small area of forest that more nearly resembles the long-leaf pine type.

Many kinds of shrubs grow in most forest areas. Angola Bay and some swamps and lesser bays contain more than 20 species of bog-type shrubs. The only native grasses are probably the wire grass of the forests and broomsedge. Most other grasses growing in the County were imported from other areas.

In the savanna-like areas of the Northeastern parts of the county, orchids, venus-flytrap, pitcherplant, trumpetplant, grasses and sedges are growing wild.

(USDA Soil Survey, March 1959, Page 2.)

The plants named in the last paragraph are also found in the Southern and Southeastern parts of the county.

VENUS-FLY-TRAP

The Venus-fly-trap belongs to a peculiar group of plants, part of whose food consists of animals, especially insects. It is one of the most remarkable of insect trapping plants, being found only in certain sandy swamps near Wilmington, N. C. The leaf blade is constructed so as to work like a steel trap, the two halves snapping together and the marginal bristles interlocking like the teeth of a trap. This trap is sprung by sensitive hairs, like feelers, that are developed on the leaf surfaces. When one of these is touched by a small flying or hovering insect, the trap snaps shut, and the insect is caught. In all of these cases a digestive fluid is excreted and the food material utilized.

(The New International Encyclopedia, Volume IV, Dodd, Mead & Co.)






3. THE CAROLINA CHARTER

On March 24th of 1663, King Charles II at his court in Westminster issued this document to eight of the supporters who, a few years earlier, had provided him crucial backing in his successful struggle to regain the English throne. Under the terms of the grant the eight Lords Proprietors became the owners of an immense area extending southward from Virginia to Florida (then a Spanish possession) and from the Atlantic to the “South seas” or Pacific Ocean. Although the Carolina Charter was granted by Charles II to his eight friends in settlement of political and, perhaps, other indebtedness, it is nevertheless an indispensable link in the chain of records beginning with Magna Carta that establishes and preserves our political liberties down to the present.

In the Carolina Charter are found, for example, guarantees of the representative form of government which characterizes our way of life.

The Lords Proprietors were required to

make (and) enact under their seals . . . any laws whatsoever, either pertaining to the public state of the said Province or to the private utility of particular persons, according to their best discretion, of and with the advice, assent and approbation of the freemen of the said Province, or the greater part of them, or of their delegates or deputies, whom for enacting the said laws when and as often as need shall require. We will that (the Lords Proprietors) shall from time to time assemble in such manner and form as to them shall seem best.

The original document from which these words are taken was acquired for the State of North Carolina by a group of public spirited citizens who purchased it from a British antiquarian bookseller in 1949. The venerable four-page parchment is on display in the Hall of History in Raleigh, encased in a modern fireproof safe so constructed that each page can be examined without damaging it. Each year many thousands of visitors, including entire classes of school boys and girls, view the document. It is worth noting that only six other states possess their colonial charters today. . . .

Since the actual granting of the Carolina Charter occurred in England,

there is not available in North Carolina a locale specifically associated with the year 1663 as is Jamestown for 1607 or Plymouth Rock for 1620. Moreover, the tempo of activity in the colony immediately following the issuance of the Charter was slow; it was not until October, 1664, that the first colonial official, William Drummond, was appointed “governor and Commander in chief” of Albemarle County, one of the three regions into which the colony was divided by the Lords Proprietors.

During these early years settlements were confined chiefly to the coastal region. It is estimated that by 1700 the total population of the colony did not exceed 5,000 with perhaps half this number in a small area adjoining Albemarle Sound. By 1763, however, the colony's population had grown to approximately 200,000 and settlement had extended westward to the Blue Ridge mountains.

(From The Carolina Charter, Tercentenary Commission pamphlet.)

A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROVINCE OF CAROLINA, ON THE COASTS OF FLORIDA; AND MORE PARTICULARLY OF A NEW PLANTATION BEGUN BY THE ENGLISH AT CAPE FEARE, ON THAT RIVER, NOW BY THEM CALLED CHARLES RIVER, THE 29th OF MAY, 1664. WHEREIN IS SET FORTH THE HEALTHFULLNESS OF THE AIR, THE FERTILITY OF THE EARTH AND WATERS, AND THE GREAT PLEASURE AND PROFIT WILL ACCRUE TO THOSE THAT SHALL GO THITHER TO ENJOY THE SAME. ALSO DIRECTIONS AND ADVICE TO SUCH AS SHALL GO THITHER, WHETHER ON THEIR OWN ACCOUNTS OR TO SERVE UNDER ANOTHER. TOGETHER WITH A MOST ACURATE MAP OF THE WHOLE PROVINCE, LONDON: PRINTED FOR ROBERT HORNE, IN THE FIRST COURT OF GRESHAM COLLEGE, NEAR BISHOPSGATE STREET. 1666.

A. Brief Description of the Province of Carolina, &c. Carolina is a fair and spacious province on the continent of America, so called in honor of his sacred majesty that now is, Charles the Second, whom God preserve; and his majesty has been pleased to grant the same to certain honorable persons, who in order to the speedy planting of the same, have granted divers privileges and advantages to such as shall transport themselves and servants in convenient time.

There is seated in this province two colonies already: One on the river Roanoak (now called Albemarle River), and borders on Virginia; the other at Cape Feare, two degrees more southerly; of which follows a more particular description.

This province of Carolina is situate on the main continent of America, between the degrees of 30 and 36, and hath on the north, the south






part of Virginia; on the south is bounded by the 30th degree of latitude, not yet fully discovered; on the east is Mare Atlanticum, part of the great ocean; and on the west the wealthy South sea is its confines.

The particular description of Cape Feare. In the midst of this fertile province, in the latitude of 34 degrees, there is a colony of English seated, who landed there 29th. May, Anno 1664, and are in all about eight hundred persons, who have overcome all the difficulties that attend the first attempts, and have cleared the way for those that come after, who will find good houses to be in whilst their own are in building; good forts to secure them from their enemies; and many things brought from other parts there, increasing to their no small advanage.

The chief of the privileges are as follows:

First there is full and free liberty of conscience granted to all, so that no man is to be molested or called in question for matters of religious concern; but every one to be obedient to the civil government worshipping God after their own way.

Secondly. There is freedom from custom for all wine, silk, raisins, currants, oil, olives, and almonds, that shall be raised in the province for seven years, after four tons of any of those commodities shall be imported in one bottom.

Thirdly. Every free man and free woman that transport themselves and servants by the 25th of March next, being 1667, shall have for himself, wife, children, and men-servants, for each, one hundred acres of land for him and his heirs forever, and for every woman-servant and slave fifty acres, paying at most ½ d. per acre per annum, in lieu of all demands, to the lords proprietors: Provided always that every man be armed with a good musket, full bore, ten pounds of powder, and twenty pounds of bullet, and six months’ provision for all, to serve them whilst they raise provision in that country.

Fourthly. Every man servant at the expiration of their time is to have of the country a hundred acres of land to him and his heirs forever, paying only ½ d. per acre per annum, and the women fifty acres of land on the same conditions: their masters also are to allow them two suits of apparel, and tools such as he is best able to work with, according to the custom of the country.

Fifthly. They are to have a governor and council appointed from among themselves, to see the laws of Assembly put in due execution; but the governor is to rule but three years, and then learn to obey; also he hath no power to lay any tax, or make or abrogate any law, without the consent of the Colony in their Assembly.

Sixthly. They are to choose annually from among themselves a certain

number of men according to their divisions, which constitute the General Assembly, with the governor and his council, and have the sole power of making laws, and laying taxes for the common good when need shall require. These are the chief and fundamental privileges, but the right honorable lords proprietors have promised (and it is their interest so to do) to be ready to grant what other privileges may be found advantageous to the good of the colony.

(Colonial Records, Vol. I, Pages 155-157.)

DUPLIN WAS SEVENTEENTH COUNTY ESTABLISHED IN NORTH CAROLINA

In 1663 Albemarle County was organized.

In 1670 Chowan, Currituck, Pasquotank, and Perquimans were organized out of Albemarle County.

In 1696 Bath County was organized.

In 1705 these counties were organized out of Bath County: Beaufort County (called Pamptecough before 1712); Craven County (called Archdale before 1712); and Hyde County (called Wickham before 1712).

In 1722 Bertie County was organized out of Chowan, and Carteret County was organized out of Craven.

In 1729 New Hanover County was organized out of Craven, and Tyrrell County was organized out of Chowan, Currituck, Bertie, and Pasquotank.

In 1734 Bladen and Onslow Counties were organized out of New Hanover.

In 1741 Northampton County was organized out of Bertie.

In 1749 Duplin County was organized out of New Hanover. (Thus Duplin is the seventeenth county in North Carolina.)






4. THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA

North Carolina, often called the “Tar Heel state,” was the scene of the first attempt to colonize America by English-speaking people. Under a charter granted to Sir Walter Raleigh by Queen Elizabeth, a colony was begun in the 1580’s on Roanoke Island. This settlement, however, was unsuccessful and later became known as “The Lost Colony.”

The first permanent settlement was made about 1650 by immigrants from Virginia. In 1663 Charles II granted to eight Lords Proprietors a charter for the territory lying “within six and thirty degrees of the northery latitude, and to the west as far as the south seas, and so southerly as far as the River St. Mattias, which bordereth upon the coast of Florida, and within one and thirty degrees of northern latitude, and so west in a direct line as far as the south seas aforesaid; . . .” and the colony was called Carolina. In 1665 another charter was granted to these noblemen. This charter extended the limits of Carolina so that the northern line was 36 degrees and 30 minutes north latitude, and the southern line was 29 degrees north latitude, and both of these lines extended westward to the South Seas.

In 1669 John Locke wrote the Fundamental Constitutions as a model for government of Carolina. The Lords Proprietors adopted these constitutions and directed the governor to put into operation as much of them as was feasible. In 1670 there were four precincts (changed to counties in 1739): Pasquotank, Perquimans, Chowan, and Currituck.

Carolina on December 7, 1710, was divided into North Carolina and South Carolina; and Edward Hyde, on May 12, 1712, became the first governor of North Carolina.

In 1729 seven of the eight Lords Proprietors sold their interest in Carolina to the Crown and North Carolina became a royal colony. George Burrington was the first royal governor. Richard Everard, the last proprietary governor, served until Burrington was appointed.

North Carolina, on April 12, 1776, authorized her delegates in the Continental Congress to vote for independence, and on December 18, 1776, adopted a constitution. Richard Caswell became the first governor under this constitution. On November 21, 1789, the state adopted the United States Constitution, being the twelfth state to enter the Federal

Union. North Carolina, in 1788, had rejected the Constitution on the grounds that certain amendments were vital and necessary to a free people.

North Carolina seceded from the Union May 20, 1861, and was readmitted to the union in July, 1868.

A new State Constitution was adopted in 1868. There has not been a new constitution since 1868, but numerous amendments have been added.

(N. C. Manual, 1965.)






5. GLIMPSES OF DUPLIN COUNTY'S COLONIAL
AND EARLY AMERICAN HISTORY

DUPLIN IS LORD DUPPLIN'S NAMESAKE

Many people in the State and County hold the mistaken belief that Duplin County received its name from the Irish city Dublin. To support this theory is the fact that many of the early colonists came from Ireland, at least via Ireland. Further, the close relation between the letters “b” and “p” would seem to lend strength to this supposition.

But Duplin received its name from a certain English nobleman, George Hay, Viscount Dupplin, the eldest son of the sixth Earl of Kinnoull. In 1710 Dupplin was elected to Parliament for Fowey, Cornwall, and later served as a telleer of the exchequer. In the following year he was created Baron Hay of Pedwardine, Herefordshire, one of twelve peers specially created by the tory administration of Harley and St. John to secure a majority in the House of Lords on the question of the Utrecht treaty.

The Peace of Utrecht is the general designation for a series of treaties formed in Utrecht, Netherlands, bringing to a close the War of Spanish Succession. It was at this date that England's immense commercial development began.

Dupplin was arrested in 1715 when the Jacobite rebellion broke out in Scotland. He was suspected of favoring the Pretender and was imprisoned along with Lord Landsdowne and the Earl of Jersey. Subsequently he was released on bail. The death of his father in 1719 made him Earl of Kinnoull. In the years that followed he inherited from other relatives baronies in Stratheven, Perthshire, Stirlingshire and Argylishire in Scotland.

PRESBYTERIANS

After Kinnoull had spent several years in Constantinople as Brittish ambassador, he became involved with the Scottish ecclesiastical courts in a matter concerned with the choice of a pastor for Madderty Parish, Perthshire. Kinnoull had chosen, since he had the right to “presentation,” one George Blaikie for the pastor of the Perthshire parish. But Blaikie was so objectionable to the Scotchmen that Presbytery refused to induct him as their pastor. When the matter was brought before a commission of

the General Assembly, Kinnoull was asked to waive his right of presentation, but he refused to do this on the ground that he might weaken “the right of patronages, and of all those to whom they do belong.”

The case was ably argued on behalf of the parishioners by Robert Hawley, weaver, and John Gray, mason. The commission of the General Assembly instructed the Presbytery to induct Blaike as pastor in Madderty, but while the case was still unsolved Blaikie accepted a call in America, where he became pastor of a Presbyterian church.

TITLES

Lord Duplin married Lady Abigail, daughter of Robert Harley, first Earl of Oxford. By her he had four sons and six daughters. Thomas, his eldest son became Earl of Kinnoull in 1758, and he died at the age of 77 in old Dupplin Castle in Perthshire.

Of the numerous titles borne by Lord Dupplin none are in existence at the present of any importance. And so old Dupplin remains the chiefest of his memorials. Davidson, N. C., October 26, 1936.

(In Old Duplin, By Dallas Herring.)

EVOLUTION OF DUPLIN COUNTY AS A POLITICAL
SUBDIVISION OF NORTH CAROLINA AND ITS
EARLY INHABITANTS

When Duplin was set up in 1749, as set forth in the Colonial Records, the County Justices were directed to hold Court at the house of William McRee at Goshen. William McRee lived on a tract of land on Highway Number 11, approaching Goshen Swamp from Kenansville, and then called Woodwards Chase, at what was then called the Goshen Settlement, on what is now known as the McIver tract of the Miller land. He lies buried in the little clump of trees across the branch east of the W. W. Miller cemetery. His will dated 1751, describes his home place, 500 acres granted to him as being in “Goshen Settlement.” The majority of the inhabitants were then communicants of the Church of England, the religion established by the laws of England, and the act provided for Saint Gabriels Parish, and appointed the vestrymen, whose business it was among other things to look after the poor and incidentally the spiritual affairs of the inhabitants. Court was held at the house of William McRee on Goshen till the year 1751, when the Justices, whose duty it was to hold the County Court and to provide public buildings, procured the necessary land, and erected a courthouse, stocks and prison bounds, at “The Old Courthouse” three miles west of Warsaw, on the road leading from Wilmington to Goldsboro, where the public road from Warsaw intersected the same, near the present residence and






on the farm of L. C. Carlton and near the home of Duplin County's then most distinguished and wealthiest citizen, civic and military leader, General James Kenan, whose residence was west of Turkey Swamp at the identical spot where the residence of J. F. Faison is now located. This was the courthouse for the territory now embraced in both Duplin and Sampson Counties, and it was ideally located, and it remained the county seat until after the revolution, when the General Assembly at Hillsboro, on the 19th of April, 1784, passed an act to divide Duplin County into two parts, by a line beginning on the Pender County line, where the main road crosses Bull Tail, a branch of Rockfish, which is a few miles east of Harrell Store, in Sampson County, and running thence a straight line to the lower bridge across Stewart's Creek, which is about 6 miles west of Magnolia, and thence a straight line to Goshen Swamp at the mouth of Youngs Swamp, thence due north to the Wayne County line, and further providing that all that part of Duplin County on the west side of that line should be erected into a county to be called Sampson County. The act provided that justices of the county should proceed to erect a new courthouse, prison and stocks, and for the levying of one shilling specie on each hundred pounds of taxable property for two years, which was a tax rate of about 5 cents on the hundred dollars of property. It was also provided by the act that the first court should be held at the store of James James, on his plantation, and this is located where the road to Magnolia intersects Highway Number 40, at the County Home. The court was held as directed, called the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sections, on the 18th day of October, 1784, the Justices present being William Houston, Sr., Col. James Kenan, Col. Thomas Routledge, Esquires; a solicitor or States Attorney, Plunkett Ballard was appointed, and the Court proceeded to function by ordering deeds probated and transacting other County business. (See Minutes of the County Court of Duplin County now in possession of the North Carolina Historical Commission at Raleigh, also see for a full account, the Historical Sketch read by L. A. Beasley at the opening of the New Courthouse in Kenansville at the February Term, 1913, page 203, where the two acts of General Assembly, 1749 and 1784, with reference to formation of Duplin County are copied in full.) The record shows the next Court was held at the House of James Pearsall on April 18th, 1785, the three Justices present being Thomas Routledge, Joseph Dickson, and Joseph Thomas Rhodes. On Tuesday, three more Justices came in, to wit: Kedar Bryan, Charles Ward, and James Gillespie. James Pearsall's residence was near the present residence of our Register of Deeds, A. T. Outlaw, which was on the road leading out to the residence of another of Duplin's most distinguished citizens and Revolutionary heroes, Thomas

Routledge, whose house was not far from the Routledge Graveyard, and at whose house Major James H. Craig, the British Commander stationed at Wilmington, encamped in July 1781, on his march to Newbern after routing Col. James Kenan and his raw recruits at Rockfish Bridge, just east of Wallace on his journey of intimidation, burning and pillaging, in a vain effort to intimidate the patriots of Duplin County. By July 18th, 1785, a courthouse had been constructed near the site of the present building, and the six justices named above were on hand for Court in the new building. The first case disposed of was that of William McLam vs Joseph Laiton when Joseph Godwin and John Bryan, sureties for defendant, being a poor debtor, surrendered him to the Court, and they were discharged, and he, because he could not pay a civil debt, was put in the custody of the Sheriff, and in Jail, which was located near the courthouse and the spring and was perhaps allowed prison bounds, that is, to come out of the jail and sit inside certain lines fixed by the court, from which he could not go, except under heavy penalty, until someone took pity on him or death released him. We have indeed made progress from prison bounds for failure to pay debts, balls and chains, ear pruning, slitting, branding irons and crude executions by piling around the unfortunate man and setting fire to same. (See first volume of Minutes of the Court, in Historical Commission at Raleigh.)

The old Courthouse was remodeled in 1848 and in 1911 was torn down and replaced by the present structure, at a cost of about $30,000, a modern, fireproof, up-to-date structure which will serve the County and its needs for many years to come.

William Dickson, who was born in Pennsylvania in 1740, and came with his father to Duplin County in 1745, a leading citizen and patriot, and Clerk of the County Court for many years, wrote a sketch of Duplin County in 1810, which has been edited by Dr. A. R. Newsome, Secretary of the North Carolina Historical Commission, with copious footnotes and is published in North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 5, page 429.

He says that Duplin County was settled about the year 1736, by emigrants from Northern Ireland, and Dutch (he meant Germans) from Switzerland. Henry McCulloch, Esquire, of London, in 1735, procured a grant from George II for 72,000 acres of land, lying between the Black river and the North East Cape Fear, and he induced these people to come in and settle on this land, which he and his agents conveyed to them by numerous deeds, which appear of record in the Registry of Sampson County (and now in Duplin County). Kenansville is on this land, and the eastern boundary of the tract crosses Grove Swamp to the east of Kenansville. The Gradys are typical of the Irish settlers and the Wellses of the Swiss or German settlers of this period. The Kenans,






the Moriseys and the Torranses also came to Duplin from Northern Ireland, but with the McCulloch settlers. . . . With the Dicksons and Pearsalls from Pennsylvania, the Hollingsworths from Maryland, the Matthews, the Parkers and others from Southeastern Virginia, the English from Lower Cape Fear, and French from Newbern and other Settlers, the population of the county began.

The first settlements were at Sarecta, which McCulloch gave as his American address; at Goshen, on the McIver tract, where William McRee lived, and the Court was first held, which in his will be called Goshen Settlement; at the Grove, near Routledge Graveyard, at Kenansville, where many of the early notables of Duplin County lie sleeping. It was in this settlement that Dickson says was the first Presbyterian congregation in the county. Both he and his brother Alexander Dickson, the philanthropist, are buried there.

A typical emigrant was Jacon Wells, direct ancestor of our Clerk of the Court, R. V. Wells. He and his ancestors lived near Basle, Switzerland, the home of the International Bank, established since the World War, a city of 200,000 inhabitants at present, in the land of the lakes, the beautiful Alps, and the legend of William Tell. In after years he often spoke of Basle, and its surpassing beauty, saying that he had been there many times. This sturdy pioneer, armed with his German Bible and sublime and abiding faith in the New World, with his parents and brothers set sail from Newcastle on the Tyne, England, and landed at Newbern in 1710, and in early manhood, he married, and pushed up in the interior of the wilds of Carolina, settling about two miles west of Magnolia, on lands purchased a few years ago from his direct descendants by J. F. Croom. There is a large branch crossing the Lisbon Road, running through the land, called Yoakey Branch, a corruption of German sound for Jacobs Branch, but called in the Grants issued to him as appears from the records of the grants in Secretary of States office, Jacob Wells Branch. At the date of his settlement there, the nearest settlements to him were those at Sarecta, Goshen, the Grove, and one in Rockfish township, near the Ephraim Powers Mill, which he patronized. Other pioneer families have a like history.

In 1786, a tract of 100 acres of land on the east side of the North East River was laid out on the lands of Dr. William Houston, and incorporated into a town, the earliest town charter in the county, and among the early charters of the state. Pretentious maps of lots were drawn by skillfill engineers, on parchment, and these showed lots numbered, streets and squares, and all known as the town of Sarecta. He was the same William Houston known years before as the King's Stamp Master for North Carolina, who sought to land the hated British stamps

imposed by a tyrannical King George III, at Wilmington, and who was forced by the irate patriots to seek safety on a war vessel in the river. He lived at Saretca, and his Doctor's shop was located on the spot where the A. A. Quinn residence now stands. Many persons bought lots as the records will show, but the town failed to materialize. The oldest town in Duplin is Kenansville, which was known by the name of Duplin Court House from the time of the location of the court house there in 1784 until it was laid out about 1818, and it was incoporated as Kenansville, named in honor of Hon. Thomas S. Kenan who represented the district in Congress from 1805 to 1811, and later became resident of Selma, Ala. Magnolia is located on the farm given by David Carlton to his daughter Tabitha Strickland, and when the Wilmington and Raleigh railroad, chartered in 1833, was constructed through that farm, and completed about 5 years later, the trains stopped there at what was known as Stricklands Depot, where the Lisbon Road crossed the same, now on Main Street. It was incorporated in 1855 as Stricklandsville, and later the name was changed to Magnolia, in honor of Miss Maggie Monk, the beautiful daughter of J. B. B. Monk, a leading citizen at that time. Warsaw was incorporated also in 1855, and owed its origin to the fact that it was on the Wilmington & Raleigh railroad. It was known before as Mooresville; one of its earliest residents was a merchant, Thaddeus Love, who came there from Wilmington about 1839, whom his friends and neighbors called Thaddeus of Warsaw, and hence the name of the town, when chartered.

The first incorporated school in the county dates back to 1785, the Grove Academy (older than the State University) where Latin and Greek were taught, and where many prominent men received their training, including Vice President W. R. King, formerly of Sampson, but later of Alabama.

The first graded school incorporated and established by law, with a special tax feature was at Magnolia (Laws of 1883, Chap. 415, entitled an act to establish a graded school at Magnolia, Duplin County). Election for school and special tax was held on the first Monday in May, 1883, and the school began in 1884. Dr. J. N. Stallings and his daughters, Miss Irene and Miss Bettie, composed the first faculty. They were teachers of rare ability and skill, with visions of what a teacher should be, far ahead of most that was then offered. This school functioned until 1889, when its charter was repealed. It was in this school the writer entered in the year 1884, a little red-headed, backwoods, country boy, with previous haphazard training in hit-and-miss three months a year country schools, and the knowledge that a fourth grader would now spurn. It was in the same school, four years later, that he was able to complete the common






school course then offered, and to gain some knowledge of Greek and Latin under another gifted and able teacher, Professor J. G. Stokes. This enabled him to enter college, and ultimately secure a degree. Many others began their education in that institution. Among the youngest was Hon. J. K. Hamblin, a prominent lawyer of Union, S. C., and Speaker of the House in that state; F. M. Sawyer, a skillful architect and brilliant cartoonist, who was one of the first graduates of State College, and now a resident of California; Mrs. S. B. Hunter of Magnolia, nee Miss Alice Croom, a talented musician, who took a course at the New England Conservatory of Music.

The first graded school with a special tax feature to be established in recent years in the county was at Warsaw in 1906. H. L. Stevens, who was chairman of the Committee for many years, was instrumental in securing the same and was responsible for its signal success. Other towns followed suit, and we now have large and commodious buildings in all the towns, with splendid schools. The three best buildings are at Kenansville, Chinquapin, and B. F. Grady School. The school at Beulaville is now the largest rural school in the state. All have chemical and scientific equipment, surpassing that in any college in the State forty years ago.

This sketch was prepared at the request of Judge Henry Alexander Grady, one of the Judges of the Superior Court of the State, and resident of the sixth Judicial District, living at Clinton, Duplin being in this District. His father, Hon. Benjamin Franklin Grady, is a native son of Duplin, of whom the county is justly proud. He was County Superintendent of Schools in Duplin in 1889, when the writer began to teach in the country schools. He was afterwards Congressman from this district. He was a profound scholar, historian, scientist, mathematician, and astronomer, and the most learned man Eastern North Carolina has ever produced, and to his gifted son, the Judge, this sketch is dedicated.

Kenansville, N. C. July 24, 1933.

Signed

L. A. Beasley

County Historian

(Court Minutes, Book 42, Pages 77-80.)

AN ACT FOR RE-ESTABLISHING SEVERAL COUNTIES AND
TOWNS, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

I. Whereas, his Majesty, by his Orders in his Privy Council, dated the Eighth Day of April, One Thousand Seven Hundred and Fifty Four, did repeal, declare void, and of none Effect, Twelve Acts passed at Sundry Times in this Province; which Acts are intituled, as follows, viz: . . .

An Act for erecting the upper Part of New Hanover County into a County and Parish, by the Names of Duplin County, and St. Gabriel's Parish, and for appointing a Place for building a Court House, Prison and Stocks, in the said County, Passed in the Year 1749. . . .

II. And whereas his Majesty, taking into his Royal Consideration the Humble Representation of the Assembly of this Province, setting forth that many Inconveniences, with respect to the future Settlement of this Province might arise from the Repeal of the said Acts; his Majesty has been graciously pleased by an instruction from their Excellencies the Lords Justices to the Governor of this Province dated the First Day of July, One Thousand Seven Hundred and Fifty Five, to authorize and direct the said Governor to give his Assent to any Acts which shall be passed by the Council and Assembly of this Province, for re-establishing the several Towns, Precincts, and Counties heretofore erected by the Twelve Acts which have been repealed as aforesaid, and for confirming the rights of the People, as by the said Acts they were established, under certain Provisions and Restrictions in the said Orders mentioned; Be it therefore Enacted by the Governor, Council, and Assembly, and by the Authority of the same, That the several Divisions, Precincts or Districts of this Province, which have heretofore belonged to the several and respective Counties and Towns aforesaid, before the Repeal of the before recited Acts of Assembly, shall, and they are hereby declared to be re-established into Counties and Towns, by the several and respective Names by which each Division, Precinct or District, at the Time of repealing the aforesaid Acts, was known and denominated; and each of the said Counties shall be limited and bounded according to the Bounds and Limits heretofore known and reputed to be the Bounds and Limits thereof.

III. Provided always, That nothing herein contained shall be construed deemed, or taken, to alter or derogate from the Right and Royal Prerogative of his Majesty, his Heirs or Successors, of granting Letters of Incorporation to the said Counties and Towns; of ordering, appointing, and directing the Election of a Member or Members, to represent them in Assembly; and of granting Markets and Fairs to be kept and held in them respectively: But that the said Right and Prerogative may and shall, at all Times hereafter be exercised therein by his said Majesty, his Heirs or Successors, in as full and ample Manner, to all Intents and Purposes whatsoever, as if this Act had never been made.

IV. And be it further Enacted, That all Deeds and Conveyances for the conveying of any Lands, Lots, or Tenements, in either of the Counties or Towns aforesaid, to any Person or Persons whatsoever, either to the Use of the Public, or to their own Use, in Consequence of any or either of the said Acts of Assembly so repealed as aforesaid, shall and are






hereby declared to be good and valid in Law; and shall enure and take effect as fully, to the benefit of the Grantees, their Heirs and Assigns, and all others concerned, as if the same Acts had never been repealed. . . .

(Laws of North Carolina, 1756, Chapter IX, Page 445.)

A List of the Militia and Taxable Persons in Duplin County for the Year 1755:

Militia340
Taxable:
Whites460
Blacks168
Total628

(Colonial Records, Vol. V, Page 575.)

DEED—HENRY McCULLOCH TO THOMAS KENNAN

NORTH CAROLINA

Duplin County, January One Thousand Seven Hundred and fifty nine 1759. This Indenture made the thirty first day Of August in the thirty Seventh year of the Reign Of Our Sovereign Lord George the second By the grace Of God of Great Britain France And Ireland, King Defender Of the Faith &c Between Henry McCulloch Esquire Of Turnham green in the County Of Middlesex in the Kingdom of England, On the One part, And Thomas Kennan in Duplin County in the province Of North Carolina Of the Other Part.

WHEREAS HIS MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY King George the second by a grant Dated the third Day of March Anno Domini One Thousand Seven Hundred And forty Five 1745, gave And granted to Henry McCulloch a tract of land Containing Seventy One thousand, One Hundred and Sixty Acres of land upon the Branches Of the North East Branch of Cape Fear River and also upon Black River and the Branches thereof, with all rights and Privileges of hunting, hawking, fishing and Fowling with all Woods Waters and Rivers with all proffits commodities Or Accreditaments to the same belonging or appertaining to Him the said Henry McCulloch, His heirs and assigns Forever in its full and simple manner. As of the man or of east Greenwick, Nevertheless, subject to several Conditions And Restrictions as By relation being thereunto Had, may more fully appear. Now this Indenture witnesseth as well for And in consideration Of the sum Of Fifty pounds to me in Hand paid and also for And in consideration of the Rents Covenants, Provisos And Agreements herein mentioned And contained By and On the part of Thomas Kennan his Heirs and assigns the said HENRY McCULLOCH HATH GIVEN GRANTED Bargained sold and confirmed and By these presents

do give grant Bargain sell and Confirm to the said Thomas Kennan his Heirs and assigns Forever, all that piece and Parcel of land lying and being in the County of Duplin in the province Of North Carolina in America, on the North side of Turkey Branch, being part Of a tract Of land, Belonging to Henry McCulloch Esquire, Containing Seventy One thousand, One Hundred and Sixty Acres, 71,160. Beginning at a White Oak on Turkey Branch Running North 40, West 16nf Poles to a pine, said McCulloch Corner, thence with his line North 75 East 140 poles to a red Oak thence with his Other line North 20, East, 132 poles to a white Oak, thence North 75 East 44 poles to a lightwood Stake in a Pond, thence South 40, West 242 poles to a Water Oak, On Turkey Branch and with the same, to the Beginning and Containing in the whole, THREE Hundred and thirty Eight Acres, Of land all which premises are more particularly Described, and set forth in the map of Plan thereof. Hereunto annexed with all right And privileges of Hunting Hawking fishing and Fowling with all Woods Waters and Rivers With all proffits Commodities or Acreditaments, to the same Belonging or Appertaining to him the said Thomas Kennan, his Heirs and assigns forever. Except in Case that any mines shall be found on the said lands One Half of all Gold And silver Ore, and of all Other mines and minerals Whatsoever, be Reserved for the use Of the said Henry McCulloch his Heirs and assigns Forever, and the said Thomas Kennan for himself his heirs and assigns and forever of them doth Hereby Consent promise And agree to and with the said Henry McCulloch his heirs and assigns that within Six months of the date of these presents they shall Register the said grant of Conveyance Or An Authentic Transcript thereof, together with all annexes. Survey in the Deputy Auditor's Office in North Carolina And also allow Tennants for the Payment of Quit Rents to his Majesty or to his investor after the rate of three shillings, sterling, or four shillings proclamation money for every hundred acres and according to that proportion for Any less Quantity making together thirteen shillings and seven pence. But in case therein grant or an authentic copy of this conveyance, and the said allotments is now made.

On adv in the Deputy Auditor's Office or that that Quit Rents are in arrears more than twelve months from the time due, the said Thomas Kennan his heirs and assigns shall be liable to pay to the said Henry McCulloch his Heirs or assigns Double Quit Rents for the time so Elapsed. When Registering this Conveyance, allowing for the Payment of the Quit Rents Aforesaid or for any omission or neglect which may Happen, in not paying the Quit Rents Yearly to his majesty's receiver in North Carolina and it is also Covenanted And agreed that if the said






Thomas Kennan his Heirs or assigns Hold any more lands than they are entitled to by this Conveyance they shall forfeit said Surplus lands and pay Double quit rents during the time it has been in their possession.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF THE ABOVE MENTIONED parties Have hereunto set their Hands and Seals.

Henry McCulloch (SEAL)

By

Alexander McCulloch (SEAL)

Be it Remembered by Virtue Of a letter Of Attorney under the Hand and seal of the said Henry McCulloch to Alexander McCulloch duly Registered in the Secretary's Office, did in the name of the said Henry McCulloch sign and subscribe the grant. And then sealed and Delivered the Same As his the said Henry McCulloch Act and Deed in the presence Of us who have hereunto Subscribed Our names as witnesses.

Felix Kenean

Jos Lafar

THE WITHIN DEED FROM HENRY McCULLOCH By Alexander McCulloch to Thomas Kenan, Containing Three Hundred And thirty Eight Acres of land was proven in Court the Fourteenth day of October One thousand seven Hundred and Fifty Eight 1758. By the Oath of Felix Kenan And Ordered to be Registered Hereunto John Dickson Clerk of Our said County of Duplin this 13th Day of October 1758.

John Dickson, Clerk of Court

(DEED: Henry McCulloch to Thomas Kenan, Book 3, Page 1.)

The return of the Lists of Taxables for the year 1765 in the Province of North Carolina:

DUPLIN COUNTY:
White Men Taxables848
Blacks and Mullattors Male & Female130
Total Number in County978

(Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. VII, Page 145.)

DOCTOR WILLIAM HOUSTON AND THE STAMP ACT

The following is a genuine Copy of the letter to Doctor William Houston, appointing him Stamp Distributor for this Province.

Stamp-Office London, July 11th 1765.

Sir:

I am ordered by the Commissioners, to acquaint you, the Lords Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury, have been pleased to appoint

you to be Distributor of Stamps for North Carolina: you are therefore on Receipt hereof to write to this Board to propose two responsible Persons in England to be bound with you, in the Penalty of Two Thousand Pounds. As this Duty takes place on the first of November next, and no Stamps can be sent you, until your Bond is executed, you are desired to be as expeditious as possible.

I am your humble servant

JAMES BRETTELL, Secretary.

(Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. VII, Page 130.)

On the 16th November, 1765, Dr. William Houston, the recently appointed Stamp Master, who happened to be in town on that day, was taken to the court-house in Wilmington and forced to resign his office, and to promise, in writing, not to receive any stamped paper nor to officiate in any means as Stamp Master or distributor of the stamps within the province of North Carolina, directly or indirectly.

(Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. VII, Page VI.)

Copy of Mr. Wm. Houston's Resignation of his Office of Stamp Distributor for the Province of North Carolina.

I do hereby promise that I never will receive any stampt paper which may arrive from Europe in consequence of any Act lately passed in the Parliament of Great Britain nor officiate in any means as stamp Master or Distributor of the Stamps within the Province of North Carolina either directly or indirectly and I do hereby notify all the Inhabitants of His Majesty's province of North Carolina notwithstanding my having received information my being appointed to the said stamp office not to apply hereafter for any stampt paper or to distribute the same until such time as it will be agreeable to the Inhabitants of this Province: Hereby declaring that I do execute these presents of my own free Will and Accord without any Equivocation or mental Reservation whatsoever.

In Witness hereof I have hereunto set my Hand this 16th Day of November 1765.

Wm. Houston.

(Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. VII, Page 131.)

FROM THE NORTH CAROLINA GAZETTE (WILMINGTON)
NOVEMBER 20, 1765.

. . . On Saturday the 16th of this inst. William Houston Esq., Distributor of Stamps for this Province, came to this town; upon which three or four Hundred People immediately gathered together, with drums beating and Colours flying, & repaired to the House the said Stamp-Officer put up at, & insisted upon knowing Whether he intended to execute his said Office, or not. He told them, “He should be very sorry






to execute any office disagreeable to the People of the Province.” But they, not content with such a Declaration, carried him into the Court-House, where he signed a Resignation satisfactory to the Whole.

We hear from Newbern, that the Inhabitants of that Place, try'd, condemn'd, hang'd, and burn'd Doctor William Houston, in effigy, during the Sitting of their Superior Court. Mr. Houston, however, thinks that there was too much of the Star-Chamber Conduct made use of, in condemning him unheard; especially. As he had never solicited the Office; nor had he then heard he was appointed Stamp-Officer. . . . At Cross Creek, tis said, they hang'd his Effigy and M. Carter's together, (he who murder'd his Wife;) nor have they spar'd him even in Duplin, the County where he lives.

(Colonial Records, Vol. VII, Page 124.)

Dr. Houston's assertion that he was appointed Stamp Master without his knowledge seems by no means improbable, when it is remembered, that Franklin, and other Provincial Agents in London, had at one time so little hope of the repeal of the Stamp Act that they recommended their friends for positions under it.

(Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. VII, Pages IX & X.)

(Tryon's Letter Book)

Letter from Governor Tryon, to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury.

Brunswick 5th April 1766

I was honored with your Lordships Commands on the 25th of March last by the favor of Mr. Lownde's letter of the 14th September 1765 requiring me to give my assistance to the Distributor of the Stamps in the execution of his office. Some Stamps for this province arrived here from Virginia the 28th of November last in the Diligence Sloop of War; but as Mr. Houston, Distributor of the Stamps, was obliged publickly to resign his office in the Court House of Wilmington on the 16th of the same month, a copy of which I enclose, I desired Capt. Phipps to keep the Stamps on board the Diligence. They were lately removed into his Majesty's Sloop the Viper, Capt. Lobb, Commander, the Diligence having sailed for England. My endeavors, my Lords, to promote the circulation of the Stamps in this province have been accompanied with my warmest zeal, as I flatter my self the letter I wrote on that subject to Mr. Conway one of his Majesty's principal Secretaries of State will testify. The ill success that has attended this discharge of my duty, has given me real concern; since the riotous Assembly of men in Wilmington,

and Brunswick on the 19th 20th and 21st of February last, there has been no disturbances in this province, the ports have never been shut and entries and clearances are made in the form that was practiced before the Stamp Act was appointed by Parliament to take effect; I continue in my opinion that these Southern provinces will regulate their further conduct, agreeable to the measures that are adopted by the more formidable Colonies to the northward.

I am, My Lords, &c.

(Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. VII, Page 195.)

Letter from Dr. Houston (Stamp Agent) to Governor Tryon.

Soracte 21st April 1766

May it please your Excellency

Sir:

Before this comes to hand you will be partly informed of the Transactions at Wilmington on Tuesday the 15th inst.

I make bold to acquaint you of a part which is to be depended upon, that the Sons of Liberty never got into their hands. ’Tis a letter that Mr. Brettel Secretary to the Commissioners dated from the Stamp Office Lincolns Inn London 13th of September 1765, which is in my Possession what was took from me was the packet containing my Commission and my Deputation Instructions with a Bond ready filled up to be executed before your Excellency. In Obedience to which I should have done myself the honor to have waited on your Excellency and as affairs stand at present its impossible for me to comply by the Information the Letter gives; Those Ships are not yet arrived on Board of which the Stamps are for this Province under my care and when they arrive can I possibly take possession until the people are convinced when that is I am ready on notice. But for me who by the nature of my Commission am hated, abhor'd detested. No friend to consult or assist, Even those that would or could have not courage to do, is a great Hardship.

I beg and hope your Excellency will not expose this letter but after perusal commit it to the Flames. Necessity which make me open my want of a Friendly advice I think Mr. John Moses De Rosset would not refuse your excellency a Copy of a Bond, Instructions and Commission which is lodged in his hands I most humbly desire your Excellencys Pardon for writing to you in this manner, my only hope is your Excellencys Generous and Human Disposition for unfortunate Persons, of which I hardly know what I do.

Having Experienced the Mode of Base Persons in this Part of the






World detaining of letters and even destroying them make me send this by my son William who is going to Philadelphia with a small venture of his Own.

I am with the greatest duty &c

Wm. HOUSTON

P. S. No Gilt Paper or I would have wrote upon it.

(Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. VII, Page 198.)

(From Tryon's Letter Book.)

Letter from Governor Tryon to Governor Bull

Brunswick 17th June 1766

I am to acknowledge the favor of your letter giving me the intelligence of the repeal of the Stamp Act, as also your letter delivered me by Lord Hope. It is with pleasure I congratulate you on the above event. I trust the generosity and benevolence of his Majesty and his Parliament in their late conduct to the British Colonies, will engrave such grateful impressions on the minds of the Americans, as neither ambition, prejudice of education, or time will ever be able to efface. Their interest under their different circumstances are certainly mutual, and reciprocal. I have received by way of New York dispatches from the Secretary of State notifying the repeal of the Stamp Act, &c. I have inclosed the dispatches to the Governors of the Southern provinces, to Mr. Barons a packet directed to Lord Charles Montagu makes me imagine his Lordship may be arrived at his government.

I am Sir &c.

(Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. VII, Page 221.)

A LIST OF CAPT. WILLIAM BURNEY'S COMPANY

Capt. Wm. Burney.Joshua Putnell.Benjamin Allen.
James Brooks, Lt.Michael Moss.William King.
Charles Taylor.George Williams.Jesse King.
William Taylor.William Cannon.Starkey Bell.
John May.John May.Benjamin Cory.
Archibald Addams.Peter Moss.William McGowen.
John Hardee.Pearson Toten.John Stocks, Sen'r.
Flish Cox.John Stocks, Jun'r.Lemuel Cherry.
Norlen Mills, Jun'r.William Williams.David Mills.
Norlen Mills, Sen'r.David Williams.Freid Mills.
Andrew Hardey.Simon Burney.Isaac Stocks.
Daniel Willson.William Handcock.Isaac Brooks.
Rich'd Albritton.Harry Smith.John Brooks.
James Handcock.Samuel Knight.Samuel Cannon.
Alex'd Danield.Moses Strawhorne.John Cannon.
Issac Buck.John Avary.Thomas Hardey.
Will'm Travis.Thomas Smith.Thomas Grager.
Isaac Mills.Stewart Gorden.John Haddick.
Sampson Slaughter.Robert Hardey.George McGowen.
Wm. Slaughter.Isa'h Hardey.Thomas English.
Ezechiah McAfee.Lemuel Simmons.John Mills, Sen'r.

John Mills, Jun'r.Thomas Albritton.Isaac Nobels.
John Robinson.Isaac Hardey.Margaret Tanner.
Thomas Tuton.Joseph Stevens.John Simpson.
James Quartermuss.Abraham Adams.

(State Records of North Carolina, Clark, Vol. XXII, page 415.)

NORTH CAROLINA:

A List of the Duplin Troop, Viz,:

Frederick Gregg, Capt.Saml. Gavin.Antony Miller.
John Dickson, Leut.Edwd. Matchet.Antony Cook.
Samuel McRae, Corup.John Moore.Peter Frederick.
John Miller, Quarter Master.Wm. McCann.James Mears.
Hugh McCann.Isaac C. Daniel
Thos. Kenan.Manual Lozier.Frederick A. Daniel
Wm. Wright.Jere Holdon.Ebulan Cook.
Archd. Houston.Patrick Fitsmooris.Izac (?) Savidge.
Zebulon HollinsworthJames Cookes.Robert Knowls.
Felix Keenan.James Cook.John Goss (?)
Abraham Moulton.Jos. Ken.John Matchet.
James Ratliff.Wm. Leacock.Richard Miller.
Chas. Gavin.George Miller.John Cook, Senr.
Mosses Tiller.

(—Clark, Walter, The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XXII, Page 330.)

Early History

The early history of Duplin proves that, “in the days that tried men's souls” she was true to the principles of liberty.

Her delegates to the first general meeting of the Deputies of the inhabitants of this colony at Newbern, 25th August, 1774, were Thomas Gray, Thomas Hicks, James Kenan and William Dickson.

The delegates at Newbern, 3d April, 1775, were Thomas Gray and Thomas Hicks.

Delegates at Hillsboro, 21st August, 1775, James Kenan, William Dickson, Thomas Gray, Richard Clinton and Thomas Hicks.

The delegates to Halifax, 12th November, 1776, which formed our Constitution, James Kenan, Thomas Gray, William Dickson, William Taylor and James Gillaspie.

The field officers for Duplin, appointed by the Provincial Congress, 4th April, 1776, at Halifax, for Duplin County, were Thomas Rutledge, Colonel; James Moore, First Major; Robert Dickson, Second Major.

THE OATH OF ALLEGIANCE AND ABJURATION, adopted with signers’ names in Duplin, from the Original, on file in the Clerk's office of Duplin.

I am indebted to the politeness of Thomas J. Morisey, Esq. (sent to me in 1844), for this ancient document, thus preserving the name of those in whose breasts glowed the true spirit of liberty.

By Act of Assembly passed at Newbern, the 15th of November, 1777. I, A. B., do solemnly and sincerely promise and swear, that I will be






faithful and bear true allegiance to the State of North Carolina, to the powers and authorities which are or may be established for the government thereof, not inconsistent with the Constitution. And I do solemnly and sincerely declare, that I do believe in my conscience, that neither the King of Great Britain, nor the Parliament thereof, jointly with the said king or separately, or any foreign prince, person, state, or potentate, have or ought to have any right or title to the dominion or sovereignty of this State, or to any part of the government thereof. And I do renounce, refuse, and abjure any allegiance or obedience to them, or any of them, or to any person or persons put in authority by or under them, or any of them. And I will do my utmost endeavors to disclose and make known to the legislative or executive powers of the said State, all treasons and traitorous conspiracies and attempts whatsoever, which I shall know to be made or intended against the said State. And I do faithfully promise that I will endeavor to support, maintain, and defend the independence of the said State, against him the said king and all other persons whatsoever. And all of these things I do plainly and sincerely acknowledge and swear, according to these express words by me spoken, and according to the plain common sense and understanding of the same words, without any equivocation, mental evasion, or secret reservation whatsoever. And I do make this acknowledgment, abjuration, renunciation and promise, heartily, willingly, and truly, so help me God.

Henry CannonJohn MoltonWilliam Dickson
Michael KenanSamuel HoustonJ. Rand
Robert DicksonJames SampsonJohn Wright
George SmithThomas RoutledgeJames Kenan
Alexander GrayRichard HerringWilliam Taylor
Darcy FowlerJoseph DicksWilliam Ball
Richard ClintonThomas R.J. P. Ballard
J. SpillerEdward TooleJames Lockart
Fleet Cooper

Hon. Thomas Kenan was a native of this County, from whose family the County Town takes its name. He represented Duplin in 1804 in the Senate, and from 1805 to 1811 he was a member of Congress. He removed to Alabama, and was a member of Assembly in that State for many years.

He died near Selma, Alabama, 22d October, 1843, in the seventy-third year of his age.

Felix Kenan, who was Sheriff of Duplin in 1776, was brought before the bar of the Congress for his Tory principles.

Hon. Charles Hooks, from this County, was a member of the House of Commons in 1802, 1803 and 1804, and in the Senate in 1810-11, and in Congress in 1816 to 1817 and 1819 to 1825. He removed to Alabama, where he recently died.

(Historical Sketches of North Carolina (1584-1851) By John H. Wheeler, Pages 138-139.)

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington.

MONDAY, March 6th 1775.

3 o'clock, the committee met according to adjournment.

Present: Cornelius Harnett, Chairman; Francis Clayton, Deputy Chairman.

John Robeson, Samuel Swann, A. Lillington, George Moore, Sampson Moseley, Wm. Jones, L. C., John Colvin, Samuel Marshall, Wm. Jones, W. T., Thos. Bloodworth, Archibald M'Lahe, John Ancrum, James Walker, James Wright, Timothy Bloodworth, Samuel Collier, John Hollingsworth, Joel Parish, John DeVane, George Merrick, Wm. Hooper, James Moore, Frederick Jones.

Mr. James Kenan, Chairman of the Duplin committee, pursuant to a letter from this committee at their last meeting attended.

Resolved, That all the members of the committee now present go in a body and wait on all Housekeepers in Town, with the Association before mentioned, and request their signing it, or declare their reasons for refusing, that such Enemies to their Country may be set forth to public view and treated with the contempt they merit.

Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Committee, that all dances private as well as public, are contrary to the spirit of the 8th Article in the Association of the Continental Congress, and that as such they should be discouraged, and that all persons concerned in any dances for the future should be properly stigmatized.

Mr. Harnett desired the opinion of the Committee respecting a Negro fellow he bought in Rhode Island (a Native of that Place,) in the Month of October last, whom he designed to have brought with him to this Province, but the said Negro ran away at the time of his sailing from Rhode Island.

The question was put whether Mr. Harnett may import the said Negro from Rhode Island.

Resolved, Unanimously, That Mr. Harnett may import the said Negro from Rhode Island, and it is the opinion of this Committee that under the above circumstances, such importation will not be any infringement of the Article of the Resolves of the General Congress.

Ordered, that Mr. Grant, Messenger to this Committee, be paid for his attendance on the committee, 10 days (including to-morrow) at the rates of 8s. per day.

The Committee then adjourned till 9 o'clock to-morrow morning.

(Clark, Walter, The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. IX, Page 1150.)

The “War of the Revolution” began in 1775. . . .

Until this time the colonies in America were subject to the King of






England. The country was settled by his subjects; and it was considered right, therefore, that he should govern it.

This, the colonists were willing he should do, so long as his laws were just and good. They had come from England, and they loved the English people and they respected the King, who was then George III.

But neither the King, nor the people in England, loved the Americans as much. They were at that time jealous of them. They feared that at some future time the Americans would become rich and powerful, and wish to separate from them.

The Americans were, indeed, prospering. They now amounted to more than three millions of people. The statesman in England said, they were growing too fast; they would soon become proud and independent. Something must be done to keep them in check.

At length, it was resolved to tax the Americans. This would take away their money and keep them poor. The first tax was imposed in 1764. In that year, it was ordered that the Americans should pay a certain sum on all the sugar, indigo, coffee, etc., which should be taken from England to use in America.

In 1765, the English Parliament went still farther, and passed an act, called the “Stamp Act;” that is a duty, or tax, on every piece of paper used for notes, deeds, wills, etc. It was called the “Stamp Act,” because each piece of paper had a stamp upon it, representing a crown.

This Act was very odious to the Americans. They thought it unjust; and they resolved not to submit to it.

(The United States—For Children, Liberty Hall Library.)

JOHN GRADY KILLED AT BATTLE OF
MOORE'S CREEK BRIDGE

The only man killed at the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, on the American side, was private John Grady, and a monument stands today upon the Battlefield in commemoration of his heroism. Members of this family have participated actively in every War since the United States Government was created; in the Revolution, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the War Between the States, the Spanish-American War, and the great World War of 1918. They have filled important positions in the State, and have at all times shown themselves worthy of trust.

(John Grady 1710-1787 of Dobbs and Duplin, dated 7-1-30 by Benjamin Grady, Page 11)

Extract of a letter from Brigadier James Moore, in the Continental Service, to the Honourable Cornelius Harnett, Esq. President the Provincial Council, North Carolina, dated Wilmington, March 2, 1776. On the earliest intelligence that the tories were collecting and embodying

at Cross Creek, which I received on the 9th day of February, I proceeded to take possession of Rockfish-bridge, within seven miles of Cross Creek, which I considered as an important post. This I effected on the 15th, with my own regiment, five pieces of artillery and a part of the Bladen militia; but as our numbers were by no means equal to that of the tories, I thought it most advisable to entrench and fortify that pass, and wait for a reinforcement. By the 9th I was joined by Col. Lillington with one hundred and fifty of the Wilmington minutemen, Colonel Kenon with 200 of the Duplin militia, and Col. Ash with about 100 of the volunteer independent yagers, making our number then in the whole about 1100; and from the best information I was able to procure, the tory army, under command of General McDonald, amounted to about 14 or 1500. On the 20th they marched within four miles of us, and sent in, by a flag of truce, the Governor's proclamation, a manifesto and letter from the General, copies of which, together with another letter, and my answer, you have enclosed. I then waited only until Col. Martin and Col. Thackston, who I had certain intelligence were on their march, should get near enough to cut off their retreat, and determined to avail myself of the first favorable opportunity of attacking them. However, contrary to my expectations, I learnt on the 21st that they had, the night before, and that night, crossed the N. West River, at Campbelltown, with their whole army, sunk and destroyed all the boats, and taken their route the most direct way to Negro Head Point; I then dispatched an express to Col. Caswell, who was on his march to join us with about 800 men, and directed him to return and take possession of Corbert's Ferry over Black River, and by every means in his power to obstruct, harass, and distress, them in their march; at the same time I directed Col. Martin and Col. Thackston to take possession of Cross Creek, in order to prevent their return that way. Col. Lillington and Col. Ash I ordered, by a forced march, to endeavor, if possible, to reinforce Col. Caswell; but if that could not be affected, to take possession of Moore's Creek Bridge, whilst I proceeded back with the remainder of our army to cross the North West at Elizabeth Town, so as either to meet them on their way to Corbert's Ferry, or fall in their rear and surround them there. On the twenty-third I crossed the river at Elizabeth-Town, where I was compelled to wait for a supply of provisions till the 24th at night, having learnt that Col. Caswell was almost entirely without. Just when I was prepared to march, I received an express from Col. Caswell, informing that the Tories had raised a flat, which had been sunk in Black River, about five miles above him, and by erecting a bridge, had passed it with their whole army. I then determined, as the last expedient, to proceed immediately in boats down






the North West river, to Dollison's landing, about sixty miles, and take possession of Moore's Creek Bridge, about ten miles from them, at the same time acquainting Col. Caswell of my intentions, and recommending him to retreat to Moore's Creek Bridge, if possible, but if not, to follow on in the rear. The next day by four o'clock we arrived at Dollison's landing, but we could not possibly march that night for want of horses for the artillery; I dispatched an express to Moore's Creek Bridge to learn the situation of affairs there, and was informed that Col. Lillington, who had the day before taken his stand at the bridge, was that after noon reinforced by Colonel Caswell and that they had raised a small breast work, and destroyed a part of the Bridge. The next morning, the 27th, at break of day, an alarm gun was fired, immediately after which, scarcely leaving our people a moment to prepare, the Tory army, with Capt. McLeod at their head, made their attack on Col. Caswell and Col. Lillington, and finding a small entrenchment next to the Bridge, on our side empty, concluded that our people had abandoned their post, and in the most furious manner advanced within thirty paces of our breastworks and artillery, where they met a very proper reception.

Captain McLeod and Captain Campbell fell within a few paces of the breastwork, the former of whom received upwards of twenty balls through his body, and in a very few minutes their whole army was put to flight, and most shamefully abandoned their General, who was next day taken prisoner. The loss of the enemy in this action, from the best accounts we have been able to learn, is about thirty killed, and wounded; but as numbers of them must have fallen in the creek, besides many more that were carried off, I suppose their loss may be estimated about seventy. We had only two wounded, one of which died to-day. This Sir, I have the pleasure to inform you, has happily terminated a very dangerous insurrection, and will, I trust, put an effectual check to Toryism in this country.

The situation of affairs at this place made it necessary for me to return here, which, at the special request of the committee, I did last night with my regiment. The large requisitions made by the men-of-war, who now lie just before the town, gave the inhabitants reason to apprehend everything that could be suffered from their disappointed vengeance, however the committee have spiritedly determined rather to suffer the worst of human evils than afford them any supplies at all, and I have no doubt we shall be able to prevent them from doing any great injury.

In order to lessen as much as possible the expence incurred by this expedition, I some time ago directed Col. Martin to disband all the troops under his command, except 1000, including the regulars, and

with those to secure the persons and estates of the insurgents, subject to your further orders.

And then to proceed to this place, unless otherwise directed. However, as I do not think the service just now requires such a number of men in arms, I shall immediately direct him to disband all except the regulars, and with those to remain in and about Cross Creek until further orders.

(Clark, Walter, The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XI, pages 283-284.)

ORDINANCES OF CONVENTION, 1776

An Ordinance for appointing Justices of the Peace, Sheriffs, and Constables for the several Counties of this State, for erecting County Courts for the purposes of holding Sessions of the Peace and putting into execution the laws relative to Orphans, Guardians and highways until provisions shall be made by the General Assembly of this State for the same. . . . John Sampson, William Houston, Thomas Rutledge, Richard Clinton, James Kenan, William Ball, William Dixon, Thomas Hix, Robert Dickson, Richard Herring, William Taylor, and James Lockhart, Esquires for the County of Duplin; . . .

(Walter Clark, The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XXIII, Page 993.)

GEN. JOHN ASHE TO GOV. CASWELL

(From Executive Letter Book)

WILMINGTON, 28th July, 1777.

SIR:—

Since writing your Excellency yesterday, I came to this place in order to send off my dispatches to the several Cols. of this district. On my arrival I found several Scotch Tories and others from Cross Creek and Bladen, and learn from what they have told to their Friends in this town that the Insurgents you mention beyond a doubt intend to come down to this place, and under the same pretense that they give for their journey to Cross Creek, vis, salt. I find so many of the inhabitants here disaffected, and such a number of Tories from the other Counties here, and others dropping in by two or three at a time, occasions me to suspect they intend seizing the magasine by surprise. I have therefore (as I do not think it safe to trust a matter of such importance to the State to too small a guard) ordered by the whole of the well-affected part of the militia of this County on duty, but do not believe they will exceed three hundred. I have sent orders to Col. Robeson of Bladen to embody his Regiment immediately, and make his draughts, and in case he finds they leave Cross Creek, to march the whole of them against them, and to annoy and impede their marches by breaking down the bridges, and skirmishing with them at every difficult pass, in order to retard their






march, and give me time to collect as many of the Brigade as possible. I have sent similar orders to Col. Kenan of Duplin, should they take that route, and have dispatched orders to the several other Col's. of this district to hold themselves in readiness. Mr. Edward Ingraham, a warrant Capt. of the Washington, privateer, who was just setting off when I came to town, with several letters of recommendation from Gentlemen of this place to your Excellency, I thought proper to stop on this occasion. He sends his letters pr bearer hereof, I make no doubt your Excellency will give ’em all due credit, and likewise prevail on Capt. Vance to tarry at this important crisis. I shall punctually inform your Exellency of every intelligence of importance I may receive.

I am Sir with due esteem and respect,

Your Excellency's most obed't & very hum.,

JOHN ASHE.

(Walter Clark, The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XI, Page 546.)

COL. JAMES KENAN TO GOV. CASWELL

(From Executive Letter Book)

DUPLIN, June 6th, 1778.

Sir:

The volunteers and Drafts for this County have elected Theophilus Williams their Captain, in consequence of which he waits on your Excellency for a Commission, at the same time is somewhat doubtful of his appointment being incompatible with his commission as Lieutenant in the regular service. I shall be much obliged to your Excellency to inform me by Mr. Williams if there being any probability of money being got for the men in a short time.

I am sir with due respect your Excellency's most obedient and very humble servant.

JAMES KENAN.

(Walter Clark, The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XIII, Page 148.)

COL. JAS. KENAN TO GOV. CASWELL

(From Executive Letter Book)

DUPLIN July 1st 1778.

SIR:

The clothing and other things are ready for the Soldiers belonging to this county. They embody to-morrow at the same time declare they will not march until the bounty is paid them. I hope it is arrived by this, and your Excellency will direct me the most speedy way to receive it for them, as I wish them not to be detained here. If your Excellency has

received any late news from the No'ward shall be much obliged to you to favor me with it by Mr. Amis.

I am Sir, your mo. ob. & very hume, servt.

JAS. KENAN.

(Walter Clark, The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XIII, Page 183.)

STATE MONEY

. . . II. Be it therefore Enacted by the General Assembly of the State of North Carolina, and by the authority of the same, That Eight Hundred and Fifty Thousand Pounds be emitted on the Faith and Credit of this State, in Bills of the following denominations, that is to say, two thousand five hundred of one hundred dollars, five thousand bills of fifty Dollars, three thousand one hundred and twenty-five of forty Dollars, ten thousand of twenty-five Dollars, twelve thousand five hundred of twenty Dollars, fifty thousand of Ten Dollars, fifty thousand of five Dollars, twelve thousand five hundred of four Dollars, twenty five thousand of two Dollars, fifty thousand of one Dollar, one hundred thousand of Half a Dollar, one hundred thousand of one fourth of a Dollar; one hundred thousand of One Eighth of a Dollar, and two hundred thousand of one Sixteenth of a Dollar; that the same be printed in a printing press and that Henry Rhodes, Henry Horn, Jun., Nathan Bryan, Jeremiah Frazier, James Saunders, and George Alexander, be Commissioners to superintend and number the same; that James Kenan, John Lillington, James Williams, Thomas Satterwhite, Jesse Cobb, Benjamin Exum, William Sharp, James Kerr, Orcondates Davis, Benjamin Hawkins, Thomas Harvey and Joseph Jones, be commissioners to receive the same when printed and numbered, to sign the same and to pay it into the hands of the Public Treasurers.

III. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that the general form of the bills hereby emitted shall be as follows, to-wit:

“State of North Carolina.”

“This Bill entitles the Bearer to receive__________Spanish milled Dollars or the value thereof in Gold or Silver, agreeable to an Act of Assembly passed at Hillsborough the eighth day of August, 1778.”

And such Bill shall be impressed and printed both in the face and reverse thereof, on the edges as well as the Body thereof, with divers letters, Marks, Devices, and Words which may be difficult of imitation, and which in the opinion of the Superintendents of the Press, may most effectually secure the same from attempts to counterfeit.

IV. And be it also enacted by the authority aforesaid, that every dollar of the emission aforesaid shall be held and deemed equal to eight






shillings proclamation Money, and shall pass current at the same, and be a lawful Tender in all Payments and Contracts within this State, any Law, Custom or Usage to the contrary nothwithstanding.

V. And be it also enacted by the authority aforesaid, that the Superintendents shall to each set of signers deliver a sum not exceeding ten thousand pounds at one time taking a receipt for the numbers from the lowest to the highest inclusive, and shall deliver no more to the same set of signers until a receipt shall be produced from some one of the Public Treasurers for the same numbers duly signed.

VI. And be it also enacted by the authority aforesaid, that every Commissioner appointed by this act to superintend and number and to sign and pay the said bills of credit to the Public Treasurers shall take an oath well and truly to execute the duties and discharge the trusts by this act required and each and every Commissioner shall enter into Bond with the Governor with sufficient security to be by him approved in the sum of twenty thousand pounds for the due performance of the duties and trusts by this act required. . . .

(Laws of N. C. — 1778, Chapter 1, SR, Volume XXIV, Pages 184-187.)

By Favor of Capt. Williams.

Camp Duplin Court House

Aug. 31st, 1778

Sir:

Your favor of the 23rd Instat favored by Captain Williams came to hand this morning and was exceedingly glad to have orders from you.

The men have been embodied here a considerable time and have had no Orders. Only once from Colo. Davis, who has been detained from Camp occasioned by Sickness, I have However not failed to make him acquainted with the troops, by returns, the Men has been pretty constant in camp til lately, some have furlough who are daily expected in. I have this Morning dispatches off to Bladen, Cumberland & Hanover to give Notice to the several Cols. that we intend Marching off immediately, So as if they have rec'd any Money it may be distributed to the Levies from their own County. The Hanover comp'y is not supplied with Cloaths, tho’ they are now ready which I have sent down for this Morning and am in hopes we shall be ready in ten days from this and makes no Doubt but the Men will March off without Much trouble. The Cumberland Company has never Joined here, I wrote the Commanding Officer of that Detachment to march off within ten days, from this date to Halifax & mentioned if the men would not proceed to make Weekly returns either to you Or the Commanding officer of this District. You will Inclosed receive a return of the 3 Comp'ys now in Campt which is but small & am

sorry for it but hopes before ten days is past we shall make a better appearance.

This will be delivered you by Captain Williams who can personally tell you the situation of the troops here more to your Satisfaction than I can by letter, to whom the further intelligence shall refer. The Discriptive list of Bladen and Cumberland I returned to Col. Davis & expects it will cause me a ride to his house, for which is about 45 miles. You'l see by the return that a Great part of the Men Never Joined.

I am Colo. Withe respect

ROBERT RAIFORD, Capt.

Your Most Obt. Servt.

(State Records Vol. XIII, Pages 472-73.)

GENL. ALEX LILLINGTON TO GOV. R. CASWELL

(From Executive Letter Book)

South Carolina, Boundary January 10th, 1780.

Please Your Excellency.

Sir:

After many difficulties, I have got what Troops have come up over the line on the 6th Instant, which are on their march for Charles Town. Agreeably to your Excellency's orders I have enclosed a general return of the Men, and shall esteem it a favor done me if your Excellency will at any time be pleased to let me hear from you. You will see, Sir, by the return how backward the cols have been in turning out their Men and providing for them. The Duplin men have at this time neither Cart, pot or any other necessary for marching.

I am, Sir, your Excellency's Mo. ob. Servt.

ALEX LILLINGTON.

(Walter Clark, State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XV, Page 317.)

COL. JAMES KENAN TO GOVERNOR CASWELL

(From Executive Letter Book)

Duplin, March 19th, 1780.

DEAR SIR:

I received your favor of the 16th Inst. It gives me real pleasure to find that my taking the Command of the Militia to South Carolina meets your Excellency's apposition, and be assured, Sir, I shall do everything belonging to my duty that can be expected from an undisciplined officer. I am exceedingly happy to find that I am commanded by General Caswell, whose abilities will do honor to the officers and men under his command.

I have sent a wagon for the muskets, Bayonets, &c., according to your






request. Please to send one Cartridge Box and Bayonet properly in fix, as it will be a pattern for us to have the others done in the same way. It will be necessary to have a few pounds of powder to clean the inside of the Guns, besides what I have. I am in great want of a Marquee or some kind of Shelter from the weather. I have sent a Cart to Wilmington for Tents for the men. My Militia comes in very slow. A number, I am told, swear they will not go; those I will send after and bring in, if possible. A list of the whole men drafted I enclose you; there are five or six that are discharged, not being able to do any duty whatsoever.

Should your Excellency have received any news that you are at large to communicate, please to let me know it.

I have the honor to be your Excellency's

Mo. ob. & very humbl. Servt.

JAMES KENAN.

(Walter Clark, The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XV, Pages 358, 359.)

Extract from a General Return of the men now in Camp under the command of Genl. Harrington at Forks Creek near Cross Creek, Sept 5th, 1780:

Capt. Deveaun, Duplin:Lieutenants1
Deserters0Captains1
Totally44Capt. Page, Duplin:
Fit for Duty23Deserters0
Dead0Totally59
Sick5Fit for Duty25
Absent with Leave10Dead0
Waggoners1Sick9
Drummers0Absent With Leave19
Sergeants1Waggoners3
Surgeons1Sergeants2
Ensigns1Captains1

(State Records of N. C., Vol. XV, page 73.)

Sunday, 8th October, 1780.

Ordered that the Following be made out and sent Colonel James Kenan, Duplin:

Sir:

As the Army at this place stand in great need of Provisions at present, particularly Cattle, the Board of War addresses this subject to you, that you will please to call on the County Commissioners for provision Supplies,

if there is one appointed by the Justices of your County, for all the Cattle he hath on Hand, and that he have them immediately drove to this post, If there is none appointed, have five Justices summoned by the Sheriff to appoint one; and, agreeable to the Directions of the Act of Assembly in that case, he must, without delay, purchase or impress Provisions, and grant Certificates for the same until the Collection of the Specific Tax takes place. We flatter ourselves that you have or will accept this appointment; from your known zeal and Activity in the service of your own County, your undertaking this service will be very agreeable to the Board. We once more impress on your mind the immediate Necessity of having Cattle sent on, and your ordering proper persons and Guards to attend the Commissioners on this Service.

(Walter Clark, The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XIV, Page 413.)

Wednesday, 31st January, 1781.

Received from the Commons the following Message:

Mr. Speaker and Gentlemen:

We herewith send you a message from His Excellency the Governor, accompanied by a letter from Colonel Kenan of Duplin County, which we propose referring to a joint Committee, and have on our part appointed Messrs. Starkey, Gillispie and Herndon, a Committee.

The Message and Letter above referred to being read, Resolved, that James Kenan, Esquire, be appointed Colonel Commandant of the Militia in the District of Wilmington, in the absence of Brigadier General Lillington, with all the power to call out the Militia of that District as occasion may require, which are by law vested in the Brigadier General when present.

Resolved, that His Excellency the Governor, be directed to order to be raised immediately such and so many of the militia of the districts of Newbern and Wilmington as shall appear to him to be convenient and necessary to repel the Enemy lately arrived in Cape Fear River, and to take such other measures as he shall deem conducive to the defence and safety of the State. Ordered that the foregoing Resolve with the following Message be sent the Committee for concurrence.

Mr. Speaker and Gentlemen:

This House have received the Message of yours proposing that the Message from His Excellency the Governor together with the Letter from Colonel Kenan be referred to a joint Committee, with which we do not concur, but propose that the Resolve herewith sent you, relative to the subject matter thereof, be immediately adopted.

(Walter Clark, The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XVII, Pages 649-650.)






Received from His Excellency the Governor the following Message (1-31-1781):

Gentlemen:

You will receive herewith a Letter just come to my hand from Colonel Kenan, of Duplin County, giving an account of the arrival of a British fleet at Cape Fear. For my own part I have no doubt of the truth of this account, and in my opinion no time should be lost in proceeding for the immediate defence of that part of the State; and should it be the sense of the General Assembly to enable me to act in my proper Character, by removing the obstructions that have been put in my way, I could wish this was done as speedily as possible, that I might be enabled to act. I wish to proceed down the Country immediately, unless the General Assembly think it necessary I should stay a day or two longer.

A. NASH

(Clark, Walter, The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XVII, Page 732.)

Thursday, February 1st, 1781.

Received from the Commons the following Message:

Mr. Speaker and Gentlemen:

We return the Resolve of your House appointing Mr. James Kenan, Esq., Colonel Commandant of the Militia, &c., in the district of Wilmington, &c., concurred with.

(Walter Clark, The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XVII, Page 659.)

PROCEEDINGS OF A GENL. COURT MARSHAL HELD FOR
THE TRIAL OF MAJOR DENNIS

Head Quarters Mulberry Plantation, Camp near Beaufords Bridge, 24 March, 1781.

In consequence of an order of the day for a Genl. Court Martial to sit for the Tryal of Major Dennis, charged with Mutiny, disobedience of orders and desertion; the Court met at ten o'clock.

COL. KENAN, President,

COL. ALFRED MOORE, Judge Advocate.

(Members)
Col. YoungMajor Campbell
Lt. Col. BloodworthCaptain Dickinson
Lt. Col. LeonardCaptain Battle
Lt. Col. GrantCaptain Whitehead
Major AndrewsCaptain Alburton
Major TradwellCaptain Larkins

The whole Court being duly sworn, Major Dennis was Introduced, and the Crime with which he was charged, read to him; he acknowledged he had acted contrary to Genl. Lillington's order, but denied his being guilty of mutiny or desertion, whereupon the Witnesses were Introduced and sworn and examined, both by the Court and Major Dennis, the Prisoner. The Court, after mature deliberation, are of the opinion that Major Dennis is guilty of Disobedience of Orders and Desertion, and do therefore Sentence him to be Cashiered, & request that the Governor recommend it to the Assembly that Major Dennis may be rendered incapable of holding any office of Honour or trust or profit in the State.

JAS. KENAN, Col. Presdt.,

ALFRED MOORE, Judge Advocate.

(Walter Clark, The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XV, Pages 431, 432.)

GEN. CORNWALLIS TO MAJ. GEN. PHILLIPS

Wilmington, 24th April, 1781.

Dear Phillips:

My situation here is very distressing. Greene took the advantage of my being obliged to come to this place, and has marched to South Carolina. My expresses to Lord Rawdon on my leaving Cross Creek warning him of the possibility of such a Movement have all failed. Mountaineers & Militia have poured into the back part of that province, and I much fear that Lord Rawdon's posts will be so distant from each other and his Troops so scattered as to put him in the greatest danger of being beat in detail, and the worst consequences may happen to most of the Troops out of Charlestown. By a direct Move towards Camden I cannot get time enough to relieve Lord Rawdon, and should he have fallen, my Army would be exposed to the utmost danger from the great rivers I should have to pass, the exhausted state of the Country, the Numerous Militia, the almost universal spirit of revolt which prevails in South Carolina, and the strength of Greene's Army, whose Continentals alone are at Charlestown, there being nothing at present to apprehend for that post. I shall therefore March immediately up the Country by Duplin Court House, pointing towards Hillsborough, in hopes to withdraw Green; if that should not succeed, I should be much tempted to try to form a junction with you. The Attempt is exceedingly hazardous, and many unforseen difficulties may render it totally impracticable, so that you must not take any steps that may expose your Army to the danger of being ruined. I shall March to the lowest ford of the Roanoke, which I am informed is about 20 Miles above Taylor's Ferry. Send every possible intelligence to me by the Cypher I enclose, and make every Movement in your power to facilitate our Meeting, which must be somewhere






near Petersburg, with safety to your Army. I mention the lowest ford because in a hostile Country Ferries cannot be depended upon. But if I should decide upon the measure of endeavoring to come to you, I shall endeavor to surprise the boats at some of the ferries from Halifax upwards.

I am, dear Phillips, Most faithfully yrs.

CORNWALLIS.

(State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XVII, Page 1019.)

THE DICKSON LETTERS
First Letter (1783)

. . . Having thus brought the war to our door, I shall now give you some account of its operation here and how much it affects us and our families. About the 25th of January, 1781, Maj. Craig arrived in the Cape Fear River, landed at Wilmington with about 450 veteran troops with which he garrisoned the town and detached a party up the North East River to the great bridge about 12 miles above the town, and then demolished the bridge, seized and burned some public store ships and their contents which had been run up the river for safety, and also destroyed some private property and returned to the town, and Major Craig immediately fortified the garrison. The militia of three counties were then immediately ordered down to take post at the great bridge, and that pass was fortified by us in order to prevent the enemy from making excursions into the country. We had been there about three weeks with about 700 militia when Major Craig marched out upon us in the night with his main force and some field pieces, surprised and dispursed our piquet guard and displayed his artillery across the river upon our dirt works, but without any effect. The enemy, finding their attempt entirely fruitless, after staying and viewing us across the river for two days, returned in the night to Wilmington. About two weeks after this we received intelligence from Guilford County in the upper part of the State that a general engagement had ensued between Lord Cornwallis and General Greene; there the conflict was long and obstinate and the victory had been in favor of the Americans had it not been for misconduct of the North Carolina militia, who broke and left our part of the line exposed, which the enemy seeing, and being about to make use of the advantage, General Greene ordered a retreat and brought off the whole without any confusion. The enemy remained upon the ground. General Greene finding his troops still in high spirits and not so much diminished as might be expected, made all the necessary preparations to attack the enemy the next day, but was disappointed by Cornwallis precipitately decamping in the night; he carried off some of his wounded

and left about two hundred of his wounded at the place of action with an officer and two surgeons whom he recommended to the compassion and humanity of the American general. Cornwallis made his retreat good to Wilmington and General Greene, after pursuing him two days without any prospect of coming up with him, turned his course and marched into South Carolina, where I shall leave him for the present. Cornwallis arrived at Wilmington, and, General Greene being gone to South Carolina, seemed to strike terror on our militia then at their post. General Lillington, who then commanded the post at the great bridge, ordered our retreat from that to Kinston on the Neuse River, about 30 miles above Newbern, where, on the 28th of April, he discharged all the militia except one company to guard the artillery and stores. The militia thus discharged, we had not the name of an army in North Carolina. Every man was now to look to himself. The next day after being discharged we returned home. Cornwallis’ army was then in the middle of our county, encamped at my brother Robt. Dickson's plantation. The whole country was struck with terror, almost every man quit his habitation and fled, leaving his family and property to the mercy of merciless enemies. Horses, cattle and sheep and every kind of stock were driven off from every plantation, corn and forage taken for the supply of the army and no compensation given, houses plundered and robbed, chests, trunks, etc., broke, women and children's clothes, etc., as well as men's wearing apparel and every kind of household furniture taken away. The outrages were committed mostly by a train of loyal refugees, as they termed themselves, whose business it was to follow the camps and under the protection of the army enrich themselves on the plunder they took from the distressed inhabitants who were not able to defend it. We were also distressed by another swarm of beings (not better than harpies). These were women who followed the army in the character of officers’ and soldiers’ wives. They were generally considered by the inhabitants to be more insolent than the soldiers. They were generally mounted on the best horses and side saddles, dressed in the finest and best clothes that could be taken from the inhabitants as the army marched through the country.

Our family are all obnoxious to the enemy, although none of the brothers except myself have actually taken arms and joined the army. I will now give you some account of how we all fared while the enemy were in our neighborhood. My brother Robert had left his place and removed his family and property. The enemy encamped one day and night at his plantation and destroyed some of his stock which he had not got off. The same day my brother Joseph was surprised in his own house by the dragoons, but being determined would not surrender, fled






into a thicket or swamp, and altho pursued made good his escape. The enemy plundered his house, took all his corn, his horse and his wife's clothes, side-saddle, etc. The same day another party went to my brother James’ house, and, not finding him at home, plundered his house of everything they could find in it, took off two of his slaves and all his corn, etc., and compelled his wife and a neighbor woman, who was there, to deliver them the rings off their fingers and the buckles off their shoes. The same day my sister's husband, William McGowen, was found driving some stock out of their way; he was made a prisoner and after being some time under guard was compelled to pilot their Light Horse to his own and several of his neighbors’ houses where they took all the corn and forage, all the horses and cattle, etc., they could get. The night following they detained him under guard and went and plundered his house of everything they found in it worth carrying away, broke every lock, ransacked every chest and trunk, took away all the bedding, etc., all the apparel, even the baby's clothes, stripped the rings off my sisters fingers and the shoes and buckles off her feet, choked the children to make them confess if their father had not hid his money, and to tell where it was, etc., and many of the neighbors were treated in the same brutish manner. The day following the army encamped near my house. Sundry portions of their Light Horse called on my house, and notwithstanding I was not at home, they went away peaceably and took nothing from me, which I thought very strange, for sundry of my neighbors were plundered of almost everything they had. The enemy being destined for Virginia, made but a very short stay in our neighborhood, but immediately after they were gone came on our greatest troubles; for the Loyalists, or as we term them Tories, began to assemble and hold councils in every part of the State, and thinking the country already conquered, because the enemy had gone through us without being checked, they were audacious enough to apprehend and take several of our principal leading men prisoners and carry them down to Wilmington and deliver them to the guards. There were numbers of our good citizens thus betrayed, perished on board prison-ship and in their power. This so alarmed the inhabitants that none of us dared to sleep in our houses or beds at night for fear of being surprised by those blood-suckers and carried off to certain destruction. In the meantime the Governor of the State, and several others of the first character, were surprised in this manner, by some who had been personally acquainted with him, and carried and delivered to the guards in Wilmington, notwithstanding the attempt of sundry parties of the militia to rescue him.

Matters being thus in confusion, there was no subordination amongst men; but every proprietor or leading man raised and commanded his

own little party and defended themselves as they could. At length we got collected about 400 men under Colonel Kenan in Duplin, and about 200 under Colonel Brown in Bladen, the adjacent county. Colonel Kenan's militia had not made a stand more than ten days when Major Craig marched his main force, with field pieces, defeated and drove us out of our works, and made some of our men prisoners (here I narrowly escaped being taken or cut down by the the dragoons). The enemy stayed several days in Duplin County (this being the first week in August, 1781). The Royalists gathered together very fast and we were now reduced again to the utmost extremity. The enemy were now more cruel to the distressed inhabitants than Cornwallis’ army had been before. Some men collected and formed a little flying camp and moved near the enemys lines and made frequent sallies on their rear flanks while others fled from their homes and kept out of the enemy's reach. Major Craig marched from Duplin to Newbern, plundered the town, destroyed the public stores, and then immediately marched back to Wilmington to secure the garrison.

The Loyalists or Tories in Duplin and the other counties, now thinking the day entirely their own, became more insolent than ever; but Craig having again returned to Wilmington the Whigs again resumed their courage and determined to be revenged on the Loyalists, our neighbors or hazard all; accordingly we collected about eighty lighthorsemen and equipped them as well as we could; marched straight into the neighborhood where the Tories were embodied, surprised them, they fled, our men pursued them, cut many of them to pieces, took several and put them instantly to death. This action struck such horror on the Tories in our county that they never attempted to embody again and many of them in a short time came in and submitted and were pardoned (I was not in this action nor any afterward during this whole season of the war). I never received a wound but one, which was a shot through by right leg, though I had three narrow escapes when I was in danger of being killed or taken. . . .

(The Dickson Letters: Author Col. William Dickson, compiled and edited by James O. Carr, Esq., Duplin County Library Files.)

CAPT GEORGE DOHERTY TO GENERAL SUMNER

Duplin, June 22, 1781

Sir:

I embrace the opportunity of Col. Kenan's going to the Assembly to inform you, that the tumults in this part of the Country has been the cause of the drafts & everything relative thereto being (I suppose) later, & more out of order here than in any other part of the State. We have






at present some little respite from the cursed Tories, but cannot say they are entirely subdued; the draft was made in Duplin, but the more than the half of them have been among the Tories or so disaffected that they will not appear; the number that we ought to have here is about 70 men, & there is not above 24 yet appeared, & about 20 from Onslow. The men have been so harrassed by being kept in arms, that hithereto they could not attend to providing the clohting required by law, & without clothing the troops cannot march as not one among them has got a second change, & some have hardly dudds to cover them. The Col. has used all possible means to urge the classes to cloath their Soldiers, & whenever each of them gets even part I shall march with the few we have.

If any opportunity offers from your Camp towards Wake I should be glad to hear from you; if it is directed to the care of Col. Kenan he will forward it to yr. Hum. Servt.,

GEORGE DOHERTY.

(Walter Clark, The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XV, Page 490.)

MAJOR MOLTON TO GOVERNOR BURKE

DUPLIN COURT HOUSE

June 29th, 1781

Sir:

This Minute I received the Inclosed Letters from Genl. Lillington; Since the last Dispatches was sent, I have no Accts. to Communicate, but what the Inclosed Contains.

I have issued the Necessary Orders for Raising all the forces I can Speedily get into the Field, & Complying with the General's Orders with as little loss of time as I can.

I have the Honour to be yr. Excellencys Most Obedt. Hum. Servt.

Abrahm Molton,

Majr. Comdt.

His Excellency

Governor. Burke.

(State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XV, Page 499.)

COL. KENAN TO GOVERNOR BURKE

Duplin, July 6th, 1781.

Sir:

From the Best information we are able to get there is about two hundred & fifty foot and forty light horse of the British that is up the river at Rutherfords Mill they say to take Duplin and Onslow Counties, and drive off the Stock. Genl. Lillington had Call'd upon this County for all the men that can be raised to march to the rich land Chapple in

Onslow County about one Hundred foot has marched and we have fifty more ready to march. I hope Your Excellency will order assistance to this part of the County other wise Good people here will be under the Necessity of Giving up in order to Save their property if possible but this will be the last Step taken. We keep about 50 light horse near their lines to watch their Movements.

I am with the Greatest respect Your Excellency's most obt. Servt.

JAS. KENAN.

(Walter Clark, State Records of North, Vol. XV, Page 514.)

COL. JAS. KENAN TO GOVERNOR BURKE

July 15, 1781

SIR:

The enemy have moved out of Wilmington up to The Long Bridge and are rebuilding it is said by Several Gentlemen who left the town. Their intention is to Give no more parols but will sell every man's property who will not Join them and become British subjects; they have about 100 light horse well Equipt and about 470 foot and are Determined to be at Duplin Court on Monday Next. We have no Ammunition nor do I know where to get Some. We have no Account of Any Assistance Coming as Yet. Your Excellency will be so kind as to inform me if any be ordered on. I am with due respect Your Excellency's Most Obt. Hu. Servt.,

JAS. KENAN.

(Walter Clark, The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XV, Page 535.)

GENERAL WM. CASWELL TO GOV. BURKE

New Bern, July 31st, 1781.

Sir: I am happy to have it in my power to inclose your Excellency a letter from Major Craig to Lord Cornwallis, which I should have been exceedingly glad to have Deciphered, but I have it not in my power, it was yesterday taken by some Pilots off Core Sound, and the persons mentioned in the forged pass, one J. D. Wilson says (after his packet was found) that he is a Lieut. in the 82nd Regt. and was ordered to rejoin Major Craig at this place, and that the Major would shortly move here. Col. Kenan, who is at Rock Fish bridge, informs that Col. Murphy with a Party from Pee Dee, Cumberland and Bladen, fell in with Hector McNeil on Thursday afternoon, that McNeil soon gave way and continued retreating and firing until Night, that there was considerable loss on both sides, and that McNeil retreated that Night to Wilmington and Drew Arms and Ammunition, was reinforced with 60 Tories and went off the next day for Cross Creek. Col. Kenan has the few men that






remain of my Brigade with him and a few of the Militia from Duplin. Major Griffin arrived in Camp a few days past; he says that the Drafts from Nash are entitled to a Discharge about the 4th of Augu. and that the Return which I made to Your Excellency which was made to me by Capt. Hall of the same County is wrong. Shall thank your Excellency for orders respecting them as I think I cannot Discharge them sooner than my Return unless I receive your Orders for it. I was informed that the Assembly had ordered a Draught of____Men from this District and come here to see the Resolve. Am now informed by a Member that the order for a Draught must come from Your Excellency, as the Assembly did not Determine that there should be one. Should these Troops from Nash County be Discharged, shall have no men in the Field. Should Major Craig move out shall raise what men I can arm, but fear it will be very few as Arms are very Scarce, and Grain more so, as there is little or none between Tar River and Cape Fear. Part of a letter from Lieut. Gov. Bee to a friend of his dated the 18th of June at Philadelphia says That Congress in consequence of a request from the King of France had elected Plenipotentiary and properly instructed them to be ready to act for us at the Grand Congress at Vienna, which is Mr. John Adams, Doctor Franklin, Mr. Jay, Col. Henry Laurens and Governor Jefferson or any two of them or more for this purpose. I hope that Peace will be the event of their negotiations, Doctor Franklin is authorized to propose an exchange of Genl. Burgoyne for Mr. Laurens; and addition of ships and men have arrived at Boston to join the French Force already here, and before this reaches you New York will be invested. Their Garrison there is very small at present and they must keep their Fleets in Harbour to protect them in which case the French Fleet can strike a blow else where, or they must recall a great part of their Troops from the Southward and leave that Country open to us again.

Should your Excellency send orders to me please direct them to me at Kingston where I shall be until I receive your orders.

I am with the greatest respect,

Your Excellency's most obedt. Servt.

WM. CASWELL.

(Walter Clark, The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XXII, Pages 553-554.)

THE BATTLE OF ROCKFISH (SKIRMISH IN DUPLIN)

Col. Kenan to Governor Burke

Duplin, August 2nd, 1781

Sir:

I imbodied all the Militia I could in this County to the Amount of about 150 men & was reinforced by Genl. Caswell with about 180 and

took past at a place Called rockfish. The British this day Came against me and the Militia again after a few rounds Broak, and it was out of my power and all my Officers to rally them. They have all Dispersed. Before the men Broak we lost none, But the light horse pursued and I am afraid have Taken about 20 or 30 men. I Cannot Give You a full acct. But the Bearer Capt. James who was in the Action Can inform your Excellency of any Particular. He acted with Becoming Bravery during the whole action. I am now Convinced this County with several others will be Overrun with the British & Tories. Your Excellency will Excuse as I cannot Give a more full accot.

I am Sir Your very Humbl. St.,

JAS. KENAN.

(SR, Vol. XV, Page 593.)

TO GOV. BURKE FROM COL. JAS. KENAN

(From Executive Letter Book)

HALIFAX, MARCH 28th, 1782:

SIR:

I have this moment received a letter from General Lillington informing me that the Tories on Wacamaw River are embodied to the number of five hundred, a copy of which I send you.

I am, Sir

Yr. Mo. ob. Hum. Serv't.,

JAS. KENAN.

(Walter Clark, The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XVI, Page 251.)

On the Nineteenth of October, 1781, the great “battle of Yorktown” was fought.

. . . In this battle, Lord Cornwallis commanded the British. General Washington commanded the Americans. Everything was now at stake. If the Americans could prove victorious in this battle, they might be free and independent.

They were victorious. They had the joy to see seven thousand British soldiers lay down their arms, and Lord Cornwallis surrender his sword to General Washington.

This was a great triumph for the Americans, and spread joy throughout all the land. . . .

Peace was made November 30, 1782.

(The United States—For Children, Liberty Hall Library.)

Wednesday, 28 December, 1785.

This House now proceeded agreeable to the message of yesterday, to ballot, which being ended, Mr. Payne and Mr. Brown, appointed on the






part of this House to superintend the balloting, returned and reported as followeth, vizt.:

That James Kenan, Esquire, was elected Brigadier General of the District of Wilmington.

(Walter Clark, The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XX, Page 103.)

MR. JAMES GILLISPIE TO GOV. CASWELL

(From Executive Letter Book)

Duplin, Jany. 14th, 1786.

Dear Sir:

On my arrival home I immediately wrote to Mr. Bloodworth respecting the time of his going to Congress, as I wished him to assist me in procuring paper for the new money, but am sorry to find that he is not Certain as to the time of his going, this disappointment being entirely unexepected I am at a loss to know how to Act. I fear the only alternative is to go myself, as I dread very much the Getting a person I can rely on. This being an arduous task at this season of the year I wish Your Excellency's advice in the matter, as I assure you I am at a loss to know what sum will be adequate to this Service in Case I can find a person I can rely on to undertake the Business. Some are of opinion the best way is by Portsmouth and from there to the head of Elk by water. Your Excellency being well Acquainted with the different ways will much oblige me to recommend what you may judge the most Expeditious. If you have any dispatches to send North'dly I shall call at Kinston or direct whoever I may send on, if I am so lucky as to find a person to my liking. In the mean time I shall be much Obliged to your Excellency for such a recommendation as you may approve either generally or to such of your Asquaintances at Philadelphia as you may think most likely to forward me in this Business, as I assure you I regret the delay that must inevitably ensue. Please to mention if Mr. Blount is returned, and the prospect of his going to Congress.

With the Greatest respect,

I am your Excellency's Most obt.,

James Gillispie,

I purpose setting out in about 6 days.

(State Records, Vol. 18, Page 502 and 503.)

GOV. CASWELL TO JAMES GILLISPIE

(From Executive Letter Book)

Kingston, 15th Jany., 1786

Dear Sir:

Your favor of yesterday I have now before me. I am sorry Mr. Bloodworth is not likely to go in time to procure the paper for the Currency,

and I am fearful you will not be able to get a person on whom you can rely to effect this business as you know the utmost attention must be paid to making no more of the paper than is necessary, and whoever gets the paper must see to that; nay, he ought to see that the apparatus should be either immediately destroyed or the parts so broken and disjointed as to make it difficult to imitate the paper, lines and letters. Under these considerations, if it be possible for you to go on yourself I am satisfied the business will be sooner done and Counterfeits much more likely to be Guarded against. The expense either way will be considerable, but in my judgment it ought to be submitted to.

At this Season of the year a passage from Portsmouth to the head of the Bay will be uncertain and precarious on account of the Ice. If I was going myself I should proceed by the Western side of the head of the Bay, the Rout of which from hence takes as follows:

To Halifax90 Miles,To Alexandria40 Miles,
Petersburg75Georgetown15
Richmond25Baltimore40
Hanover Co. House20Susquehannah30
Bowling Green35Christiana40
Fredricksburg25Philadelphia40
475

The distance I will not say in every instance will be found correct but I believe most of them are right, and the way as good as any road you can go, the accommodations perhaps better & the ferries shorter.

I send you a general recommendation which may answer better than particular letters, as it may occasionally be made use of.

Mr. Blount is not returned that I have heard of, nor have I a syllable from him since I left New Bern.

If you go yourself I shall be glad to see you here on your way. My dispatches shall be made out to about the time you propose setting out; if you do not go, please to let the person who does, call on me.

I am uneasy that we have no prospect of being represented in Congress shortly.

I am, dear Sir, your mo. ob. Servt.,

R. CASWELL.

(State Records, Vol. 18, Pages 504 and 505.)

AN ACT TO ESTABLISH A TOWN ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE
NORTHEAST OF CAPE FEAR RIVER, IN DUPLIN COUNTY

Whereas a town has been laid off on the lands of Dr. William Houston, and a considerable number of lots sold by the proprietor, and the purchasers






of these lots are desirous that the town should be established by legislative authority:

I. Be it therefore Enacted by the General Assembly of the State of North Carolina, and it is hereby Enacted by the authority of the same, That one hundred acres of land lying on the east side of the north-east branch of the Cape Fear River, in Duplin county, lately sold by Doctor William Houston for laying off a town and town commons, agreeable to a plan laid down by commissioners chosen for that purpose be and the same is hereby established into a town by the name of Sarecto.

II. And be it further Enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the passing of this Act, Charles Ward, John Hill, James Outlaw, Samuel Houston, David Murdough, George Miller and John Matchet, be, and they and every of them hereby constituted commissioners for the further designing, building and improving the said town; and they shall stand seized of an indefeasible estate in fee simple of and in the residue of the said one hundred acres of land that remain undisposed of, to and for the purposes hereby expressed and declared, except such lots as the proprietor hath made choice of, which is hereby reserved to his proper use and behoof, and his heirs and assigns forever; and the said commissioners or a majority of them, shall make and execute deeds to such respective persons, as have and shall become purchasers of any lot or lots in the said town that hath or may be sold by the proprietor aforesaid, at the cost and charges of the grantee or grantees, which lot or lots by virtue of such conveyance, shall be held to such purchaser or purchasers in fee simple to his, her or their heirs and assigns forever.

III. And be it further Enacted by the authority aforesaid, That all monies that shall arise from the disposal of the lots of the said town by the commissioners, shall be received by them or their successors, and after deducting their reasonable charges and expenses, the same shall be paid by them to the said proprietor, his heirs, executors, administrators or assigns. And for the continuing the succession of the said commissioners:

IV. Be it further Enacted by the authority aforesaid, That in case of death, refusal to Act or removal out of the county of any of the said commissioners, the survivor or a majority of them shall assemble, and hereby are authorized to nominate and appoint, by instrument in writing under their hands, some other person being an inhabitant and freeholder in the said county, in room of him dead, refusing to act or removed out of the county, which said commissioner or commissioners so appointed shall have and exercise all the same powers and authorities in all matters herein contained, as the person or persons in whose room and stead he or they was so appointed, had and exercised. Provided always,

That nothing in this Act contained shall be construed as to obviate any regulation, compact or agreement entered into by the commissioners lately chosen for regulating the said town, all which regulations, restrictions and agreements are hereby declared good and valid in law. . . .

(Passed Jan. 6, 1787.)

(Walter Clark, State Records of N. C., Vol. XXIV, Page 846.)

LAND GRANT
STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA NO. 1785

To all to whom these Presents shall come, greeting:

KNOW YE, THAT WE, for and in consideration of the Sum of Fifty Shillings for every hundred Acres hereby granted, paid into our Treasury by Thomas Kenan have given and granted, and by these Presents, do give and grant unto the said Thomas Kenan a Tract of land containing Six hundred and thirty five Acres, lying and being in the County of Duplin, Beginning at a pine James and John Torrence's Corner on a small Branch of Turkey run then North seventy West one hundred and thirty poles to a stake and pine then his line North one hundred and ninety poles to a stake and pine in S. Stanford's line, then his line North forty five West two hundred and twenty poles to a pine in his line near the road then South thirty five West sixty poles to a pine, then South one hundred and thirty poles to a pine, then South forty five West eighty two poles to a gum Joseph Osborn's Corner, then his line South two West one hundred and ninety poles to a Hickory his corner, then Thompson's line South forty five East one hundred and forty five poles to a pine Kenan's own corner, then his line North fifty eight East two hundred and fifty four poles to a pine his corner, then his other line to the Beginning—Entered 31st December 1800 as by the Plat hereunto annexed doth appear, together with all Words, Mines, Waters, Minerals, Hereditaments, and Appurtenances to the said land belonging or appertaining: TO HOLD to the said Thomas Kenan his Heirs and Assigns forever: Yielding and paying to us such Sums of Money, yearly, or otherwise, as our General Assembly from time to time may direct:

PROVIDED ALWAYS, That the said Grantee shall cause this Grant to be registered in the Register's Office of our said County of Duplin within twelve Months from the date hereof, other wise the same shall be void.

IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, We have caused these our letters to be made Patent, and our Great Seal to be hereunto affixed. WITNESS, JAMES TURNER, Esquire, our Governor, Captain-General, and Commander






in Chief, at RALEIGH, the 16th Day of December in the twenty seventh of our Independence and in the Year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and two.

SIGNED: G. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

BY COMMAND,

WILL WHITE, SECY.

6. GLIMPSES OF COLONIAL AND EARLY
CHURCHES IN DUPLIN

OLDEST PRESBYTERIAN SETTLEMENT IN THE STATE

. . . The settlement of Presbyterians in Duplin county is probably the oldest large settlement of that denomination in the State. About the year 1736, or perhaps 1737, one Henry McCulloch induced a colony of Presbyterians from the province of Ulster, in Ireland, to settle in Duplin county, North Carolina, on lands he had obtained from his majesty, George II. The descendants of these emigrants are found in Duplin, New Hanover, and Sampson counties—the family names indicating their origin. The Grove congregation, whose place of worship is about three miles southeast of Duplin court-house, traces its origin to the church formed from this, the oldest Presbyterian settlement in the State, whose principal place of worship was at first called Goshen.

(C.R., Vol. V, Page 1199.)

GROVE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH

In the early years of the settlement of Duplin County, the Synod of New York and the Synod of Philadelphia were the highest organized government of the Presbyterian Church in America. Some individual Presbyterians were in North Carolina before 1700, but none were organized into congregations. John Brickell said in 1731 that “after Quakers, Presbyterians come next in numbers” and were chiefly “settled in and about the River Neus.” Scot Highlanders and Scot-Irish settlers in this section gave impetus to the Presbyterian movement though neither had ministers in the early years of settlement.

Most of the early Presbyterians of Duplin came to North Carolina in 1736 as a part of a group persuaded by Henry McCulloch, a London merchant, to occupy the wide forests. McCulloch's grant was for 72,000 acres of land between the North East Branch of the Cape Fear River and the Black River. His settlers, Irish and Scot-Irish from Ulster, Ireland, were the first large settlement of Presbyterians in North Carolina.

The main settlements of the McCulloch colonists were (a) near Sarecta, on the Northeast River; (b) at Goshen, now on NC # 11, seven miles






northeast of Kenansville; (c) and at Golden Grove, now on NC # 24 at the Routledge Cemetery just east of Kenansville. Later, more settlers came from northern Ireland, the northern American colonies, the lower Cape Fear Valley, and from other settlements in North Carolina.

It has been said that wherever they went, Presbyterians built schools and churches with as much certainty as their log homes. Evidence seems to show that the early settlers of Golden Grove were religious and held meetings of public worship for many years without a pastor.

In 1740, the Synod of Philadelphia sent William Robinson, a missionary, to North Carolina. Since the Presbyterian settlements in Duplin were oldest and none others at that time had much strength, it is probable that Robinson visited here.

Hanover Presbytery was organized in 1755 by the Synods of New York and Philadelphia. It included Virginia, the Carolinas, and “all points west and south.” At this time, there were eleven Presbyterian churches in North Carolina.

Hugh McAden, who made a missionary tour of North Carolina in 1755-1756, recorded few organized churches, many worshipping assemblies, and no settled ministers. After preaching in the Welsh Tract, in present Pender County, McAden rode to the home of William Dickson, then Clerk of Court in Duplin, near Golden Grove. He preached “to a considerable congregation, most of whom were Irish” on March 18, 1756.

The worshippers, first referred to as the Grove congregation, built their meeting house in the heart of the settlement but had no title for it until years later when McCulloch gave a deed for one acre on the south side of the Grove swamp, near the bridge, whereon the meeting-house now stands. (The afore mentioned William Dickson was a witness to the McCulloch deed and very active in the affairs of Grove Church.)

McAden returned to Duplin County in 1757 as the first regular pastor of Grove Church as well as ministering to a church in the Welsh Tract. He bought a home near the Golden Grove settlement and there several of his children were born. After being with Grove Church for about ten years, he went to Caswell County, believing the climate of Duplin unfavorable to his health.

For a period of twenty-five years afterward, Grove Church had no pastor. The congregation was served only by the precarious and desultory labors of occasional missionaries and was dwindling away. During this period, Orange Presbytery was organized (in 1770) to include approximately the present state of North Carolina. There were at this time thirty-five Presbyterian churches in North Carolina with approximately two thousand members. The Synod of the Carolinas was organized in

1788 with twenty-five ministers and forty-six Presbyterian churches in North Carolina.

John Robinson, second regular pastor, revived Grove Church in 1794. He purchased a home near the settlement called “Goose Pond” and lived there for five years. Robinson was said to be a man of great activity and personal courage, with dignity and courtesy, and an able preacher. He founded a church near Fayetteville after leaving Grove Church.

Samuel Stanford extended his labors to include a greater part of Duplin. He married a young woman of the Kenansville area and made his home about two miles south of Kenansville on the Wilmington Road. Moderator of the Carolinas Synod in 1810, he became the first Moderator of the newly formed Fayetteville Presbytery in 1812. (There were twenty-nine ministers, seventy-seven Presbyterian churches, and four thousand members in Fayetteville Presbytery at this time.)

Stanford was well-educated and conducted a classical school. It has been said that he wore out his strength and days in the service of the people of Duplin, for he was pastor at Grove for thirty-three years and at the same time served other Presbyterian churches in Duplin. William Dickson wrote in 1810 that “tho Mr. Stanford is esteemed as a very worthy character and an able preacher of the Gospel, his Church, tho the most ancient in the county, increases very slowly. They are principally formed into two congregations, each of which has a meeting house. One is near Goshen in the upper end of the county, and one at the Grove near the Court House. There are also some families on Rockfish which have joined them but they have not yet a meeting House of their own. The number of Communicants in the county of Duplin are not accurately ascertained but may be estimated at about one hundred, perhaps some over.” In 1811, the location of Grove Church was moved to a hill just west of Kenansville near the Grove Academy.

Assistant to Mr. Stanford for the last three years of his service to Grove was Alexander McIver. Old Union and Shiloh churches were also served by McIver for the next six years until his death at age thirty-nine.

Malcolm Campbell Connoly lived near old Union Church during his service to Shiloh and Grove Churches for ten years. He became a missionary to Texas in 1850 and there organized churches and taught school.

One of Duplin's most famous educators and pastors was Rev. James Menzies Sprunt, D.D., who served Grove Church from 1851 until his death in 1884. After arriving in North Carolina in 1840 from his native Scotland, Dr. Sprunt taught in classical schools at Hallsville and Richlands






From 1845-1860, he was in charge of Grove Academy and was also associated with the Kenansville Seminary.

The house now known as the Old Presbyterian Manse was the home of Dr. Sprunt and his family. Built for them in 1858, the house and gardens were always a showplace. The grounds originally contained twenty-one acres, planted in an “Old Southern” fashion with terraced gardens, small ponds stocked with goldfish, and other picturesque ornamentations. (Later the house and several acres of the grounds came under the ownership of Grove Church and was used as a residence for ministers.)

During Dr. Sprunt's pastorate, the location of Grove Church was moved to its present site. In September, 1849, the minutes of the Session read that a committee was appointed to see congregation about the building of a new church and its location. Nothing more is noted concerning the matter until March 1855, when the minutes read “new church being constructed. Old building undergoing repairs for an academy. Unadvisable to have a sacrament (Communion) this spring.” The deed to the present site is dated May 12, 1857, and the land was donated by Owen R. Kenan.

After the Civil War, the members of the Grove congregation could not support a minister's salary. As well as retaining his pastorate, Dr. Sprunt served as Register of Deeds in Duplin County to augment his income. A wall plaque in the Sanctuary commemorates Dr. Sprunt.

Grove Church has been served by dedicated ministers, well-educated, who gave to the early community a worthy example.

. . . The impact of the Civil War was met by Grove Church on November 4, 1860. A “day of fasting, humiliation, and prayer with reference to the present solemn crisis in our national affairs; and that the members of this church assemble on said day (tomorow) to engage in special supplication for the favor of God upon the nation, the prosperity, and the perpetuity of our institution (the principles of Christianity). As yet, attempts to unite the branches of the Presbyterian Church have been unsuccessful.

Grove Presbyterian Church has long served its surrounding community. The walls of this ancient structure have watched as the community was being built in a nation where freedom of worship is a precept of government. Inside these walls is the House of God.

“I was glad when they said unto me—Let us go into the house of the Lord.”

“Whosoever thou art that entereth this church, remember it is the House of God; be reverent, thoughtful and prayerful; and leave not

without a prayer to God for thyself, for those who minister, for those who worship here, and for all men everywhere.”

By Miss Sharon Stroud.

(Original with full documentation is on file in the Duplin County Dorothy Wightman Library.)

SAINT GABRIEL PARISH

Soon after the County of Duplin was Established and the Inhabitants became more Numerous, Most of the People and then the Principal Characters in the County Professed themselves to be Members of the Episcopal or Established Church of England, and Readers were appointed to Read the Morning Service &c. on every Sunday at different Houses throughout the County and a Tax laid by the Vestry to pay them. About the year 1760 or soon after the Revd. William Millar was invited by the Vestry to become the Pastor of the Church of St. Gabriel Parish in Duplin County, which he accepted, and was accordingly inducted. He was a man Possessing some Talent Preached Extempore and was for a year or two very Popular, His places for Preaching were Circuitous round the County at Individuals Houses, there being no Chappels or Meeting Houses Erected for him; He soon became unpopular, Charges of Immorality, and Practices in life derogatory to the Character of a Preacher of the Gospel, were propagated against him which he could not, or did not Refute, till at length he had no friends in the County, and upon the Vestry paying him up his arrearages of Sallary &c. he consented to leave the Parish.

It was not long after Mr. Millar left the Parish when the Revd. Hobart Briggs Succeeded him and became the Parochial Minister. Mr. Briggs was an English man; came over to this Country under the Patronage of Governor Tryon, and through his influence Succeeded to the appointment, he was of a very different Character from his Predecessor; he was Sober, Grave, not addicted to any Vice, He occupied the same Circuitous appointed places for Preaching as his Predecessor, he was Considered to be of weak Intellect, but a good Reader, Read all his Sermons, which he brought in Manuscript from England. He Continued in the Parish till the Revolution, when finding his annual salary was discontinued, he disappeared without dismissal or formally takeing leave. No Preacher of the Regular Episcopal Church of England has, since him ever visited this Country. It cannot with propriety be said that Religion flourished or the Morals of the People were improved under the Patronage or Pastoral care of either of the Parochial Preachers. At present there are very few Persons in this County who Profess themselves Members of the Episcopal Established Church. Those who are disposed






to be Religious and Supporte a Religious Character, have joined themselves either to the Presbyterian or Baptist, or Methodist Churches.

(The Dickson Letters.)

DUPLIN COUNTY ST. GABRIEL PARISH NORTH CAROLINA

1st August 1769.

REVEREND SIR,

I have been appointed Rector of this Parish Seven Months: it is so extensive that I have eight different places to preach at, on eight different Sundays. My parishioners behave with great attention and devotion during Divine Service. I have christened one hundred and thirty in all, including women and children. About sixteen Marriages, and ten burials have been here since my arrival. As the people under my care appear to be so desirous of instruction, I hope (thro’ the divine blessing on my endeavors) they will both know and perform their duty to God and their neighbour; and thereby become useful members of Society, happy to themselves here, and eternally so hereafter—Many of the Inhabitants under my care, who can read, and would be glad to join with me in the divine service of the Church, are so poor (as I have been informed) that they cannot purchase common Prayer Books: They would be obliged to the Society if they would send them some, with any other books they shall think proper; to whom my most respectful compliments, and please to accept the same from, Reverend Sir,

Yours &c

HOBART BRIGGS

(Colonial Records, Vol. VII, Pages 63 & 64.)

WELLS CHAPEL BAPTIST CHURCH

Historical Summary of Wells Chapel Missionary Baptist Church by Mrs. J. H. Booth:

Samuel, Goerge, Jacob, and Isaac Newton were four brothers that came to this section about 1755. Samuel Newton was a great spiritual leader organizing this church and at the same time working with another group of baptized believers in Brunswick County.

Wells Chapel Missionary Baptist Church was among the first Missionary Baptist Churches in this area and was organized in 1756, with Samuel Newton as pastor. He continued until his death during the Revolutionary War. The Church was originally called “Bull Tail Meeting House,” probably named for nearby Bull Tail Creek.

Elder William Cooper was the second pastor of Bull Tail Meeting House. Mission work was going strong at that time under his leadership.

Elder William Wells was called in 1802 as pastor of Bull Tail Meeting

House and was ordained to the Baptist Ministry. He continued the mission work of this church in organizing churches in the neighboring communities, and also by training young men in the service of the Lord. During his last thirteen years of service here, there were six men ordained to the Gospel Ministry.

In January 1825, Brother Swinson applied for dismission of that branch of the church at Concord. The Church agreed to dismiss the members that composed that branch of the church with the exception of Elder William Wells, who was to continue pastor of the Church at Bull Tail.

Saturday before the second Sunday in July, 1835, it was voted unanimously to change the name of this church from Bull Tail to Wells Chapel. Two months later Brother William Wells departed this life. Wells Chapel was named for Elder William Wells.

In October, 1835, Elder George Fennell was called to the pastoral care of Wells Chapel Missionary Baptist Church and continued as pastor until 1853.

David Wells was a native of Duplin County, N. C. He married Mary Newton, a daughter of Enoch Newton who was a son of Isaac Newton, a brother of Samuel Newton, the founder of Bull Tail Baptist Church. David Wells moved his membership from Concord February, 1827. He was ordained a deacon in 1833. He was ordained to the Gospel Ministry some time between 1837 and 1853. He served as pastor January, 1854-Mar., 1856. He was a religious leader most of his life. He helped in every revival meeting from 1853 until his death Nov. 20, 1863. August, 1863, Elder W. M. Kennedy, pastor, assisted by Elder David Wells, held a revival for nine days resulting in 75 baptisms.

Sept., 1858, steps were taken to either repair or build a new church. Elder W. M. Kennedy was pastor at this time. In 1859 they decided to build and were preparing materials for the new church building. The Civil War came on, so the work was stopped. In 1859 it was discovered that a deed to the church property could not be found, so Elder David Wells gave the church a deed. Work was resumed after the war and the main body of the present building was dedicated the second Sunday in July, 1868. The old Church building was given to the Negroes and they moved it to Harrell's Store, N. C. They called it Keithern Chapel. The Negro members were given letters of dismission at the same time. (This church was repaired and remodeled not many years ago.)

It is reported that two houses of worship were erected on the old site just across the highway from the present site.

The first Missionary Society that we have any record of was organized in 1824.






Wells Chapel Missionary Baptist Church has been instrumental in constituting other churches in its history. In 1833 The First Baptist Church at Wilmington was constituted and a member of Bull Tail, Alfred Alderman, was one of the leading men in this organization. In 1833 there were 93 members dismissed in order to constitute a church at Moore's Creek.

Sept-, 1884, some members were dismissed to form a church at Willard, N. C. There were 36 members dismissed to constitute a church at Siloam.

All the records of Moore's Creek Baptist Church from 1930 back were destroyed by fire, as related by Brother Johnny Pope of Atkinson, N. C.

Rev. W. B. Oliver accepted a call to this church, May 1884, directly out of Wake Forest College. In July, 1884, Rev. David Wells Herring assisted in a revival resulting in 43 converts. September of the same year Brother Oliver resigned to attend the Seminary.

Rev. C. C. Newton was pastor for seven years and later he went to Africa as a missionary. His son, Rev. Carey Newton, was a missionary in China.

Rev. David Wells Herring was a Baptist missionary in China for about 40 years. Five of his children—George, Celia, Gordon, Alexander, and Mary—were missionaries in China.

The following members were ordained to the Gospel Ministry: William Wells, Sept. 1802; Jesse Rogers, April 1822; Hiram Stallings, July 1823; George Fennell, July 1823; David Rogers, Jan. 1826; G. W. Hufham, Jan. 1833; William J. Finley, July 1834; David Wells between 1837 and 1853; R. J. Hall, Mar. 1919; Ralph A. Herring, July 1923.

There may have been others that were ordained we have no record of since a part of the record was missing while Elder George Fennell was pastor Oct. 1835-Dec. 1853, and a part of the record is missing for about fourteen years since 1950.

We do not know when the Sunday School was organized at Wells Chapel Church, but it was reorganized some time between Mar., 1912-Feb. 1921 while Rev. J. H. Booth was pastor. Luther R. Highsmith was Superintendent just before the Reorganization. I, the compiler of these notes, was present when this change was made in Conference.

The church has kept abreast of the needs of the community and has provided ample space for the various educational activities of its members. Wells Chapel is now a large beautiful brick veneered edifice dedicated to the glory of God and the spiritual use of the community.

(The Duplin Times-Progress Sentinel, 6-4-70.)

THE FOUNDING AND HISTORY OF ROCKFISH
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH

Reverend William Robinson was the first Presbyterian Minister who preached in North Carolina. He was sent as a Missionary from the church of Virginia to visit the Presbyterian settlements in North Carolina. He did this work in North Carolina in the winter of 1742 and ’43. It is thought he visited this section and the section around Kenansville, North Carolina.

Between 1743 and 1756 there was no regular minister working with the congregations. In 1756 Rev. Hugh McAden visited these two sections as a Missionary, making personal visits from house to house. In February, 1756, he preached somewhere in this vicinity, which is believed to be Watha. That was when the Congregation called him as their pastor. This was the original Rockfish Congregation, and the beginning of Rockfish. Rev. McAden was the first settled Missionary in the state. In March, 1757, Kenansville united with this congregation in calling McAden as their pastor. He returned to his home in Pennsylvania after receiving these two calls, coming back later to become pastor of the two congregations. The Presbytery of New Castle ordained him in 1757. In 1759 he joined Hanover Presbytery, and on July 18, 1759, Rev. McAden presented his credentials on Rockfish at the Meeting of Presbytery. It is not known just where the Meeting was held. This indicates that the Rockfish Congregation existed as early as 1756. It was also an organized church at this time, in 1756. McAden remained with this Congregation for about 10 years and then moved to Caswell County and finished his work. He is buried in Caswell County.

For a long time after McAden's removal, there was no regular pastor. It was served only by occasional missionaries. In 1793, John Robinson, from Orange Presbytery was sent to serve this Congregation. Rev. Robert Tate, who was sent from Orange Presbytery, was thought to have been brought up under the Ministry of Rev. Hugh McAden. It wasn't until Rev. Tate came that the work seemed well organized. He helped this Congregation in many ways in being responsible for bringing it back to life. He was ordained in 1799. His first Communion Service was held on Rockfish near the place where the church stands today. Until 1838 Rev. Tate was the supply minister at Rockfish Church and he served it well.

From 1839 until 1840, Rev. Henry Brown worked with this congregation. When Rev. Brown retired in 1840, Rev. Tate was asked to serve this church again. Rev. Tate accepted this call and continued in this service until 1845. (In 1969, Rev. Tate's body was removed from its






burial place in Pender County and brought to Rockfish Cemetery for re-burial.)

From 1847-1893, Rev. Duncan Blue Black, from Lake View, in Moore County, was asked to serve this congregation. He served for 46 years and was loved by everyone who knew him.

In 1894, the Rev. Joseph Evans was asked to serve Rockfish and other churches. In 1896, he resigned and moved to Milton, North Carolina, to serve a few years.

Various Ministers served for the next 3 years.

Mr. R. Murphy Williams was installed pastor of Rockfish Church in October, 1899. In 1904, he resigned after receiving a call as Evangelist for Wilmington Presbytery.

Rev. William Pinchney Martin Currie was called in 1904. He served as pastor for 36 years. He was loved by all its members and served his church well. . . .

(Courtesy Mrs. A. C. Hall, Sr.)

BEAR MARSH CHURCH

This old church is in Duplin County, N. C., about six miles southeast of Mt. Olive. The house of worship stands on a beautiful eminence, rising twenty-five or thirty feet above the level of the swamp, from which the church takes her name.

The old church records were destroyed a few years ago, when the residence of Brother Benjamin Oliver, deceased, was destroyed by fire. My only sources of information are Burkitt's and Read's History of the Kehukee Association, such old Associational Minutes as I have been able to get, the statements of the oldest living members, and my present knowledge of her doings from the year 1867, the date of my first connection with this ancient body.

From Burkitt's and Read's History, published about 1803 at Halifax, I glean a few facts concerning the

CONSTITUTION AND EARLY HISTORY

of Bear Marsh Baptist Church—facts unascertainable from any other source, so far as I know.

Speaking of “the church on Bear Marsh, Duplin County, North Carolina,” these historians say: “Near this place were ten persons, five males and five females, who requested some Baptist brethren in Pitt County to visit them. Accordingly, Elders Jeremiah Rhame and John Nobles came about the 25th of February, 1763, who examined into their principles, and finding them sound in faith and orderly in life and conversation,

they were on that day by the said ministers constituted a church under the care of Elder Rhame”—page 288. A short time afterwards there were five additions.

Elder William Goodman, having moved into the neighborhood and united with the church, was ordained to the pastorate about the year 1775. Having removed southwardly about the year 1781, he relinquished the care of the church, and was succeeded by Elder Charles Hines, who served them until May 17, 1792, or about ten years. The term of his pastorate seems to have been a period of great prosperity, for up to the last date several branches had been established. The historians say of this prosperity, “Elder Hines’ charge appearing too great, having the charge of several branches, Elder Francis Oliver, who had been exercising his gifts in the ministry, was called, ordained, and took the care of Bear Marsh Church, and Elder Hines was dismissed on the 17th of May, 1792. The labors of Elder Oliver have been greatly blessed and several branches gathered. One branch is at Naughunga in Duplin, another at Pleasant Plains, in Wayne”—page 289.

Naughungo (or Nahunga, the present spelling) Church was near Cooper's Mill, about five miles north of Kenansville. A large hickory, on the east side of the public road and southward from the mill, marks the spot where stood the old house of worship. The church moved, several years ago, to a locality a few miles east of Warsaw, and later on moved again to a spot still farther from Warsaw, on which they erected a neat and commodious house of worship. The church is now known as Johnson's, instead of Nahunga. Pleasant Plains is a few miles from White Hall. They went off with the anti-effort brethren during the great warfare against missions over half a century ago.

It will be seen that the old preachers were missionaries as well as pastors. They preached at mission stations in the regions beyond, where lived the remote membership of the mother church, and when these branches or arms of the mother church became sufficiently strong, they became independent churches.

Elder Oliver continued to serve Bear Marsh until his death in the year 1808. Elder Benjamin Davis probably succeeded him in the pastorate. My reason for saying this is that Benedict states that Bear Marsh was represented by Elder Benjamin Davis in the Cape Fear Association, held in October, 1811, at Nahunga. The Minutes of this Association for 1822 show that the membership of Bear Marsh had fallen off from seventy in 1811 to thirty-eight in 1822. They also show that Allen Morris was a delegate that year. Some of the aged brethren say that Morris was once pastor of Bear Marsh. He was probably pastor in 1822.






HER PASTORS FROM 1763 TO 1897.

I have made a considerable effort to get a complete list of the ministers who have served this church from the beginning to the present time. My success is much beyond what I had expected, though I do not claim that there are no omissions. They are as follows: Jeremiah Rhame (1763-1775), William Goodman (1775-1781), Charles Hines (1781-1792), Francis Oliver (1792-1808), Benjamin Davis, Allen Morris, George W. Wallace, Henry Swinson, Robert McNabb, Lewis F. Williams, C. C. Gordon, H. Miner, J. D. Hufham, J. N. Stallings, John R. Oliver, J. L. Britt, A. C. Dixon, R. C. Sandling, J. B. Harrell, John T. Albritton, W. L. Bilbro, and C. J. Wells. Rev. R. C. Sandling has recently taken the care of the church again.

HER HOUSES OF WORSHIP

The first house was built a few hundred yards from the present site, and back of the present residence of Bro. Frank Brock from the public road. An old graveyard marks the old site. This house was afterwards removed to the spot on which the present house stands, and was burned down about 1832 or 1833. During the construction of the second house, the church worshipped in a school-house that stood near the swamp and on the west side of it. The Minutes of the Goshen Association for 1834 say: “Their once beautiful house, it is true, was burned up, but God has enabled them to erect another on the ground thereof, in which we now have the happiness of taking sweet counsel together in an Associational capacity.” A short while before the War Between the States, the present house was erected, such parts of the old building as were suitable having been worked into the new one.

HER CONTINUITY OF WORSHIP

Although I can find no record of any serious internal dissensions dividing and weakening the church, yet her numerical strength and spiritual condition have been very fluctuating. Beginning with only ten members, she has had on her roll about three hundred names. Some of the oldest members have told me that at one time in her early history ber membership was reduced to seven. In 1860 she had 299 members; in 1865 she had only 199, in consequence of the withdrawal of the colored members to organize a church of their own. Her present membership is about 130. I think the principal cause that has retarded her growth has been the withdrawal of so many colonies to set up other Baptist churches. The last colony withdrew in 1869. I applied for letters for myself and about twenty others, to constitute the Mt. Olive

Church in Wayne County. Many of the ablest brethren subsequently transferred their membership from the mother church to the new one. It is a cause for devout gratitude to God that this venerable church, whatever have been her fluctuations, has never, so far as I can learn, ceased to maintain the ordinances of religion at any time since her constitution.

HER ASSOCIATIONAL CONNECTION

Bear Marsh Church has been a member of five Associations. She first joined the old Kehukee, from which she withdrew, with twenty-four other churches, to form the Neuse, which was organized at Bear Marsh, October, 1794. In October, 1806, she, with other withdrawing churches from the Neuse, formed the Cape Fear. This organization also was effected at Bear Marsh. She next united with several other churches of the Cape Fear to form the Goshen in 1827. Finally the Goshen churches, together with some from the Neuse and some from the Baptist Advisory Council, met at Kenansville, Duplin County, October, 1844, and organized the Union Association, which in 1865, changed her name to Eastern.

This sketch, imperfect as it is, would be far more so, without further mention of

REV. FRANCIS OLIVER

He came from Virginia to Onslow County in early life. He moved thence to Duplin county, and settled on a plantation near Bear Marsh Church, on which his grandson, Mr. Joseph B. Oliver now resides.

He was a man of prominence and great usefulness. In 1795, or less than four years from his ordination, he was chosen to preside over the Neuse Association, a body whose territory embraced the counties of Wayne, Wake, Pitt, Glasgow (now Greene), Sampson, Lenoir, Jones, Johnston, Edgecombe, Duplin, Carteret, Craven, Brunswick, New Hanover, Bladen, and Robeson, and among whose ministry were such men as William and Fleet Cooper, Job Thigpen, Abram Baker, John Dilahunty and Needham Whitfield.

Elder Oliver died in 1808 while on a visit to a son in Georgia. He left in this State two sons—John and Benjamin—both of whom faithfully served Bear Marsh Church for many years and until their death—the former as clerk and the latter as deacon. John R. Oliver, a grandson of Francis Oliver, after his return from Wake Forest College, devoted his afflicted life to the gospel ministry. It was a marvel to many how one so encumbered with bodily affliction, could travel and preach as much as he did. Robert T. Bryan and Will B. Oliver, the great-grand-sons of Francis Oliver, are useful and growing ministers of the gospel. The






one is our beloved missionary to the benighted millions of China, and the other is the gifted and popular pastor of the First Baptist Church of Wilmington, N. C.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

In morality and Christian beneficence, Bear Marsh will compare favorably with other country churches having only monthly preaching. She has a Sunday School and a Woman's Missionary Society, and monthly collections for the objects of the Association, State Convention, and S. B. Convention. Her present membership consists principally of poor people, there being not a single wealthy person among them, and her contributions are not so large as they were thirty or forty years ago when she was more able, and when Bro. James B. Taylor, the F. M. Secretary of the S. B. C., used to come and talk missions to the brethren. Nor are they so large now as they should be; but we are hoping for growth in the grace of giving.

The church in the early part of the present year, with hearty and practical unanimity, adopted strong resolutions against the manufacture, sale and use of all alcoholic beverages, declaring non-fellowship with such members as would persist in making or selling them. When all our churches shall have taken this advanced ground there will be some hope of redeeming the country from the blighting evils of the liquor curse.

By Rev. John T. Albritton,

Mt. Olive, N. C., April, 1897.

(Baptist Historical Papers, UNC Library, Chapel Hill.)

METHODISTS

The first Methodist Church building was on Carr's Branch near Magnolia. The deed for the church is recorded in Book E, Page 372 of the Duplin County Public Registry, and was from James Rogers to Francis Asbury, Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church in America. The deed was dated August 22, 1790, and is for 1 acre near the plantation of Job Rogers, and whereon the church now stands.

Other early Methodist churches in the county were: Providence in the Rockfish Community, Wesley near Kenansville, Charity, Carlton Chapel, Magnolia and Kenansville.

NAHUNGA BAPTIST CHURCH

Nahunga Baptist Church was located about four hundred yards from Cooper's Mill, which is four miles east of Warsaw, and near Nahunga Creek, from whence it derived its name.

It was organized sometime between 1792 and 1803, for in Burkett and Reed's History of the Kehukee Association, published in 1803, the labors of the Rev. Francis Oliver (who with Rev. William Wells and others organized the church) are mentioned in connection with this church.

However, the Associational Records and the notes of Professor J. T. Alderman put the date of the organization in 1807, which is the year in which the Rev. Francis Oliver died.

The letters of William Dickson, who served Duplin County as C. S. C. for forty-four years, to The Raleigh Star on November 23, 1810, gives a resume of the work of all denominations then existing in Duplin County and I quote his reference about the Baptists: “The first Baptist preacher of note in Duplin was Philip Mulkey, a man of talents, and then a popular preacher. After him this county was frequently visited by other itinerant preachers of the Baptist profession from various parts of the State. Their first local preacher was Rev. William Goodman, who established a church at Bear Marsh on Goshen. After Mr. Goodman, the Rev. Charles Hines, and after him the Rev. Francis Oliver became the pastors of it. Under their care and patronage the church flourished, increased, and spread very considerably.

“New congregations were formed and meeting houses erected in different parts of the county, and continued to be occupied by the Rev. Silas Carter, Rev. Job Thigpen, and Rev. William Wells, their pastors.

“Since the death of Francis Oliver, which happened about three years ago (1807), the church at Bear Marsh, and others under his care have been supplied only by itinerant preachers and visitors from neighboring churches, having not yet obtained any ordained pastor.

“The Baptists are at this time the most numerous and flourishing of any religious sect in the county; they have now in Duplin seven meetings houses, regular places of worship, to wit, at Bear Marsh, at Nahunga, at Concord, at Island Creek, at Muddy Creek, at Limestone, and at Prospect near Burn Coat, the number communicants in the county in these different congregations from reports made in September, 1809, were 382 Baptists.”

(NOTE: The Methodist had 85, the Presbyterians 100, and at this time there were only 613 white males paying poll tax in the county. There were no Catholics, Quakers, or Universalists.)

Among the earlier pastors were: Rev. Francis Oliver, Rev. William Wells, Rev. Jonathan Thomas, Rev. Robert McNabb, Rev. A. J. Battle, Rev. Hiram Stallings, and Rev. B. A. Carroll.

The Associational Records of the Cape Fear Association show that in 1808 the church had a membership of thirty, and its delegates were James Rearden, who lived near the head waters of Nahunga, adjoining






the lands of Felix Frederick, which would place his home between the road to Williams Cross Roads, and the road from Bowdens to that point; and Isaac Middleton, who lived on the south side of the Grove Swamp. The report to the association in 1809 shows that one new member had been taken in, making thirty-one members. The delegate in addition to James Rearden was Edward Pearsall, who lived on the north side of the Grove. He was a brother of Captain James Pearsall, who was sheriff and legislator and on whose plantation, the county seat (Kenansville) was located in 1784.

In 1811, the Cape Fear Association met with this church, which had thirty-one members, and John Philips (Great Uncle of Abner, Vance, and Hiram Phillips) was the church clerk.

In 1812, it had thirty-two members, and from this date to 1826, the delegates to the association were William Watchman, Benjamin Best, James Rearden, John Thomas, Howell Best, Edward Pearsall, Rev. Jonathan Thomas, Elim Lee, William Harriss, and Absolom Best. The membership fluctuated during these years and only ten were shown in the report of 1824.

In 1827, this church went into the Goshen Association with twenty-one members, which were increased to fifty-eight in 1835. Roland Best was a delegate in 1834.

The names of the delegates in 1835, the last year the church was represented, before it was moved and called “Johnsons” were Norris Frederick, who lived on the place known now as the Old Irvin Beaman place, and Thomas Phillips, Sr. (the great-grandfather of Abner, Vance, and Hiram Phillips), and his son, Thomas Phillips, Jr.

In 1909, Dr. J. D. Hufham showed me the spot where Old Nahunga Church stood, and I quote his remarks on the people who composed the membership of Nahunga and Johnson churches:

“The community was wholly agricultural. The owners or their fathers or grandfathers had cleared the lands and brought them into a fine state of cultivation. They were a strong, vigorous people. They were well informed, and believed in education. The virtues of this community are traceable to the stronghold of Religion upon the people. Under its influence, men and women, strong in faith and character, grew up, led public sentiment, and gave tone to the moral and social life of the community.”

Again quoting from Dr. Hufham on the cause of the removal as related to him by his father, the Rev. G. W. Hufham, one of the earlier pastors of Johnson's Church: “In 1835 the membership had grown to fifty-eight; the majority of the members lived on the south side of the grove and in the vicinity adjacent to the new location, and at a congregational

meeting they voted to move the church, and a meeting house was erected on the lands of Benjamin Johnson, who deeded them the lands for Johnson's Church in January, 1836.”

(By Rivers D. Johnson, Biblical Recorder, Sept. 30, 1936.)

CAMP MEETINGS

—Toward the close of the year 1800, that astonishing work which had been prevailing a short time in Kentucky and other parts made a sudden and unexpected entrance amongst them, and was attended with most of the new and unusual appearances, which, in many places, it assumed. This work was not confined to the Baptists, but prevailed at the same time amongst the Methodists and Presbyterians, both of which denominations were considerably numerous in these parts. These two last denominations, soon after the commencement of the revival, united in their communion and camp-meetings. The Baptists were strongly solicited to embark in the general-communion scheme; but they, pursuant to their consistent principles, declined a compliance. But they had camp or field-meetings amongst themselves, and many individuals of them united with the Methodists and Presbyterians in theirs. The Baptists established camp-meetings from motives of convenience and necessity, and relinquished them as soon as they were no longer needful. Their meeting-houses are generally small, and surrounded with groves of wood, which they carefully preserve, for the advantage of the cooling shade which they afford in the heat of summer. In these groves the stages were erected, around which the numerous congregations encamped; and when they could be accommodated in the meeting-houses, to them they repaired. A circumstance which led the people to come prepared to encamp on the ground was, that those who lived adjacent to the place of meeting, although willing to provide for the refreshment, as far as they were able, of the numerous congregations which assembled, yet, in most cases, they would have found it impracticable; and furthermore, they wished to be at the meetings themselves what time they must have stayed at home for the purpose. The people, therefore, would be advised by their ministers, and others, at the first camp-meetings, to come to the next and all succeeding ones prepared to accommodate and refresh themselves. In this way camp-meetings were instituted amongst the Baptists.

In nearly the same way meetings of a similar nature were established by the united body of Methodists and Presbyterians in these parts; but like many other things produced on extra-ordinary occasions they continued after the call for them had ceased. Their efficacy was by many too highly estimated. They had witnessed at them, besides much confusion and disorder, many evident and remarkable displays of Divine






power; and their ardor in promoting them, after the zeal which instituted them had abated, indicated that they considered them the most probable means of effecting a revival. . . .

Some accounts follow on the apparent genuineness of the revivals, notwithstanding the unusual manner in which the meetings were conducted.

In the progress of the revival among the Baptists, and, especially, at their camp-meetings, there were exhibited scenes of the most solemn and affecting nature; and in many instances there was heard at the same time, throughout the vast congregation, a mingled sound of prayer, exhortation, groans, and praise. The fantastic exercise of jerking, dancing, &c., in a religious way, prevailed much with the united body of Methodists and Presbyterians, towards the close of the revival; but they were not introduced at all among the Baptists in these parts. But falling down under religious impressions was frequent among them. Many were taken with these religious epilepsies, if we may so call them, not only at the great meetings where those scenes were exhibited which were calculated to move the sympathetic affections, but also about their daily employments, some in the fields, some in their houses, and some when hunting their cattle in the woods. And in some cases people were thus strangely affected when alone; so that if some played the hypocrite, with others the exercise must have been involuntary and unaffected. And besides falling down there were many other expressions of zeal, which, in more moderate people, would be considered enthusiastic and wild. . . .

(Colonial Records, Volume V, pages 1173 & 1174.)

FAISON PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH

The early records of this church were lost when the former building was destroyed by fire about ten years ago. By reason of this loss much that would be of valuable historical interest in connection with the church is not available.

We learn, however, that as early as 1740 a considerable settlement was in existence on Goshen Swamp, in the northwestern part of Duplin county, and that Presbyterian missionaries were there as early as 1742. Other missionaries came from time to time, among them Rev. Hugh McAaden, who traveled extensively over Eastern Carolina from one settlement to another, preaching the Gospel and giving spiritual ministrations to those hardy pioneers. But of the the result of these early efforts nothing in the way of a permanent church organization was accomplished.

The first definite information obtainable shows that at the Spring Meeting of Fayetteville Presbytery, of which Wilmington Presbytery

was then a part, held in Grove (Kenansville) church, Duplin county, April 2, 1824, in the statistical table giving the names of the churches, the name of “Union in Duplin” (Faison) appears. In the statistical report to Synod at the preceding Fall Meeting of Presbytery, of date October 31, 1823, the name of “Union in Duplin” is not given. We must therefore conclude that this church was organized sometime between October 31, 1823, and April 2, 1824. The first report to Presbytery from this church is made jointly with the churches of Brown Marsh and Mark's Creek, for the ecclesiastical year ending March 31, 1830, and gives the combined membership of the three churches as 79.

Nothing further of any definite character as to the early history of this church has been obtainable, so it would be mere speculation to add anything to what has already been given. But from the facts above noted it is certain that the Presbyterian church of Faison is one of the oldest religious organizations existing within the bounds of Duplin county, and, in this section of North Carolina.

Faison church is one whose membership has been of sturdy character, not carried about by every wind of doctrine. Its officers and members have never been afflicted with the desire for novelty and frequent change of pastors. This is seen in the fact that in the almost one hundred years of its organized existence it has had only six pastors.

Almost immediately following its organization, at the Spring Meeting of the Presbytery, April 2, 1824, Rev. Allan McDougal was ordered to supply Union (Duplin) Church. None of the Biographical catalogues of the various theological seminaries consulted contains the name of Mr. McDougal, so we conclude that he was one of the numerous contributions Scotland has made to American Presbyterianism. It is also a reasonable conjecture that he was trained in one of the Scottish Universities—Edinburgh, Aberdeen, or Glasgow.

The second pastor of Faison Presbyterian Church was the Rev. Alexander McIver. He served this church in connection with Grove (Kenansville) church from 1831 to 1839, and passed to his Heavenly reward on October 14, of the latter year. A most unusual and interesting fact in connection with this pastorate must here be noted, that there have been enrolled in the church's membership during all the succeeding years, descendents of Mr. McIver: First, his daughter, the late Mrs. Rachel Hicks; his granddaughter, Mrs. M. McD. Williams; his great-grandson, Dr. Louis Hicks Williams, who was also the first person to receive baptism in the present new church building. Another granddaughter of Mr. McIver, Mrs. Annie Witherington, together with a son and daughter, are also members of this church.

The third pastor to serve this congregation was the Rev. Malcolm






Connolly; he was a native of Robeson county, born near Lumber Bridge on August 20, 1807, was a graduate of Union Seminary, Hampden-Sidney, Va.; was installed pastor 1840 and was dismissed to Brazos Presbytery (Texas) 1852; he closed his work with this church in 1851. This pastorate which covered a period of 12 years, was the longest that had been given to the church up to this time.

Without question the most notable period in the life of Faison Presbyterian church was during the long and fruitful pastorate of the Rev. James M. Sprunt, D.D., which began in 1852 and closed in 1884. Dr. Sprunt was a native of Perth, Scotland, born January 14, 1818. He brought to his work in the ministry the native talent and acquired culture and learning which made his name a household word throughout all this section of North Carolina. His saintly character, his eloquent sermons, and his devotion to his church and the Kingdom of Christ are to this day frequently mentioned by the older members of the congregation. Dr. Sprunt began and ended his ministry in this church, though he was repeatedly called to other pastorates, some of these being among the strongest Presbyterian churches in America; but he chose to live, and labor, and ascend to his reward, from among the people whom he so much loved and who loved him in return.

The Rev. Peter McIntyre, a native of Nova Scotia, succeeded Dr. Sprunt and served as pastor for twenty-seven years, resigning in the summer of 1914 to accept a call to the Presbyterian church of Goldsboro, N. C. The life and work of this faithful and efficient servant of Christ is well known to the present generation. The membership of the church steadily increased during this pastorate, and when Mr. McIntre retired from the field there were on the rolls of the church the names of 115 members.

In October, 1914, a call was extended to the Rev. J. W. Purcell, D.D., then pastor of the First Presbyterian church of Palatka, Fla. Dr. Purcell did not at that time see his way clear to accept the call. In April, 1915, the call was renewed, and accepted, and the present pastorate began May 1, 1915. The results of these six-and-a-half years of service have been gratifying to the congregation, and, we believe, acceptable and pleasing to Christ the Great Head of the Church. The membership has increased from 115 to 160, the present church building has been erected during this period, and the financial contributions for maintenance of the cause of Christ at home and abroad increased four-fold.

The first building used for worship by this congregation was erected about two miles southwest of Faison, years before this site was chosen for the town. This building was moved to the town when the railroad was built through this part of the state about 75 years ago; it was

abandoned as a house of worship when the handsome and commodious structure was erected about 30 years ago in the earlier part of Mr. McIntyre's ministry. This building was struck by lightning and burned to the ground about ten years ago. For a period of about six years the congregation went back to the old church built by their fathers and worshiped there until the present beautiful brick church was completed; whereupon, in June, 1918, worship was begun and services held in the new church. The memorial auditorium is a fitting testimonial to the men and women who lived and wrought during the earlier history, and the present building a monument to the fidelity and liberality of faithful sons and daughters of worthy fathers and mothers. . . .

This congregation has always maintained a commanding influence in the religious and social life of the community, and throughout its century of life and service has had among its membership many family names that have been, and are today, well-known in this section of the State. Its members have always been faithful to the doctrines and government of the Presbyterian church, and loyal and loving to the ministers whom they have called from time to time, to the pulpit and pastorate of their church.

(By J. W. Purcell—Courtesy Mrs. J. B. Stroud, Jr.)

See the Gospel Church secure,And founded on a Rock!All her promises are sure;Her bulwarks who can shock?Count her every precious shrine;Tell, to after-ages tell,Fortified by power divine,The Church can never fail.—CHARLES WESLEY.




7. INDIAN MOUNDS

During the year 1883 Dr. Joseph A. Holmes made an examination of Indian burial mounds in portions of eastern North Carolina. His report on mounds in Duplin County is substantially as follows:

Mound No. 1—Duplin County, located at Kenansville, about one-half mile southwest from the courthouse, on a somewhat elevated, dry, sandy ridge. In form, its base is nearly circular, 35 feet in diameter; height 3 feet. The soil of the mound is like that which surrounds it, with no evidence of stratification. The excavation was made by beginning on one side of the mound and cutting a trench 35 feet long, and to a depth nearly 2 feet below the general surface of the soil (5 feet below top of mound), and removing all the soil of the mound by cutting new trenches and filling up the old ones. In this way all the soil of the mound, and for two feet below its base, was carefully examined. The soil below the base of the mound did not appear to have been disturbed at the time the mound was built. The contents of the mound included fragments of charcoal, a few small fragments of pottery, a handful of small shells, and parts of sixty human skeletons. No implements of any kind were found. Small pieces of charcoal were scattered about in different portions of the mound, but the larger portion of the charcoal was found at one place, 3 or 4 feet square, near one side of the mound. At this place the soil was colored dark and seemed to be mixed with ashes. There were here, with the charcoal, fragments of bones, some of which were dark colored, and may have been burned; but they were so nearly decomposed that I was unable to satisfy myself as to this point. I could detect no evidence of burning, in case of the bones, in other portions of the mound. Fragments of pottery were few in number, small in size, and scattered about in different parts of the mound. They were generally scratched and cross scratched on one side, but no definite figures could be made out. The shell “beads” were small in size—10 to 12 mm. in length. They are the Marginella roscida of Redfield, a small gasteropod, which is said to be now living along the coasts of this State. The specimens, about 75 in number, were all found together, lying in a bunch near the skull and breastbones of a skeleton. The apex of each

one had been ground off obliquely so as to leave an opening passing through the shell from the apex to the anterior canal—probably for the purpose of stringing them.

The skeletons of this mound were generally much softened from decay—many of the harder bones falling to pieces on being handled, while many of the smaller and softer bones were beyond recognition. They were distributed through nearly every portion of the mound, from side to side, and from the base to the top surface, without, so far as was discovered, any definite order as to their arrangement. None were found below the level of the surface of the soil outside the mound. In a few cases the skeletons occurred singly, with no others within several feet; while in other cases, several were found in actual contact with one another; and in one portion of the mound, near the outer edge, as many as twenty-one skeletons were found placed within the space of six feet square. Here, in the case last mentioned, several of the skeletons lay side by side, others on top of these, parallel to them, while still others lay on top of and across the first. When one skeleton was located above another, in some cases, the two were in actual contact; in other cases, they were separated by a foot or more of soil.

As to the position of the parts of the individual skeletons, this could not be fully settled in the present case on account of the decayed condition of many of the bones. The following arrangement of the parts, however, was found to be true of nearly every skeleton exhumed. The bones lay in a horizontal position, or nearly so. Those of the lower limbs were bent upon themselves at the knee, so that the thigh bone (femur) and the bones of the leg (tibia and fibula) lay parallel to one another, the bones of the foot and ankle being found with or near the hip bones. The knee cap, or patella, generally lying at its proper place, indicated that there must have been very little disturbance of the majority of the skeletons after their burial. The bones of the upper limbs also were seemingly bent upon themselves at the elbow; those of the forearm (humerus) generally lying quite or nearly side by side with the bones of the thigh and leg; the elbow joint pointing toward the hip bones, while the bones of the two arms below the elbow joint (radius and ulna) were in many cases crossed, as it were, in front of the body. The ribs and vertebrae lay along by the side of, on top of, and between the bones of the upper and lower limbs, generally too far decayed to indicate their proper order or position. The skulls generally lay directly above or near the hip bones, in a variety of positions; in some cases the side, right or left, while in other cases the top of the skull, the base, or the front, was downward.

The skeletons were too much decomposed to permit the distinguishing






of the sexes of the individuals to whom they belonged; but the size of the crania (adults) and other bones seem to indicate that a portion of the skeletons were those of women. One small cranium found was evidently that of a child—the second and third pairs of incisor teeth appearing beyond the gums.

Mound No. 2.—Located 1¾ miles east of Hallsville, Duplin County, on a somewhat elevated, dry, sandy region. Base or mound nearly circular, 22 feet in diameter; height, 3 feet, surface rounded over the top. Soil similar to that which surrounds the mound—light sandy. Excavations of one-half of the mound exposed portions of eight skeletons, fragments of charcoal and pottery, arranged in much the same way as described above in case of Mound No. 1. The bones being badly decomposed, and the mound being thoroughly penetrated by the roots of trees growing over it, the excavation was stopped. No implements or weapons of any kind were found. There was no evidence of any excavation having been made below the general surface, in the building of the mound, but rather evidence to the contrary.

Mound No. 3.—Located in a dry, sandy, and rather elevated place about one-third of a mile east of Hallsville, Duplin County. In size and shape this mound resembles those already mentioned: Base circular, 31 feet in diameter; height 2½ feet. No excavation was made other than what was sufficient to ascertain that the mound contained bones of human skeletons.

Mound No. 4.—Duplin County, located in a rather level sandy region, about one mile from Sarecta post office, on the property of Branch Williams. Base of mound circular, 35 feet in diameter; height 2½ feet. Soil sandy, like that which surrounds it. Around the mound, extending out for a distance varying from 5 to 10 yards, there was a depression, which, in addition to the similarity of soils mentioned above, affords ground for the conjecture that here, as in a number of other cases, it is probable the mound was built by the throwing on of soil from its immediate vicinity. Only a partial excavation was made, with the result of finding human bones, and a few small fragments of charcoal and pottery.

(From L. A. Beasley's Scrapbook. See The Weekly Star, Wilmington, N. C., October 26, 1883, p. 3, first two columns, Department of Archives and History, Raleigh, N. C.; and report of Dr. Joseph A. Holmes on file in U. N. C. Library, Chapel Hill.)

The early settlers had very little Indian trouble in Duplin.

8. THE SPRING

On September 4th, 1748, John Dickson, Joseph Carr, William Carr, and others, in, or near the original Carr settlement answered the “alarm” (see State Records Vol. 22, p. 283). This William Carr, however, was probably a brother of Joseph Carr and the same party who is referred to in the Appendix. Therefore, Joseph Carr must have arrived here prior to 1748, though it has been a family tradition that he moved to Wilmington from Ireland about 1749. Joseph was unmarried and came over with Captain Beverett and wife, Barbara Gastor Beverett, and her brother, Jacob Gastor. Captain Beverett settled his wife at, or near, the present site of Kenansville, where he built her a comfortable cottage in the colony known as the “Grove Community,” and returned to sea where he performed the duties of a sea captain. An unverified tradition says that Mrs. Beverett discovered the present town spring at Kenansville, which she dug with her own hands.

(The Carr Family of Duplin County, By James Osborn Carr. Page 7.)

KENANSVILLE SPRING HAS HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Out of the one hundred counties of North Carolina, Duplin County is the only county, so far as the writer has been able to ascertain, that has a natural spring of delectable water on its courthouse lawn. There may be courthouses in the State that have wells from which water may be secured, but Kenansville, the quaint and historic county seat of Duplin, with its unique and stately old homes of colonial architecture set amid spacious lawns studded with beautiful trees, hoary with age, and to a great extent still reflecting an antebellum atmosphere is the only county seat town that affords a natural spring with a flow of water sufficient not only to quench the thirst of the judges, lawyers and officers of the court, but ample for the public and town as well.

John Keats must have had in mind such a spring when he penned in his “Ode to a Nightingale,” the lines:

“O for a draft of vintage, that hath beenCool'd for a long age in the deep-delved earth,Tasting of Flora and the country green. . . .




That I might drink, and leave the world unseen,And with thee fade away into the forest dim.”

In fact, when Sampson County was cut off from Duplin and organized into a new county in 1784, it was largely by virtue of this spring that the present site of Kenansville was selected for the new courthouse of Duplin. At that time, a large portion of what is now Kenansville, was Pearsall's plantation. And it so happened that Mr. Pearsall was sheriff of the county. Accordingly, he offered to donate to the county four acres of land, including “Cool Spring,” if the authorities would build the courthouse upon it. Subsequently, the offer was accepted and the courthouse was built immediately.

Kenansville is not exactly the geographical center of the county but the big spring with its bountiful supply of water was here and there was doubtless not a spring at the exact center of the county. Besides, Sheriff Pearsall was offering not only to give the spring but four acres of land also. Hence, in those early days as in the present times, water was a very vital and necessary item for a courthouse and a county seat town. However, an adequate water supply in those times was not as easily secured as now. Apropos this fact, together with the other favorable conditions and the political prestige of the donor, the present site of Kenansville was selected for Duplin's seat.

Therefore, for approximately one hundred and twenty-seven years this spring afforded the only water supply for the courthouse as well as for the majority of the home owners of the village. And while the town now affords a modern water supply in keeping with our modern civilization, the old spring continues to pour forth its gallons of pure, cool, crystal water every minute of the day. And it is still a favorite fountain where people go to satiate their thirst.

The spring was first discovered during the infancy of this country's civilization, in early seventeen hundreds by a local maiden whose name was Barbara Gastor. Local tradition is to the effect that this young lady while in quest of a nugget of gold that was believed to have been buried there by the Indians, was digging into the earth one day, and discovered the spring. And from that time to the present, the faithful spring has been furnishing a water supply for the thirsty.

But the spring has functioned in other roles than just that of satisfying one of nature's physical requirements. For generation on generation it has been the scene of romantic rendezvous. A trysting spot where youthful, loving, gallant and modest pairs have breathed out the tender vows in unison with the brimming, bubbling waters etched with silver moonbeams. Gentlemen who regulated their lives strictly in accordance with the code duello have escorted their lady-loves to and from the spring.

What a panoramic picture it would make, could all these peoples of the various generations and periods who have frequented the spring be projected upon a screen in one grand review. Gentlemen wearing powdered wigs, knee-breeches, silk stockings, fancy ruffled shirts, silver shoe buckles and shining swords dangling from their sides. Ladies sporting hoopskirts, trains, and pantalets concealing even the ankle when the wearer had occasion to curtsy. And behold the costumes changing from one decade to another on down to the gay nineties of the century just passed; the early nineteen hundreds with its peg-leg trousers, hobble skirts and the like.

The water of this spring is said to be exceedingly pure and replete with health giving elements. Tradition has it that any person who drinks habitually from its waters is always blessed with at least a number of the nobler and finer things of life. Even the fates seemed to have blessed the maiden discoverer. She was first married to a John or Jack Beverett, a sea captain. Shortly thereafter he was lost at sea and never returned to Kenansville. But within due course of time his widow married a Mr. Carr of this community and they lived very happily together and reared a large family of children. Some of her descendants still live in this section.

The first courthouse to be erected on this site in 1785 was an elaborate building for that day and time. It was constructed of lumber and the architecture was good. This edifice served Duplin County till 1911, when the present modern brick structure was erected.

Until the coming of the automobile, it was the custom of the people to assemble in vast throngs at Kenansville during court week. Horse trading and selling was one of the outstanding pursuits indulged in, and this business took its rank and standing only second to the court itself. A strip of land situated just across the highway from the courthouse and now covered with pine trees for the most part served for the horse trading ground and in the vernacular of the day was called “the bone yard.” A number of huge troughs were kept in the spring branch which were always full of the pure water and the people watered their horses and mules from these troughs.

Many strange and interesting events have happened within the shade of the trees of this old spring, and many are the celebrities and distinguished men who have slaked their thirst from the waters of the spring in the years past.

Dr. William Houston, a practicing physician and surgeon in Duplin County for more than forty years, in all probability drank from this spring on scores of occasions. He was instrumental in the formation of this county, 1749, and was the county's first representative in Assembly.






He was for years a justice of the peace and chairman of the County court and was appointed by the Crown to be Stamp Distributor for North Carolina under the British Stamp Act of the seventeen-sixties. However, Dr. Houston never served in this position as the colonists refused to tolerate the Stamp Act laws. He died about 1790, a few years after the courthouse was built in Kenansville and doubtless attended court here on different occasions.

Then there was Colonel James Kenan, sheriff of the county from 1762 to 1766 and again in 1785 and 1786. Not only did he drink water from this spring but doubtless the officers and men of his various military companies did. He led a company of volunteers to Wilmington in 1765 to oppose enforcement of the Stamp Act, even though Dr. William Houston, an outstanding citizen of the county had been appointed Stamp Master for North Carolina. He was also colonel of Duplin militia during the Revolution; member of the State Senate for a long time; and was a Councilor of State and Trustee of the State University. The county seat was named for the family. He died May 23, 1810.

Some of the officers who served under Colonel Kenan during the Revolutionary War and who saw service at Moore's Creek and in various other engagements were: Captains Alexander Outlaw, Daniel Williams, Joseph T. Rhodes, Richard Clinton, William Hubbard, William Rutledge, James Gillespie, George Miller, David Dodd, and Abraham Molten.

Doubtless all these men were well acquainted with the spring and at one time or another refreshed themselves with its water.

Colonel Alexander Dickson, a noted philanthropist of this section, was born and reared near the present town limits. Among other things he devised a trust fund to be used for the education of the poor children in Duplin County and is known as the Dickson Charity Fund and is still in existence. He died March 22, 1814, at the age of 68 years. He, too, was a frequent visitor of the spring.

The old spring saw other soldiers in addition to Duplin County's liberty loving patriots. Many are the stories that have come down concerning Major James H. Craig, who led a company of British soldiers through Kenansville during the American Revolution, and attempted to frighten the patriots out of their wits by plundering and pillaging. He and his soldiers camped for several days here at the home of Colonel Thomas Routledge. And since the spring was the chief water source of the place, Major Craig and his men evidently consumed many gallons of its water. Certainly they needed something to cool them off, as they not only burned Colonel Routledge's home upon vacating the village, but also the homes of Captain Gillespie and Lieut. Houston.

The famous trial of Darby and Peter, two negro slaves, and also

their conviction for the murder of their master, Colonel William Taylor, took place in the old courthouse within plain view of the spring. According to the court records, “At a special court begun on Thursday, March 15, 1787, for the immediate trial of Darby and Peter, two negro slaves, the property of the late William Taylor, Esquire, now committed and to be tried for the murder of their master, William Taylor, and were present the following justices; Thomas Routledge, Joseph Dickson and James Gillespie. And the following freeholders: Lewis Thomas, James Middleton, Sr., Isaac Hunter, and Alexander Dickson.

“The Darby negro having confessed the murder of his master, by striking him on the head with an axe, which instantly killed his master, the court sentenced him in the following words: That he, the said negro man Darby be immediately committed to Gaol under a good guard and that on tomorrow between the hours of one and four o'clock in the afternoon he be taken out thence and tied to a stake on the court house lot and there burned to death and to ashes and his ashes strewed upon the ground and that the Sheriff see this order executed.

“The said negro boy Peter, a boy about fourteen years of age, being also brought before the court and did confess that he was present when his master, the said William Taylor, was murdered and that he did aid and assist his brother the aforesaid Darby in committing the said murder; the court having taken into consideration the youth of the said Peter and considering him under the influence of his said brother Darby, have thought proper to pass his sentence in the following words, to-wit: That he, the negro boy Peter, be committed to Gaol and there to remain under a good guard, till tomorrow, and then between the hours of one and four o'clock, he be taken out thence and tied to a post on the court house lot and there to have one half of each of his ears cut off and be branded on each cheek with the letter M and receive one hundred lashes well laid on his bare back and that the Sheriff see this order executed.”

This trial and execution doubtless drew a large crowd of people to Kenansville and probably all of them drank water from the spring during the day.

The following Justices who held court at the old courthouse in April, 1861, doubtless told many interesting stories and swapped jokes and puns while helping themselves to the water from this spring: Halstead Bourden, H. Blackmore, I. B. Kelly, W. F. Ward, Houston Maxwell, James G. Branch, Joshua R. Ezzell, Geo. S. Best, R. V. Carroll, N. P. Mathis, James Cavenaugh, James E. Ward, John M. Chasten, Daniel Bowden, Bryan W. Herring, Alsa Southerland, Gibson S. Carr, Grady Outlaw, John D. Stanford, Jere. Pearsall, chairman; Needham B. Whitfield, James B. B. Monk, Blaney Williams, Hugh Maxwell, William Outlaw,






Jr., Stephen B. Winders, Jesse Swinson, Calvin Jernigan, Ben Witherington, John R. Wallace, Stephen H. Simmons, James D. Pearsall, John R. Miller, Kedar Bryan, Thomas Hall, George W. Carroll, Hugh G. Maxwell, Samuel C. Jones, Major Stricklin, and Alfred M. Rackley.

Kenansville was also beseiged by another company of soldiers during the Civil War who remained here long enough to destroy a sword factory and if they drank any water while in town, the spring was the logical place since practically everybody secured their drinking water from the said fountain at that time. It seems that Louis Froelich and Jacob H. N. Cornleson formed a partnership in January, 1864, for the purpose of manufacturing swords, arms, accouterments, horse shoes, etc. The name of the firm was Louis Froelich & Company and the capital stock amounted to $59,873.23. This sword factory was located just across the present highway from the home of Wm. M. Brinson, and the swords, of course, were manufactured for the Confederacy.

The Company of Union soldiers who destroyed this sword factory were doubtless a detachment of General Sherman's army.

Then there was the Rev. James Sprunt, D.D., who was pastor of Grove Presbyterian church here for a long time, a noted preacher, theologian, scholar and teacher who used to supply his household from the waters of this spring. He came to Kenansville in 1845, and was for a time president of Grove Academy, a school that prepared the young men for college. He was also president of the Female Seminary, a similar school for young women. He served as chaplain in the Confederate army during the Civil War. Dr. Sprunt was among other things, a botanist of no mean ability and had a flower garden along the run of this spring. It is understood that he propagated a number of flowers peculiar to this section during his residence here.

Some of the outstanding men of the state and nation were students of Grove Academy and the old spring proved a delightful mecca for the students to come and drink their fill of the refreshing water. Some of these students were: Captain W. J. Houston, lawyer, State Senator, solicitor, and Confederate officer; Dr. J. N. Stallings, lawyer, solicitor, teacher, and minister; Colonel Thomas S. Kenan, lawyer, Confederate officer, State Attorney General, and Clerk of the State Supreme Court; Captain James G. Kenan, Confederate officer, legislator, and sheriff; Lieutenant W. R. Kenan, Confederate officer and public minded citizen; Judge O. H. Allen, lawyer, solicitor, and Superior Court Judge; ex-Senator F. M. Simmons, Congressman and Senator, chairman of the State Democratic Executive Committee and an advocate of white supremacy; William R. King, Congressman, Senator, ambassador, and vice-president of the United States; B. F. Grady, teacher, superintendent of

county schools, and Congressman; and Dr. William Dickson, physician, speaker of the Tennessee house of representatives and Congressman.

Then there was one outstanding student at the Kenansville Seminary whose name should be mentioned at this place, namely Judge William Reynolds Allen, who was born in Kenansville. He became one of the leading lawyers in the State, was for a number of years a Superior Court Judge, and later of the state Supreme Court, which position he held until his death. And like many others, Judge Allen found the old spring a delightful place to refresh oneself.

Until 1909 the spring was simply walled in with brick, and moss grew thereon. Hence, one desiring to drink of its water had only to dip a glassful right out of the heart of the spring. But in 1909 the county commissioners had the spring all dressed up by having a heavy floor of concrete poured in a square about its surface. The top or mouth of the spring was covered with an iron plate. An iron pipe was inserted which reaches several feet out from the main vein of the spring where waters pour in a stream. Steps were made into the cement leading down to this pipe. Since then, any one desiring to drink from the spring only has to descend the steps and hold a glass under the pipe and catch all the water that is desired.

Many of the early patrons of the spring would scarcely recognize it in its present modern abode.

But the water of this spring has not always been used for alleviating thirst that nature causes all of her children to have at regular intervals. In the days before prohibition, when Kenansville, like hundreds of other hamlets and towns in North Carolina had bar rooms and grog shops, men who indulged in these spirits often used the water of this spring for a chaser.

Celebrations of various kinds, including picnics and political rallies galore have been held at and around this spring for the past one hundred and fifty years and the never-failing waters have always added to the refreshment and comfort of the people. Statesmen, as well as military officers and leaders have tarried to drink its waters, and then gone forth and made names that were known and revered throughout the State and nation, and then passed on to their reward, but the spring flows on.

Political rallies were being held around this spring by the people of Duplin County long years before many of our present counties were chartered and organized. The doctrines of Jefferson and Jackson and the great tenets of democracy were preached and taught by statesmen, political leaders, and orators to the people assembled around this fountain contemporaneous with the lives and careers of the said illustrious authors. The people of Duplin County heard the policies of the American Republic,






the beliefs and doctrines of our first statesmen from the very beginning of our government expounded and explained while assembled about the spring.

And so the people of Duplin County and Kenansville are very fond of their spring. They take a just pride in showing it to visiting strangers. They look upon it as a historical landmark; it is truly so. Metaphorically speaking, the old spring has been the friend of many of the State's great and near-great and has witnessed practically all of the important public meetings and gatherings in Duplin County for over one hundred and fifty years. And more significant still the spring witnessed the birth of our American Liberty, the birth of our government, and the development of our nation and country from its small and feeble beginning to the greatest nation and country on the face of the earth. And it has witnesses and fostered romance and love in the making. Verily, was there ever such a spring?

If the crystal waters continue to flow from its veins which reach deep into mother earth, this spring is destined to ultimately become as well known among the posterity of the citizenry of Duplin County as Jacob's well was to the people of ancient Israel.

(By Charles H. McSwain, Wallace Enterprise, Nov. 29, 1934.)

9. THE BOTTOMLESS WELLS

A few sinkholes occur on the Sunderland terrace, a nearly level plain, in the vicinity of Magnolia. They were formed through the dissolution of underlying limestone and marl and the caving in of the surface. The Bottomless Wells of Magnolia are of this origin.

(U.S.D.A. Soil Survey—March 1959, Page 2.)

An account of the natural wells near Magnolia appeared in one of the county newspapers a few years ago. The account, written at Magnolia, is substantially as follows:

On an isolated sandhill near the Magnolia-Delway highway, about one and a half miles from this little Duplin County town, are the “Natural Wells of Magnolia.”

At least one of these two waterfilled holes, according to local legend has no bottom, and if geologists or others have ever learned differently no one here knows anything about it.

Many generations ago—so far back that people hereabout do not remember—these wells were discovered in their isolated settings amid dense natural growth. Presumably they are now just as they were back in the forgotten past. Dim outlines of paths lead to the brink of the wells, for hundreds have visited them through the years. Traffic now speeds along the nearby road. Occasionally people, individually and in groups, walk through the underbrush to view these wonders that nature has provided, but they go away as greatly puzzled as ever. And man has never been able to do much about the mysterious water holes.

People of the Magnolia section take the wells as a matter of course. The wells are too ancient to be news. They still hold their secrets, just as they did when discovered back in pioneer days. They cannot be classed as a wonder that would attract throngs, for it must be admitted that a hole of water is not much to look at—especially if it is a hole that man does not dare to explore beneath the water's surface. So they remain just as nature left them.

One of them is very large, being about 100 feet across. The water in this well rises to about 35 feet of the land level. The walls of it go down in precipitous fashion. In times past steps were cut into the sides






of the well, thus enabling people to go to the water's edge, but these have now been obliterated. Timber, some of it several inches in diameter, grows up to the edge of the hole, and it is said that several large oak trees have been blown over into the well, disappearing entirely from sight. A large log now lies across the well and apparently is held in its present position by the roots.

Legend has it that something like 150 years ago a man named George Linton was determined to sound out the depth of the large well. He unraveled a woman's stitching, which had been knit from material much stronger than that from which the sheer hosiery of the present time is made; tied a weight to one end of the string and let it down as far as the string would reach, but no bottom was found.

Another attempt was made later, according to the story, to determine the hole's depth. This time a Major Taylor, now dead, tied a clock weight, which provided momentum for the old-time clocks, to a cord 600 feet long and let it down. But this effort to sound the depth was, like Linton's, a failure, and thus folks hereabout say the well has no bottom. They have found no one who can authoritatively dispute the claim.

As far as known neither of the wells has inlet or outlet. No streams are nearby, but, according to local residents, the water seems to be pure. It is as clear as that found in any sandhill stream. A few minnows have been seen darting through the water, but if there are any larger fish or other life in the wells no one here seems to know.

There was a time when the wells attracted attention of scientists, and it is said that in years past several western universities sent representatives here to investigate them. It is also said that a group of scientific men from Washington made an investigation. It was not learned here what the finds of these men were, or whether they ever definitely determined what caused the wells.

Apparently the wells are just as much a mystery as they were a century and a half ago, or perhaps longer, when they were discovered. Certainly, their secrets still remain in the depths of the water as far as Magnolia people know. School geographies have mentioned them along with other phenomena of the State, it is said, but this much remains to be determined, where does the water come from and where does it go?

(L. A. Beasley's Scrapbook.)

10. FIRST FEDERAL CENSUS, 1790
DUPLIN COUNTY

Names of Heads of FamiliesNumber In FamilySlavesNames of Heads of FamiliesNumber In FamilySlaves
Thomas Rutlidge69James Murrow71
James Pearsell, Esq.712Jeremiah Pearsall54
Wm. Beck, Esq.1012John Southerland4
Wm. Broadhurst4John Cooper4
Elizabeth Beck210Wm. Hunter93
Daniel Glisson, Esq.87Richard Pelcher5
George Kornagey712Nathan Waller31
Steven Herring713Charles Hooks31
Samuel Herring41David Quinn51
Wm. Stevens136Joseph Williams31
Samuel Phillips3Lewis Barfield122
Loammy Stevens37Henry Hooks7
Morris Dickson7Samuel Sanderland5
Nathaniel Kinard3Joseph Johnston11
Alexander Daniel42Wm. Rigsby82
Joseph Whitfield22Philip Thomas1
Archabald Carr82John Linear131
Charles King68Thomas Garison53
Wm. Southerland51Patrick Newton98
Samuel Sowell8Wm. Stoks10
Hezekiah Blizzard6Joseph Brook12
John Cox6Nicholas Sanderland71
Joseph Smith23Francis Oliver93
Alexander Waller6Samuel Sulivan7
Banj'n Moshburn5David Murdock1313
Andrew Federick6Wm. Wilkinson34
Edward Pearsall47Wm. Guy104
John Armstrong12James Reardon5
Benj'n Johnson21James Wright67
Lewis Thomas616James Gillispie, Esq.1030
Hardy Carrell5James Maxwell82
Thomas Johnston11John Beck513
James Morris416Joseph Orsburn5
Wm. Ann Houston3Andrus Rouse6
James Middleton812Theophilus Williams, Esq.87
Charles Brown46Thomas Hooks, Esq.816
James Patterson3Joseph Brock8






Names of Heads of FamiliesNumber In FamilySlavesNames of Heads of FamiliesNumber In FamilySlaves
John Wright59Isaac Middleton32
Wm. Brock7Frederick Bearfield76
Humphrey Sulivan1Wm. Beck32
John Evers4John A. Swinson1
Alexander Grady116Edmund Duncan41
Isaac Dawson102John Bryan4
Frederick Grady122Wm. Boyt7
James Grady1James Rogers5
Rheuben Wister3Abraham Motler57
Moses Sholders4James Williams, Senr.7
Wm. Merrett13James Outlaw128
Solomon Picket61Wm. Grady104
James Hollard9Richard Roberts5
Wm. Sholders4Thomas James, Esq.921
John Glisson7Leoin Allen3
George Smith91Robert Millar8
Wm. Gulley101John Gore13
John Worsley54James Middleton6
John Whitehead8Pelick Rogers5
Demsey Westbrook5Benjamin Delaney7
Jacob Taylor10Wm. Carr63
Edward Huston66Francis Beaman10
John Sulivan11Thomas Cramton5
Alexander Sanders7Andrew Thalley81
Elisha Jurnigan61Jacob Wills511
Aaron Hodgeson7Robert Southerland91
Jonathan Keeley9Jacob Wells, Senr.53
Benj'n Lenear6Samuel Rogers51
Joseph Hodgeson3Stephen Herring66
Benj'm Best3John Johnston5
John Best, Jr.6Benjamin Herring71
John Best, Sr.6Silus Carter8
Abraham Best3Wm. Korniagg94
John Williams6Loftus Worley8
John Million4Ann Worley21
Zidekeah Mumford5Charles Millar41
Arthur Stroud3John Neal31
Lewis Smith71Theophilus Swinson8
John Parker8Samuel Alberson95
George Gibbons7Arthur Herring4
John Housman8Samuel Gauff2
Archabald Branch5Bedford Garrin5
Andrew Gufford57Wm. Sulivan86
James Heath81James Linear9
Thomas Heath9Labin Williams6
Samson Grimes62Dennis Connor133
Benjamin Getstrap4Auston Bryan37
Samuel Taylor4Adonazab Garisson6

Names of Heads of FamiliesNumber In FamilySlavesNames of Heads of FamiliesNumber In FamilySlaves
Benjamin Rodes77Bethea Marsey5
John Turlington7Jane Joinigan43
Archabald Branch5James James1017
Jacob Brown106Michial Glisson3
Wm. Daniel32Thomas Hill724
Joseph Bray2Arthur Boyt5
Joseph Bray, Jr.8John Carr3
Wumlark Money87Ephram Boyt7
John Boney22John Matchett87
Daniel Boney71Wm. M. Gray5
Joseph Dickson, Esq.1113John Haycraft5
Wm. Savage4Nathan Gray4
Jacob Savage2John Chambers95
Jacob Tearley61John Rhodes49
Stephen Bearfield46David Slone56
John Woodward82John Carlton7
Alex'r Wilson41Thomas Carlton72
John Bradley10Robert Slone43
James Middleton105Joseah Strafford7
Charles Ward, Esq.312Mary Dolbson3
Samuel Houston, Esq.718Wm. Robert4
Benjamin Blount6Jacob Taylor3
Alex'r Dickson17James Forehead6
John Woodward1Joshua Benton9
Elisha Woodward6Jacob Glisson4
Adam Murrah7Jesse Brock8
Jesse Harris6Benjamin Brock5
John Everet5Seven Buks3
Thomas Rutledge11Edward Carter3
Warren Blount81Solomon Carter33
David Bunting47Kezzekiah Blizzard2
Thomas Wright11David Carter6
Charles Bostick91Rheuben Deaser1
Nathan Gulley1Mary Summerland3
Joseph Millard6Anthony Jones1
Charles Gauff5Benjamin Snipes9
George Millard4Lewis Pepkin71
Watson Burton31Man Carter2
Absolam Strukland7John Mainer5
John Slone4Alexander Flemming21
Elizabeth Taylor4Jesse Branch7
Martha Outlaw8Jacob Summerland12
Philip Ward13Isaac Thomson1
Michial Molton911James Moody4
Stephen Herring914Elizah Bowan6
John M. Collah4Eloderick Gray5
Theophilas Peacock2Isaac Herring8
James Joiner7Henry Johnston2






Names of Heads of FamiliesNumber In FamilySlavesNames of Heads of FamiliesNumber In FamilySlaves
Sikes Garicue1Wm. Salmon4
John Thompson3Michial Wilkins61
Elizabeth Thompson5Rading Stokes42
David Carlton5John Taylor6
Bizon Brock5John Deaver6
Walker Carter1Demsey Taylor7
Bersheba Thompson2Samuel Bowdin6
Jesse Ellison9Peter Parker3
Mathew Ward1Thomas Bennett81
Geo. Smith11John Durell8
Frederick Smith8Joel Samer6
Wm. Moore6Joseph Vick4
Ludson Stroud5John Kornegay41
James Herring77Lewis Jones5
Wm. Ray5Samuel Tanner7
Mary Mainer4Anthony Jones6
James Mathews9Jesse Sevinson7
James Dawson1Andrew Ward4
Wm. Duff8Lewis Herring51
Elizabeth Fussell8John Vick4
Simon Rivenback9Jonathan Parker8
Stephen Smith6Wm. Wilkerson8
Wm. Whitfield54James Sollus5
Samuel Slocum31Joshua Chaimbers8
James Pickett101John Wilkins3
Henry Pickett4Buckner Killibrue55
John Fleming4Wm. Bennett1
Abraham Beaman7Samuel Bennett3
John Aaron4Elif Taylor3
Wm. Federick94Edward Harris3
John Parker6Catharine Taylor58
Wm. Alberson42Parker Bowdin5
Stephen Gufford2Peter Watkins31
Joseph T. Rhodes, Esq.18Ezekiel Tunnage21
Anne Casson6Wm. Duncan5
Flood Fooley6Isaac Duncan3
James McIntim513Reubin Johnston13
Priscilla Hunter84Daniel Hicks1119
George Gaylor3Hardy Reaves10
Lilan Watkins109Adam Reaves5
Christopher Martin7Mark Rogers62
John Rutley52Samuel Ratliff7
John Winders6Hugh McCann9
John Rogers, Sr.10Wm. McCann2
Jediah Blanchard4John Gilman1
Daniel Parker8Felix Federeck8
John Rogers8Richard Chason1
Timothy Spince6James Floyd6

Names of Heads of FamiliesNumber In FamilySlavesNames of Heads of FamiliesNumber In FamilySlaves
Isaac James3John Brown4
Daniel Murrow41Joseph Williams84
Luke Bowser4David Hall5
Wm. Hall5Ezekiel Mathews4
Daniel Coock5Lott Green8
Ezekial Allen11John Wilson4
Wm. Allen11Joshua Blake3
Henry Jones6John Mathews41
Jesse Jorge7Joseph Wilson43
Hardy Parker4Hugh Boney1
Emanuel Bowser4Amos Shufield6
Benjamin Fussell3Charles Merett4
Nicholas Bryan3Arthur Mathews4
Thomas Cummings11Stephen Williams7
Lewis Hedgeman3Robert Knowls6
John Cook71Byrd Williams51
Mary Cook32Nathan Coock6
Walter Bryan2John Williams6
John Boney9Frederick Williams112
James Knowls9Taylor Holiway3
John Blanton11John Gauff, Sr.72
Joseph Williams24David Singleton7
Aron Williams42Elias James93
Lewis Newton4Ambrose Ensor6
John Green10Wm. Murphrey117
Elisha Bowan6Dan Bowan8
Thomas Cook6John Cook7
John Knowls6James Blanton6
Thomas Green4John Daniel9
Isaac Newton4Hardy Holms5
Nathan Edwards4Key Holms11
John Waters7Aron Daniel5
Aron Brown4Wm. Burnham122
David Alderman13John Hunt510
Robert Wallice9Michial Kennard115
Frederick Wills101Moses Dickson6
David Tucker7Wm. Taylor2
Simon Wood7Thomas Bradley4
Jacob Mathews6Luke Ward73
James Smith6Wm. Harris12
David Davis5Edmund Duncan5
Benjamin Thompson7Lewis Bezzell9
John Duff3John Gauff75
Michial Ezzell41Wm. Bezzell72
Reuben Ezzell4Arthur Bezzell3
Benjamin Ezzell3Willis Cherry84
Simon Revenback8Isaac Ducan3
John Young4Robert Byrd93






Names of Heads of FamiliesNumber In FamilySlavesNames of Heads of FamiliesNumber In FamilySlaves
William Branch7Wm. Hollingsworth41
William Newton3Abraham Andrews73
Burwell Mobley4James Wallace8
John Ivey28Wm. Collins8
Benjamin Lenear3Jacob Wallace4
Jesse Lenear62Robert Tuelling62
James Murson7Henry Newkirk61
John Wood5Wm. James82
John Haise6Timothy Bryan6
Joseph Serins8Brittain Powell7
Elisha Woodward51Robert Merett8
James Murrow55Elius Sutton4
John McGee72Hardy Powell5
Renatus Land9Mary Bland6
Lydia Castul8Wm. Wells5
Samuel Ward31Jonathan Willise4
Stephen Hancock41Hardy Gitstraf4
Wm. Farrior74Shadock Statlings86
James Ellis7James Cook4
Daniel Hines6Isaac Hall1
Wm. Flowers7Wm. Filman10
Nathan Fountain5David Hennesey3
Jo. Myrell1Joseph Beyen7
Wm. Halso1011Josiah Leigh9
Mary Bachelor5Wm. Bland3
John Lenear4Meshack Statlings121
Abraham Cannon1Mary Hill6
Mary Dobbson3Joshua Blanton4
James Haws3Wm. Harwell11
Thomas Shetton5John Coock4
Elizabeth Shuffield9John Rawlings7
James Johnston68Abraham Newton10
Christopher Mashbourn8Jacob Newton1
Lewis Shoulders3Reubin Rogers2
Ezekiel Sanders1Wm. Sweetman3
Isaac Baker3John Mathews5
Wm. Harp4Barbara Dickson102
Epharam Garisson5Paul Martin7
Daniel Rains6Joseph Ward9
Calop Quinn5Mary Jones8
Enoch Simpson2David Walker4
James Winders81Thomas Taylor5
Heck Millar41Richard Bradley5
Jonathan Pee4Ephram Shuffield4
John Craford9Joseph Serews4
Stephen Halso8Isaac Spence4
Jesse Lenear5Nicholas Bowan6
Henry Brinson8George Kornaagy61

Names of Heads of FamiliesNumber In FamilySlavesNames of Heads of FamiliesNumber In FamilySlaves
Dred Branch3Nathaniel Walker3
Jacob Kornegay919Mary Struts6
Roby Durele3Moses Cox6
Sarah Chandler5Matthew Edwards79
Jonathan Peas4Christan Williams6
Wm. Rogers1John Umphreys7
Mary Cannon43Syvea Williams2
Wm. Dickson1131Edward Houston56
James Dickson133Dr. Wm. Houston110
Anthony Millar62Joseph Smith23
Daniel Southerland91George Millar410
Thomas Norment543Griffith Houston8
John Hill826Jesse Jones4
Silas Page3Joseph Serews1
John Gibbs124James Hubbard1
Christopher SimplorIvey Smith56
John Walker9John Southerland7
Adam Plat6Shadrack Sowell7
Henry Stocks5Thomas Toomer5
Joshua Newell5Henry Fountain3
Thomas Phelps6Lydia Manner51
Richard Cooper5Robert Cattle7
George Rouse7Amis Parker12
Henry Allen6Margerit Pickett5
Samuel Jones4Sarah Batts72
Mikajah Pearce5Joal Pagit9
Phil Southerland5James Pagit2
Wm. McGeer12Cornelar Pagit4
Wm. McCann65Joab Thigpen10
Samuel Sanderland6James Pickett53
John Rigsby4Wm. Thomas95
Charles Grimes4Abigal Parker5
George Cooper96John Parker6
James Carr36Isaac Thomas63
John Stuckey97Stephen Williams5
Joseph Mettes27Jeremiah Williams22
John Johnston23Jacob Williams56
Owen O'Daniel57Anne Henderson4
Auston Moore5Wm. Hubbard58
Wm. Gauff62George Morisey, Esq.1235
David Williams22Daniel Teachey317
Susanna Facon98Thomas Tonans1210
Uriah Blanchard91James Kenan1137
Wm. Best94Peter Young5
Edward Dickson1012Joseph Hodgeson3
Charles James3Calop Ostean5
Richard Mares52John Balley4
John Walker91Wm. Pickett43






Names of Heads of FamiliesNumber In FamilySlavesNames of Heads of FamiliesNumber In FamilySlaves
Wm. Pickett, Sr.22John Thigpin10
Reuben Meaks9John Thomas4
Thomas Sholders3Edward Bracher31
Wm. Burton71James Whaley11
James Evans9Samuel Whaley10
Benj'n Lenear6Wm. Whaley12
Robert Cool4Stephen Millar34
Wm. Batchelor5James Chambers95
Edward Jones4Jeridiah Bass2
Stephen Martinal7(No Totals Given)
Francis Whaley5Added Totals39361278
Jeptha Medford12

(State Records, Vol. XXVI, Pages 501-514, incl.)

11. HISTORICAL MARKERS
IN DUPLIN COUNTY

BATTLE OF ROCKFISH

“The British under Major Craig defeated the North Carolina Militia, Aug. 2, 1781, 300 yards S.E.”

This Marker stands where State Highway No. 11 crosses the old Wilmington road near the Rockfish Creek Bridge (in Duplin County).

JAMES KENAN

“Revolutionary leader, Member Provincial Congresses, Conventions 1788-89; Militia Brigadier General; Trustee of University. Grave 2 mi. N.”

This marker is located between Warsaw and Clinton near Baltic on State Highway No. 24.

GROVE CHURCH

“Presbyterian. First Church founded by Scotch-Irish who settled here about 1736.”

This Marker is located at Grove Church in the Town of Kenansville on Highways No. 24 and 50.

HUGH McADEN

“Presbyterian Preacher of Note and Founder of Churches. Once lived Nearby. He later moved to Caswell County where he was buried, 1781.”

This Marker is near McAden's home site about one mile east of Kenansville on State Highway No. 24.

WILLIAM HOUSTON

“Stamp Master For North Carolina, 1765. Resigned During Demonstration In Wilmington Against the Stamp Act. A physician at Sarecta, 4 miles E.”

This Marker stands where the Sarecta road enters State Highway No. 11, about two miles North of Kenansville.






THOS. O. LARKIN

“Was U. S. Consul at Monterey, Cal., 1844-1848. Played part in Winning California for the United States. Home, 1825-29, was Nearby.”

This Marker is on highway No. 41, between the Old Boney Mill and Wallace.

CONFEDERATE ARMS FACTORY

“Stood here. Made bowie knives, sabor-bayonets, and other small arms. Destroyed by Federal Cavalry, July 4, 1863.”

A State highway historical Marker stands on the site in the Western edge of Kenansville on Highway No. 11.

SAMSON L. FAISON

“Brigadier General, U. S. Army, in World War I. Decorated for helping break the Hindenburgh Line. His birthplace is 350 yards Northwest.”

This Marker is on U. S. Highway No. 117 in the Town of Faison.

12. PUBLIC SCHOOLS

In the early years of Duplin County, there were very few school teachers. Some lay leaders in the churches and a few missionaries comprised the teaching force. Some of the teachers established private schools.

For years the apprenticeship system which imposed the educational obligation provided most of the schooling for the poor and orphans.

The North Carolina Constitution of 1776 provided “That a school or schools shall be established by the Legislature, for the convenient instruction of youth, with such salaries to the Masters, paid by the public, as may enable them to instruct at low prices, and all useful learning shall be duly encouraged, and promoted, in one or more universities.”

In January 1839 the General Assembly passed its first statewide public school law. Under this law those counties voting for schools in August of that year were to levy a tax of $20 for each school district, to be supplemented by twice this amount from the State Literary Fund—the first state and local appropriation for public schools in the history of North Carolina.

On this foundation of state and local support, growing through the years, our public school system has been built.

As time went on, the number of grades in the “common schools” increased to seven; by the turn of the century the graded schools had ten grades; by 1920 the graded schools had eleven grades; and by 1941 the graded schools had twelve grades.

The school term lengthened to four months in the Constitution of 1868, to six months by Constitutional amendment in 1918, to eight months by legislative enactment in 1931, to nine months by legislative enactment in 1943.

Our public school system has grown immensely in the past 70 years—sparked by the leadership of Governor Charles Brantley Aycock.

OLD OR EXTINCT SCHOOLS OF NORTH CAROLINA

The accurate historian, Rev. J. D. Hufham, informs me that two brothers, John and Joseph Elliott, both Yale men, came from New England in the closing years of the past century and became the pioneers of higher education in the region between the Neuse and the Cape Fear.






The school of Joe Elliott was in Lenoir; that of John in Duplin County, three miles North of Faison, called Green Academy. Major Hiram W. Husted, also a graduate of Yale, a lawyer of repute, towards the close of his life a resident of Raleigh, taught in the same school years afterwards, went from this school to the University, prior to Husted's incumbency. John Elliott married a Cogdale, a relative of George E. Badger, and their son was the prominent teacher, John Ghost Elliott, who taught mainly in Sampson.

(Public Documents, Session 1901, Vol. I, Document No. 9.)

PARTIAL LIST OF THE MOST PROMINENT TEACHERS

Beginning after the Revolution and Before 1800:

Thomas Routledge—Grove Academy; Duplin County.

Rev. Samuel Stanford—Grove Academy, Duplin County.

Teachers Who Began 1800-’25:

John Elliott—Duplin

Joseph Elliott—Lenoir

John Ghost Elliott—Sampson and elsewhere

Teachers Beginning 1825-’50:

Rev. James Sprunt, D. D.—Duplin

(Public Documents, Session 1901, Vol. I, Document No. 9, Page 444.)

EDUCATIONAL CAMPAIGN OF 1839

Vote on School Law:

Duplin, 371 for, 141 against.

—from Raleigh Register, Aug. 24, 1839.

(Public Education in North Carolina—a Documentary History 1790-1840, Coon Vol. II, Page 910.)

BEGINNING OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN DUPLIN

The following is the copy of the Report of the Commissioners to lay off the County into Common School districts, viz.:

To the worshipful the parties of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions for the County of Duplin. The undersigned having been appointed by your worshipful body to lay off the aforesaid County into Common School districts as provided for by law have proceeded to do so as follows:

First district in neighborhood of Meadow meetinghouse; with Thomas Burton, Nathan Murray and John James as committeemen.

Second district in neighborhood of John Fountain; with Capt. Fountain, Howell Brown and Mathew Brinson as committeemen.

Third district in neighborhood of Dennis Pickett; with Dennis Pickett, James Lanier and Jesse Batts as committeemen.

Fourth district in neighborhood of John E. Hussey; with Gregory Thomas, John Bostic and Jesse Brown, Jr. as committeemen.

Fifth district in neighborhood of Henry Sandlin; and Henry Sandlin, Drew Hall and Thomas P. Hall as committeemen.

Sixth district in neighborhood of Joseph T. R. Miller; with Joseph T. R. Miller, William H. Rhodes and James L. Smith as committeemen.

Seventh district in neighborhood of Jones Smith; with Dr. James H. Jarman, William Williams and John Smith as committeemen.

Eighth district in neighborhood of William Grady; with Sherwood Grady, James P. Davis and Daniel H. Simmons as committeemen.

Ninth district in neighborhood of Bryan K. Outlaw; with William Outlaw, Bryan K. Outlaw and Edward Outlaw, Sr., as committeemen.

Tenth district in neighborhood of James Winders; with Giles T. Loftin, James Sullivan and James Winders as committeemen.

Eleventh district in neighborhood of John Carr; with Dr. James G. Dickson, Benjamin Oliver and John Carr as committeemen.

Twelfth district in neighborhood of George W. Glisson; with Harget Kornegay, William Herring and Mark Keithley as committeemen.

Thirteenth district in neighborhood of Calvin J. Dickson; with James Gillespie, Levi Swinson and Calvin Dickson as committeemen.

Fourteenth district in neighborhood of Bryan W. Herring; with Elias Faison, James Hicks and Joseph B. Hurst as committeemen.

Fifteenth district in neighborhood of Dr. Buckner L. Hill; with C. D. Hill, William W. Faison and John Shine as committeemen.

Sixteenth district in neighborhood of Alfred Guy; with A. T. Stanford, Daniel Newton and Alfred Guy as committeemen.

Seventeenth district in neighborhood of James K. Hill; with J. K. Hill, Daniel Swinson and B. Williams as committeemen.

Eighteenth district in the neighborhood of Jonathan Gore; with John Blanchard, John Pollock and Patrick Ezzell as committeemen.

Nineteenth district in neighborhood of James Patterson; with Rolin Best, John Frederick and Michael Boyette as committeemen.

Twentieth district in neighborhood of Joseph Groves, Sr.; with Jacob Wells, William Wells and Jacob Taylor as committeemen.

Twenty-first district in neighborhood of Stephen Williams; with James K. Williams, Zack Williams and John Peterson as committeemen.

Twenty-second district in neighborhood of Solomon Turner; with Wright Boney, Boney Wells and William Usher as committeemen.

Twenty-third district in neighborhood of Wimbrick Boney; with Wells Boney, Hiram Murray and Henry Teachey as committeemen.

Twenty-fourth district in neighborhood of Alfred Ward; with Alfred Ward, Stephen Williams and John W. Boney as committeemen.






Twenty-fifth district in neighborhood of James Mallard; with John Mallard, Joseph Brooks and John Powell as committeemen.

Twenty-sixth district in neighborhood of John Whitehead; with John Whitehead, James Maxwell and John Dobson as committeemen.

Twenty-seventh district in neighborhood of John D. Carroll; with John D. Carroll, William Carr and Osborn Carr as committeemen.

Twenty-eighth district in neighborhood of Grove church; with James Carroll, Henry Moore and John Forlaw as committeemen.

Twenty-ninth district in neighborhood of Dark Branch; with George E. Houston, William D. Pearsall and Richard Miller as committeemen.

Thirtieth district in neighborhood of Beaverdam church; with Thomas Stanford, William Swinson and John Swinson as committeemen.

All of which is respectfully submitted, July 21st, 1840.

A. MAXWELLD. JONES
J. E. HUSSEYJAMES G. STOKES
O. R. KENANJOSEPH T. RHODES
DAVID SLOANA. J. GRADY,
C. MCMILLAN
COMMISSIONERS

(Duplin County Court Minutes 1840-1843, on file with State Department of Archives and History.)

The Court met in April, 1841, with the following named members present, to wit: Benjamin F. Grady, Chairman, Cornelius McMillan, Nicholas Hall, Thomas Stanford and Jesse Swinson. A majority of the Justices being present, it was ordered that a Board of Superintendents of Schools be appointed consisting of the following named persons, to wit: John E. Hussey, Archibald Maxwell, David Sloan, Atlas J. Grady, Joseph T. Rhodes, Benjamin Lanier, Daniel Jones, Cornelius McMillan and James G. Stokes. Capt. David Sloan was made Chairman of the board and gave bond in the sum of $2500, with Owen R. Kenan and Halstead Bourden as bondsmen. The first school tax was levied in January, 1841, at the rate of five cents on the one hundred dollars valuation of property and ten cents on the poll.

(Court Minutes.)

SCHOOL CENSUS 1882

In 1882 there were in the County:

White Children3489
Colored Children2711

Total Allowances for all the Schools in 1882 amounted to $8,260.76.

LIST OF PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN DUPLIN IN 1890

SCHOOLSPRINCIPALENROLLMENT
Faison High School, FaisonJohn S. Hill65
Warsaw High School, WarsawF. L. Merritt155
Clement's School, Duplin RoadsS. W. Clement48
Seminary, KenansvilleR. W. Millard25
Kenansville Male and Female AcademyA. McArthur45
Grady's Industrial School, AlbertsonB. F. Grady, Jr.8
Kenansville Summer SchoolW. M. Shaw & B. F. Grady, Jr.30
Kenansville Normal SchoolHiram Brown21

(Public Documents, Session 1891, No. 3).

LIST OF PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN DUPLIN COUNTY, 1891

NameLocationPrincipal or PresidentEnrollmentRace
Faison High SchoolFaisonJohn S. Hill65W
Warsaw High SchoolWarsawF. L. Merritt155W
SeminaryKenansvilleR. W. Millard25W
Kenansville M & F AcademyKenansvilleW. M. Shaw and Jos. A. McArthur45W
Grady's Industrial SchoolAlbertsonB. F. Grady, Jr.8W
Kenansville Summer SchoolKenansvilleW. M. Shaw and B. F. Grady30W
Kenansville Normal SchoolKenansvilleHiram Brown21N

(Public Documents, 1891, Document No. 3, Page 94.)

SCHOOL FUND DISBURSED BY COUNTY TREASURER
FOR SCHOOL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1899

Duplin County
Teachers of White Schools$4,489.00
Teachers of Colored Schools2,229.57
School Houses & Sites (White)1,282.40
School Houses & Sites (Colored)800.57
County Superintendent298.50
Treasurer's Commission183.43
Mileage & Per Diem Board of Education66.11

(Public Documents, Session 1901, Vol. I, Document No. 9, Page 268.)

Out of appropriation of $100,000 to Public Schools in the State, given to Duplin County Jan. 1900, $1,168.28.






PRIVATE SCHOOLS AND ACADEMIES IN DUPLIN COUNTY
FOR 1900

Attendance
Clement Institute D. L. McBryde, Wallace40
Warsaw High School Miss Stella Middleton, Warsaw50
James Sprunt Institute Rev. Mr. Lancaster, Kenansville40
Grady School Henry A. Grady, Turkey35

(Public Documents, Session 1901, Vol. I, Document No. 9, Page 133.)

CONDITION OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORTED
BY COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT

Wallace, N. C.

July 26, 1900.

Hon. C. H. Mebane:

Dear Sir:—At your request I will try to set before you the condition of educational affairs in Duplin County. In the first place, we have very few well-equipped teachers. For some reason, there has not been an Institute held in the County for several years, and consequently the teachers have had no opportunity for professional training. In the second place, the pay of teachers is so little that many of the best teachers have quit the business. I know of one good teacher who gets only $13 per month and boards herself.

In the third place, we have very poor school houses, badly located, and many without suitable seatings and desks.

These are a few of the evils under which we are laboring and the cause of all the trouble is the ignorance of the people and consequent want of interest in education.

I would suggest a few changes in the School Law: First, make the holding of Institutes obligatory; second, fix the minimum as well as the maximum salary of teachers; third, raise the fee for private examination at least $2 in order to induce the teachers to attend the public examinations; fourth, require the people to build and equip the school houses themselves. Lastly, compulsory education is surely bound to come before the children of our beloved State are educated.

I hope you will excuse these crude remarks, as I am very much pressed for time this morning.

Yours truly,

S. W. Clement,

County Superintendent.

(Document 9, 1901.)

FROM THE INAUGURAL ADDRESS OF HON. CHARLES B. AYCOCK,
GOVERNOR OF NORTH CAROLINA—1901

“On a hundred platforms, to half the voters of the State, in the late campaign, I pledged the State its strength, its heart, its wealth, to universal education. I promised the illiterate poor man, bound to a life of toil and struggle and poverty, that life should be brighter for his boy and girl than it had been for him and the partner of his sorrows and joys. I pledged the wealth of the State to the education of his children. Men of wealth, representatives of great corporations, applauded eagerly my declaration. I then realized that the strong desire which dominated me for the uplifting of the whole people moved not only my heart, but was likewise the hope and aspiration of those upon whom fortune had smiled. I had loved the North Carolina people before that time, but I never knew, and appreciated the best qualities of many of our citizens until I saw the owners of many thousands as eager for the education of the whole people as I was myself. Then I knew that the hope and task before us, . . . was not an impossible one. We are prospering as never before—our wealth increases, our industries multiply, our commerce extends, and among the owners of this wealth, this multiplying industry, this extending commerce, I have found no man who is unwilling to make the State stronger and better by liberal aid to the cause of education.

“Gentlemen of the General Assembly, you will not have aught to fear when you make ample provision for the education of the whole people. Rich and poor alike are bound by promise and necessity to approve your utmost efforts in this direction. . . .

“Appropriations alone can not remove illiteracy from our State. With the appropriations must come also an increased interest in this cause, which shall not cease until every child can read and write. The preachers, the teachers, the newspapers, and the mothers of North Carolina must be unceasing in their efforts to arouse the indifferent and compel by the force of public opinion the attendance of every child upon the schools. . . . This is, therefore, the opportune moment for a revival of educational interest throughout the length and breadth of the State. We shall not accomplish this work in a day, nor can it be done by many speeches. It is a work of years: to be done day by day, with a full realization of its importance and with that anxious interest on our part which will stimulate the careless and will make all our people eager to attain the end which we seek. Our statesmen have always favored the






education of the masses, but heretofore interest in the matter has not approached universality; henceforth, in every home there will be the knowledge that no child can attain the true dignity of citizenship without learning at least to read and write.

. . . “Our government is founded upon intelligence and virtue. We shall provide for intelligence by a system of schools which is designed to reach every citizen.

. . . “We have a great State, rich in noble manhood, richer still in her high-minded womanhood; a State with countless treasures awaiting seekers; with riches in her fields and woods, streams and sounds, hills and mountains, sufficient to satisfy our dreams of wealth; with a frugal and indutrious population ready to toil just awakening fully to the possibilities before them. All that we need ‘to complete the Circle of our felicities’ is peace. Let hatred and bitterness and strife cease from among us. Let law everywhere reign supreme. The highest test of a great people is obedience to law, and a consequent ability to administer justice.”

(Public Documents—Session 1901, Vol. 1.)

The editors’ father and father-in-law was with a large group of Duplin Citizens, who met Honorable Charles B. Aycock in Clinton, and escorted him to Duplin to speak in his educational campaign for Governor of North Carolina.

R. W. MILLARD, EDUCATOR

In the opinion of the writer, who spent her first school day and a part of several years in his school room in the Kenansville Seminary, the ability of R. W. Millard as an educator has never been surpassed in Duplin County.

Richard Washington Millard, son of Felix Bell Millard and Sallie Osborn Millard, was born near Clinton, N. C., May 18, 1830. He went to a country school until he was about 16 years of age, then was taught by Prof. Ghost Elliott, a great educator who lived in Clinton. He taught school in Portsmouth, Va., during the war. After this was closed, he and Prof. Webster, of Canada, taught the Franklin Military School near Mt. Olive. During that time he was married to Miss Julia Fryar, of Faison, and their two oldest children, Clara and Annie, were born there. From there they moved to Kenansville and at the age of 30 he and Prof. Webster bought the Seminary and taught together till Prof. Webster sold his interest to Mr. Millard and returned to Canada. Mr. Millard taught until he sold the seminary to Wilmington Presbytery to be enlarged and known as James Sprunt Institute, and he was appointed

County Superintendent of Public Instruction. In 1896 he had a stroke of Paralysis and had to give up his work.

In Kenansville three other children were born—Octavius, Sallie, and Junius. Junius died when three weeks old. Clara, the oldest daughter, who married Wentworth Faison, died in Faison December 24, 1918. Annie married W. H. Gilbert and died in Wilmington, December 29, 1929. Sallie married John Rickman and died in Asheville October 16, 1935, while visiting relatives. Octavius married Miss Macy Williams, of Kenansville, and they live in Oklahoma City.

Mr. Millard joined the Baptist church of Turkey in Sampson County when a young man and moved his membership to Kenansville where he was a loyal member till the Master called him home March 14, 1902. Rev. John D. Larkins conducted his funeral at the home and he was buried in the family cemetery on the home lot.

Mrs. Millard died at the home of Mrs. Gilbert in Wilmington. Mr. Larkins conducted her funeral in Kenansville, and she was buried beside her husband.

Mr. Millard taught the old time pay school, teaching from “A, B, C” to highest methods and never turned any away for lack of money to pay tuition, but his Heavenly reward must be great and hundreds of his pupils have had cause for deepest gratitude for the part he had in molding their lives. He was unexcelled in his ministering to the sick. He was a great teacher and a great man.

(Sketch prepared by Miss Macy Cox.)

Local Tax DistrictsWhen VotedRate per $100 Property Valuation
WallaceAug. 1903$ .30
Teachey'sSept. 1905.30
MagnoliaAug. 1905.30
RockfishOct. 1903.30
Rose Hill, No. 1Dec. 1905.30
Lanefield, No. 2May 1906.30
Warsaw, No. 1Mar. 1906.30
BeulavilleMay 1906.15
CalypsoFeb. 1907.30
Rockfish, No. 2May 1907.30
Faison, No. 6Feb. 1908.30

(Public Documents, Session 1909, Document 3, Page 169.)

Total Schoolhouses 1906-07:

Duplin 113 — Total Value $28,055.00

HISTORY OF LANEFIELD SCHOOL

(This true story, written in 1925 or 1926, is about Lanefield soon after the Civil War ended. Here is the picture of a war torn, poverty stricken community struggling to make better educational opportunities for their






children—a better tomorrow for posterity. This story is characteristic of other communities in Duplin County during the difficult, post war years.)

Nearly sixty years ago in this community a little group of men who were interested in educating their children began to discuss ways and means for starting a school. Those were not days of much money, for the effects of the Civil War were still very evident. Nor were there taxes to be spent for such things. The truth is that the taxes of those days would not have gone far toward providing either buildings or teachers even had they been available. Proof of this may be readily seen by examining an old tax receipt found recently in the neighborhood. It shows that one of this group of men who founded Lanefield was expected to pay the munificent sum of $.87 on a farm of nearly a hundred acres!

But if money was cheap, so were teachers and lumber; and these men were in dead earnest about a school. If we have heard aright, the leaders among them were Mr. H. B. Bowden, Mr. J. L. Carlton, Mr. A. W. Carlton, Mr. W. H. Winders, Mr. Ankrum Boyette, Mr. Absalom Phillips, Mr. George Middleton, Mr. D. J. Middleton, Rev. W. M. Kennedy, and Mr. Clem Gillespie. A small plot of land part of the present site, was given by Mr. Winders, and the name of the school was called Lanefield for the very simple reason that a Mr. Lane once had a house and fields hard by the building in which we meet today. As we cleaned the new grounds this spring it has been interesting to find traces of old corn rows that evidently belonged once to these same fields.

Then a house was started, a simple enough affair to be sure, but like most buildings of that day it was made strong and sturdy. Today parts of that building are still in the framework of the house we are vacating. But the time came when school must be opened and the building was not quite completed. So, for a few months the little group of pupils and their teacher, Mr. James K. Smith, found temporary quarters in the upstairs of the house now occupied by Mr. R. S. Moore. On the first roll we understand, were the names of Mrs. J. A. Powell, Mrs. P. G. Wilson, Mrs. Laura McClammy, Mr. F. G. Middleton, Mr. Tom Kelly, Mr. Carson Carlton and Mrs. L. Middleton, who, so far as we know, are the only living students of that eventful first year.

If we could see the school of that day now it would probably be hard for us to realize that this is the same school, grown up a bit. There were no lead pencils and tablets—what use when a slate could be used over and over and then handed down to a younger member of the family? Who of us old enough to remember the day of slates is willing to part with the memory of proud ownership of a new slate, its edges

bound with red wool string, not to mention the pencil with the starry flag around it? Even partial payments were possible if one wrote small figures and took care not to rub off the other side! Nor were there reports to make out, or grades to pass or state courses to follow. An old student told us that one year when the supply of text books ran low the pupils faithfully spent the hours absorbing the dictionary, word by word! Those were the days of “readin’ and writin’ and ’rithmetic” plus the inevitable Blue Back Speller, some history and geography. And we doubt not that to many a pupil in the words of an old Lanefield student describing a similar school, these branches of knowledge were often “taught to the tune of a hickory stick.” Moral persuasion and psychological methods of teaching were not so much in evidence then as now.

Apropos of the Blue Back Speller another delightful tale comes down to us from those early days. There was a certain small boy to whom the teacher gave out the word “incomprehensibility.” We pass over the wonder that any small boy should be expected to know the nineteen letters in a word seldom used, but those were the days when spelling was a fine art. For some moments the small boy wore a puzzled expression, then with the light finally breaking over his face he blurted out, “Why, Dr. Handy, I thought that were reading.”

We read with pride the list of teachers, most of whom have been men and women of college training, and practically every one of whom was not only of service in the school but also in the church and community life generally. They were, so far as we have been able to gather: Mr. J. K. Smith, Mr. O. P. Middleton (1868 or 70), Mr. J. L. Davis (1874), Mr. D. B. Nicholson (1875 or 1876), Miss Roella Davis (now Mrs Turner), Mr. J. W. Davis, Dr. S. W. Handy, Mr. Asa Alderman, Mr. D. S. Koonce, Mr. D. S. Kennedy, Miss Annie Moore, Mr. J. H. Gillespie, Mr. J. G. Stokes, Mr. G. G. Quinn, Miss Josephine Ward, Miss Bevvie Kennedy (now Mrs. B. Middleton), Miss Ella May Stokes (now Mrs. Rufus Daniel Bennett), Mr. R. B. White, Mr. Robert Pridgen, Miss Margaret Carlton, Mr. B. W. Allen, Miss Emma Middleton, Miss Carrie Powell (now Mrs. Peele), Miss Lizzie Moore, Miss Florence Boyette (later Mrs. Dr. Hawes), Miss Bowden Loftin, Miss Gertrude Chitty (now Mrs. Griffin), Miss Margaret Kennedy (now Mrs. Brown), Miss Mary Parker (now Mrs. Outland), Miss Minnie Middleton (now Mrs. Anderson), Miss Nell Chambers, Miss Lucy Middleton (now Mrs. Palmer), Miss Lucy Herring, Miss Myra Hunter (now Mrs. Carlton), Miss Lassiter (now Mrs. Ward), Miss Annie Carroll (now Mrs. Claude Best), Miss Mary White Carroll (now Mrs. Ledbetter), Miss Mattie Herring (Mrs. John Daly), Miss Carrie Chadwick (now Mrs. John Middleton), Miss Macy Jones (Mrs. Loyd Thomas), Miss Alda Howard (Mrs. Farrior






Koonce), Miss Christine Pridgen, Miss Annie May Boyette (Mrs. Quinn), Miss Alice Teague, Miss Corneva Bass, Miss Bessie Barden, Miss Alieze Lefferts, Miss Leitha Fulford, and Miss Lena Chadwick. It is interesting to note that the first time we had two teachers was during the session taught by Mr. D. S. Kennedy and Miss Margaret Carlton, and that the three teacher order of the day came in 1919 with Misses Teague, Bass and Barden. The honor for the longest term of service goes to Miss Margaret Carlton who gave thirteen lucky years to the children who were so fortunate as to to be her pupils.

For many years the salaries of these teachers were paid, not from the treasury of Duplin County, but from the pockets of that same group of men who founded and nourished the school. Even when the four months term of public school was later provided, the Lanefield Community still paid tuition for the pupils that they might have an extra two months each year. Doubtless from this very interest shown by our fathers and grandfathers came the desire for higher training which has sent thirty or more of our very own boys and girls to colleges and universities. In this fact we must confess we feel a real pride today.

Mention should be made also of the faithful service rendered by a long list of interested committeemen, but we have been unable to learn all their names. We feel very sure that much of the progress of the school has been due to them.

Time went on. The building grew too small and so first one end and then the other was torn out and enlarged. Another step was the addition of music lessons. These also were paid for by the patrons. For sometime an old-fashioned square piano, placed in the church, was used for lessons and practice. Interest was all the keener when occasionally gypsies camped on the grounds and music students were zealously guarded during practice hours by some of the older boys lest they be kidnapped! About twenty years ago a music room was added to the building, money and labor being again furnished by the community.

Scientists tell us that men who have made a study of trees can tell their age by the rings within the bark. Some more aspiring than others claim that even the more severe winters can be reckoned by the the thickness or thinness of the layers between the rings. But one wonders if there is any scientist, wise or unwise, who can look at a fallen tree and tell us what winds have sung in its branches or can tell the snow that has bent its limbs or the hail that has stung its leaves. The same kind of thing is true of any institution. We can count the rings today and say that Lanefield is nearly sixty, but we cannot count her difficulties or her achievements in so simple a fashion. Is there any way of measuring hours of weariness and discouragement that all teachers

feel at times? Is there any scale for testing the amount of joy that came from knocking the ball so far into the gallberry bushes that a Powell and a Boyette and a Carlton all made a home run before it could be found? Has anyone invented an instrument fine enough to estimate the thrills of Hail Over, and Steal-a-Beer, of Stick Frog and Shinny? And do you remember the good old days of King William when the bell rang before you could “go to the East, go to the West and choose the one that you love best?” And the spring—how about that? There were mysterious mud puppies to be dug out, green frogs to chase, the gluey clay that passed for soap, not to mention the sensational minutes when some poor unfortunate took an unexpected swim. And the water? Was there ever any sweeter or clearer or cooler? Is there anyone here who can calculate the genuine value of moss playhouses, syrup in a hole in the side of a biscuit, or the tantalizing flavor of that juicy yellow pear that used to come to school in somebody else's basket? If there is, we are waiting to be convinced that the time has come when all country schools have had their day and wholesale consolidation is not only inevitable but the panacea for all our educational problems.

These same scientists who are wise in tree lore tell us that there comes a time when every tree is ripe and needs to give way for a new one. The same is true of Lanefield today. The old tree is to be cut down, but like good foresters, we plant today a shoot from the same old tree. Lanefield, we believe, under modern methods of pruning and care, will grow into a more vigorous tree, but we hope the old spirit of co-operation and community pride will still add grace and sweetness to her life.

(By Mrs. Minnie Middleton (Anderson) Hussey—Mrs. Minnie Middleton Anderson served as missionary to China. Mrs. Minnie Middleton (Anderson) Hussey was Librarian at Woman's College at Greensboro, N. C., until she retired in 1957. From files of Duplin County Board of Education.)

EDUCATIONAL ADVANTAGES IN DUPLIN

About the year 1880, there seems to have been an awakening, and new interest infused into school life of the county. Things began to look up. About this time, we find the first record of a county superintendent in the person of Mr. B. F. Grady, who from records, shows long term of faithful service, and under whose supervision the cause prospered. Following in the order named, these gentlemen, all educated christian teachers, respectively filled the office of county superintendent, Viz: W. M. Shaw, R. W. Millard, S. W. Clement, and D. S. Kennedy. covering a period of thirty years, and the work continued to grow, as new methods were introduced, and new environments were thrown around the people. The necessity of public education was now fastening itself upon the minds of the people, and like every other great wave of progress






and reform, began to sweep over the land, and nothing since has been able to retard its movement.

CONTINUED GROWTH

At the close of the year 1911—the school population of Duplin County had grown from 3700 to 5500 white and colored. The public school fund had grown from $8,260. in 1882 to $34,000. in 1911. . . .

PRESENT FINANCIAL STATUS

School teaching to the average mind is quite prosaic often times not very attractive, and a matter about which, people are not much concerned, but when we point to the fact that the tax payers of this county, the past year, dug up from some where nearly a quarter million dollars, against $34,000 collected and expended in 1883, it looks like we are “going some.” This is true, nevertheless. Our schools are well financed. . . .

This sketch would not be complete unless we say something about the new movement, consolidation of schools. This idea is new in North Carolina, not so however, in many other Eastern and Western sections. Not more than six months ago the writer began to talk consolidation, and to our surprise and great delight, interest was quickly aroused, and grew so rapidly, that upon reflection, especially upon the financial side of this question, we had to content ourselves by consolidating only two points in the county, at present. Others will follow, in quick succession, when encouraged. It is one bright hope for the rural child. The one-teacher school has served its purpose well indeed, in many instances, but it has seen its best days. In this day of motor vehicles and good roads, consolidation has right of way, and nothing will stop it. True it is a costly proposition, but we can't estimate, or measure, the value of the child's intellect in dollars and cents. . . .

(By M. H. Wooten, County Superintendent—The Duplin Record, Dec. 1921. Courtesy of Mr. and Mrs. Ellis Vestal.)

DUPLIN TEACHERS—1921

Holding Certificates: Mabele Alderman, Magnolia, N. C.; Mary Torrans, Warsaw, N. C.; Ethel Kilpatrick, Rose Hill, N. C.; Thelma Norris, Wallace, N. C.; Tippie Summerlin, Kenansville, N. C.; Francis Mercer, Beulaville, N. C.; Ruth A. Torrans, Warsaw, N. C.; Mary Nicholson, Kenansville, N. C.; Marie Carter, Wallace, N. C.; Nora Mercer, Hallsville, N. C.; Myrtle Dixon, Rose Hill, N. C.; Nannie Lee James, Beulaville, N. C.; Ernestine Whaley, Kenansville, N. C.; Alda Sandlin, Beulaville, N. C.; Mrs. G. W. Lanier, Beulaville, N. C.; Mable Sandlin, Hallsville,

N. C.; Richard Pickett, Beulaville, N. C.; Mamie Herring, Seven Springs, N. C.; Kathleen Rodgers, Rose Hill, N. C.; Carrie Casey, Mt. Olive, N. C.; Leone Best, Warsaw, N. C.; Myrtle Burch, Kenansville, N. C.; Mrs. Paul D. Parker, Beulaville, N. C.; H. R. Geddie, Rose Hill, N. C.; Estelle Kennedy, Hallsville, N. C.; Ida Mae Sanderson, Beulaville, N. C.; Audrey Farrior, Rose Hill, N. C.; Newton E. Graham, Shiloh, N. C.; Mrs. F. N. Barden, Magnolia, N. C.; Mrs. Larry Sandlin, Beulaville, N. C.; Phoebe Jones, Beulaville, N. C.; Clarissa Grady, Kenansville, N. C.; M. Louise Pridgen, Warsaw, N. C.; Josie Lou Hamilton, Magnolia, N. C.; Floy Quinn, Kenansville, N. C.; Lizzie Davis, Kenansville, N. C.; Nellie Chestnutt, Magnolia, N. C.; Adell Thomas, Beulaville, N. C.; Christine M. Pridgen, Warsaw, N. C.; Katherine McLean, Mt. Olive, N. C.; Nora Blackmore, Warsaw, N. C.; Edgar Pollock, Warsaw, N. C.; Nellie Dixon, Mt. Olive, N. C.; Lila Swinson, Mt. Olive, N. C.; Nealie Kilpatrick, Rose Hill, N. C.; Lonnie Jones, Mt. Olive, N. C.; Carrie Jones, Mt. Olive, N. C.; Lora L. Wilson, Mt. Olive, N. C.; Mary Lou Wallace, Rose Hill, N. C.

SCHOOL NOTE

No teacher is allowed to teach in public schools, unless such teacher has attended Summer School, in past two years. All excuses for nonattendance rests with State Board of Education. Don't ask any other authority to excuse you.

(The Duplin Record, issue of December 1921—copy furnished by Mr. and Mrs. Ellis V. Vestal, Kenansville, N. C.)

B. F. GRADY HIGH SCHOOL DEDICATION

Mr. Superintendent, Ladies and Gentlemen:

In Joel Chandler Harris’ classic tales of Uncle Remus, there is a story of a certain rabbit that had been caught by a fox, who was quite anxious to punish him because of an ancient grudge that existed between the two families. While he was meditating upon the character of the punishment, the rabbit said to him: “Bre'r Fox, I know I am gwiner be punished; but for de Good Lord's sake, don't throw me into any brier patch. I can stand anything but that.” Whereupon, the fox immediately cast him into a thicket of thorns, and stood by to see him torn and mangled; but the rabbit jumped out of the bushes, laughed in great glee, and exclaimed, “Lordy Massy, Bre'r Fox, here is where I was bred and borned.”

Standing here in the presence of many with whom I played as a child, almost in sight of the old Homestead where my ancestors lived, died and are buried, and where I spent the major part of my youth, from






forty to fifty years ago, I am almost overcome with many emotions; but the deepest and most abiding of them all lies in that feeling of security and satisfaction which comes to every man when he returns to his own people—those who are connected with him by blood, and those ties of tender association which have ever knitted and bound me to that community which for many generations past has been known as “Chocolate.”

I am more than glad to return once again, and to mingle with you good people, who have ever been my friends since the days of my earliest recollection.

I have read somewhere in history that when William the Conqueror saw old age creeping upon him, after he had passed the meridian of life—he was seized with an irresistible desire to return to the home of his fathers, and to spend the remaining years of his life amidst the scenes of his childhood. The historian remarks that such emotions are common to all men, and that statement is corroborated by my own experience, by my own affection for the old home, and a desire to return to the places that I knew best when I was a barefoot boy.

It was here in this community, up and down the hills of the North East River, that I romped and played with many of you who, now, like myself, are “frosted with the snows of many winters”; when I knew nothing of the cares and responsibilities of life, or dreamed of the burdens that come to all of us when the mysteries of youth have been swept away by the sober knowledge of truth. For youth is filled with many mysteries. The fallacies and superstitions that surrounded us in those old days—many of them have passed into the shadow land of memory. The old haunted houses that we used to shun have been torn down; the lonely graveyard, with its strange, unearthly noises, has been cleared up, the cobwebs have been swept away, and the ghosts of the olden times have passed into oblivion—thrust aside by the less poetic, but practical demonstration of truth.

Dreamland has become peopled with strange realities, the whisperings of spirits have now become the sighing of the pines, and the things we feared in years gone by have become more friendly, more kindly, because now we see and understand.

And so I have come back, after these more than forty years, to mingle with my childhood friends, and to join with you in doing honor to my father, for whom this building is named, which, by accident or design, stands upon the first tract of land that was ever owned by the Grady family in Duplin County; for it is a fact that the land upon which we now stand was patented by William Grady, about 1754, and this William was the ancestor of all the Gradys in North Carolina, as well as the greater part of the Outlaws, the Kornegays, the Maxwells, the Simmonses,

and many of the Herrings. This record carries us through seven generations, and began as best we know, about the year 1690. My own memory covers only about 50 years of that period, for it was just fifty years ago that my father came to Duplin County with his family, and settled on the land where his father and his grandfather lived and died.

I could tell you many stories of the things that happened in “Chocolate” when I was a boy. Some would be comic, some tragic, but whatever their nature may have been, they are all hallowed by the flight of time, and form now but a blessed memory to those who participated in them. I could tell you about “Gat” Kornegay and his brother George, and of Albert Grady and Zeb, and my brother Cleburne: How we used to meet down at the bridge, where Tom Smith kept store and Taylor Beatty ran the turpentine still on the bank of the river; and how we used to leap into the water when the freshets came and race with the current in its mad rush for the sea. I looked down that old road today, and I thought of the hundreds of times that I had traveled it, carrying butter and eggs and chickens to market; and I can remember how old man Smith used to count the eggs, holding three at a time in his fingers. That old road has taken its place in the realm of memories. Like many of the things that I knew in those days, it has been thrust aside by the ruthless hand of progress.

I could tell you how we used to hunt ’possums and ’coons, and how we used to sleep in the swamp at night, after the hunt was over, and of the strange noises that we used to hear when we passed the old graveyard in the field. And then I can remember how we used to gather at Mrs. Howard's and at Mr. Ford's and at cousin John Grady's, and how we would dance until daybreak, and then walk home in time for breakfast. My memory takes me back to “Jock” Grady and Kate Ford, and Walter Smith and Gordon. They were much younger then than they are now; and how they could dance is beyond description! And then there was “Shook” Ford with his guitar, while Craven Grady and his brother Howell played the fiddles. There were no violins in those days; they were just plain fiddles; but no Paganini has ever surpassed the magic of Craven's bow, nor could Ole Bull compete with the melody of Howell's matchless second. When those three opened up with Snow Bird on the Ash Bank, Nancy Johnson, or Old Zip Coon, not a foot could resist the temptation to pat in unison, though its owner may have been too timid to lead a partner out on the floor.

I could tell you how we used to gather at the old Davis Mill, and how Gene Ford used to turn a somersault into the pier-head from the top of the mill house; and how we used to play pranks upon unsuspecting victims who had not yet learned how to swim; and I could tell you






how the “gang” used to gather on Sundays and break in such unsophisticated bull yearlings as happened to stray within the confines of our mimic empire. It was a sad day for these wandering gentlemen when they tried to pass down the old cedar lane from Uncle Daniel Simmons’ towards Kornegay's Bridge.

I could tell you how I used to go out to Mr. Hugh Maxwell's on Saturday nights and spend Sunday with Warren and Reddin and Bob. Those visits always filled me with delight, for the Maxwell boys always kept a supply of spy-glasses, magnets, prisms and scientific toys, and they had the first bicycle that was ever seen in Duplin County—one of the old Pope kind that had a large wheel in front and a small wheel in the rear. Its greatest value lay in the field of acrobatics, and especially in teaching its rider how to land on his feet when turning a somersault. Mr. Maxwell kept the Post Office, called Reseca, while a few miles away cousin John Grady was Post Master at Albertson. Our old friend, Kinsey Jones, brought the mail from Kenansville twice a week. “Jock” was the real Post Master at Albertson, for his father never had anything to do with the mail. I could tell you a great many things about “Jock” that you people have never heard of. “Jock” was a gentleman of much distinction in those days. He was a regular customer of J. Lynn, a merchant of New York City, and always carried on hand a supply of watches, mouth organs, jews harps, and brass finger rings, which were the admiration and envy of the younger generation for miles around. “Jock” kept one of J. Lynn's catalogs on hand, and we used to sit around the fire at night, while waiting for the mail to come, and figure out what we would order if we only had the money. My greatest ambition in those days was to accumulate as much as seventy five cents at one time, so I could order a “Wilcox Breech Loading Target Bow Gun” from our friend, J. Lynn. I can see that gun now as it was pictured in the catalog. It was a wonderful thing; but my ambition was never gratified. I was never able to accumulate so much money at one time; but I am going to New York some time and take “Jock” with me, and we are going to see J. Lynn and get him to show us one of those guns. If it is at all like it was advertised, I am going to buy one and bring it home with me.

I could tell you how my brothers and myself used to walk down to our uncle Stephen's on Saturday afternoons and go fishing with Lon and Robert; and then how we used to gather around the old square piano at night and sing “Tenting” and “The Vacant Chair” and other songs that all of us knew so well. And then we would sometimes have a dance, and Kate and Lula and Myrtie and Lilla would all join in the revelry, while uncle Stephen would play “Mississippi Sawyer” on the family

fiddle. I could also tell you how uncle Stephen used to “cuss.” It was a delight to hear him at his best, for there was no man in the community who could match him in real classic swearing.

But now I must tell of a tragedy. There were many of them back in those days; but this one beats them all. It happened when I went after the mail. It was about a mile and a half from our home to cousin John's and the path led through an old pine thicket, a very lonely place, where old aunt ’Lize Jarman had seen a ha'nt way back in days gone by. I know she saw it for she told me all about it.

My father used to take the Goldsboro Messenger, the Congressional Record, and several other periodicals, and he usually received about half a bushel of letters in each mail. Old man Kinsey Jones usually arrived at Albertson around 8:00 at night, and after “Jock” had opened and distributed the mail I had to go home with my burden, straight through that pine thicket. Many a night as I passed by the old ditch bridge, back of where Julie and Nancy Grady lived, have I heard that ha'nt walking in the bushes, and heard him scream like a banshee. On such occasions I would scatter Messengers, Congressional Records and letters for about a mile in my frantic efforts to reach home before that ghost got me. I can certify to the fact that I always outran him; but he was a fearful apparition, with a voice like a screetch owl, that made my heart flutter like a leaf in the wind.

There is one more tragedy that I must tell you about, and that is how I used to break up newground in the swamp, over next to Uncle Daniel Simmons’ place. We used a coulter, and old Buck had to pull it through reed roots about six inches thick. He would do his level best for awhile, and then the yellow flies and gnats would cover him, and he would start for the branch that separated us from uncle Daniel. I would tug with all my might, but I really do not believe that there is any power on earth that could have kept old Buck out of those bushes. It was under such circumstances that I first took the name of the Lord in vain; and so, in that respect, at least, it was a tragedy.

My memory also goes back to old Sutton's Branch School House, where I used to go to school to Mr. Joe Maxwell, and where I used to play Town Ball and Three Hole Cat with Robert Simmons, Ashley Jones, Gat Kornegay, Lonnie Smith, Craven Taylor, Bertie Powell and Crocket Lee's boys.

It was there, in that old School House, that my father began his educational work in Duplin County; and this brings me to the real subject of my address.

Your very capable Superintendent, Mr. Siske, and my friends, L. A. Beasley, W. J. Grady and Robert G. Maxwell, have asked me to come






here today and speak in behalf of my father, as the representative of his family, and in appreciation of this splendid memorial which you have erected to his memory. The fact that you have named this school for my father is very gratifying to his children and to his many friends in North Carolina; and, in behalf of his family, I wish to thank those who have been so kind to his memory, who have recognized his services in this community, and who have thought it worth while to immortalize him, so far as stone and brick and mortar are capable of immortality.

My friends, you will understand the embarrassment that comes to me at this time, and how difficult it is for me to speak in eulogy of my own father, or to attempt to interpret his life as an educator of the common people. Whatever of praise he deserves should be left to others. As for myself, I shall tell you the simple story of his life, a story in which many of you are interested, for I take it as true that the majority of you are related to him, that you are of the same race to which he belonged and that the Irish pride in you will swell with my own in the knowledge that we are all honored by this happy occasion. The story is as follows:

WILLIAM GRADY came into Bertie County about the year 1690 from Donegal County in North Ireland. He was a Protestant, and married Ann Barfield, a daughter of Richard Barfield of Virginia. His son, JOHN GRADY, married MARY WHITFIELD, a daughter of William Whitfield and Elizabeth Goodman, the latter being a native also of Ireland. John Grady settled near the present residence of William G. Kornegay in 1730. He was the father of eleven children, to wit: Mary, William, John, Charity, Anne, Alexander, Louis, Elizabeth, Margaret, Frederick, and a daughter whose name I do not know, but who married William Laws. His daughter, Elizabeth, married JAMES OUTLAW, the ancestor of practically every Outlaw in Duplin County. His son, ALEXANDER GRADY, known as “BUD,” married NANCY THOMAS of Maryland, and was the father of 10 children, to wit: Henry, Alexander II, John T., Mary Ann, Thomas, Charity, Charlotte, who married William Grady, her first cousin; Mary, who married her cousin Frederick Grady; Catherine, who married William Kornegay; and Winifred, who married her cousin John Moore Grady. From these children of Alexander Grady are descended many of the Gradys and Kornegays of this community. And this includes the children of Repsy Maxwell and Hugh Maxwell, Dr. J. F. Maxwell, James H. Maxwell, Jos. C. Maxwell, Warren Maxwell, Guilbert N. Maxwell, Redin Maxwell and Robert Goodman Maxwell, who married a direct descendant of Frederick Grady, son of John, and also of James Outlaw. I refer to my cousin Cholly Maxwell, who is a daughter of William Outlaw, who was a son of William Outlaw,

Sr., son of James, and who married Charity, of Cholly Grady, a daughter of Frederick, the son of John Grady.

ALEXANDER GRADY II, son of Alexander I, married Charity Outlaw, daughter of James, and was the father of 11 children, to wit: Outlaw Grady, Alexander Grady III, Henry Grady, Goodman Grady, Hatch Whitfield Grady, Elizabeth, Putsy, Nancy, Repsy who married Hugh Maxwell, Dr. James Monroe Grady, and Mary Grady—most of whom died of the smallpox in the winter of 1854. His daughter Elizabeth married her cousin Timothy Grady, and was the mother of Charles C. Grady, the father of Mrs. William Gaston Kornegay.

HENRY GRADY, son of Alexander I, married Elizabeth Outlaw, a sister of his brother Alexander's wife, and he was the father of Alexander Outlaw Grady, Eliza Anne Grady, who married Daniel Hargett Simmons, the ancestory of all the Simmons family in Duplin County; Susan Grady, who married Abraham Kornegay, grandmother of Gaston, George, Stephen, Alice and Repsy Kornegay; Bryan Whitfield Grady, the father of Julia and Nancy Grady; Pussy Grady, who married John Jackson; Letty Grady, who married James P. White; Harriet, who married Sherwood Grady; Benjamin Franklin Grady; Atlas Jones Grady; Stephen Miller Grady, the father of Leonidas, Robert, Lula, Myrtie, Lilla and Kate; Patrick Henry Grady who died young, and Alexander Torrans Grady, the only son of his last wife, who was Elizabeth Whitfield.

FREDERICK GRADY, son of old John, was the ancestor of all the Grady family of Lenoir County. He was the father of Durham Grady, Elisha Grady, Whitfield Grady, and ten other children.

JOHN GRADY, a son of old John, married a Moore, and was the father of Williams, Frederick II, John and Arthur Grady; and this Williams married Charlotte, the daughter of Alexander Grady I, and was the father of Sherwood Grady, Ahaz Grady, John Grady, Winfrey Grady, and several daughters.

My grandfather, ALEXANDER OUTLAW GRADY, married Nancy Sloan, daughter of GIBSON SLOAN and RACHEL BRYAN, his wife, who was a daughter of KEDAR BRYAN, a descendant of William Bryan and Alice Needham, who came to America sometime about 1690. My father was named for his uncle, Benjamin Franklin Grady, Sr., who was Clerk of the Court of Duplin County for a number of years, and who died in Texas many years ago at the home of my uncle, Romulus M. S. Grady.

It will be seen from what I have said that my father was related in blood to all the Gradys, most of the Outlaws, Kornegays, Simmonses, and Maxwells in Duplin County. He was proud of that relationship, and no man was more loyal to his people than he.






I shall now tell you the story of his life, as it has already been told by another, and you will pardon me for borrowing that which modesty forbids me to utter.

Benjamin Franklin Grady was born near Hallsville, Duplin County, on his father's farm, October 10th, 1831. His ancestors came from Ireland and settled in Duplin County in the fork of North East River and Burncoat Creek in 1739, having moved to that place from Bertie County where they first located about 1690. His mother was Nancy Sloan, daughter of Gibson Sloan and Rachel Bryan; and this Rachel was a daughter of Kedar Bryan and Rachel Whitfield; so that there was mingled in his veins the blood of the Whitfields, the Bryans, the Outlaws, the Sloans, the Needhams and the Thomases of Maryland. His mother called him Franklin.

When he was about seven years of age his father moved from his birthplace to the old home in Albertson Township, where his father and grandfather lived and died; and it was there on the farm that Franklin Grady was reared, and where he worked in the fields with his father's slaves until he was old enough to attend a preparatory school at Kenansville. His early training was in the Old Field school, and under his father, who was a man of wide information, though not a graduate of any institution of learning. He was prepared for college by Rev. James Sprunt, a Scotch Presbyterian, who had immigrated to this County prior to 1850. He entered the University in 1855 and graduated with highest honors in 1857. Among his class-mates were Col. Thomas S. Kenan, Judge A. C. Avery, Major Robert Binham, Dr. Daniel Mcl. Graham, Captain John Dugger, Hon. John Graham, and various others who have been prominent in the political and educational life of North Carolina. After his graduation he returned to Kenansville where he assisted his old preceptor for about a year when he was elected Professor of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at Austin College, then located at Huntsville, Texas. He held this position until the spring of 1862, when he volunteered as a private in a Cavalry Company, which was soon dismounted, and he served the balance of war as Orderly Sergeant of the Infantry. He was twice offered the Captaincy of his Company, but refused, stating at that time that he preferred to carry a gun. On January 11th, 1862, his entire command was captured at Arkansas Post and sent to Camp Butler, Ohio, as prisoners of war. In April following he was exchanged and sent to Tullahome, Tennessee, where he became a member of Grandbury's Brigade, Cleburne's Division, Hardee's Army Corps. Mr. Grady participated in many battles—notably those of Franklin, Tenn., Lookout Mountain, Chickamauga, and Atlanta. He was twice wounded at the Battle of Franklin—once in the hand and once in the face. Those who

knew him will recall the deep scar in the outer angle of his right eye—a faithful reminder of that scene of carnage, where every officer in General Cleburne's Division was killed, above the rank of Lieutenant, including both Generals Cleburne and Grandbury.

Mr. Grady developed into an expert marksman, and was often detailed to duty as a sharpshooter. It was on such an occasion that he witnessed the death of General Leonidas Polk, one of the bravest of Confederate Generals—a man who had resigned as Bishop of the Episcopal Church that he might fight for his native land.

On the day before Bentonsville, Mr. Grady was taken to Peace Institute in Raleigh, which was then used as a Hospital. The War closed while he was delirious with fever, and when he regained consciousness both Lee and Johnston had laid down their arms to the invader.

Without money, ragged, and still suffering from the effects of fever, he wandered back to “Chocolate,” the home of his fathers, where he saw his father die of a broken heart; saw the family servants scattered, the farm in ruins, credit destroyed, and his own people in actual want. Two of his brothers had been killed in the War—one at Dristoe Station and one at Snicker's Gap, while the remaining brother had lost the use of a hand. He saw that it was necessary to build up a New South on the ruins of the past. Teaching was his chosen profession, and he believed that in the education of the people lay the salvation of the country. He established a school near the present town of White Hall, afterwards moving to Clinton, where, with the assistance of Prof. Murdoch McLeod, he founded the Clinton Male Academy. In 1875 his health failed and he moved to the farm of Dr. Henry A. Bizzell, his wife's father, near Clinton, and in 1878 to his own farm in Albertson Township, Duplin County.

The life of a farmer in those days was uneventful. Its drudgery was irksome to the restless mind of the teacher. Gathering about him a few young men who were unable to attend college, he conducted a private school in his own home for several years. Here it was that the poor boy, almost without price, was enabled to gratify a thirst for knowledge, to sit at the feet of a master, who was as happy to impart as the boy was to receive knowledge. Among those who attended this private school were Robert C. Maxwell, John P. McNeill, Evander McN. Carr, Leonidas V. Grady, Mrs. Ed. Grady of Seven Springs, Caleb D. Bradhem of Newbern and others who have gone out into the world, fired with the inspiration that entered their souls in the humble home of B. F. Grady.

In addition to this private school he founded a Sunday School at old Sutton's Branch School House, the association of which were among his fondest recollections. Here he taught Music, the Bible, Mathematics,






Classical Literature, and the Sciences. Pope's Essay on Man and Scott's Lady of the Lake became familiar learning to the people in that community. Globes, charts, crucibles, and diagrams became a part of the regular program, along with history, both sacred and profane. To B. F. Grady all knowledge was sacred, and there was no department of learning that he did not touch in some way in that old school house by Sutton's Branch.

In 1881 Mr. Grady was elected Superintendent of Public Instruction for Duplin County, which position he held until March 4th, 1891, when he took his seat in the Federal Congress at Washington City. He was fitted both by education and birth for the duties of that office. During his administration the teachers were required to attain to a higher standard than ever before in the history of the County. He visited the schools often, and in the summer months conducted Institutes at Kenansville and also at the Court Houses in neighboring Counties, where many of the leading educators of the State were invited to participate as lecturers and teachers. He was by nature a teacher of men. He sought to arouse in the pupil a spirit of inquiry, believing that all culture came primarily from individual effort, stimulated and directed by proper suggestion.

Wherever he went, and with whomsoever he associated, his giant intellect left an indelible impression. His mind was omnivorous, his memory almost infallible, while his reasoning powers seemed to be without limit. There are few fields of thought that he had not traversed. He was equally at home with Goethe, the poet, or with Spencer, the philosopher and naturalist. In the realm of mathematics he had no superior, in history few equals, while in the Classics he was at perfect ease, whether it was Latin, French or Greek.

To those who knew him best his memory of things was proverbial; he seemed to have forgotten how to forget; his mind was a storehouse of knowledge, a treasure of facts, so arranged and simplified as to take on the aspect of an Encyclopoedia. Such was the impression that prevailed among those who knew him best.

I would like to close this story of my father by quoting from one of his most ardent admirers, my friend for many years, Hon. Lauchlin A. Bethune of Clinton. In one of his moods for fine writing he said this of my father: “Benjamin Franklin Grady was an outstanding exception to the general rule affecting those who are named for great personages. A name-sake of the great patriot, statesman and philosopher, Benjamin Franklin, he too was all of these as was very definitely known by those who understood him. He came of a race of which patriots are made, a race which struggled through centuries of defeat, only to come into its own within the last decade. His patriotism was of that exalted type

which consists in the love of one's own country, without hatred of any other; of a willingness to perform all the duties which a loyal citizen owes to his Country, and to make for it any needed sacrifice, gladly and without the hope of reward.

“The private life of this quiet and unobtrusive man had about it the calm dignity of the philosopher, and the modesty of virtue. It was like a majestic river in a world of babbling brooks, and one saw rather than heard its noiseless current, that had about it the silence of depth, and flowed as gently as the waters of Afton.

“B. F. Grady was a studious man both by habit and inheritance, becoming a ripe scholar and profound thinker. Education did as much for him as it could for any man of his day, and his mind became a vast storehouse of knowledge. Young men have been scholars, but no young man was ever a real philosopher. There is an ageing process which comes with experience. Mr. Grady underwent that process, carefully and deliberately, and was able to suppress those tendencies to revolution that run as a rule in the minds of advanced thinkers. He learned to accept the Universe as he found it, and his creed might be found in the lines of Alexander Pope, where he declares that—

‘In spite of faith, in erring reason's spite.One truth is clear—whatever is, Is Right.’

“As a statesman B. F. Grady was of that exalted type which puts public interest above all thought of self. A democrat of democrats, he believed in the people and their right to govern themselves; but he knew, as all students of history soon learn, that government may be safer at times in the hands of the educated few, than in those of an ignorant and misguided many. He knew that even with self governing people the law at times can become tyrannical, and that the tendency is often in that direction where the people become indifferent, and permit privilege and corruption to gain the ascendancy. And so, while a firm believer in democracy, Mr. Grady ever held to the idea that only in an educated electorate was it possible to establish a government of absolute justice. That is why he gave his life to educational pursuits.

“Mr. Grady was easily approached. He had a kind word for everybody. He had a keen sense of the ridiculous, and, as is usually the case with men of that kind, was lenient towards the absurdities and inconsistencies of others. He was prodigal in his habits. The material things of this life held little attraction for him. Without love of money or property the simplicity of his life and conduct was a source of wonderment to his friends. He was affectionate to his family, and loyal to his friends.

“He delighted in the companionship of children, between whom and






himself there was a perfect bond of sympathy in the carelessness with which he viewed the material things of this world.”

I am glad indeed that my father was able to merit such commendation at the hands of his friends, and I am happy to repeat these things to the people that he cared for the most, and among whom he spent the most useful period of his life. He wrote many articles for the Press; but the finest things that he has contributed to the literature of the South are his two books dealing with secession and the conflict between the Federal and Confederate Governments. The Case of the South Against The North, and The South's Burden.

My father died March 6th, 1914, and is buried in the Cemetery at Clinton. On his tomb is the simple inscription—“Benjamin Franklin Grady, Soldier, Statesman, Philosopher.”

And now, once again thanking the good people of this community, the Board of Education, the Board of Commissioners, and all who have contributed in any way towards the erection of this building for the distinguished honor that they have conferred upon my father and his family, and harking back to Chocolate as I knew it forty and fifty years ago, I repeat that I am always happy to return to these scenes and to mingle with my boyhood friends and companions. I love to come back to the old home, and I wish to close my remarks with the beautiful apostrophe of Sir Walter Scott to his native land:

“Breathes there a man with soul so dead,who never to himself hath said,This is my own, my native land!Whose heart hath ne'er within him burned,As home his footsteps he hath turned,From wandering on a foreign strand!If such there breathe, go hark him well;For him no minstrel raptures swell;High though his titles, proud his name,Boundless his wealth as wish can claim;Despite these titles, power and pelf,The wretch all centered in himself,Living, shall forfeit fair renown,And, doubly dying, shall go downTo the vile dust, from whence he sprung,Unwept, unhonored, and unsung.”

(Address of Judge Henry A. Grady at the Dedication of the B. F. Grady High School, September 1st, 1928, and on file in the office of the County Board of Education of Duplin County.)

MORE ABOUT SCHOOLS

“The flourishing ’20's became the boom years of our school system. The State's equalization fund which has grown only from $100,000 in 1901 to $836,000 in 1921, grew to $6,500,000 in 1929. In 1921 also a State teacher's salary schedule was adopted which, according to Dr. Allen, fixed salaries at from three to four times the average paid before that time. The State also established building loan funds to aid the counties in constructing buildings necessary for the operation of the six months term. During this period also many new special charter and special taxing districts were created, and the consolidated rural school came into its own.

“During these years, the State, the County and local districts were all investing more and more money in popular education. The money of the local units was spent only because the voters desired that it be spent. The State's money was spent, not with the idea that either the Constitution or the voters expressly required it, but because of recognition of the fact that the State did have some obligation to help the counties, and particularly the poorer counties, to bear the educational burden placed upon them by the Constitution. The counties, then, still bore the brunt of compulsory tax levying.

“When the Legislature of 1931 convened, the prosperity of the ’20's had vanished and recession was well under way. County tax collections were already in such condition that, in many instances, it was obviously impossible for them to collect their part of the six months school revenue. The Legislature thereupon assumed for the State the burden of supporting the Constitutional term. This was the first legislative recognition of any duty on the part of the State to support the schools by virtue of a direct obligation resting on the State, rather than merely to attempt to equalize the burden as between counties.

“Vocational Education began coming to the school with Federal Aid by the 1920's; Vocational Rehabilitation by the 1930's; Free Textbooks were authorized in 1937; the Teachers and State Employees’ Retirement System was authorized in 1941; Free School Lunches came in with Federal Aid in the 1940's.”

(See Background Material for The State School Finance Commission, By Dr. Albert Coates, Director.)

The citizens of the state adopted an amendment to the State Constitution in 1942 which provided for a State Board of Education of thirteen members. Ten of these members are appointed by the Governor with joint approval of the two houses of the General Assembly for staggered






terms of office. Three others are the elected State Superintendent of Public Instruction, the State Treasurer, and the Lieutenant Governor. Under the present Constitution, this Board has the responsibility for the general supervision and administration of the free public school system and of the educational funds provided for the support thereof.

The Constitution authorized the election of a State Superintendent of Public Instruction to serve as a member of the Executive Department of Government to perform such duties “as shall be prescribed by law.”

The General Assembly is the source of all school law which effects public education. The Legislature provides the machinery for the operation of the schools and the funds for the support of Education. The will of the people is expressed through Constitutional provisions, through popular election of a State Superintendent of Public Instruction, and through an elected General Assembly.

The fact that a large percentage of the funds for education is provided by the State and Federal government results in a high degree of centralization of authority for most of the phases of school policy. The fact that the State Board has generally remained a policy body has been a very fortunate circumstance. This means that local boards of education have retained a maximum of autonomy.

The County Board of education is subject to a clearly defined set of statutes with respect to the use of State and Local funds, curriculum decisions, personnel problems, buildings and equipment, and other educational functions.

The County Board of Education is a policy making body within the county. It determines, within the framework of State legislation, the programs of education for its constituents. It is responsible for budget making and the supervision of State funds. The County Board of Education is fiscally dependent upon other taxing authorities for funds.

The major responsibility of the school is classified as instructional service. This calls for various types of teaching and learning activities to meet the needs of all kinds of children from all types of environments and responding to a variety of economic needs. The program of our schools must go beyond the traditional reading, writing, and arithmetic instruction. A wider offering demands a more highly trained staff and more effective teaching. Tools with which to work are the essential right of every worker. The range of instructional materials increases with new developments in daily life, and these are subject to the same cost increase as other items. Libraries and books are the tools of education. The evaluation of the work of pupils through tests and experiments costs money but brings about dividends. Money spent in a better instructional program is a genuine investment.

A second heavy local cost is that for buildings and grounds. Adequacy, flexibility, utility, and economy are desirable goals for physical facilities.

The third area is financial support at all levels. The local unit has an obligation to build upon whatever base the State may establish. It is very important to recognize the fact that the level of state support now set up does not provide an adequate program. Minimum standards of instruction can not be maintained without some local support.

In Duplin a few years ago the County Board of Education and the Board of County Commissioners decided to look forward to a pay-as-you-go program for new school construction. Following a study of our school system by the citizens of the county under the Kellog Program, the consolidation fever broke out and our high schools were consolidated.

For several years additional funds were also included in the Capital Outlay School Fund for necessary buildings; thereby constructing new buildings from current taxes.

The greater part of principal bond maturities for several years were refunded, so that a like amount of additional funds could be included in the Capital Outlay School Fund Budget, annually.

When you enter these buildings today, it gives you a good feeling to know that they are paid for. The tax payers are not having to pay out large sums of money in interest on borrowed money for their construction.

Dr. W. D. Herring has said: “Education is costly. There is nothing more expensive than education, except ignorance. Yet the dividends from education are the greatest known from any investment.”

SPECIAL SCHOOL TAX DISTRICTS AND OTHER SPECIAL
TAX DISTRICTS IN DUPLIN — 1929

Special School Districts1929 Tax RateSpecial School Districts1929 Tax Rate
Beulaville$ .30Kenansville.25
Calypso.25Magnolia.30
Charity.15Maysville.05
Chinquapin.25Page-Harvel.25
Cobbs.05Rose Hill.30
Corinth.25Teachey.30
Faison.25Wallace.25
B. F. Grady.25Warsaw.25

OTHER SPECIAL TAX DISTRICTS — 1929

Districts1929 Tax RateDistricts1929 Tax Rate
Island Creek Road$ .10Magnolia Road.05
Kenansville Railroad Aid.05Warsaw Road.10

(Minute Book 9, pages 375 and 394.)






DUPLIN COUNTY
RECORD OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE

Average Attendance
TownshipDistrictHigh School
WHITE SCHOOLS:TotalElem.
AlbertsonB. F. Grady50899409
Searls Field5050
Cypress CreekPin Hook3434
Cypress Creek Church2121
Chinquapin43298334
Springfield1212
FaisonFaison28670216
Calypso32263259
Friendship1818
Quinn66
Island CreekWallace509118391
Charity9292
Teachey16850118
KenansvilleKenansville26066194
LimestoneCedar Fork3636
Beulaville465100365
Norris1313
Sloan2828
Potter's Hill8282
George Potter2626
MagnoliaMagnolia30660246
RockfishCorinth8080
Page-Harvell641450
Rose HillRose Hill323113210
SmithBay Pond4848
WarsawWarsaw539118421
WolfscrapeCobbs108108
Summerlin9898
Goodson5555
Long Ridge4646
Mayesville4747
Totals—White50829694113
NEGRO SCHOOLS:
AlbertsonDoris2626
Cypress CreekChinquapin121121
Tom Murray3434
Deep Bottom5151
FaisonFaison24878170
Railroad3030
Calypso142142
W. M. Shaw2424
Crow-Goshen8686
GlissonBranch5454
Island CreekWallace250250
Christian Chapel2323
Island Creek128128
Brice55
Little Creek5454
Teachey116116
KenansvilleKenansville324324
LimestoneBeulaville3939
Hallsville3232
MagnoliaMagnolia131131
Frederick5151

Average Attendance
TownshipDistrictHigh School
NEGRO SCHOOLS:TotalElem.
Hall3939
Sandy Crossway5252
RockfishC. Vann2727
Iron Mine4848
Friendship1313
Pearsall2323
Rose HillRose Hill132132
Carr3434
SmithPink Hill6060
Salem3030
Sarecta3232
WarsawWarsaw40878330
WolfscrapeCobb108108
Total—Negro29751562819
Totals—White & Negro805711256932

RECORD OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE
AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE

1938-391948-491958-591968-69
DISTRICTSHighElem.HighElem.HighElem.HighElem.
B. F. Grady W.144529156605204487367
B. F. Grady N.3623432281
Branch N.237186
Chinquapin W.130517158593207525504
Chinquapin N.5212762252320191†
Tom Murray N.56
Deep Bottom N.61
Faison W.6325881236195187
Faison N.7320388250448298
Calypso W.100340102330277347
Calypso N.256159
North Duplin W.187247
Wallace W.192530168553733801
Wallace N.6918290323477353*
Charity390326
Rivenbark N.32
Island Creek N.75
Little Creek N.80
Teachey N.93105160130
Wallace-Rose Hill W.417579
Kenansville W.9734479343344294
Kenansville N.5915271334286374214§292
Farrior N.49
Zion N.6537
Stockinghead N.18
Stanford N.3027
Beulaville W.160782198856280637745
East Duplin749
Beulaville N.7650
Potter's Hill128
Magnolia W.12125652183180155
Magnolia N.3712069179210130
Frederick N.24
Hall N.29

* C. W. Dobbins† Chinquapin Elementary§ E. E. Smith




1938-391948-491958-591968-69
DISTRICTSHighElem.HighElem.HighElem.HighElem.
Sandy Crossway N.19
C. Vann N.27
Iron Mine N.5046
Friendship N.22
Pearsall N.24
Rose Hill W.120291103340338436
Rose Hill #2 N.65148100433548422
Warsaw W.188413123493547575
Warsaw N.9534496436258583251496>‡
James Kenan W.319485
Totals—White131542601220453216144391
Totals—Negro486259660829129343357
Totals—White & Negro18016856182874442548774828516918

(Audit Reports: 1939, 1949, 1959, 1969 from Principal's Final Reports.)

‡ Douglas§ E. E. SmithDUPLIN COUNTY
INVENTORY OF SCHOOL PROPERTY

DatesBuildingsFurniture and FixturesLandTotal
6-30-29$ 738,075.00$ 74,425.00$35,350.00$ 847,850.00
6-30-39570,850.0078,095.0034,350.00683,295.00
6-30-491,247,025.00143,500.0038,150.001,428,675.00
6-30-594,593,000.00388,100.0048,900.005,030,000.00
6-30-698,223,300.001,110,600.0070,800.009,740,650.00

(Audit reports: 1929, 1939, 1949, 1959, and 1969.)

BOARD OF EDUCATION—COUNTY OF DUPLIN
KENANSVILLE, NORTH CAROLINA

EXPENDITURES—COUNTY FUNDS (C. E. F.: C. O. F. AND
DEBT SERVICE)
(ALL FUNDS THAT WENT THROUGH COUNTY
NOT INCLUDING FEDERAL ESEA AND STATE FUNDS)
Fiscal PeriodCurrent Expense FundCapital Outlay FundDebt Service FundTotal
1956-57257,594.79258,846.369,752.60526,193.75
1957-58264,202.60366,139.859,952.79640,295.24
1958-59273,871.93300,641.329,703.58584,216.83
1959-60327,540.14300,894.979,857.47638,292.58
1960-61326,585.38156,533.7112,797.13495,916.22
1961-62368,384.57331,451.5916,875.17716,711.33
1962-63359,409.69485,988.6920,381.76865,780.14
1963-64381,431.45415,783.1419,930.78817,145.37
1964-65365,029.15390,289.8017,524.88772,843.83
1965-66499,450.85417,502.2017,554.14934,507.19
1966-67629,279.59488,192.7327,881.581,145,353.90
1967-68616,376,28440,833.8226,489.641,083,699.74

Fiscal PeriodCurrent Expense FundCapital Outlay FundDebt Service FundTotal
1968-69669,133.95133,271.05*18,867.49821,272.49
Totals5,338,290.374,486,369.23217,569.0110,042,228.61

* Capital Outlay School Fund unexpended budget balance 6-30-69 $166,598.14.

(From County Audit Reports.)

State Funds expended through the State Treasurer for public schools in Duplin County for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1969—$3,047,771.25.

(From County Superintendent's Office)

Federal E.S.E.A. Funds expended through the County Treasury for public schools in Duplin County for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1969—$975,219.50.

(Audit Report)

JAMES KENAN TIGERS 1960 STATE CHAMPS!

From Trenton to Morganton—and from all the other towns where fans had the pleasure of seeing so great a team play—came the resounding praise of 1960's State Champions, the James Kenan Tigers. . . .

FOOTBALL — 1960 — SCHEDULE
James Kenan24 - 6Jones Central (AA)
19 - 6+Massey Hill (AAA)
13 - 6-+Erwin (AA)
25 - 6Richlands*
13 - 7x+Wallace-Rose Hill (AA)
37 - 0Burgaw*
(Homecoming)31 - 0+Roseboro-Salemburg (AA)
13 - 12+North Duplin*
20 - 0Mt. Olive*
Conference20 - 0+Beulaville*
District13 - 7Rohanen (at Rockingham)
Regional19 - 13Ayden (at Goldsboro)
Eastern19 - 0Benvenue (at Kinston)
STATE13 - 12N. C. School for Deaf (at Morganton)

* - Conference games+ - Home games- - Broke fifteen game winning streak by Redskinsx - First time Tigers had beaten Bulldogs in football in 18 years.

LINEUP
LE—Colon Quinn (co-captain)4
LT—Mickey Askew4
LG—Mac McNeill (co-captain)4
C—Johnny Pat Harmon3
RG—Bobby Best4
RT—Virgil Lanier4
RE—Allen Wahab4






QB—Jimmy Dixon2
LH—Jimmy Benton4
RH—Pepsi Merritt4
FB—Danny Batts4
Defensive Specialists:Shannon Brown, Senior Tackle Charles Lockamy, Senior End Billy Knowles, Soph Guard Bobby Phillips, Junior Linebacker Allen Fountain, Soph Tackle

Throughout the entire week of November 26, the main topic of conversation in this area was the big trip to Morganton for the Class A State Championship game with the North Carolina School for the Deaf (NCSD).

The team was ushered out of Warsaw with a giant send-off, sponsored by our friends, the fans. After arriving at Morganton, the players received many telegrams from well-wishers who found it impossible to make the trip. Backed by this moral support, James Kenan went into the game with spirits high.

The game itself was evenly played throughout. The first half ended 6-6, but the Tigers forged ahead with a touchdown midway through the fourth quarter. Batts pounded across for the score, and then cracked over for the payoff point-after-touchdown.

On the following kickoff, Bear halfback Mike Triplette scooped up the bound ball, and raced eighty-eight yards for the touchdown which pulled the Bears to within one point of a tie. That one point never materialized, however, as the impregnable Tiger defense stopped the extra point to sew up the win for the Class A State Football Championship!

At the final gun the field was immediately flooded with jubilant Tiger fans. Girls fought their way to that certain boy who had, in their eyes, made the greatest contribution of all. Parents, brothers, and sisters engulfed their favorite in hugs and endless words of praise. Coaches Taylor, Helton, and Lewis shook hundreds of hands in those ten or fifteen minutes.

But, to the victors—not the mamas, papas and girl friend—belong the spoils, and co-captains Mac McNeill and Colon Quinn, along with the coaches, were presented with the trophy. Thus, our Tigers became official holders of the 1960 State Class A Football Championship!

The championship team rolled up 215 points during the regular season to set a new ten-game scoring record. They added sixty-four more to that total during the playoffs, to finish with a sum of 279 points. They averaged 19.9 ppg, and held a 202-point margin over their opponents, who scored 76 in all. In registering five shutouts, this team scored 46 touchdowns, but was able to convert successfully after only fifteen of these. . . .

Our defensive unit yielded twelve touchdowns. However, only four of these were scored by rushing, and two are accredited to a kickoff return and a run with a fumble.

Hubert “Pepsi” Merritt led Tiger scoring in “That Wonderful Year,” as he scored eleven touchdowns and accounted for six extra points for a total of 72 points. Battering-ram fullback Danny Batts churned across enemy goal lines eleven times also, but had just two conversions for a second-place total of 68. Co-captain Colon Quinn snared six scoring tosses, added two TD's on runs with intercepted passes, and converted once for 49 points. Bob Phillips, part-time offensive halfback, scored four touchdowns for 24 points. Sophomore quarterback Jimmy Dixon, in launching what already must be termed as a brilliant high school football career, rushed for three touchdowns and five extra points for a total of 23 points.

This very successful football campaign brought many honors to Coach Bill Taylor and his “Tiger Terribles.”

Coach Taylor received the “Coach of the Year” award from the East Central Conference. In addition to this, he was chosen Assistant Coach to Wilson's Paul Marklin for the 1961 East-West High School All-Star football game, held annually at Greensboro, in Senior High Stadium.

Eight Tigers were chosen as part of the ’60 East Central All-Conference squad. Those chosen were: fullback Danny Batts, guard Bobby Best, defensive tackle Shannon Brown, tackle Virgil Lanier, guards Mac McNeill and Colon Quinn, halfback Pepsi Merritt, and quarterback Jimmy Dixon.

For their outstanding work both offensively and defensively, Colon Quinn and Bobby Best were selected to the 1960 All-East Class A High School Football Team. The selection was made by the sports staff of the News and Observer in Raleigh. By vote among the players, Colon was picked as co-captain of the dream-team. Colon was chosen by this same board of sportswriters to be a member of the All-East team, including all classifications. This is an achievement seldom achieved by a Class A player.

As a coach of the East team, Coach Taylor was able to pick two






of his players to be on the squad. He picked Colon, who had already been chosen by the News and Observer, and Mac McNeill, who went in Bobby Best's place.

During the one week of practice, Mac nailed down a starting linebacker position, and Colon was named kickoff man. Both boys played appreciably in the East's 15-13 loss.

J. P. Harmon was Principal of James Kenan High School in 1960.

(The First Half-Decade of James Kenan Football, by: Bill Rollins.)

DUPLIN COUNTY'S ALL-AMERICAN FOOTBALL
HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETE

Jimmie Jerome is the first All-American High School Football Athlete in Duplin County. He attended Wallace-Rose Hill High School in 1969-70.

RESOLUTION

NORTH CAROLINA

DUPLIN COUNTY

Resolved, That the Duplin County Board of Education express its sincere appreciation and thanks to Mr. O. P. Johnson, County Superintendent of Schools of Duplin County, since 1935. Those of us who have the longest association with him, and those who have joined us later, know that the Duplin County Public School System, as it is today, is the outcome of his leadership. With vision, courage and ability, he has always encouraged the training of youth for usefulness to themselves and others.

Resolved, That the new Public Schools Administration Office Building be named: “THE O. P. JOHNSON DUPLIN COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS ADMINISTRATION BUILDING,” in his honor.

This Board delights to do Mr. Johnson this honor, and extends to him earnest wishes for a continuing long and useful life in public education.

This the 21 day of April, 1966.

DUPLIN COUNTY BOARD OF EDUCATION

D. D. BLANCHARD, CHAIRMAN

RUSSELL BROCK, MEMBER

W. O. ALBERTSON, MEMBER

E. E. ROGERS, MEMBER

J. F. STRICKLAND, MEMBER

(Minutes of County Board of Education, 4-21-66.)

KENANS GIVE $100,000 FOR COMPLETION
OF KENAN MEMORIAL AUDITORIUM

Kenan Memorial Auditorium is to be finished, furnished, and up-dated in every way. This announcement was made on Friday night at the James Kenan Graduation Exercises by Thomas S. Kenan, III, of Durham, who stated that the Trustees of the William R. Kenan, Jr., Charitable Trust were giving $100,000 for this job.

Mr. Kenan presented to O. P. Johnson, Superintendent of Schools, a check for $50,000 and the promise of a second check for the same amount in January of 1967. He read to the audience a letter from the Trustees of the William R. Kenan, Jr., Charitable Trust to the Duplin County Board of Education.

Part of the letter read, “In your presentation dated November 9, 1965, you list as your most important need and number one requirement funds to complete Kenan Memorial Auditorium. The Trustees of the William R. Kenan, Jr., Charitable Trust are pleased to approve a grant of $100,000 for completion of Kenan Memorial Auditorium at Kenansville, North Carolina. This grant will be paid in two installments of $50,000 each. We are pleased to hand you herewith check of Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York in the amount of $50,000 in full payment of the first installment. The second and final installment of this grant will be paid in January, 1967.”

Mr. Kenan stated that the late Mr. William Rand Kenan, Jr., was interested in Duplin County, Kenansville, and its people, and that under Article Nine Residuary Trust of his Will, Mr. Kenan expressed the hope and wish that income be used by his trustees primarily for educational purposes.

Kenan Memorial Auditorium has never been completed. It is used for many county-wide events for both schools and civic groups for various types of entertainment. The county basketball tournament is held there each year, as are school exhibits. County Wide 4-H and Home Demonstration Clubs hold annual events in the auditorium.

Mr. Kenan stated that bleachers would be removed and chairs would be added. Air conditioning will be installed and the rest rooms and showers will be tiled. The lobby will be refinished with terrazzo floors.

A silent heating system will be installed so that the auditorium may be used for cultural as well as athletic programs. It is understood that the entire front of the building will be updated.

Kenan Memorial Auditorium was started in 1949 with a grant of $20,000 from William Rand Kenan, Jr., Mrs. Jessie Kenan Wise and






Mrs. Sarah Kenan. This family made an additional contribution each year until the building was in its present condition, all in all a total of sixty or seventy thousand dollars.

After the Kenans had given the original grant, the county added $25,000. From the proceeds of the Duplin Story in 1949 an additional $10,000 was added, and $10,000 was raised from public subscriptions.

With the present gift of $100,000, the Kenan Memorial Auditorium will be made comfortable, beautiful and adequate for sports and also for stage shows as the lighting equipment will be fixed so as to give proper stage lighting.

Many activities which have had to pass Duplin by because of lack of space and proper facilities now may be held in the auditorium.

Mr. Tom Kenan, III, expressed his pleasure at being with the James Kenan graduating class at their commencement program. He further stated that he and the late William Rand Kenan, Jr., and other members of the Kenan family had a great interest in and love for Duplin County and their original home, Kenansville.

(Duplin Times — Progress Sentinel, June 2, 1966.)

Mr. William Rand Kenan, Jr., Mrs. Sarah G. Kenan, and Mrs. Emily Kenan Wise contributed on the bleachers at James Kenan High School.

The 1950 Centralian, Kenansville High School Annual, was dedicated to the Kenan family.

NOMINATION AND ELECTION OF BOARD OF
EDUCATION MEMBERS

An Act to provide for the nomination and election of the members of The Board of Education of Duplin County.

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact:

Section 1. The Board of Education of Duplin County shall continue to exist and to consist of five members. Each member of the Duplin County Board of Education shall continue to hold his office on said board until his term of office shall expire and until his successor is nominated and elected and inducted into office as hereinafter provided.

Sec. 2. In the year immediately preceding the expiration of any six-year term of office of a member of the Board of Education of Duplin County his successor shall be nominated and elected in the primary and general election and the member so elected shall qualify and take office on the first Monday in April of the year following the election of said member of said board of education. The procedure herein provided shall be followed irrespective of the number of terms expiring and the number of vacancies on the board of education to be filled. Any member or

members elected to office on said board of education shall serve for term of six years each and until the successor of each member is elected and inducted into office.

Sec. 3. The primary and general election of the member or members of the Board of Education of Duplin County shall be conducted in all respects in accordance with the primary and general election laws applicable to county offices and as provided in Chapter 163 of the General Statutes as amended. Each candidate of a political party shall file notice of candidacy as required by the Primary laws and shall pay a filing fee of five dollars ($5.00).

Sec. 4. In case of any vacancy on said board of education before expiration of term of office by reason of death, resignation, removal from office, change of residence or for any other reason, then the county executive committee of the political party of the member causing the vacancy shall appoint some eligible person to fill the vacancy for the unexpired term. . . .

(Chapter 1046, Session Laws 1967.)

SOME OLD POEMS PERTAINING TO EDUCATION
“Teachers labor to lead eager youth to know:Deep within his Nature is a wondrous WorldBroader than that we gaze on, and informedWith a diviner beauty,And that above them both, High Priest and King,Youth stands supreme to choose and to combine,And build from that within him, and without,New forms of life, with Meaning of his own.”—Author Unknown“The teacher lives forever. On and on,Through all the generations he shall preachThe beautiful evangel—on and onTill our poor race has passed the tortuous yearsThat lie fore-reaching the Millennium,And far into that broad and open seaHe shall sail singing still the songs he taughtTo the world's youth and sing them o'er and o'erTo lapping waters till the thousand leaguesAre overpast, and Argosy and CrewRide at their port.”—Author Unknown




13. EARLY ACADEMIES AND SCHOOLS

Angel Academy: Mentioned in Duplin County Public Registry Book 3 A, Page 149.

Bethel Academy: Deed dated Dec. 23, 1843, John Oliver to Bethel Academy, Book 23, Page 415.

Dunn-Faison Academy: Oct. 17, 1842, Deed: Book 1-5-10-14-15, Page 445.

Elhanan School and Camp Ground—1904: Deed: Book 84, Page 367. Trustees: D. H. Murphy, O. W. Rouse, W. L. Bryan, George W. Gaylor, and Henry Farrior.

Faison High School (For Boys) under direction of Wilmington Presbytery—Nov. 12, 1901. Trustees: B. B. Witherington, James M. Faison, I. L. Faison, A. F. Johnson, W. M. Cummings, R. M. Williams, D. P. McGeachey, L. P. Best, S. H. Isler and Dr. W. L. Smith. Deed: Book 67, Page 555.

Faison Industrial School—1904: Trustees: H. C. Wright, N. Moore, S. C. Carroll, R. A. Spiers, Peter Johnson, A. R. Middleton, D. A. Williams, and I. S. Moore. Deed: Book 84, Page 427.

Faison Male Academy: Charter Pr. 1905, Chap. 317.

Female Seminary (In Kenansville)—1861: Needham W. Herring to Trustees: O. Carr, James Dickson, Dickson Mallard, James E. Hall, Robert B. Carr, James B. Carr, James M. Sprunt, Owen R. Kenan, Isaac B. Kelly, C. W. Graham and Willie E. Hall. Deed: Book 23, Page 599. Also, William Farrior to Trustees of Female Seminary. Deed: Book 27, Page 599.

Friendship Academy—Sept. 29, 1841, Daniel Swinson and wife to Friendship Academy and School Committee, Deed: Book 1, 5, 10, 14, 15, Page 352.

Franklin Military Institute—Located East of Faison. Operated by Captain Claude B. Denson.

Goshen Academy—1814

“TEACHER WANTED.

The Goshen Academy in Duplin County, is in want of a Teacher. A person competent to teach the Languages and Sciences, of good character,

will meet with immediate employment, on application to D. Wright, Esq. A permanent salary of $500 will be given, or the profits of the Academy which have heretofore produced a considerably large sum. June 11, 1819.”

—Raleigh Register, June 18, 1819.

(N. C. Schools and Academies, by Coon.)

Green Academy: Located three miles North of Faison, founded by John Elliott, a Yale man from New England. Major Hiram W. Husted also taught in this school.

(Public Documents, Session 1901, Vol. I, Document No. 9.)

Grove Academy—60 acres, Deed: Book 111, Page 43. (See Chapter on Grove Academy.)

Industrial Training and Educational School (Incorporated) Pr. 1909, C. 266; Pr. 1911, C. 298; Pr. 1919, C. 34; Body corporate and politic: H. C. Wright, A. R. Middleton, D. A. Williams, Peter Johnson, G. R. Raynor, Rev. N. Moore, R. A. Speers, Rev. J. N. McKnight, J. R. Coel, S. S. Stevens and J. C. Herring.

James Sprunt Institute, a High School in the Town of Kenansville, 1897. Trustees: Peter McIntire, James Sprunt, B. F. Hall, Oscar Pearsall, A. F. Johnson, J. D. Currie, I. V. Lancaster, James W. Blount and Henry Farrior.

Wilmington Presbytery has agreed to control and manage said school in the interest of education, and has elected the above Board of Trustees for such control and Management. Deeds: Book 56, Page 341; Book 102, Pages 132, 133 and 134. (See Chapter on James Sprunt Institute.)

Kenansville Seminary—1856, Deed: Book 23, Page 599. Deed to R. W. Millard and Nathan B. Webster, Book 25, Page 39; Webster Institute, Book 25, Page 455.

La Place Academy—1861, Trustees: Isham Southerland and Alex S. Davis, Deed: Book 23, Page 539.

Magnolia Male Academy, Corp.—1858, Deed: Book 23, Page 68.

Hannah Moore Academy (Female Institution)—April 14, 1837, Trustees: Jeremiah Pearsall, John Oliver, William D. Pearsall, Thomas Hill, Harold Blackmore, Harper Williams, Edward Hill, Stephen Miller, Richard Miller and James M. Larkins. Deed: Book 9, Page 6.

HANNAH MOORE ACADEMY IN 1837—This institution is now in successful operation under the direction of Miss L. E. Clarke, aided by Miss M. McDuffee, both of which ladies are eminently qualified for the stations which they fill; and from the very satisfactory manner, (both to parents and pupils) in which they conduct the school, the Trustees feel well warranted in recommending it to the public patronage.






Tuesday the 19th inst. is the closing day of the present session, when there will be a vacation till Monday 15th of Jan. next, at which time it is hoped that the young ladies for the next session will be in attendance. By order,

J. Pearsall, Secretary.

—Wilmington Advertiser, December 22, 1837.

(N. C. Schools and Academies, by Coon.)

Oak Grove Academy—1888, Trustees: L. C. Carlton, J. R. Wilson and R. F. Best, Deed: Book 47, Page 143.

The Peirce School—“Peirce School was at Peirceville, Peirceville was the name of the Thomas Buckner Peirce plantation adjoining the Isaac Franklin Blackmore plantation on Turkey Swamp about three miles west of Warsaw.

“This school was attended by the Peirces, the Blackmores, and the children of the workers in the crate factory.

“Teachers were paid by Mr. T. B. Peirce. They were carried to school by horse and buggy. Teachers and students carried lunches.

“The Peirce school was a long, large unpainted building with single desks and seats made in the Peirce factory. There was a large stove in one corner.

“The toilets were in the woods, the boys’ toilet on one side of the building and the girls’ toilet on the other.

“We were taught the phonics system.

“On Friday afternoons the literary society met. Students exhibited their ability in recitations, speeches, dialogues, etc.

“For misbehaving we often had to stand in the corner to do our studying.

“Each year at Christmas there was a large holly tree with small candles and ornaments. Every student received a bag of fruit, nuts, etc., filled from the store at Peirceville.”

(Excerpts from letter of Mrs. Anna Peirce Stafford, Washington, D. C.)

Sandhills (Deed to Naber Hood), Sept. 18, 1862, Deed: Book 32, Page 13.

“Sutton's Academy (5 miles South of Mt. Olive), Principal: Miss Corrine Barnes, enrollment in 1892, 14.”

(Public Document 3, Session 1893, Page 67.)

Teachey High and Graded School District, Trustees: H. S. Wells, C. J. Carr, J. T. Turner, J. D. Mallard and E. G. Forlaw. Deeds: Book 163, Page 427; Book 270, Page 291. Establishment: Pr. Laws 1911, C. 437.

Warsaw High School—1855, Deed: Book 21, Page 469.

Warsaw High and Graded District—Establishment: Pr. 1909, C. 248; Charter amended Pr. 1911, C. 201; Pr. 1925, C. 142.

Washington Female Academy—1848. “The Trustees of this Institution have the pleasure to inform the public that they have engaged the services of Miss Ann T. Parker, a lady of high refinement and attainments, as an instructress; and that the first session of this Seminary will commence on Monday 16th October next. From the superior qualifications of Miss Parker—the general satisfaction she has heretofore given as an Instructress in Hannah Moore Academy, Trenton Female Seminary, and in New Berne; and from the healthy location of this Institution, the Trustees flatter themselves that the school will meet with a liberal patronage. The Institution is situated in the North Eastern part of Duplin Co., one mile North East of Outlaw Bridge. Board can be had in the neighborhood, at $5 per month.

PRICE OF TUITION PER SESSION OF FIVE MONTHS.

Spelling, Reading and Writing$ 6.00
Arithmetic, English Grammar and Geography8.00
Philosophy, Chemistry, Astronomy and Minerology12.00
French and Italian languages, Mathematics, &c12.00
Embroidery and Needle work10.00
Drawing and Painting12.00

Trustees,
JOSEPH W. OUTLAW,
GEORGE OUTLAW,JAMES OUTLAW,
BRYAN K. OUTLAW,GRADY OUTLAW,

Duplin County, 26th Sept., 1848.

Music, Session of five months, $20.00.”

(Copy of hand bill)

Williams Academy—1825—Near Cooper's Mill.






14. GROVE ACADEMY
AN ACT TO ERECT AND ESTABLISH AN ACADEMY
IN THE COUNTY OF DUPLIN

Whereas the establishing an academy in the said county for the education of youth will be attended with great advantages to the State in general, and the county of Duplin in particular:

I. Be it therefore Enacted by the General Assembly of the State of North Carolina, and it is hereby Enacted by the authority of the same, That Thomas Routledge, James Kenan, Joseph Dickson, Thomas Gray, William Dickson, David Dodd, John James, Israel Bordeaux and James Gillespie, Esquires, be and they are hereby constituted and appointed trustees, with full power and authority to receive into their hands and possession, all monies and other property which have been or hereafter may be subscribed for the purpose of erecting an academy on the lands lately purchased of Nicholas Hunter in said county, by name of Grove Academy; and the said trustees and their successors shall be able and capable in law to ask for and demand, receive and possess of the several subscribers, all sums by them respectively subscribed, and in case of refusal of any of them to pay the same, to sue for and recover by action of debt or otherwise, in the name of the trustees, the sum which such person so refusing shall have subscribed, in any jurisdiction having cognizance thereof; and the monies when collected and received, to be applied by the said trustees or a majority of them towards paying for the lands already contracted for, and erecting thereon a suitable and convenient house, to contract with and employ a tutor or tutors, and to perform every act or thing that they or a majority of them shall think necessary and expedient for the advancement of the said academy and the promotion of learning therein.

II. And be it further Enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the trustees herein before-mentioned, shall previous to the entering on the execution of the trust reposed by this Act, give bond to the court of the county, payable to the chairman and his successor, in the sum of one thousand pounds, specie, with condition, that they shall well and faithfully account for and apply all gifts, donations, bequests, and monies

which they may receive of and by virtue of this Act for the purposes aforesaid.

III. And be it further Enacted by the authority aforesaid, That if any of the trustees by this Act appointed, shall die, refuse to act or move away, that he cannot attend the duties of this appointment, the remaining trustees may appoint another in his stead, who shall exercise the same powers as trustees appointed by this Act; and when met together within the said county shall have power and authority to elect and constitute one or more tutor or tutors, and a treasurer, and also to make and ordain such rules and regulations, not repugnant to the laws of this State, for the well ordering of the students, their morals, studies and academical exercises as to them shall seem meet; and to give certificates to such students as shall leave said academy, certifying their literary merit, in general they shall or may do all such things as are usually done by other bodies corporate and politic, or such as may be necessary for the promotion of learning and virtue; and the said trustees or a majority of them are hereby empowered, and shall have lawful authority to remove the tutor or tutors, treasurer or any of them if they shall find it necessary, and on the death, resignation or refusal to Act of any of them, to appoint and elect others in the stead of those displaced, dead, or refusing to act.

IV. And be it further Enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the trustees by this Act appointed, or a majority of them, and their successors, shall meet annually on the First Friday of March in each and every year, or at any other time they may find more convenient, and elect a proper person out of their own body to preside for the term of one year, who may convene the trustees at any time he may find it necessary. Provided always, That he shall give ten days previous notice of such meetings, and that the president and treasurer shall be chosen on the said first Friday of March unless in cases of unavoidable accidents.

V. And be it further Enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the treasurer of the said board of trustees, shall enter into bond with sufficient security to the trustees, conditioned for the faithful discharge of the trust reposed to him by this Act, and that all monies and chattels that shall be in his hands at the expiration of his office, shall be immediately paid into the hands of the succeeding treasurer; and every treasurer shall receive all monies, donations, gifts, bequests, and charities that may belong or accrue to said academy during his office, and at the expiration thereof shall account with the trustees or a majority of them for the same, and on refusal to neglect to pay and deliver as aforesaid, the same mode of recovering may be had against him as is or may






be provided for the recovery of money from sheriffs or other public officers. (Passed December 29, 1785.)

(The State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XXIV, Page 752, Chapter XXX.)

GROVE ACADEMY IN 1786

At our last session of the Assembly in this State we got an act passed for establishing an academy for the education of youth in the Grove neighborhood in this county. This school is fixed in the heart of the Presbyterian settlement where our family all live and we have a considerable share in conducting it. We have purchased a piece of ground pleasantly situated for the purpose, on which we are now building a house, which we expect will be finished about twelve months hence.

Last October I received your very affectionate letter of the 21st April last which was sent me by Rev. Alexander Patrick who soon after made me a visit and tarried some days with me, in which time I contracted a small acquaintance with him. I heartily thank you for the recommendation you gave me in his favor. . . . Mr. Patrick immediately on coming into this country got possession of one of the late Mr. Colvill's plantations on the N. West River and some of his slaves; the plantation he has rented out and the negroes he has hired for wages, which rent and hire he tells me amount to about one hundred and thirty pounds per annum. About Christmas he came down to our neighborhood at the Grove where we made him up a small school of fourteen or fifteen boys which is the first attempt that has ever been made to teach the languages in this part of the country. This little school will be about as good as forty or fifty pounds sterling to him. Those now under his tuition are intended to be removed to the academy when opened, when it is probable Mr. Patrick may be employed as a teacher if he is approved of; the school is in the same place where the academy is fixed. Mr. Patrick lives with my brother Joseph and has a convenient room and bed to himself. . . .

Wm. Dickson.

Duplin County, 24th Feb., 1786.

—From Carr's Dickson Letters, pp. 29 et seq.

GROVE ACADEMY IN 1787

. . . Our Grove Academy (as it is styled by the Legislature) is not in a more flourishing condition than when I wrote you last (altho’ yet short of our expectations or of what you wish it to be), the house is now finished, the school was removed into it last week, there are yet but twenty-five students under a master who teaches only the Latin and English Grammar and the Latin and Greek languages. We have

no other fund for the support of it but the fees of the students and the benevolence of public spirited gentlemen, which have as yet appeared to be very low. I wish I could with propriety give you a description of it more to your satisfaction. The Genius of the people of this part of the country is not adapted to the study of learning and science. The most desirable object that people here have in view are interest and pleasure, but I flatter myself that that period will soon arrive when an emulation will take place amongst the youth (who are of most discernment) to aspire to the attainment of that which in the end will be most permanent and profitable, and that this infant institution (altho’ far inferior to that erected at Strabane, or indeed almost any other), through the exertions of some who are concerned in it, may yet become profitable and rise to repute. . . .

November 30, 1787.

Wm. Dickson.

—From Carr's Dickson Letters, pp. 34 and 35.

GROVE ACADEMY ANNOUNCEMENT, 1840

This institution, located in a healthy region of country, one mile from the village of Kenansville, is now in operation, under the superintendence of the subscriber. Its design is to fit young men for college, or to prepare them for the ordinary walks of life.

TERMS

Reading, writing & spelling, with Parley's geography, & Emerson's 1st. pt. arithmetic, per session$ 6.00
English grammar, geography, history, arithmetic, composition & declamation10.00
Natural, moral and intellectual philosophy, chemistry, astronomy, algebra, and geometry, per session12.00
Greek & Latin with any of the above12.50

There is an apparatus attached to the school.

Book-keeping will be taught at an extra charge of $5 to the regular scholars.

N. B.—Board may be obtained in respectable families at $6 per month.

Geo. W. Johnson.

(Weekly Chronicle (Wilmington), May 27, 1840.)

AN ACT TO REVIVE AND REINCORPORATE

Whereas, in the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine, the General Assembly of North Carolina duly incorporated and established the “Grove Academy” at Kenansville, North Carolina, for the






purpose of promoting learning, the charter for which is embodied in chapter thirty of “Martin's Collection of Statutes”; and whereas, the original charter has never been repealed or amended, and is insufficient for modern purposes; and whereas, the patrons and friends thereof are desirous of obtaining a more efficient and suitable charter for said institution of learning: Now, therefore,

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact:

That the said chapter thirty of “Martin's Collection of Statutes” be and the same is hereby amended so as to read as follows: SECTION 1. That Thomas S. Kenan, D. L. Farrior, S. O. Middleton, Frank Thompson, D. L. Carlton, Henry Farrior, J. G. Murphy and J. O. Carr, and such others as may be associated with them, be and they are hereby created a body corporate under the name of “The Grove Academy,” and by such name may sue and be sued, have a common seal, adopt such by-laws and regulations as may be necessary for its government, and may have and enjoy all rights, privileges and franchises pertaining to corporations.

SEC. 2. That the said “Grove Academy” shall have power and authority to establish and operate a school or schools for educational and training purposes, to hold and possess real estate or other property, to receive donations and gifts, to issue certificates of scholarship and efficiency to its students, and to do such other things as may be necessary for carrying out the purposes of this act; and the said corporation shall have an existence of thirty years. . . .

(Chapter 285, Pr. 1905, An Act to Revive and Reincorporate the “Grove Academy” at Kenansville, North Carolina.)

GROVE ACADEMY
KENANSVILLE, N. C.

TRUSTEES

W. R. NewburyMagnolia, N. C.
Hon. H. D. WilliamsKenansville, N. C.
R. W. HerringWilmington, N. C.
C. J. SoutherlandKenansville, N. C.
Joseph RouseRose Hill, N. C.
Henry FarriorKenansville, N. C.
W. B. CooperWilmington, N. C.
A. J. JohnsonClear Run, N. C.
T. Q. HallWallace, N. C.
Horace Stewart, B. S., Principal

CALENDAR

1909

August 31—Fall Term begins; Entrance examinations.

November 25—Holiday.

December 21—Fall term ends; Holidays begin.

1910

January 4—Holidays end; Spring term begins.

April 26—Spring term ends.

April 24-26—Commencement.

DESCRIPTION OF KENANSVILLE.

There is no village in North Carolina east of the mountains that compares in beauty and picturesqueness with Kenansville, the county seat of Duplin. It is situated upon a rolling, undulating elevation superior in every respect to any other place in Eastern North Carolina. Its drainage is natural and perfect; its trees are beautiful and symmetrical; its moral surroundings are unsurpassed; its culture and refinement are not excelled anywhere. Its genial atmosphere, its salubrious climate, its healthful surroundings and its location seven miles from the railroad—where it is neither disturbed by the hum of factory nor the immoral influence usually prevalent in such towns, make it an ideal spot for study and for the attainment of those graces and accomplishments which count in producing refinement and in building character. Unique in its records and rich in colonial history, the little town stands out preeminently as a place of interest and antiquity.

As a summer and winter resort it offers superior advantages, especially to those who seek rest and quiet instead of the rush and bustle of gayer places.

The town spring, with the capacity of more than a gallon per minute, furnishes the little village with a hundred times the amount of pure water actually needed, and every summer brings rest-seekers here, who go away much benefitted. The surrounding country offers great sport for quail shooting, and Northerners often spend the winters here.

DISCIPLINE

Discipline with us is more than the outward conformity to a set of iron-clad rules. We have only one iron-clad rule and that is “Do right and be a gentleman.” Ordinarily this is sufficient, but that we may be more clearly understood, certain regulations have been adopted which are strictly enforced. These we consider none too strong, since our






main object is the development of manhood, and any student unwilling to conform to them need not apply for entrance.

No pupil will be allowed to play cards, use any intoxicating drinks or tobacco, or indulge in the use of profane language.

As a necessary requirement for the health of students, daily exercise is required; and no student, unless he is sick or physically unable, will be excused. All students, unless otherwise excused, are required to spend two hours each evening in the study hall, under the direction of a member of the Faculty, and all lights must be out and rooms dark at 10:30 each night. This insures regularity of habit and an abundance of sleep, without which the best results can not be obtained. No student will be allowed to leave the Academy grounds without permission, and loafing on the streets will not be permitted on any condition.

The students are required to attend the Sunday morning services at one of the churches of the town.

ATHLETICS

Our aim in athletics is not to train professionals but to develop allround men. We hold that to secure the best results intellectually the body must be sound and vigorous. Daily exercise is therefore required of all students. Aside from this gymnasium work, ample opportunity is given for tennis and baseball.

We hold that gymnasium exercise, in that it develops all the muscles and gives uniform & symmetrical development, is far superior to the monotonous humdrum of the military drill, which practically all boys find more or less distasteful. Many small schools have adopted military tactics solely for the sake of advertisement. We feel that what we turn out is our best advertisement, and knowing from experience and observation that a boy cannot get the best exercise when encumbered with military paraphernalia, and that if exercise would be profitable it must be pleasant also, we have adopted the gymnasium work because we believe that it will give the desired result.

WHAT EACH BOY SHOULD BRING

Each student should bring a Bible with good print, six napkins, two clothes-bags, towels and bed-clothes for single bed, together with a pillow. All linen and articles of clothing should be marked with full name.

RELIGIOUS EXERCISES

Attendance at church services each Sunday morning is required of every student, and at devotional exercises each morning of the school week. The Y. M. C. A., which is conducted by the boys themselves, promotes

spirituality and encourages Christian leadership. Every boy is urged to be an active member.

BOARDING DEPARTMENT

The Boarding department is conducted by an experienced matron who looks diligently after every need and endeavors to make everything comfortable and homelike. The table is largely supplied from the farms of the adjoining sections. Every effort is made to give the boys the best and most wholesome food.

REPORTS

At the end of each quarter reports on the students’ work in the different classes will be sent to parents, who will thus keep in close touch with their sons’ work. They will be able to co-operate with the teachers in admonishing or encouraging, as the case may require, so that the best results may be realized. Examinations on each study are held at the end of each term, and those failing to make an average of sixty-five in any case will be required to take such a study over.

ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS

At the outset, the Faculty of the school wish it to be understood that boys expecting to practice vicious habits will not be matriculated.

No student under the age of twelve, except under certain conditions and in special cases, will be allowed to enter. At the beginning of each year entrance examinations will be held in order to classify new students correctly.

Candidates for admission must be prepared in Arithmetic (through common and decimal fractions), Geography, Spelling, Reading, Writing, and Grammar. Candidates for any one of the upper classes must stand an examination on the work of the next lower class, or give satisfactory certificate of the same work done in other schools.

TERMS

The regular charge for tuition, board, heating, and lighting is $140.00 per year, one-half payable when the student enters, the other half payable at the beginning of the spring term. The dues must be settled at the above times unless special arrangements are made with the principal.

EXAMINATIONS

Four regular examinations will be given during the year. They will be held at the middle and end of the fall and spring terms.






GRADUATION

A student who completes the course of study as outlined in this catalogue, will be given a diploma of graduation.

ABSENCES

Parents are urged not to ask for the absence of their sons from school during the session. When a holiday lasts for only one day there is not time for the student to go home without seriously affecting his work. . . .

No reduction will be made for absences, except in case of protracted illness, and then only when the student has been unable to complete the term's work. In all cases the student is expected to make up the work missed. . . .

COURSES OF STUDY

Classical CourseLatin-Scientific course
First YearThis course included French or German—3 years, with Latin and English.
This course included 3 years of Greek with Latin and English.

COURSES BY DEPARTMENTS

Latin

This course covers four years and is based on the work required for admission into the Sophomore class of the Southern Colleges.

Textbooks:Bennett's Foundations of Latin.
Scudder—Gradatim.
Rolf & Dennison—Junior Latin Book.
Bennett—Latin Grammar.
Cicero's Orations.
Vergil's Aeneid
Composition

Greek

Textbooks:White's first Greek book
Xenophon's Anabasis
Lysia's select orations
Plato Apology and Crito
Greek prose composition

English

Textbooks:Buehler—Grammar
Irving—Sketch book.
Southern poets

Reed and Kellogg—Higher lessions in English
Julius Caesar
Vision of Sir Launfal
Webster's first Bunker Hill Oration
Lockwood & Emerson—Rhetoric
Selections from Milton
Macaulay's life of Johnson
Merchant of Venice
English poetry and theme writing
Selections from Tennyson, Burns, Shakespeare
Parallel reading.

History

The course in History covers the entire four years. De Garmo says, “It is in history that the young first learn to regard the present as the last attained stage of a mighty evolution, and thereby acquire reverence for the vicarious sacrifices of the past, regard for the civil liberties of the present, and a sense of responsibility for the civil welfare of coming generations.” . . .

Textbooks:West—Ancient World
Myer—Mediaeval and modern
Wrong—British Nation.
Hart—Essentials of American History North Carolina History

Mathematics

Textbooks:Colaw & Elwood—Advanced arithmetic.
Sanford—Elements of Algebra
Milne—High School Algebra
Wentworth—Plane Geometry
Wentworth—Solid geometry
Wentworth—Plane Trigonometry.

Science (only one year)

Textbooks:Tarr—New Physical geography.

French

Textbooks:Chardenal—Complete French course
Rollin—French reader.
Laboulaye—Contes bleues.
Selections from French authors.






German

Textbooks:Collar—Eysenbach
Joynes—Meissner—Grammar
German reader
Gluck Auf.
L'Arrabiata—Heyse
Storm—Immensee

Bible

In this age of skepticism, when even the heads of some of our Universities are presenting views that border on atheism, it is of the utmost importance that our Southern schools and colleges should teach the plain truth of the Bible, and should try to implant these truths so deeply in the minds of the students that no creeds or “isms” shall be able to uproot them. . . . The aims of this course are: to give the students a general knowledge of Bible history; to enable them to interpret the Scripture correctly; and to create in them the desire to know the truth which shall make them free.

Business Course

Music and Elocution

According to arrangements made with the authorities of James Sprunt Institute, those students in the Academy desiring to take Vocal or Instrumental Music, or Elocution can get the very best instruction under the teachers of these departments at this excellent institution.

(Bulletin of Grove Academy—1909.)

15. ST. JOHN'S LODGE NO. 13, A.F. AND A.M.

DUPLIN ST. JOHN'S LODGE, NO. 13, the original Masonic Lodge in Duplin County, was instituted June 25, 1791, about three and one-half years after the Grand Lodge of North Carolina was organized. The lodge was formed at Duplin Old Court House near the Sampson and Duplin County line and near the home of General James Kenan, who was the first Master. A constitution was drawn and the original signers were well-known men of that time, to wit: General James Kenan, W.M.; Colonel Charles Ward, S.W.; Patrick Newton, J.W.; Colonel Thomas Routledge, Sr., Treasurer; George Morrisey, Secretary; John Armstrong, Tyler. The members were Captain Michael Molton, Edward Harris, Daniel Harris, John Beck, John McIlleoinea, and Thomas Routledge, Jr.

Within the next few years the reports on membership included the names of many others who were men of high character and prominence of that time, and among them were the following: Nathan Fryar, Daniel Glisson, Claborn Ivey, Thomas Kenan, William Higgins, John Linton, Nathaniel McCanne, Samuel Houston, William Wilkinson, Abraham Molton, Holden McGee, Thomas Finley, Thomas Wright, Owen O'Daniel, Loami Stevens, David Slocumb, Thomas Ivey, John Barfield, John Hurst, Stephen Beck, Rigdon Bryan, David Murdock, George P. Linton, Thomas J. Kinnear, William Wilkinson, Jr., Meschek Stallings, Shadrack Stallings, James Pheobus, George McDonald, James K. Hill, John Wilkinson, O. L. Kelly, William J. Price, David Wright, William Beck, and others.

General James Kenan was the Master from 1791 until 1800 when Thomas Wright became Master.

Thomas Wright was S.W. of St. John's Lodge, No. 1, Wilmington, N. C., in 1789, and a Past Master of said Lodge (a legitimate offspring of the Grand Lodge of England).

In 1807 General Joseph T. Rhodes made report for the Lodge to the Grand Lodge.

The Lodge became dormant about 1824.

Warren Lodge, No. 101, Kenansville, N. C., was instituted Dec. 21, 1831, with James Kenan Hill, W.M.; O. L. Kelly, S.W.; Williams Cooper, J.W.; William J. Price, Secretary; John Wilkinson, Treasurer; A. G.






Hill, S.D.; Samuel Stanford, J.D.; Wm. H. Hansley, Tyler. Other members included Samuel Houston, James Lawson, William H. Hurst, Thomas J. Kinnear, Hogan Hunter, John E. Hussey, John Farrior, Nicholas Hill, William K. Frederick, L. C. Stanford, A. G. Stanford, Lawton Houston, O. L. Kelly, R. L. Stanly, Charles H. Cooper, Thomas J. Kenan, N. Hale, and J. L. Linton.

At a meeting held Jan. 7, 1831, William Cooper was allowed the sum of twenty-five dollars for the purpose of procuring a charter.

The following members of St. John's Lodge, No. 13, became members of Warren Lodge, No. 101; Thomas J. Kinnear, Samuel Houston, John Linton, Thomas Kenan, John Hurst, Thomas Routledge, Jr., James K. Hill, Owen O'Daniel, O. L. Kelly, William J. Price, and probably others.

At a meeting held May 26, 1831, a committee consisting of John Wilkinson, O. L. Kelly and Hogan Hunter was appointed to select some suitable place to locate the Lodge.

At this meeting Brother A. G. Hill presented the Lodge with a Holy Bible as a token of his esteem for the Lodge and his respect for Masonry.

On June 24, 1831, a motion was passed ordering that the upper part of Brother Hogan Hunter's house be so altered as to make a suitable place for a Lodge. The following committee was appointed to make the necessary alterations: Thomas J. Kinnear, Williams Cooper and Samuel Stanford.

On November 12, 1831, a bill was ordered paid for altering the Lodge room.

Brother J. E. Hussey served as Grand Marshal in 1834, as Grand Sentinel in 1835, and as Grand Sword Bearer in 1836.

Brother James Kenan Hill served as Grand Marshal in 1835 and again in 1836.

The Lodge funcitoned until about 1840, when it became dormant.

Some members of Warren Lodge, No. 101, were instrumental in organizing old Belmont Lodge in the Bowden-Faison section.

Union Chapter, No. 17, of York Rite Masons, and later Corinthian Chapter, No. 43, of York Rite Masons, both were organized in Kenansville and functioned well for a long time with a large membership.

On May 1, 1852, Warren Lodge, No. 101, was reorganized with the following officers: G. W. Wallace, W.M.; O. R. Kenan, S.W.; Henry Grimes, Jr., J.W.; J. H. Judge, S.D.; D. C. Maxwell, J.D.; Joseph Carr, Treasurer; William Farrior, Secretary; N. J. Farrior, Tyler. O. R. Kenan, Joseph Carr, Henry Grimes and William Farrior were appointed a committee to draft by-laws and rules of order for the government of the Lodge. The Lodge was rechartered December 9, 1852.

From report of Warren Lodge, No. 101, 1852, it is noted that the

report is headed “General Returns from Warren Lodge, No. 101, Ancient York Masons.”

On Feb. 10, 1855, a resolution was introduced providing that the Master of the Lodge be authorized to subscribe for and in behalf of this Lodge one hundred dollars to the Female Seminary to be built in Kenansville and the Treasurer be instructed to pay the same out of Lodge funds. This resolution was passed and adopted on March 10.

At the meeting held July 10, 1858, Brother William B. Middleton was appointed to solicit subscriptions for the purpose of building a new Lodge building.

On Jan. 8, 1859, the following resolution was adopted: “Resolved that Thomas S. Watson be allowed from the evidence he has produced of his having been entered, passed, and raised to the sublime degree of Master Mason by Lodge, No. 97, Edinburgh, Scotland, to be entered, passed and raised in this lodge without paying the initiation fee and be allowed membership by paying three dollars.”

May 7, 1859, a motion was made and passed that Martha Hammond Abernathy be sent to school at the expense of the Lodge for one session.

Our present Lodge building was erected in 1860, and the dedication was set for Dec. 27, 1860.

At a meeting held Aug. 8, 1863, the following committee, William A. Allen, William Farrior, and Kedar Bryan offered this resolution: “Whereas, the Masonic Fraternity, and particularly the members of Warren Lodge, No. 101, have heard that their Brother William J. Houston, Captain of Company I, 9th Regiment, N. C. T. (1st N. C. Cavalry) was killed in the late battle near Ashby's Gap, and whereas, the members of said Lodge feel that it is due to the gallant and distinguished service of their late brother, that they should express their high appreciation of the noble qualities of head and heart of the deceased, Therefore Resolved, That this lodge, in the death of Captain Houston, has lost one of its brightest ornaments, the Masonic Fraternity one of its most distinguished members, the people at large one of their most gifted citizens and successful legislators, and the service of the Confederate States, one of its bravest, most devoted and gallant officers.

“Resolved, that in common with our fellow citizens, we deplore the loss of our distinguished brother and friend and will ever cherish a fond recollection of his noble qualities as the perfect gentleman, and hereby tender to his afflicted wife and family our heartfelt condolence in this their severe trial.

“Resolved, that the members of this Lodge will wear the usual badge of Masonic mourning for thirty days in memory of our deceased brother.

“Resolved, that the Secretary of this Lodge be requested to furnish






a copy of these resolutions for publication to the Wilmington Journal, and also a copy to the afflicted wife and family of the deceased. The Raleigh Register and Fayetteville Observer will please copy and send bill to the Wilmington Journal office.”

On Mar. 12, 1864, a motion was made and carried that all monies in the hands of the Secretary and Treasurer belonging to the Lodge be funded in four per cent bonds of the Confederate States.

Furney G. Simmons, father of United States Senator Furnifold M. Simmons, who was living here at that time, was initiated in the Lodge Mar. 29, 1864.

On Sept. 10, 1864, a committee consisting of William A. Allen, William Farrior, and G. W. Lamb, offered this resolution: “Whereas we have heard with pain and regret that our young and esteemed brother, George Cooper, a gallant and patriotic soldier of Co. A, 43rd Regiment, N. C. T., and a beloved and respected member of this lodge, departed this life on the 27th day of May, last, in General Hospital No. 3, Richmond, Va., from the effects of a wound received in a skirmish with the enemy on the 24th, of the same month near Hanover Junction. Therefore, Be it Resolved, That in the death of our brother, this lodge has lost another of its patriotic and devoted members, a companionable and pleasant associate, masonry an ardent friend, the community in which he lived an enlightened and generous-hearted citizen, and the country one of its best soldiers, cut off in the full vigor and bloom of manhood, full of life and the prospect of bright and happy days before him, sealing his devotion to the cause of republican government with his life's blood.

“Resolved, that we tender to the deceased's family our warmest sympathy and condolence in their said bereavement. Their great consolation should be that he died in the full discharge of patriotic duty, nobly battling for the right of his country.

“Resolved, that as a testimony of our high regard and esteem for our departed brother the members of this Lodge be requested to wear the usual badge of mourning for thirty days.

“Resolved, that these proceedings be spread upon the records of this Lodge and communicated by the Secretary to the bereaved family of the deceased and a copy of the same be furnished to the Wilmington Journal with the request that they be published.”

On Dec. 27, 1864, “Bro. H. Grimes presented his bill for expenses as delegate to the Grand Lodge amounting to $162.50 ordered to be paid” (Confederate Money).

At a meeting on May 13, 1865, “The petition of Bro. J. Q. McGowan asking admission as member of this Lodge—being a member in good

standing in Stonewall Jackson Military Lodge, No. 13, Georgia, proceeded to ballot and he was duly elected a member of this Lodge.”

On July 7, 1866, a committee composed of T. S. Kenan, T. S. Watson and W. B. Middleton, offered this resolution: “Whereas, it has pleased Almighty God, by the interposition of His all-wise Providence, to remove from us our friend and brother, Captain Edward Southerland, a member of this Lodge, who died the 30th of September, 1865.

“Therefore, Be it Resolved, that in the untimely death of our brother, we recognize the Power of Him, in whose hands alone are the issues of life and death; And while we bow with humble submission to His decree, we shall ever cherish in our hearts those sentiments of esteem and friendship, with which the life and character of our deceased brother have impressed us.

“Resolved, That in his premature death, our fraternity has been bereft of a truly devoted member, and our country, in defense of which, he has so often, and so bravely periled his life, as one of its truest soldiers, has lost a citizen, whose career of usefulness had comparatively just begun, and whose prospects for long and happy life were so flattering.

“Resolved, That we tender our warmest sympathies to the relations and friends of our deceased brother—and that we wear the usual badge of mourning in respect to his memory.”

On Sept. 7, 1867, “A petition from Bros. J. J. Ward, W. N. Ellsworth, James W. Boney, D. T. McMillan, J. C. McMillan, J. E. Fussell, John W. Peterson, Jos. Sells, E. T. Pigford, and J. J. McMillan asking this Lodge to recommend their petition to the Most Worshipful Grand Master of North Carolina for a dispensation to open and hold a Lodge at Teachey's Depot—this Lodge having satisfied itself of the efficiency of the officers named in said petition, do recommend to the said Most Worshipful Grand Master to grant their prayer of the petition.”

On Dec. 19, 1871, at the request of the family the Lodge conducted a Masonic funeral for Thos. J. Kinnear, a non affiliate.

The Lodge was deeded to Brother W. B. Middleton in 1873 due to fact that the members were not able to pay debt on the building.

In 1873 there were seventy-four members of Warren Lodge, No. 101.

The Lodge was purchased from Brother W. B. Middleton in 1875.

During 1882 the Lodge became dormant again.

In 1897 the following made application to the Grand Lodge for the restoration of the Charter of Warren Lodge, No. 101: Isaac B. Kelly, Albert F. Williams, James M. Archer, Jas. W. Blount, S. O. Middleton, T. M. Lee, B. C. Bowden, Henry C. Moore, D. J. Middleton, L. Hussey, J. D. Stanford and J. D. Southerland.






On May 3, 1897, Walter E. Moore, Grand Master, issued dispensation restoring to Warren Lodge, No. 101, its Charter, jewells, books, furniture and all property to which it was entitled at the same time of forfeiture of Charter.

By virtue of the foregoing dispensation the brethren therein named met in their hall in Kenansville on the 21st day of May, 1897, and organized by electing the following officers: T. M. Lee, W.M.; James W. Blount, S.W.; J. D. Southerland, J.W.; S. O. Middleton, Treasurer; A. F. Williams, Secretary. The Worshipful Master then appointed the following officers, viz.: James M. Archer, S.D.; I. B. Kelly, J.D.; B. C. Bowden, Tyler.

At a special communication of the Lodge Dec. 16, 1897, the following visiting brethren were present; C. B. Aycock (later Governor of North Carolina); I. G. Lee, and A. J. Harvell from Wayne Lodge, No. 112, Goldsboro; H. E. Faison, Hiram Lodge, No. 98, Clinton; and J. C. McMillan of Rehoboth Lodge, No. 279, Rosehill.

Aug. 21, 1903, the Lodge donated $15.00 to Warsaw Lodge. (This was just after the organization of the Warsaw Lodge.) Members who demitted to form Warsaw Lodge were: H. G. Owens, E. J. Hill, S. A. Strickland, D. E. Best, J. A. Powell, H. S. Boyette, J. F. Bell and S. R. Bowden.

On Nov. 21, 1911, the following resolution was adopted: “Resolved, that permission is hereby given Rehoboth Lodge, No. 279, A.F. & A.M., at Teacheys, N. C., to move their Lodge to Rosehill, N. C.”

Warren Lodge became dormant again in 1918, and was reorganized as Warren Lodge, No. 639, in December, 1919.

On February 17, 1919, the Grand Lodge of N. C., met in Special Communication in Kenansville and instituted Warren Lodge, No. 639, and installed the officers.

Grand Officers were as follows: M.W. Henry A. Grady, G.M.; R.W. J. E. Williams, D.G.M.; R.W. J. L. Nelson, S.G.W.; R.W. R. D. Johnson, J.G.W.; R.W. Geo. R. Ward, G. Treasurer; R.W. E. D. Williams, Grand Sec.; R.W. C. D. Chesnutt, Grand Chaplain; J. L. Nelson, Grand Lecturer; W. H. Williams, S.G. Deacon; W. G. Kornegay, J.G. Deacon; J. E. Westbrook, Grand Marshall; N. B. Grady, G. Sword Bearer; Rufus Stroud, G. Pursuivant; J. J. Bowden, G. Steward; S. R. Chesnutt, G. Steward; and W. D. Terry, Grand Tiler. All officers were serving pro tempore except the M.W. Grand Master and Grand Tiler.

The officers of the new Lodge were: A. F. Williams, W.M.; H. D. Williams, S.W.; N. B. Grady, J.W.; M. F. Westbrook, Treasurer; J. J. Bowden, Secretary; W. G. Kornegay, S.D.; C. D. Chesnutt, J.D.; W. F. Smith and S. R. Chesnutt, Stewards; Henry W. Dail, Tiler.

A district meeting was held with our Lodge Oct. 26, 1926, with District Deputy Grand Master L. Southerland, of Wallace, presiding.

During the Masonic year 1922-23 permission was given Beulaville Lodge to get a Charter.

The Ninth District meeting was held with our Lodge Dec. 3, 1931, which was presided over by one of our members, Brother D. M. Jolly, D.D.G.M. After Brother Jolly's death in 1932, Brother James E. Jerritt was appointed to fill out his unexpired term as District Deputy Grand Master, and served another term the next year.

At the Grand Lodge meeting in 1932 our old number, 101, was restored to us. Representatives to the Grand Lodge this year were: G. V. Gooding, J. L. Williams and F. W. McGowen.

During the year 1931-32, mainly through the efforts of our Worshipful Master, Dr. G. V. Gooding and Brother James J. Bowden (former Register of Deeds and Tax Collector of Duplin County), the Lodge repurchased the old Lodge Hall from the heirs of Brother S. O. Middleton, who had come into possession of it. The building was renovated and repaired and the Lodge entered into a new era of progress. Those contributing to the fund with which to repurchase and renovate the building were as follows: G. K. Aldridge, J. E. Jerritt, W. E. Belanga, D. F. McGowen, S. L. Ferrell, I. C. Burch, G. V. Gooding, J. O. Stokes, F. W. McGowen, A. R. Chesnutt, D. S. Williamson, J. B. Wallace, F. J. Baars, J. W. Shaffer, J. L. Williams, J. J. Bowden, C. E. Quinn, L. D. Dail, S. B. Hunter.

The lower floor of the building was let to the Woman's Club to be used for a Community building.

In 1933 Victory Lodge, No. 642, Pink Hill, N. C., with permission of the Grand Lodge, consolidated with Warren Lodge, No. 101, the officers of Warren Lodge, No. 101, remaining as the officers of the consolidated Lodge. The following members were received from Victory Lodge: J. F. Tyndall, B. B. Holder, O. A. Gardner, W. R. Gooding, F. D. Gooding, W. J. Grady, R. P. Holt, S. W. Harper, W. G. Kornegay, Thad Kornegay, Alvin Kornegay, H. D. Maxwell, Magnus Outlaw, Marvin Simmons, John Ivey Smith, Albert Smith, G. A. Stroud, M. W. Sutton, J. M. Turner, J. A. Worley, and John F. Southerland.

At the meeting of the Grand Lodge in 1933 in Asheville, our old records were restored to us. Representatives at the Grand Lodge were: G. V. Gooding, J. L. Williams and G. K. Aldridge.

In 1935 the Lodge again resumed the practice of serving dinners once a month before the First Thursday night meetings. This has continued, and has been deemed beneficial in helping to create and hold interest.

Our annual Ladies’ Night and installation of Officers is the First






Thursday in January. The annual picnic is held the First Thursday afternoon in September each year at Maxwell's Mill.

During 1935 the following members of Warsaw Lodge, No. 522 (which had become dormant), became members of our Lodge: R. D. Johnson, R. E. L. Wheelis, B. C. Sheffield, W. E. Hines, Dr. J. M. Williams, John M. Pierce, R. W. Blackmore, A. Brooks, A. L. Humphrey, R. E. Wall, W. E. Taylor, W. A. Blanchard, B. C. Siske, and M. H. Hodges.

At the meeting of the Grand Lodge in 1936, our old name and number, ST. JOHN'S LODGE, NO.13, was restored to us with all of its rights and privileges. The representatives at the Grand Lodge were: G. V. Gooding, W. R. Gooding, J. M. Brock, A. T. Outlaw, R. D. Johnson, A. J. Blanton, and F. W. McGowen.

A district meeting was held here July 30, 1936, H. McN. Johnson, District Deputy Grand Master, presiding.

In 1937 the Lodge sponsored the organization of an Eastern Star Chapter, and Kenansville Chapter, No. 215, was organized with twenty-five members. The Chapter is progressing steadily, having attained the honor of being a Gold Star Chapter for the past two years.

At the meeting of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina in 1938, our Lodge had the honor of exemplifying the Third Degree. The Lodge received special commendation from the Grand Master, Past Grand Masters, Grand Lodge Officers and others present. Brother Percy C. Stott, Assistant Grand Lecturer, coached the Degree Team, which was composed of the following: A. J. Blanton, W.M.; I. C. Burch, S.W.; G. M. Honeycutt, J.W.; J. M. Brock, S.D.; R. C. Wells, J.D.; A. Q. Brinson and J. O. Smith, Stewards; E. C. Newton, Tiler; H. D. Maxwell, Jr., Dempsey Smith, Earl Smith, A. J. Dickson, O. P. Johnson, C. H. Walker, E. A. Howton, L. L. Rogers, P. E. Shoulars, Paul Williams, Jasper Tyndall, W. R. Gooding, J. H. Byrd, Alvin Kornegay. F. W. McGowen gave the lecture.

Dr. G. V. Gooding served as a member of the Oxford Orphanage Committee in 1935 and in 1936, having been appointed by the Grand Lodge.

Our Lodge contributes liberally to the Oxford Orphanage and entertains the Singing Class annually.

F. W. McGowen served as Grand Representative of the Grand Lodge of Saskatchewan, Canada, in 1938 and in 1939, by appointment of the Grand Lodge.

In 1940 Twenty-five Year Continuous Service Membership Certificates were presented by Past Master, J. E. Jerritt, to the following: R. G. Maxwell, W. A. Westbrook, J. L. Williams, R. W. Blackmore, Rivers D. Johnson, H. D. Maxwell, Sr., W. R. Gooding, Henry W. Dail,

Dr. J. M. Williams, S. B. Hunter, and S. W. Harper.

During 1940 mainly through the efforts of the Master, G. M. Honeycutt, thirty-seven pictures of Past Masters were secured and placed on the walls of the Lodge.

On January 2, 1941, the Master, J. M. Brock, appointed the following general committee to arrange for our Sesqui-Centennial Celebration, June 25, 1941: J. M. Brock, R. C. Wells, A. Q. Brinson, G. V. Gooding, J. E. Jerritt, F. W. McGowen, W. R. Gooding, O. P. Johnson, E. W. Sadler and D. Y. Hollingsworth. This committee arranged the following program:

SUNDAY, JUNE 22, 1941, 8:00 P. M.

KENANSVILLE BAPTIST CHURCH

Masonic Sermon by Rev. C. K. PROCTOR

WEDNESDAY, JUNE, 25, 1941, 4:30 P. M.

SPECIAL COMMUNICATION OF ST. JOHN'S LODGE, No. 13,

SESQUI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION

8:00 P. M.

KENANSVILLE SCHOOL GYMNASIUM

BANQUET

Address by Governor J. Melville Broughton

Our Lodge metings are well attended and we have a large, active membership. As in the past, the membership includes those of the community who are actively associated with the progress of the country.

As we wear the badge of our Order, we can sing with the Poet Laureate of the Craft:

“There's mony a badge that's unco braw,Wi’ ribbon, lace and tape on,Let Kings and Princes wear them a,’Gie me the Master's apron!”

(History of ST. JOHN'S LODGE, NO. 13, A.F. & A.M., Kenansville, North Carolina, 1791-1941, SESQUI-CENTENNIAL, June 25, 1941.)






16. THE DICKSON CHARITY FUND

The Dickson Charity Fund is from money left by Colonel Alexander Dickson under his Will for a free school or schools for the benefit of the poor of Duplin County. Colonel Alexander Dickson was a brother of Colonel William Dickson. Colonel Alexander Dickson was buried in the Routledge Cemetery east of the Town of Kenansville.

FROM ALEXANDER DICKSON'S WILL

. . . “The remaining part of my estate consisting of Harris Cottle, Hogs & Sheep, Household and kitchen furniture, and Plantation Tools of every description and all kinds of crops and Produce are to be sold in the same way as my other Property & the Money arising from the said sales are to be collected by my executors when due as soon as may be. Should there be any Money, Bonds, Notes, or amounts on hand at the time of my death, my executors are to account for them, and after paying out all expenditures, that may have accrued heretofore, or may hereafter accrue, the net proceeds are then to be kept and put by my executors to the use of a Free-school, or schools for the benefit of the Poor of Duplin County.”

Executors named in will: John Dickson (nephew), son of his brother Robert Dickson, deceased, living at Blockers Ferry, Cumberland County, and Joseph McGowen (nephew), son of William McGowen, deceased.

The will was dated: June 19, 1813.

Witnesses to the Will were: Stephen Graham and William Mallard.

(Duplin County, Clerk of Court's Office—Record of Wills “A,” Pages 95, 96, and 97.)

The Audit Report of the County Board of Education for the year ending June 30, 1927, states: “We understand that this fund was originally $10,000.00, while we were able to locate $7,688.55 of Assets.”

It is understood that with the Court's permission about $1,500.00 of the original amount of the fund was used for a monument at the grave of Colonel Alexander Dickson.

The County Board of Education and the Board of County Commissioners serve as joint-trustees of the fund.

For years and years the money was loaned, and the interest received was deposited in the public school fund.

About twenty-five years ago the trustees of the fund decided to add the interest collected on investments of the fund to the principal thereof, and to make loans from the fund to worthy college students to assist with their education. The loans have to be secured, and are payable beginning twelve months after the student finishes college. The interest rate on these loans has been four per centum per annum payable at maturity.

The trustees in setting up the fund for loans to worthy college students felt that all elementary and high school students would have the opportunity to graduate from high school in the public schools of the county.

The annual Audit Report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1969, showed the following assets and Liabilities for the Dickson Charity Fund: Assets—Cash $1,486.66, Certificates of deposit $6,300.00, other inyestments $5,000.00, Total $12,786.66; Liabilities: Fund Balance $12,786.66.

(County Audit Report June 30, 1969.)






17. LIBERTY HALL

The Motto of Liberty Hall was and still is: “He who enters this open gate, never comes too early, and never stays too late.”

Liberty Hall, the ancestral home of the Kenans, located in Kenansville, has been given to the County of Duplin.

The house and several acres of land plus $5,000 to start organizing plans has been donated by Mr. and Mrs. Frank H. Kenan of Durham. The transfer by deed was made to the Duplin County Commissioners and the Duplin County Board of Education about a month ago.

The Sarah Graham Kenan Foundation has contributed the bulk of the funds to restore the home to its original beauty and to maintain it. Tentative plans are to make of the home a Museum and Library. The original furniture is to be restored and it is to be decorated as it was in the period 1800-1840. The grounds are to be restored as they were in Colonial times.

Liberty Hall and the Kenan Family have been tied with the history of Duplin County and Kenansville since the middle of the 18th century. The town of Kenansville was named for the family.

The home has not been occupied for many years. It was owned for the past many years by Col. Owen Kenan until his death in Wilmington in 1964. At that time the ownership went to Thomas S. Kenan, III, Owen G. Kenan, and James G. Kenan, III, from whom Frank H. Kenan purchased the property. (Col. Owen Kenan was the last living survivor of the Lusitania ship disaster.)

Liberty Hall was the scene of the fabulous wedding of Mary Lily Kenan to Henry Morrison Flagler in August of 1901. The Hall is steeped with history of the Kenan family who have been noted for their interest in their native state and in particular, education.

The philanthropist, Frank H. Kenan, said, “I have given the home where Mary Lily Kenan and Henry M. Flagler were married to the county to use in the manner in which they desire to preserve it.”

COMMITTEE NAMED

A committee has been named to work with Mr. Tom S. Kenan III on plans to restore Liberty Hall to be used as a library and museum.

The committee is Mrs. Rachel Witherinton Stroud of Faison, Mrs.

Henry L. Stevens, Jr., of Warsaw, R. Vivian Wells of Kenansville, Honorable Howard H. Hubbard of Clinton, and Mrs. Ruth Atkins Jones of Clinton. Working with this committee will be O. P. Johnson, Superintendent of Schools and F. W. McGowen, County Auditor.

The committee has been asked to meet on Thursday morning with Mr. Tom S. Kenan who will represent the Kenan family on the commission. At this meeting plans will be made and work will begin soon.

RESOLUTION ADOPTED

The following resolution was adopted by the Board of County Commissioners and the Board of Education on Monday, January 4:

Whereas, Honorable Frank H. Kenan has deeded to Duplin County and the Board of Education of Duplin County two tracts of land in the Town of Kenansville as described by Deed recorded in Book 600, Page 574, of the Public Registry of Duplin County; and

Whereas, Liberty Hall is located on the first tract mentioned in said deed and was given as a museum, library or for similar purpose, and the second tract was given for a park or playground purposes, and in preserving the historical significance of Liberty Hall; and

Whereas, Liberty Hall has been the birthplace and home of many prominent members of the Kenan family, from which family the Town of Kenansville takes its name, and which is a landmark of great historical interest as the property of one of the early families and settlers of Duplin County; and

Whereas, Honorable Frank H. Kenan desires to restore Liberty Hall, making it into a museum, and to endow it so as to preserve it as a memorial to the Kenan family; now

Therefore, Be it resolved by the Board of Commissioners of Duplin County and the Board of Education of Duplin County in joint meeting on Monday, January 4, 1965, that the sincere appreciation and thanks of both boards is hereby expressed to Honorable Frank H. Kenan for this gift and for his interest in restoring Liberty Hall. Putting it back into its original state for a museum as he has indicated will make it a most fitting and lasting memorial to the Kenan family, one of the most prominent families of Duplin. We can vision this as one of the outstanding historical attractions of Eastern America.

Be it Further Resolved, that in accordance with the wishes of Mr. Kenan the Liberty Hall Historical Commission is hereby created, and the following persons are appointed as members of said commission:

Thomas S. Kenan, IIIR. Vivian Wells
Mrs. Rachel Witherinton StroudO. P. Johnson
Mrs. Henry L. Stevens, Jr.Judge Howard H. Hubbard
Mrs. Ruth Atkins Jones






It is recommended that the commission meet at an early date and organize.

Be it Further Resolved, that a copy of this Resolution be spread upon the minutes of the Board of County Commissioners; a copy spread upon the minutes of the Board of Education of Duplin County, and a copy mailed to Honorable Frank H. Kenan as a testimonial of the sincere appreciation and thanks of both boards.

This the 4 day of January, 1965.

BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS OF DUPLIN COUNTY (s) J. W. Hoffler, Chairman. ATTEST: (s) Christine W. Williams, Clerk. BOARD OF EDUCATION OF DUPLIN COUNTY (s) William F. Dail, Chairman. ATTEST: O. P. Johnson, Secretary.

(Duplin Times, 1-14-65.)

The first Liberty Hall was built by Thomas Stephen Kenan in the late 1730's. The home was located on what was called the Turkey Branch Plantation near the present town of Turkey, N. C. Thomas Kenan was the first Kenan to come to this country and he sailed from Ireland in 1736 and landed in Wilmington, N. C., that same year. Thomas Kenan lived on this plantation until his death in 1766. His wife, Elizabeth Johnson Kenan, continued to live at the old place until her death in 1789, at which time it passed to their son James Kenan, and it was this son who named the home Liberty Hall due to the many political meetings and gatherings that took place there during this period of American History. General James Kenan took an active part in civic and military affairs of Duplin County. He was a member of the Colonial Assembly in 1773 and 1774 and of the Provincial Congress in 1774, 1775 and 1776; Chairman of the Duplin Safety Committee and the Wilmington Committee. He was a member of the North Carolina State Senate for nine consecutive terms; a member of the State Constitutional Convention in 1788 and 1789, and was one of the original Trustees of The University of North Carolina. He was also Chairman of the Committee of the Whole on Ratification of the United States Constitution.

This first Liberty Hall was furnished with many pieces brought over from England and also contained several American pieces and in particular a few choice North Carolina pieces. This home burned to the ground prior to 1800, however many of the furnishings were saved. General Kenan died in 1810 and is buried on what was the Turkey Branch Plantation. His son, Thomas S. Kenan, II, had a large plantation called Lochlin located several miles east of Wallace, N. C., and there was a handsome home on this property; however, it too was destroyed by fire.

In the late 1700's Thomas S. Kenan built the present Liberty Hall in Kenansville. In 1833 he and his wife, the former Mary Rand of Raleigh and their two youngest children moved to Selma, Alabama, where he died in 1860. Owen Rand Kenan, son of Thomas and Mary Kenan moved into Liberty Hall when his father moved to Selma. He called the home Liberty Hall after his great grandfather's home in Turkey. Owen Kenan made some structural changes in the home by attaching the old kitchen on the rear of the house and by adding two porches on the north and south side of the house. Owen Kenan married Sarah Rebecca Graham and they had four children: James Graham Kenan, William Rand Kenan, Annie D. Kenan, and Thomas S. Kenan. Owen Kenan was made a Major during the War Between the States, and Liberty Hall escaped harm though Northern Troops were in the immediate area.

Maj. Owen Kenan died in 1887 and Liberty Hall was left to his unmarried daughter, Annie D. Kenan, who continued to live there during her lifetime. At her death she left the old place to her niece, Mary Lily Kenan, who had married Henry Morrison Flagler in 1901 in Liberty Hall. This wedding was certainly the most significant social event to take place in Duplin County. Henry M. Flagler had founded the Standard Oil Company with John D. Rockefeller and later set out to develop the East coast of Florida and in doing so he became the largest property owner in Florida.

This wedding attracted international attention and well known people from various parts of the country attended. The wedding party and guests arrived at Magnolia, N. C., via private train and then proceeded to Kenansville in horse drawn carriages. The marriage vows were said in the parlor at Liberty Hall in the presence of the bride's immediate family consisting of her parents, her sister, Sarah Graham Kenan and Jessie Kenan Wise, and her brother, William R. Kenan, Jr.

Mrs. Flagler deeded Liberty Hall to her first cousin, Col. Owen Hill Kenan. Col. Kenan visited the old place frequently until his death in 1964 at which time he left the place to his three great nephews, Tom, Owen, and James Kenan.

In 1965 Mr. Frank H. Kenan, a nephew, bought the property and deeded it to the Board of Education and Board of Commissioners of Duplin County to be used as a museum. In 1965 the Liberty Hall Restoration Commission was formed and plans for restoring the mansion were formulated.

The restoration of Liberty Hall has been a long drawn out affair but with the outstanding cooperation and work done by Mr. William Boney, A. I. A., of Wilmington as consulting architect, and by Mr. Robert Herring of Rose Hill, contractor, the restoration became a reality.






The interior work of Liberty Hall was under the personal supervision of John E. Winters of New York City, and the fabrics and wall papers were created from early documents by the well known New York firm of Brunchwig and Fils under the personal direction of Mrs. Roger Brunchwig.

The furnishings in Liberty Hall are identified by markers. Some of the pieces were from the original Liberty Hall and others were acquired as time went on. The Restoration Commission is especially indebted to the Kenan family for several important loans, to Mr. and Mrs. George E. London of Raleigh for the loan of many beautiful early North Carolina pieces, and to Mr. John Kalmar for the loan of some important North Carolina pieces.

The Restoration Commission has tried to re-create Liberty Hall as it looked just prior to the Civil War. The periods of furniture will start from 1736 and run up to 1850. The decorative items will also vary much in dates.

The plan of Liberty Hall denotes strength and order. There is a large T shaped hall on the first and second floor. As one enters Liberty Hall through the main entrance, he sees the parlor on the left and the living room on the right. Both of these rooms are formal in treatment.

Directly opposite the front door is the formal winter dining room. To the left of this room is the Library and office where the master of the home carried out his business. To the right of the winter dining room is the larger summer dining room, which is the only major room that contains no fireplace. The pantry opens off this room and then the kitchen is approached through a covered breezeway. The wine cellar is directly below the kitchen and the pantry.

On the second floor there are four bedrooms, all connecting to a spacious hall.

All wood used in construction is heart pine with the exception of the main stair rail which is of Walnut.

(By Thomas S. Kenan, III.)

LIBERTY HALL OFFICIALLY OPENED
Kenans Were Honored at Luncheon

“Not for destruction, but for preservation,” pronounced Mrs. Dan K. Moore, summing up Saturday's celebration officially opening Kenansville's proud new showplace, Liberty Hall.

Guest speaker at a community luncheon honoring the Kenan family held at Kenan Memorial Auditorium, the North Carolina Governor's wife declared it was pleasant in the present time of war to come to a place of quiet peace

Liberty Hall, an historic ante bellum mansion, was renovated by the Kenan family and given to Duplin County.

“The Kenans, who immigrated to America about 1736, were one of the greatest families ever to come to North Carolina,” Mrs. Moore said.

“Truly this family has helped build the United States and more important to us, North Carolina. They have frequently led and never hesitated to follow. The Kenans have always shared with their fellow man.”

Mrs. Moore expressed appreciation to Thomas S. Kenan III of Durham, N. C., chairman of the Liberty Hall Restoration Commission, and to his family for their gift. Thomas Kenan had shown an interest in the preservation not only of his ancestral home, but also of the Executive Mansion at Raleigh, she said.

“For more than 200 years, the Kenan family has taken its place in North Carolina in religious, educational, medical, and legal fields, and it will continue its role of leadership,” said Judge Howard Hubbard, Judge of the Superior Court. During two centuries, Kenans had contributed continuously to the growth of this country.

“The Kenan family has a strong strain of blood and brains,” Judge Hubbard said, “and I am old-fashioned enough to believe that good blood has told and will tell.”

“Liberty Hall will be a source of pride, pleasure and education to the people of the community and to all who visit it,” Judge Hubbard concluded.

Identifying himself as the brother of the oldest living Kenan and the father of the youngest (his 13-month-old daughter Lisa), Frank H. Kenan of Durham thanked the ladies of Kenansville for the delicious luncheon they prepared.

“As you go through Liberty Hall, you will get a good idea of Southern hospitality, which is known the world over,” he said. “We have an interest in things of beauty and an appreciation for them.”

“It is heartwarming to see the number of people who came to the opening and we hope will all return frequently to Liberty Hall,” Thomas S. Kenan III said.

He expressed his thanks to: his father, Frank H. Kenan; to the Sarah Graham Kenan Foundation; to the Flagler Foundation, founded by Mrs. Jessie Kenan Wise and represented at the luncheon by Lawrence Lewis, Jr., of Richmond; to the William R. Kenan, Jr. Charitable Trust, represented by Trustee John L. Gray, Jr., of Connecticut; architect William Boney of Wilmington; contractor Robert B. Herring of Rose Hill; Brunschwig and Fils, represented by Mrs. Murray Douglas of New York; John E. Winters of New York, Interior consultant; Mr. and Mrs.






John N. Kalmar of Faison, who loaned furnishings; and to members of the Liberty Hall Restoration Commission, especially vice-chairman O. P. Johnson and secretary F. W. McGowen.

“It has been a labor of love for us and we've enjoyed every moment of it,” declared Mr. Johnson, chairman of the luncheon meeting.

Vance B. Gavin, senior member of the Duplin County Bar Association, presented a watch to Thomas Kenan, as a token of community appreciation for his efforts in presenting Liberty Hall to Kenansville.

“While Kenansville had no keys to the city to give, Mr. Kenan, always remember you have the key to our hearts,” Mr. Gavin said.

Grace before the meal was spoken by Rev. Lauren R. Sharpe, pastor of the Kenansville Baptist Church.

During the luncheon, the ghost of Thomas Kenan, the first of the family to settle in this area, delivered a humorous sketch of the Kenan history. He was played by Tony Rivenbark of Warsaw, a student at Wilmington College.

Afterwards Mrs. Moore cut a scarlet ribbon across Liberty Hall's entrance porch and prayer was given by Bishop Thomas Wright of Wilmington. The Kenan family members and their special guests toured the mansion, filling it with laughter and chatter as they reminisced among themselves and admired the elegant furnishings.

Flowers throughout the house were contributed and arranged by the Warsaw Garden Club. Boy Scouts from the Kenansville Troop No. 50 directed traffic at the house and at the Memorial Auditorium.

The Warsaw Garden Club also provided floral decorations for the head table at the luncheon. Their unusual arrangements of ripe strawberries and yellow rosebuds set in berry boxes drew admiring comments.

Convenors for the luncheon were O. P. Johnson and F. W. McGowen, with Mrs. Mae Spicer, Duplin's extension home economist agent, in charge of the menu. Kenan family members and their special guests numbered 300 and another 200 townspeople sat down to the meal.

The townspeople contributed 30 baked hams, 125 fried chickens, 1,500 hot biscuits (of the Southern take-two-and-eat-them-while-they're-hot style), 50 pies, 30 cakes, four bushels of candied sweet potatoes, 500 deviled eggs, 100 quarts of string beans and butter beans, peach pickles, beet pickles, cucumber pickles, tea, coffee, and milk.

(Duplin Times-Progress Sentinel, May 16, 1968.)

KENAN-FLAGLER WEDDING AT LIBERTY HALL

Miss Mary Lily Kenan was the daughter of Captain William Rand Kenan, a Confederate officer, and Mary Hargrave Kenan of Chapel Hill.

She attended Peace Institute in Raleigh, and was considered an accomplished musician and singer.

She had many friends. While visiting the Pembroke Jones family in St. Augustine, Florida, she met Henry Morrison Flagler.

At seventy-one, Flagler had become a formidable figure in finance. He was one of the founders of the Standard Oil Company, and the Florida East Coast Railroad. His fortune at this time was estimated at one hundred and fifty million.

Flagler was impressed by Miss Kenan, who was described as “graceful, charming, beautifully dressed, and elegant.” He was divorced from his second wife.

After their courtship the marriage plans were announced.

Liberty Hall, ancestral home of the Kenans, looked especially lovely that late August morning in 1901, as it awaited “the wedding.”

Always a showplace, the house glowed from the work of plasterers, painters, decorators, and gardeners during the past two months.

The house had been completely refurbished from roof to cellar under the direction of the owner, James Graham Kenan. Shutters were painted dark green. The house was given a coat of white paint.

Inside, rose Chinese silk wall paper covered dining and drawing room walls; rare Aubosson and Savoronne rugs were placed on the floors. Large vases of roses were set in corners.

The only items left untouched by the workmen had been the family heirlooms gathered over the decades by the first Kenan who came to America in 1736.

The house was ready for what would later be described as the “most glittering occasion in Duplin County history,” the marriage of Mary Lily Kenan to multi-millionaire, Henry Morrison Flagler.

In an upstairs bedroom the bride-to-be dressed slowly in her white chiffon gown.

The ecru silk, trimmed in rare lace, delicate as a flower, had taken her seamstress months to create.

Mary Lily at thirty-four was well traveled, educated, and talented—the intellectual and social equal to her fiancé.

She was a descendant of one of North Carolina's oldest and most prominent families.

From a window Mary Lily could see the guests arriving on the new road that Flagler had had constructed from Magnolia past the front of the house.

His private railroad car, “The Rambler,” had traveled from New York to Wilmington the previous day, carrying dozens of friends and a fifteen-piece orchestra.






The train had made the fifty-five mile trip from Wilmington to Magnolia in one hour, adding more excitement to the festive atmosphere.

The creaking and jingling of harness in the drive and also the tuning of instruments in the drawing room warned Mary Lily that guests were arriving.

Many Duplin County residents had offered their coaches and horses for the transportation of guests from the train station.

Mary Lily looked again into the mirror, and placed the veil of ancient lace, trimmed in orange blossoms, on her hair.

Someone tapped on the door; she picked up her bouquet of white Orchids and Lillies of the Valley.

After several minutes the orchestra played the wedding march as the bride descended the stairs, escorted by her father. Louise Wise, a niece, was the flower girl and the only attendant.

Flagler looked impressive in his black Prince Albert coat and light colored trousers. In the background, the bride saw among friends and relatives, Mr. and Mrs. William R. Kenan, Jr., Mr. and Mrs. Graham Kenan, and Mrs. Jessie Kenan Wise, brother and sisters to the bride.

After the ceremony, a wedding breakfast consisting of turkey, ham, roast pork, caviar, cakes, ices, and champagne was served.

The bride left her ancestral home that afternoon. She and her husband left from Magnolia for the Flagler summer estate on Long Island.

En route the husband presented his bride with a necklace of oriental pearls worth five hundred dollars, and three million dollars in cash and bonds.

Eight months after the wedding the couple moved into the new bridal home, “Whitehall,” at Palm Beach, Florida. It is a tremendous structure that cost two million, five hundred thousand dollars to build, and one and one-half million to furnish.

Henry Morrison Flagler was the son of Isaac and Elizabeth (Caldwell) Flagler of near Hopewell, N. Y. He stands out as a significant figure in American history. He was the father of Miami. It had given very little promise of growth until the Standard Oil magnate touched it with his magic millions. For all his business insight, he possessed a strong sense of human values. He had already built hospitals, helped finance schools, built the magnificent memorial Church in St. Augustine, and contributed to many churches of all denominations before his interests focused on Miami. There he donated land and money for public school construction, land and money for Baptist, Episcopal, Methodist, Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic churches, land for public buildings and parks, and helped settlers establish themselves.

(He died in May, 1913, leaving an estate valued at more than one hundred million dollars. The bulk of his fortune was left to his wife in a trusteeship which provided one hundred thousand dollars a year and the residence, “Whitehall” at Palm Beach, and Flagler's New York City realty. After the trust expired and all other bequests were made, she was to inherit the balance of the vast estate. Properties included the entire East Coast Railway System, the hotels Ponce de Leon, Alcazar, Cardova, Continental, Royal Palm, Royal Poinciana, Breakers, and other stock in the Peninsula and Occidental Steamship Company, Standard Oil, and other corporations, vast tracts of valuable Florida lands, many small manufacturing plants, and other enterprises.)

(Today, the Henry Morrison Flagler Museum, “Whitehall,” is open to the public daily except Mondays. But in the early 1900's, only the socially elite received invitations to the stately functions there.)

(The Star-News, May 1, 1966, and The Kenan Family by Alvaretta Kenan Register.)

LIBERTY HALL RECEIVES DONATION

Frank H. Kenan, who donated the Old Kenan home and grounds in Kenansville for a museum and library, has recently contributed $12,235.75 for acquisition of additional furnishings of the house.

Several items of furniture have been added to Liberty Hall. These items have been selected to complement the fine old pieces that are original to the house.

Seven Hogarth engravings hang in the upstairs hall. Some beautiful and rare mirrors are located in strategic spots throughout the house. These are highly sophisticated examples. Other pieces are located where they were needed.

Even those guests who have already visited Liberty Hall will desire to revisit this restoration to view the many new additions.

Liberty Hall has been restored with grants made by Frank H. Kenan, Sarah G. Kenan Foundation, Flagler Foundation, and the William Rand Kenan Charitable Trust. This is one of the nicest restorations in eastern America.

It is open Tuesday through Saturday 10:00 A. M. to 4:30 P. M., Sunday 2:00 P. M. to 4:30 P. M. Closed on Monday.

(Duplin Times Progress Sentinel, Sept. 3, 1970.)

ORDEAL OF DR. KENAN
ON LUSITANIA RECALLED

At least one Wilmington resident will recall May 7 each year with






a shudder, because it was on May 7, 1915, that he was a victim of the German torpedoing of the HMS Lusitania.

The passenger on the ill-fated vessel at that time was Dr. Owen Hill Kenan, philanthropist and retired medical doctor of 111 South Third Street.

Dr. Kenan was one of the 1,959 persons on board the vessel as it sank off the coast of Ireland on the afternoon of May 7, 1915. Of the number of passengers and crew, 1,198 were drowned.

After remaining as a patient for several weeks at a Queenstown hospital, Dr. Kenan went to Paris. He later entered the French army and fought with it until America's entry into the conflict in 1917, then he entered the American army and served until the Armistice in 1918.

Sister Recalls Disaster

The retired physician was in Florida when this article was prepared and was not available for comment. However, his sister, Miss Emily H. Kenan, recalled this week that her brother had a hard time of it after being in the icy water, exposed for so long after the Lusitania was sunk.

The luxury British liner, Lusitania, left New York at noon on the first of May, 1915, despite published notices of the German government that the ship would be attacked if she made the trip.

By the 7th of May the Lusitania had entered what was called the “danger zone,” where the German submarines were lurking. At 2:10 p.m., when 10 to 15 miles off the Old Head of Kinsale, the weather being clear and the sea smooth, the captain heard the call, “There is a torpedo coming sir,” given by the second officer.

He looked to the starboard and saw a streak of foam in the wake of the German torpedo. Immediately afterwards the giant steamer was struck on the side somewhere between the third and fourth funnels.

Vessel Not Armed

The Lusitania, on being struck, took a heavy list to the starboard and in less than 20 minutes she sank in deep water. Eleven hundred and ninety-eight men, women and children were drowned.

The German government said the Lusitania was equipped with masked guns, that she was supplied with trained gunners, with special ammunition, but these statements were proved untrue. The ship was unarmed and she was transporting only innocent men and women with their children.

The Lusitania was a turbine steamship built by John Brown and Company

of Clydebank, in 1907, for the Cunard Steamship Company. She was built under Admiralty Survey and in accordance with the requirements of that agency.

Her length was 775 feet, her beam 88 feet, and her depth 60 feet 4 inches. Her tonnage was 30,395 gross and 12,611 net. Her engines were 68,000 h. p. and her speed 24½ to 25 knots. She had 23 double-ended and two single ended boilers situated in four boiler rooms. . . .

(The Star-News, 5-3-53.)






18. FROM WARSAW TO CLINTON ON
THE PLANK ROAD

When the Wilmington and Weldon railroad was completed in 1840, Warsaw was a station and was known as Mooresville. The name was later changed to Warsaw, having been taken from the book Thaddeus of Warsaw which was being popularly read at that time. A post office was established here about this time to replace an earlier post office at the Old Duplin Courthouse. Mooresville had been a stop on the old Fayetteville-New Bern stage road. In 1849, a stock company was chartered by the State to build a plank road from Fayetteville to Warsaw by the way of Clinton. The plank road was completed in the 1850's and Plank Street in Warsaw is on the extension of this plank road which was begun in the direction of New Bern but was never completed. The toll gate in Warsaw was near the old Dr. Hussey home. . . .

. . . In 1886, the Warsaw-Clinton branch of the Wilmington and Weldon railroad was built on the bed of the old plank road. . . .

. . . The toll gate of the old plank road was located on Lisbon Street. The section of the plank road between Clinton and Fayetteville was never completed. . . .

(By Claude H. Moore, from L. A. Beasley's Scrapbook.)

THE RAILROAD

. . . An issue of the old Wilmington News, dated August, 1838, carried the following story: “The Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad is now open to the depot at Mrs. Teacheys 42 miles north of Wilmington, and the cars will run regularly to that point. Within three weeks ten more miles will be thrown open to travelers. The bridge across Neuse River is ready for laying down the iron and every hour diminishes the distance to be traveled over the stages.” . . .

Another news report, dated February, 1839, is as follows: “We regret having been unable to attend the big celebration in Waynesboro on February 22, in connection with the completion of the railroad between Wilmington and Waynesboro. This is an important event and will mean much to the development of the State. Farmers near Waynesboro are now shipping their hogs and produce to Wilmington and the shipment is less than a day in transit.” Old Waynesboro here referred to was

Duplin County






Lord Dupplin's Castle in Scotland

The Spring in Kenansville

James Sprunt Institute (Old)






Country Scene in Duplin—By W. Dallas Herring

Old Farm Well

Going to Mill on the Horse and Cart






Hog Killing Time in Duplin—First Part of Twentieth Century

Mending (Cobbling) Shoes






Duplin County's Bi-Centennial Celebration

on the Neuse River just southwest of the present city of Goldsboro. By March, 1840, the railroad was fully completed all the way between Wilmington and Weldon. . . .

(Duplin Times, Sept. 16, 1949.)

The Raleigh and Wilmington Railroad, from the Roanoke River to Wilmington, was incorporated in 1833. The company was organized in March, 1836. This work was commenced in October, 1836, and finished in March, 1840, at a cost of $1,500,000. Six hundred thousand were subscribed in the stock by the State; and by act of 1840, the State endorsed the bonds of this company for $300,000, a part of which she has paid. The repairs of the road in 1850, increased the cost to another million. Gen. McRae, President.

(Historical Sketches of North Carolina From 1584 to 1851, By John H. Wheeler, Published in 1851, Page 136.)

ATLANTIC COAST LINE RAILROAD

The parent road of the Atlantic Coast Line, the Wilmington & Weldon, was opened to traffic on March 9, 1840. At that time, the Wilmington & Weldon was the longest railroad in the world. It extended 161 miles from Wilmington, N. C., almost completely across the State of North Carolina, to Weldon, at the head of navigation on the Roanoke River and near the Virginia line.

In 1840, there were 2,200 miles of railroads in the United States. In that year it became possible for passengers to reach Charleston, S. C., from New York by rail in 66 hours; from Baltimore, Md., in 42 hours; quicker than could be done by boat.

EARLY RAILROADING

Railroad travel in those days was at the rate of about 12 miles an hour, including stops. Railroads were not connected and passengers, on reaching the terminals, walked from one train to another.

Although the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad dates its beginning to the Wilmington & Weldon, which was, for those days, part of a through system, the earliest in point of time of the more than 100 short disconnected railroads which later became a part of the Atlantic Coast Line was the short Petersburg Railroad chartered in 1830. This railroad ran 59 miles almost straight south from Petersburg, Va., to Weldon, N. C. It began operations over a part of the line in October, 1832.

This railroad ran on tracks of yellow pine on top of which were attached iron straps, one half inch by two inches, and secured by cross ties of white oak, 12 inches in diameter.






When the Wilmington & Weldon was opened, it was the first time a train of cars had been pulled continuously as far as 161 miles on a railroad. Bells were rung, 161 shots from cannons were fired, one for each mile of the line, and a barbecue was given for 550 persons.

With the completion of the Wilmington & Weldon, an important north and south route was established. Passengers going north from Wilmington took the train at Weldon for Petersburg, over the Petersburg Railroad. From Petersburg they took the Richmond & Petersburg Railroad to Richmond, a distance of 23 miles Then at Richmond they again changed cars and took the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac to the North. . . .

. . . On April 21, 1900, the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company of South Carolina, the Wilmington & Weldon, the Norfolk & Carolina, and other railroads were sold to and merged into the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company of Virginia, which then changed its name to the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company.

(Mr. L. A. Beasley's Scrapbook.)

THE ATLANTIC AND CAROLINA RAILROAD

The Atlantic & Carolina Railroad was chartered from Warsaw to Kenansville on March 30, 1914, the incorporators meeting and organizing the corporation at Bowden, N. C., on April 21, 1914. The incorporators were A. R. Turnbull and William J. Jones of Norfolk, Va.; T. A. Hefty, Bowden, N. C.; R. D. Johnson, Warsaw, N. C.; and H. D. Williams and L. A. Beasley, Kenansville, N. C. All present. A. R. Turnbull, President of Rowland Lumber Company, who furnished the money to build the railroad and owned the majority of the stock, was elected President of the Railroad, which position he held until his death. Wm. J. Jones was elected Secretary, the other six incorporators being made directors of the road. L. A. Beasley was elected General Counsel holding that position until the road was sold to the Atlas Plywood Corporation of Boston, Massachusetts, in 1931.

Beasley was instrumental in getting the railroad organized, and without his efforts there probably would have never been rail service into Kenansville. He drew up and secured the charter; secured the rights of way, many of them taken in his own name; performed all legal services for the road; and got a special act through the legislature authorizing an election in Kenansville Township for a $10,000 bond issue to aid in building the road. When held, this election was duly carried, no man in Kenansville or in the eastern part of the Township voting against the bond issue. There were very few adverse ballots cast at all.

In that day there were no improved roads in Duplin County, all roads

being worked by hand with local overseers. The road to Magnolia was so sandy that for most of the time it took two hours for making the trip with a team, and the roads to Warsaw were so crooked and sandy that few Model T's growled along in low gear thru the sand and mud. The haulers of freight plodded along with light loads drawn by mules and oxen. The nearest hard surface road of any length was probably the famous Shenandoah Valley Pike from Staunton Northward in Virginia. (This was the road over which General Stonewall Jackson's men rolled locomotives in the War between the States.) One prominent Duplin farmer, Andrew J. Pickett, was heard to remark that during the first year of the railroad, he saved enough in freight cost to pay his entire extra tax caused by the bond issue. Hundreds of car loads of fertilizer and other freight were hauled each year, and hundreds of passengers carried. In the peak of this service the passenger fares amounted to as much as $4,000 and freight returns to as much as $10,000 annually. The passenger service between Warsaw and Kenansville was twice daily, and for a great part of the time the United States Mail was carried over the road.

This sketch of Kenansville railroad history would be incomplete without a word about Captain J. E. Jerritt who has been connected with the Atlantic & Carolina since its first trains began to run over its tracks. He and his father were near neighbors of Mr. Turnbull who brought them south when he came, putting the younger Jerritt in charge of operating the road, handling the office work as well as acting as conductor for many years. He continued to act as General Manager of the road as long as Mr. Turnbull lived, continuing in the same capacity after it was sold to Atlas Plywood Corporation. One of the county's leading citizens recently said, “Mr. Jerritt is the most popular and beloved man in Kenansville, and liked by all who know him. He is praised by his wide circle of friends and railroad acquaintances of the larger roads as a most capable and efficient railroad operator, and a splendid citizen.”

Mr. Turnbull was a native of Minneapolis, Minnesota, and one of the finest, most affable, and ablest of men who ever came from the North to cast his lot with the South. He owned and managed a million dollar lumber company, and worked until he died in 1926 in Norfolk, Va.

(L. A. Beasley's Scrapbook.)






19. TOWNS OF DUPLIN COUNTY

Beulaville was first known as Snatchet. Charter: Pr. 1915, C. 378; Pr. 1925, C. 16. Present Officials (1969): Leon Lanier, Mayor; Commissioners: Joe Edwards, Roland Edwards, Grady Mercer, Jr., Ricky Lynn Thomas, Mervin Whaley; Town Clerk: Mrs. J. W. Smith.

Bowdens. Charter: Pr. 1911, C. 155 (not now functioning as a town.)

Calypso. Charter: Pr. 1913, C. 264, Pr. 1915, C. 298. Present Officials (1969): B. C. Albritton, Mayor; Commissioners: Norwood Barfield, M. J. Lambert, Jr., Cecil Langley, E. B. Sutton, James Wolf; Town Clerk: Glanton Barwick.

Faison was first known as Faison Depot, a village that sprang up about 1833. Charter: Pr. 1872, C. 125; Amended Pr. 1901, C. 324, Pr. 1923, C. 235. Present Officials (1969): J. E. Andrews, Jr., Mayor; Commissioners: Curtis C. Cates, L. D. Groome, L. S. Guy, Jr., William Igoe, Charles E. Sauls; Town Clerk: Mrs. Hazel Kelly.

Kenansville was laid out in 1818. It was named for General James Kenan, and is in the Golden Grove Settlement. Charter: Laws of N. C. from 1805 to 1816, C. XXXIV, Session 1850-51, C. CCCXVIII, Session 1852, C. CCVIII, Session 1858, C. 216, Session 1879, C. 73, Session 1899, C. 174, Session 1905, C. 2. Present Officials (1969): Dixon Hall, Mayor; Commissioners: William P. Fennell, John Hall, Leo Jackson, Philip Kretsch, Lauren Sharpe; Town Clerk: Preston Holmes.

Magnolia was first known as Stricklandsville. Charter: Re-enacted Pr. 1869, C. LXXVII, Pr. 1905, C. 174. Present Officials (1969): Dr. Corbett L. Quinn, Mayor; Commissioners: Fred Archer, H. Melvin Pope, James A. Powell, Charlie J. Thomas, Millard Williams; Town Clerk: Mrs. N. T. Pickett.

Rose Hill was first known as Rosehill, and since 1961, Rose Hill. Charter: Pr. 1901, C. 67, Pr. 1903, C. 284, Pr. 1905, C. 400, Pr. 1909, C. 81. Present Officials (1969): Ben Harrell, Mayor; Commissioners: Clarence Brown, Samuel H. Carr, Felton Rackley, Dennis Ramsey, Merritt Watson; Town Clerk: C. T. Fussell, Jr.

Teacheys: Charter: Pr. 1903, C. 199, Pr. 1905, C. 173, Pr. 1919, C. 148, C. 253, Session Laws of 1957. Present Officials (1969): Mrs.

J. T. Ramsey, Mayor; Commissioners: George Brown, James Henderson, Ray MacMillan, Dan Norris, Herbert Tucker; Town Clerk: Mrs. Lois Henderson.

Wallace was first known as Duplin Roads. Charter: Pr. 1899, C. 211, Corporate limits Pr. 1931, C. 120. Present Officials (1969): T. J. Baker, Mayor; Commissioners: Harry Carlton, Charles C. Farrior, Steve W. Gowan, Thomas Covington Townsend, James E. Wells; Town Clerk: Luther Powell.

Warsaw was laid out in 1838. It was originally called Duplin Depot, changed to Mooresville, and then to Warsaw. Charter: Pr. 1861, C. 179, Pr. 1885, C. 91, Pr. 1899, C. 250, Pr. 1909, C. 197, Pr. 1911, C. 364, Pr. 1915, C. 228, Pr. 1917, C. 100, Pr. Ex. 1920, C. 77. Present Officials (1969): J. Ed Strickland, Mayor; Commissioners: Cecil Bostic, Dr. Mett Ausley, W. E. Foster, Larry P. McCullen, W. C. Tew; Town Clerk: Alfred Earl Herring.

Albertson and Chinquapin are unincorporated communities with Post Offices.

Some of the other unincorporated communities in the County are as follows: Baltic, Beautancus, Cabin, Carlton, Cedar Fork, Charity, Concord, Cypress Creek, Duplin Fork, Fountain, Friendship, Hallsville, Hadley, Herrings Crossroads, Kornegay, Leon, Lyman, Maready, Outlaws Bridge, Pin Hook, Potters Hill, Quinns Store, Red Hill, Register, Sarecta, Scotts Store, Sloan, Summerlin, and Tin City.






20. MORE HISTORICAL GLIMPSES
THE DUPLIN COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY

Organized April 23, 1854

Miss Macy Cox, 84-year-old Magnolia civic and religious leader, has always manifested a great deal of interest in the history of this section. She found the original manuscript of the records of the organization and the early years of the Duplin County Agricultural Society some years ago among the many books in her possession. The manuscript includes a wealth of old Duplin family names and Miss Cox has worked long and hard to have this book published so that all Duplinites and others interested in the history of this section may have access to it.

ORGANIZATION

A portion of the citizens of Duplin County, North Carolina, taking into consideration the imperfect system of culture and other agricultural and domestic pursuits in this county, have assembled at the courthouse in the town of Kenansville on the 23rd day of April, A. D. 1854, and after consultation and reflection conclude to associate together for the purpose of improvement within our borders and which association shall be known as the Duplin Agricultural Society and for the proper regulations of the said Society, we adopt the following as our Constitution.

CONSTITUTION

Article 1—Resolved that our association shall be known and styled as the Duplin Agricultural Society and that every respectable citizen shall be allowed to participate with us who shall comply with the By-Laws and regulations of this society.

Article 2—Resolved to have a president, two vice presidents, one corresponding and one secondary secretary and a treasurer who shall be elected annually by ballot as the officers of this society and in all meetings of the society the president (when present) shall preside unless he requests one of the vice presidents to do so who shall discharge the duties of the chair and to the president or the vice presidents all complaints shall be made against the society or any of its members.

Article 3—Resolved to hold quarterly meetings of the society at the courthouse in Kenansville on the first Saturday of every County Court Month and more often if deemed advisable for the transaction of any business. Any twelve members of the society shall constitute a quorum for said purpose.

Resolved that the following By-Laws shall form a part of the above Constitution and shall be observed by the members of the society.

BY-LAWS

Every member shall subscribe and pay over to the treasurer the sum of one dollar to entitle him to membership and shall also contribute annually the sum of one dollar to defray the expenses of the society. . . .

Resolved that there shall be annual exhibition at Fairs of this society held at such time and place as shall be agreed upon in meeting and such exhibitions shall be conducted according to directions of the officers of the society.

Resolved that whenever another change is proposed in the foregoing Constitution or By-Laws notice shall be given in meeting of said proposed change three months previous to the making of said alteration.

ELECTION OF OFFICERS

After the above Constitution and By-Laws were adopted, the society proceeded to the election of officers for the year 1854. Jeremiah Pearsall was elected president, Owen R. Kenan and James Dickson vice presidents, Stephen M. Grady, corresponding secretary, Issac B. Kelly secondary secretary and D. Needham W. Herring, treasurer.

ROLL OF MEMBERS

The following are the names of the members of the society which is copied as they were signed to the paper that started by Jeremiah Pearsall on the 17th of October, 1853:

Isaac B. Kelly, Jesse Swinson, John Bennette, Harper Williams, Unoh Herring, James G. Stokes, Owen R. Kenan, David Southerland, John I. McGowen, William W. Miller, Stephen M. Grady, Clarborne J. Oates, Alfred Houston, Holsted Bowden, William J. Kornegay, John B. Hupy, David Williams, Curtis C. Oates, John C. Mallard, James Pearsall, Henry C. Kornegay, N. W. Herring, George W. Middleton, James Dickson.

William B. Middleton, C. McMillan, Bryan W. Herring, Lebb Middleton, John A. Bryan, Jere Pearsall, David J. Southerland, Gibson Carr, William B. Southerland, David Reid, Grady Outlaw, James B. Curt, John W. Gilliespie, James R. Hurst, Edward Pearsall, Robert J. Pearsall, Stokes Wells, Henry E. Rhodes, George L. Best, E. J. Middleton, Thomas






Hall, Briant Smith, Jr., Joseph W. James, James E. Ward, James Hall, James G. Branch, Howell Best, John W. Boney, John J. Whitehead, James H. Jerman.

James M. Grady, Hugh Maxwell, Robert D. Sloan, N. B. Whitfield, C. J. Houston, John D. Abernathy, Jesse P. Jordan, Henry H. Hodges, Stephen Herring, Benj. F. Cobb, Edward W. Houston, I. J. Sprunt, Thos. J. Carr, J. T. R. Miller, Almon Holmes, Henry James, Osborne Carr, Alesie A. Grady, Major J. Taylor, Stephen M. Henry, Dickson Mallard, A. G. Mosely, John D. Carroll, William D. Pearsall, Joel Lofton, William W. Farrior, Blaney Williams, Stephen Graham, William R. Ward, John M. Chartin.

Boney Wells, Jr., Henry R. Kornegay, William L. Johnson, James Alderman, William Farrior, D. C. Moore, John Smith, Thomas Hill, Francis Williams, William E. Hill, Alfred Hollingsworth, Isaac W. West, J. D. Carr, John Dobson, A. T. Stanford, C. W. Graham, Alsa Southerland, Patrick Merritt, William J. Houston, Albert R. Hicks, David F. Chambers, John Carr, James W. Blount, Isaac Brown.

SEVENTH ANNUAL DUPLIN FAIR — NOVEMBER, 1860

On Thursday and Friday the 15th and 16th days of November, 1860, the seventh annual fair of the Duplin Agricultural Society was held at the fair grounds near Kenansville.

The weather being very favorable, a larger assembly was collected than was known on a previous occasion. The fair was a complete success. R. H. Cowan of Wilmington delivered a most excellent address, who was introduced to the vast crowd assembled by William E. Hill, Esqr., after which the reports of the different committees on premiums were read from the stand by Maj. O. R. Kenan which were as follows:

PREMIUMS

Best acre of Up Sano Corn (79½ bushels)—G. Boney—$4.00. Second best acre—(66 bushels)—John Carr—$2.00. Third best acre—(58½ bushels)—J. R. Ezzell—$1.00.

Best acre wheat—(24 1/10 bushels) E. Pearsall—$2.00.

Best acre cotton—(1800 bushels)—J. T. Shine—$4.00.

Best bale cotton—C. D. Hill—$3.00.

Best sample Seco Corn—Daniel K. Kornegay—.25. Second best—Robert H. Farlow—Diploma. Third best—Daniel T. Boney—Diploma.

Also fine samples of Seco Corn were exhibited by J. G. Kelly, O. R. Kenan, David Green, S. A. Merriman, David J. Middleton, Stephen Herring, Henry J. Johnston and Benjamin Oliver.

Best sample wheat—Daniel Kornegay—.25. Second best sample wheat—Edward Pearsall—Diploma.

Best sample rye—J. B. Kelly—.25. Second best sample— D. J. Middleton—Diploma. Fine samples were exhibited by J. B. Kelly and Jeremiah Pearsall.

Best sample oats—J. C. Mallard—.25.

Best sample field peas—Daniel K. Kornegay—.25.

Best sample cotton—Benjamin Oliver—.25.

Best sample potatoes—Stephen Herring—.25. Second best sample—William B. Middleton—Diploma. Third best sample—J. B. Kelly—Diploma. Fine specimen were also exhibited by H. J. Johnston and B. Oliver.

Best specimen turnips—David M. Pearsall—.25. Second best—J. B. Oliver—.25. Third best—J. Callalland—Diploma. Also fine specimen were exhibted by D. K. Kornegay, James Garrason, Jeremiah Pearsall, J. D. Carroll, John H. Pearsall, George M. Clamma, H. Bowden, D. Mallard, William E. Hill and Thomas Hall.

Best specimen beets—George A. McClammy—.25.

Best specimen pumpkins—Thomas Hall—.25. Second best—O. R. Kenan—Diploma.

Best specimen squash—David Brown—.25.

Best specimen Japanese Pu Melon—S. Gillespie—.25.

Best specimen watermelon—John Q. McGowen—.25.

Best specimen collards—Jeremiah Pearsall—.25.

Best specimen peanuts—George A. McClammy—.25.

Best specimen fruit trees—R. W. Middleton—.25.

Best specimen apples—Dickson Mallard—.25. Second best—Jere Pearsall—Diploma. Other fine specimen were also exhibited by H. Bowden, Benjamin Oliver and Maj. Lizzie Pearsall.

Best specimen dried apples—Mrs. H. Bowden—.25. Second best—Mrs. Linda Carr—Diploma. Third best—Mrs. C. D. Hill—Diploma. Fourth best—Mrs. Stephen Herring—Diploma.

PROVISIONS

Best bacon hams—George W. Middleton—$5.00. Second best—H. Bowden $4.00. Third best—John Green—$3.00. Fourth best—Edward Pearsall—$2.00. Fifth best—Benjamin Oliver—$1.00. Other fine specimen were also exhibited by Jere Pearsall, John Q. McGowen, J. J. Whitehead, L. A. Merriman and William N. Williams which were considered highly meritorious.

Best lot pickled pork—Mrs. Linda Carr—$3.00. Second best lot—Mrs. Jere Pearsall—$2.00. Third best lot—Mrs. George A. McCammy—$1.00.






Other fine specimen were exhibited by Mrs. John A. Bryan, Mrs. Linda Carr, G. W. Middleton, W. W. Whitehead and John Carr.

Best specimen butter—Mrs. J. B. Kelly—$1.00. Second best—Abner M. Faison—.50. Third best—Thomas Hall—.25. Fourth best—David M. Pearsall—Diploma.

Best specimen corn meal—H. Bowden—$1.00. Second best— William B. Middleton.

Best specimen soap—Mrs. G. W. Middleton—$1.00. Second best—J. B. Kelly—Diploma. Third best—John A. Bryan—Diploma.

Best specimen candles—Mrs. R. S. Stanly—.50. Other specimen of candles were exhibited by Mrs. W. Middleton, Mrs. J. B. Kelly and Mrs. Stephen Herring.

Best specimen starch—Mrs. D. J. Middleton—.25. Second best—Mrs. John A. Bryan—.25.

Best crab apples—Mrs. J. M. Sprunt—.50.

Best quince preserves—Mrs. W. W. Whitehead—.50.

Best cherry preserves—Mrs. Thomas Hall—.50.

Best apples preserves—Mrs. J. B. Kelly—$1.00. Second best—Mrs. John Green—.50.

Best peach preserves—Mrs. R. J. Pearsall—$1.00. Second best—Mrs. Jere Pearsall—.50. Third best—Mrs. J. M. Sprunt—Diploma.

Best watermelon—Mrs. J. B. Kelly—$1.00. Second best— Mrs. Thomas Hall—.50. Good specimen were also exhibited by Miss Nancy Cobb and Mrs. Daniel K. Kornegay.

Best citron—Mrs. Jere Pearsall—$1.00. Second best—Mrs. G. W. Middleton—.50. Third best—Mrs. R. J. Pearsall—Diploma.

Best pears—Mrs. J. M. Sprunt—$1.00. Second best—Miss Lizzie Pearsall—.50.

Best apple jelly—Mrs. R. J. Pearsall—.50. Second best—Mrs. David M. Pearsall—.25. Fine specimen were also exhibited by Mrs. Dickson Mallard, Mrs. J. B. Kelly, Mrs. D. A. Moore and Miss Nancy Cobb.

Best grape jelly—Mrs. R. J. Pearsall—.50. Second best—Mrs. J. B. Kelly—.25. Third best—Mrs. Jere Pearsall—Diploma.

Best quince jelly—Mrs. J. B. Kelly—.50.

Best peach jelly—Mrs. J. B. Kelly—.50.

Best persimmon jelly—Mrs. J. B. Kelly—.50.

Best brandy peaches—Mrs. John J. Whitehead—.50. Second best—Mrs. J. B. Kelly—.25. Good specimen were also exhibited by Mrs. R. J. Pearsall and Mrs. W. W. Whitehead.

Best brandy whartelberries—Stephen Herring—Diploma.

Best sweet pickles—Miss Alma Faison—.50. Second best—Mrs. John A. Bryan—.25. Third best—Mrs. Thomas Hall—Diploma.

Best black berry wine—Mrs. J. B. Kelly—.50. Second best—Mrs. G. W. Middleton—.25. Third best—Mrs. J. B. Cobb—Diploma.

Best wild grape wine—R. M. Middleton—.50. Second best—Mrs. Jere Pearsall—.25. Third best—Mrs. G. W. Middleton—Diploma.

Best strawberry wine—Mrs. B. Oliver—.50.

Best scuppernong wine—Mrs. D. M. Pearsall—.50. Second best— Mrs. James B. Carr—.25. Good specimen were also exhibited by Mrs. R. J. Pearsall and R. M. Middleton.

Best tomato wine—Mrs. Jere Pearsall—.50.

Best cider wine—James B. Carr—Diploma. Second best— Mrs. Jere Pearsall—.50.

Best cider—Mrs. H. Bowden—Diploma.

Best raspberry cordial—Mrs. N. W. Herring—.50.

Best sugar cane syrup—Mrs. J. B. Kelly—.50.

Best raspberry vinegar—Mrs. J. B. Cobb—Diploma.

Best cider vinegar—Mrs. J. B. Kelly—Diploma.

Best sour pickles—Mrs. R. J. Pearsall—$1.00. Second best—Mrs. Jere Pearsall—.50. Third best—Miss Lizzie Pearsall—.25.

Best pound cake—Mrs. C. D. Hill—.50. Second best—Miss Kate Kelly—.25. Third best—Mrs. H. Bowden—Diploma.

Best jelly cake—Mrs. R. J. Pearsall—.50.

Best gold and silver cake—Mrs. D. K. Kornegay—.50.

Best sponge cake—Mrs. D. K. Kornegay—.50.

Best silver cake—Mrs. W. W. Faison—.50.

Best marble cake—Mrs. W. W. Faison—.50.

Best fruit cake—Mrs. R. J. Pearsall—Diploma.

Best citron pie—Mrs. G. W. Middleton—.50.

Best potato pie—Mrs. J. B. Kelly—.50. Second best—Mrs. H. Bowden—.25.

Best homemade candy—Miss Kate Kelly—.50.

Best corn bread—Mrs. J. B. Kelly—.50.

Best corn pound cake—Mrs. S. B. Winden—.50. Second best—Mrs. J. B. Kelly—Diploma.

Best biscuits—Mrs. J. B. Kelly—.50. Second Best—Mrs. H. Bowden—.25.

Best potato rolls—Mrs. R. J. Pearsall—.50.

Best sugar cake—Mrs. H. Bowden—.50.

HOUSEHOLD FABRICS

Best vest pattern—Mrs. J. W. Outlaw—$1.00. Second best—Mrs. Stephen Herring—.50. Fine patterns were also exhibited by Mrs. P. G. Cook and Mrs. J. W. Outlaw. They received diplomas.






Best coat pattern—Mrs. Stephen Herring—$2.00. Second best—Mrs. H. J. Johnston—$1.00. Third best—Mrs. Solomon Hall—.50. Fine specimen were also exhibited by Mrs. Daniel Bowden, Mrs. John Green, Mrs. John A. Bryan and B. Oliver. They each received a diploma.

Best pants pattern—Mrs. J. W. Outlaw—$2.00. Second best—Mrs. J. W. Outlaw—$1.00. Third best—Mrs. J. W. Outlaw—.50. Other fine patterns were also exhibited by Miss Nancy Cobb, Mrs. Stephen Herring, Mrs. John A. Bryan, Mrs. B. Oliver, Mrs. J. W. Outlaw, Mrs. Martha Frederick and Mrs. D. J. Middleton. They each received a diploma.

Best made pants—Mrs. D. A. Moore—.50.

Best N. C. Casimine—J. B. Kelly—$2.00.

Best carpeting (homemade)—Mrs. Thomas Hall—$1.00.

Best checks—Mrs. J. W. Outlaw—.50.

Best ladies’ homemade robes—Mrs. J. W. Outlaw—.50. Two other fine patterns by Mrs. J. W. Outlaw—Diploma.

Best dress pattern—Mrs. Dolly Edwards—$1.00. Second best—Mrs. Martha Frederick—.50. Other fine patterns were exhibited by Mrs. Stephen Herring, Mrs. R. S. Stanly and Mrs. John Green. They each received a diploma.

Best wool socks—Mrs. B. Oliver—.50. Second best—Mrs. B. Oliver—Diploma.

Best wire grass hat—G. W. Middleton—.50.

Best bed quilt—Miss Dolly Moore—$4.00. Second best—Miss Eliza Southerland—$3.00. Third best—Miss Ann E. Kenan—$2.00. Fourth best—Mrs. Eliza Southerland—$1.00. Fifth best— Mrs. T. W. Boney—.50.

A white quilt—Miss Sarah Hawes—$1.00.

A silk quilt composed of 3474 pieces—Mrs. D. W. Jones— $1.00. Other very handsome quilts by Mrs. T. W. Boney, Mrs. Jere Pearsall, Mrs. H. B. Hurst, Mrs. Daniel T. Boney, Mrs. J. W. Outlaw and Miss Ann E. Kenan. They each received a diploma.

Best woolen counterpane—Mrs. J. W. Outlaw—$2.00. Second best—D. K. Kornegay—$1.00. Third best—Mrs. D. A. Moore—Diploma. Fourth best—Mrs. James Kornegay—Diploma. Other very handsome counterpanes were exhibited by Mrs. D. A. Moore, Mrs. John A. Bryan, Mrs. Daniel Bowden, Miss Mary Southerland, Miss Eliza Southerland, Mrs. Solomon Hall, 2 by Miss Martha Frederick, 2 by Mrs. C. B. McGowen and Miss Martendale. They each received a diploma.

Best cotton knit counterpane—Mrs. D. W. Jones—$2.00. Second best—Miss Emma F. Williams—$1.00.

Best cotton woven counterpane—Mrs. A. M. Faison—$2.00. Second best—Mrs. John A. Bryan—$1.00. Third best—Mrs. Thomas Hall—Diploma. Fourth best—Mrs. J. W. Outlaw—Diploma. Other very handsome

counterpanes were exhibited by Mrs. Daniel Bowden, 2 by Miss Martha Frederick, 2 by Mrs. Abner Faison, Mrs. D. K. Kornegay, Mrs. J. C. Mallard, Mrs. J. W. Outlaw, Mrs. James Kornegay, Mrs. Solomon Hall and Miss Martendale.

Best bed spread—Miss Martha Frederick—.50. Second best—Mrs. Daniel Bowden—.25.

Best bed valance—Mrs. J. C. Mallard—Diploma.

Handsome worked table cover—Miss May Spear—.50. Best pan ottoman covers—Mrs. D. M. Pearsall—.50. Second best—Miss May Spear—.25. Third best—Miss E. F. Williams—Diploma.

Best sofa pillow—Miss Em. F. Williams—Diploma.

Best tidy (thread)—Mrs. James E. Hall—.25.

Best tidy (cotton)—Mrs. James E. Hall—.25. Second best—Miss Malissa Boney—Diploma. Third best—Miss Emma Pearsall—Diploma. A very handsome wonted tidy by Miss J. Stallon—Diploma.

Best pincushion—Mrs. C. D. Hill—Diploma. Second best—Mrs. C. V. Devane—Diploma.

Best child's embroidered dress—Mrs. C. D. Hill—$2.00. Second best—Miss Catherine Frederick—$1.00. Third best—Mrs. John D. Southerland—Diploma.

Best misses embroidered dress—Miss Nancy Cobb—$2.00.

Best needle worked collar—Miss Lizzie Dickson—$2.00. Second best—Miss Nancy Cobb—$1.00. Third best—Mrs. D. M. Pearsall—Diploma. Fourth best—Miss Dolly Moore—Diploma.

Best jaconet embroidery—Miss Almera Faison—.50. Second best—Miss Cordena Faison—.25. Third best—Miss Alice Dickson—Diploma.

Needle worked pantleletts—Miss Martha Frederick—.25.

Ladies’ tape worked skirt—Miss Sue Beaman—.50.

Needle worked cape—Miss Nancy Cobb—.50. Fine specimen of various kinds of needle work were exhibited by Miss Mary Black, Mrs. N. W. Herring, Miss Fanny Jones, Mrs. Abner Faison, Mrs. T. B. Kelly, Mrs. C. V. Devane, Miss Fanny Russell and Mrs. J. W. Outlaw.

Best tidies (zephyr work)—Miss C. Sprunt—.25. Second best—Miss Kittie Farrior—Diploma.

Best shawl (zephyr)—Miss Eugenia Hussey—.25.

Child's embroidered sack—Miss Mary J. Newall—.50.

Best zephyr undersleeves—Miss Kate S. Kelly—.25. Second best—Miss Betty Middleton—Diploma. Third best—Miss Bettie Farrior—Diploma.

Zephyr head dress—Bettie Middleton—.25.

Zephyr necklace—Miss Ann Bryan—Diploma.

Zephyr watch case—Bettie O. Pearsall—Diploma.






Zephyr Ottoman cover—Miss Vic. Dickson—Diploma.

Ottoman—Mrs. R. J. Pearsall—Diploma.

Infant's bonnett—Mrs. A. T. Stanford—.50.

Best crochet collar—Miss Mary S. Bortick—Diploma. Second best—Miss Lucy Pearsall—Diploma.

Best lamp mats—Mrs. C. D. Hill—Diploma. Second best—Miss Me. E. Kenan—Diploma. Third best—Miss Mary A. Kenan—Diploma. Fourth best—Mrs. J. B. Kelly—Diploma. Fifth best—Miss Mary Bundy—Diploma.

Shell box—Mrs. A. M. Faison—Diploma.

Silk nite cap—Miss Virginia Beasley—Diploma.

PAINTING AND FLOWERS

Best oil painting—Mrs. William B. Jones—$1.00.

Best crayon drawing—Mrs. William B. Jones—$1.00.

Best oriental—Miss Alice Dickson—Diploma. There were other paintings by Mrs. W. B. Jones and two paintings by Miss S. Miller. They received diplomas for these.

Best vase of flowers—Miss C. Sprunt—$1.00. Second best—Miss Isabella Sprunt—Diploma.

MANUFACTURES

Best N. C. made buggy—Dibble & Brothers—$3.00. Second best—Dibble & Brothers—$1.00.

Best rockaway buggy—Dibble & Brothers—Diploma.

Mr. Dibble & Bros. and George A. Newell, Esqr., exhibited a number of fine carriages, rockaways and buggies of superior quality of Northern manufacture.

Best 2-horse N. C. made coulter—Giles Clute—$2.00.

Best N. C. made plow—P. T. Cook—$2.00. Second best—R. H. Farlow—$1.00. Third best—H. Bowden—.50.

Best 2-horse plow (N. C.)—John C. Mallard—1.00.

Best singletree (NC)—R. H. Farlow—.50.

Best pair horse hames (NC)—R. H. Farlow—.50.

Best pea dropper (NC)—George T. Bennett—$3.00.

Best corn and cotton cultivator (NC)—George T. Bennett—$3.00.

Best 4-horse wagon (NC)—William B. Middleton—$2.00.

Best horse cart (NC)—R. H. Farlow—$2.00.

Best ax helve—George W. Middleton—.25.

Best N. C. amo leather—G. A. Newell—$1.00. Second best—G. W. Middleton—.50.

Best wash machine—John A. Bryan—$3.00.

Best key basket—W. Dickson Carr—.50.

Best pair N. C. boots—John P. Wallace—$1.00.

Best set single buggy harness—George A. Newell—$2.00.

Best drawing knife—Ephraim Boney—.50.

Best round saw—Ephraim Boney—.25.

HORSES

Best stallion—O. R. Kenan—$4.00.

Best brood mare—C. D. Hill—$4.00. Second best—Jere Pearsall—$3.00. Third best—John H. Carr—$2.00. Fourth best—Stephen Graham—$1.00. Fifth best—William B. Middleton—Diploma.

Fine brood mares were also exhibited by R. B. Carr, D. T. Boney, D. C. Moore, D. J. Middleton, W. W. Whitehead, J. J. Whitehead, G. T. Lofton, Abner M. Faison and William E. Hill.

COLTS

Best 1 year old colt—Ward Kornegay—$2.00. Second best—Everil Herring—$1.00.

Best 2 year old colt—M. J. Faison—$2.00.

Fine colts were also exhibited by R. B. Carr, D. C. Moore, J. C. Mallard, Abner M. Faison, Davis Cottle and R. K. Williams.

Best mare and colt—D. C. Moore—$2.00.

Best mule and colt—William E. Hill—$2.00.

Best pair mules—E. J. Faison—$2.00. Second best—R. J. Pearsall—$1.00. Third best—D. C. Moore—Diploma.

Best jack—D. C. Moore—$2.00.

Also fine mules were exhibited by George McClammy and William E. Hill.

TRAVELING HORSES

Best pair carriage horses—E. H. Stanley—$2.00. Second best—Dr. R. W. Ward—$1.00.

Fastest pair horses (time 2 min. 56 sec.)—J. P. Cobb—$2.00.

Best family horse—Dr. R. W. Ward—$2.00. Second best— C. Patrick—$1.00. Third best—W. W. Whitehead—Diploma.

Best trotter under saddle (2 min. 54 sec.)—John Barden—$2.00.

Best trotter in harness (2 minutes 56 seconds)—Edward Southerland—$2.00. Second best—(2 minutes 59 seconds)— John Barden—$1.00. Third best—(3 minutes 47 seconds)—W. W. Whitehead—.50.

Best pacing horse (2 minutes 47 seconds)—S. S. Carroll—$2.00. Second best—(2 minutes 48 seconds)—George W. Lamb—$1.00.






CATTLE

Best Devon bull—William A. Faison—$3.00. Second best—A. M. Faison—$2.00.

Best Durham Bull—William E. Hill—$3.00. Second best— William B. Middleton—$2.00.

Best graded bull—C. D. Hill—$3.00. Second best—William E. Hill—$2.00.

Best Durham and Devon—D. K. Kornegay—$2.00.

Best Durham bull yearling—A. M. Faison—$1.00.

Best native bull and heifer—D. C. Moore—$2.00.

Best native bull calf—J. B. Kelly—$1.00.

Best Durham cow and calf—M. J. Faison—$3.00.

Best Devon cow and calf—A. M. Faison—$3.00. Second best— D. K. Kornegay—$2.00. Third best—William A. Faison—$2.00.

Best Devon cow and twin calves—M. J. Faison—$2.00.

Best Devon heifer—William A. Faison—$2.00. Second best—A. M. Faison—$1.00.

Best Aireshire heifer—William A. Faison—$2.00.

Best Durham heifer—William A. Faison—$2.00. Second best—William A. Faison—$2.00.

Best native heifer—D. M. Pearsall—$2.00. Second best—D. C. Moore—$1.00.

Best bull, cow and calf—M. J. Faison—$2.00.

Best milch cow—D. K. Kornegay—$5.00. Second best— A. M. Faison—$4.00. Third best—D. C. Moore—$3.00. Fourth best—M. J. Faison—$2.00. Fifth best—William E. Hill—$1.00. Sixth best—M. J. Faison—.50. Seventh best—D. C. Moore—Diploma.

Best yoke oxen—A. M. Faison—$3.00.

Very fine cattle were also exhibited by David Brown, George W. Middleton, and William Dickson Carr.

HOGS

Best lot large hogs (6)—D. C. Moore—$3.00. Second best lot—(7)—William B. Middleton—$2.00. Third best—(17)—J. B. Kelly—$1.00.

Pages lost here. . . .

Best Shanghair chickens—Alfred Hollingsworth—.50. Second best—Alfred Hollingsworth—.50.

Best English ducks—Thomas Hall—.50. Second best—Thomas Hall—.50.

Best Bertham chickens—B. W. Stanford—.50. Second best—Alfred Hollingsworth—.25.

Best pair Tuftid Russian Chicks—D. Mallard—.50.

Four horned native sheep—J. C. McMillan—$1.00.

(Pages lost here from original manuscript.)

(Duplin County Agricultural Society Book on file with the County Board of Education.)

In 1860 there were 84 turpentine stills in the County.

HARD TIMES IN THE MID 1800'S

(As Told by Joe Wallace, grandson of Robert Wallace and son of Sheriff Bland Wallace)

In the mid 1800's Robert Wallace cut timber from his land and made rafts to carry barrels of turpentine down Northeast Cape Fear River to Wilmington. Two or more persons went along with each raft to look after it. At night they anchored the raft and cooked and ate. Robert Wallace went to Wilmington by horse and cart and was there when a raft arrived. On one occasion his son, Bland Wallace, was with him because he had been helping with the project and had been promised the cash from one barrel of turpentine. Robert and Bland walked by the side of the cart because they were not traveling on roads but on mere paths. The cart they took along to bring back any purchases they made in Wilmington. Bland's barrel sold for the big sum of $14.00. While he was in Wilmington he went shopping. With that $14.00 he purchased a suit of clothes and a beaver hat. These were his first “store-bought” clothes. His mother had made all of his clothes prior to this time. With these fine new clothes, he was still wearing homemade shoes. He later said that when he got back to Pasture Branch he was a real sport.

When Bland was sixteen or seventeen years old he took an examination and received his certificate to teach school. He taught at a school in Cypress Creek Township in a log building that needed repair. The wind whistled through the big holes between the logs. He was paid a salary of $5.00 per month.

Later when Bland Wallace became sheriff of Duplin County he was paid $300.00 per year. (Out of this he paid his deputy $5.00 per month and furnished him a horse to use on official duties.)

(The Editors.)






21. THE GREAT WAR 1861-1865

North Carolina seceded from the Union on May 20, 1861.

THE DUPLIN RIFLES
COMPANY C, 2d REGIMENT N. C. VOLUNTEERS

The “Duplin Rifles” (organized at Kenansville in 1859) entered the army in April, 1861, as volunteers, under Thomas S. Kenan, Captain; Thomas S. Watson, First Lieutenant; William A. Allen and John W. Hinson, Second Lieutenants; and was immediately ordered into the Camp of Instruction at Raleigh. It was mustered in for six months, and assigned to the 1st Regiment of Volunteers under Col. D. H. Hill, but as this regiment had more companies than the number allowed by army regulations, the “Duplin Rifles” and “Lumberton Guards” were taken out, and they, with eight other companies, formed the 2d Volunteers by electing Sol. Williams, Colonel; Edward Cantwell, Lieutenant-Colonel; and Augustus W. Burton, Major; the “Duplin Rifles” being Company C.

The regiment was ordered to Virginia in May, 1861, and served in and around Norfolk, without incident, except at Seawell's Point, where a detachment consisting of this and three other companies were subjected to repeated shellings from the long-ranged guns of the enemy. At the expiration of the term of service of the “Duplin Rifles” and “Lumberton Guards” they were mustered out, and the regiment supplied with other companies in their stead.

Upon the return of the company to Duplin County, it was reorganized under a notice dated December 23, 1861, and under the officers whose names appear in the following roll of Company A, 43d N. C. Regiment, and its services tendered in March, 1862, to the authorities for the war. Many of its officers and men formed other companies in Duplin, and likewise entered the Confederate army for the war.

ROLL OF COMPANY A, 43d N. C. INFANTRY

Compiled from Muster-Roll and Memoranda by

Sergeant B. F. Hall

(This company was originally the “Duplin Rifles,” Company C. 2d N. C. Volunteers, and, after the expiration of the term of service of the

latter, was reorganized and ordered to Raleigh and put in the 43d Regiment, which was at that time being formed.)

Kenan, Thomas S., Captain, elected Lieutenant-Colonel March 25, 1862; promoted Colonel April 24, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg July 3, 1863; captured July 4 in ambulance train with other wounded men, and imprisoned on Johnson Island, Ohio; released on parole March 22, 1865, but never exchanged.

Kenan, James G., First Lieutenant, promoted Captain March 25, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg July 1, 1863; captured in ambulance train July 4, 1863; imprisoned on Johnson Island, Ohio; released on parole March 22, 1865, but never exchanged.

Carr, Robert B., Second Lieutenant, promoted First Lieutenant March 25, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg and captured in ambulance train July 4, 1863; died in hospital at Charleston, S. C., about the close of the war.

Hinson, John W., Second Lieutenant, appointed Regimental Quartermaster April 22, 1862; elected Sheriff of Duplin, 1862, and resigned commission in the army.

Bostic, Thomas J., First Sergeant, promoted Second Lieutenant April 22, 1862; slightly wounded at Washington, N. C., April 27, at Bethesda Church May 30, and again at Winchester September 19, 1864; surrendered at Appomattox.

Farrior, Stephen D., Second Sergeant, promoted to Second Lieutenant May 14, 1862; wounded at Cedar Creek October 19, 1864.

Miller, Stephen H., Third Sergeant, killed at Hanover Junction May 24, 1864.

Hall, Benjamin F., Fourth Sergeant, promoted First Sergeant; served in the field with the company during the whole war; engaged in all its battles except the Valley Campaign of 1864, during which he was disabled by sickness; was never wounded; surrendered with the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox.

Brown, Hezekiah, Fifth Sergeant, promoted Sergeant-Major August 1, 1862; promoted Lieutenant Company C., March, 1863; surrendered at Appomattox.

Carr, Joseph J., First Corporal, promoted Sergeant April 22, 1862; killed at Winchester, Va., September 19, 1864.

Brown, Isaac, Second Corporal, lost right arm at Snicker's Gap July 18, 1864, and subsequently discharged.

Brown, John W., Third Corporal, captured at Gettysburg, July, 1863; released after the war.

Carr, James O, Fourth Corporal, captured at Fisher's Hill September 22, 1864; released after the war.

Bass, William H., promoted Corporal April 22, 1862, to fill vacancy






caused by promotion of Corporal J. J. Carr; captured at fall of Richmond, Va.; released after the war.

PRIVATES

Barden, Robert W., died at Petersburg, Va., August 11, 1862.

Bass, Lewis U., died in prison at Point Lookout, Md., March 7, ’64.

Bennett, Isaac, killed at Gettysburg July 3, ’63.

Blalock, William B., wounded in hand at Harper's Ferry July 5, ’64; surrendered at Appomattox.

Bostic, Isaac, wounded and captured at Winchester, Va.; subsequently released; at home at close of the war on furlough.

Bostic, John M., discharged October 1, ’62.

Bradshaw, David W., disabled by wound in arm at Hanover Junction, Va., May 24, ’64, and discharged from service.

Brinson, Edward F., Sr., discharged July 15, ’62.

Brinson, Edward F., Jr., captured at Hare's Hill, Va., March 25, ’65; released after the war.

Brinson, Jonas, killed at Charleston August 21, ’64.

Brinson, William, wounded and captured at Gettysburg, July, ’63; exchanged and returned to the army in April, ’64; surrendered at Appomattox.

Brown, James, wounded at Cold Harbor June 2, ’64; captured at Hare's Hill March 25, ’65; released after the war.

Brown, James D., wounded at Bachelor's Creek February 1, ’64; at Drewry's Bluff May 16, ’64, and Winchester September 19, ’64; surrendered at Appomattox.

Brown, Lafayette W., surrendered at Appomattox.

Brown, Lewis U., discharged March 14, ’63.

Bryan, Benjamin B., wounded at Drewry's Bluff May 16, ’64; captured at Fisher's Hill, Va., September 22, ’64; released after the war.

Bryan, William D., captured April 6, ’65, on retreat from Petersburg; released after the war.

Bryan, Wright W., captured April 2, ’65, at Petersburg; released after the war.

Caffrey, Thomas, wounded at Plymouth April 19, ’64, Winchester September 19, ’64; captured at Hare's Hill March 25, ’65; released after the war.

Carr, Marshall D., killed at Fisher's Hill, Va., September 22, ’64.

Carr, Joseph H., captured at Hare's Hill March 25, ’65, released after the war.

Carr, Joseph W., wounded at Snicker's Gap July 18, ’64; disabled for

field duty; detailed on special duty; captured at fall of Richmond, Va.; released after the war.

Carr, William D., killed at Petersburg April 2, ’65.

Carlton, John W., killed at Bethesda Church, Va., May 30, ’64.

Carroll, James G., died at Gordonsville, Va., November 9, ’63.

Carter, James A., captured at Hare's Hill March 25, ’65, released after the war.

Casey, Lemuel, died at Goldsboro, N. C., March ’63.

Cavanaugh, John E., wounded at Hanover Junction May 24, and Snicker's Gap July 18, ’64; captured April 6 on retreat from Petersburg; released after the war.

Chambers, Alex., surrendered at Appomattox.

Chambers, Richard A., killed (or captured) at Winchester, Va., September 19, ’64.

Cooper, George, wounded at Hanover Junction May 24 and died May 27, ’64.

Dail, Stephen B., wounded at Drewry's Bluff May 16, ’64; captured at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, ’64; released after the war.

Davis, Thomas E., surrendered at Appomattox.

Edwards, Burwell, died at Goldsboro, N. C., January 29, ’63.

Edwards, Edward, died at Goldsboro December 24, ’62.

Edwards, John H., died at Orange Court House, Va., January 1, ’64.

Edwards, John J., died at Wilmington, N. C., July 18, ’62.

Edwards, Lemon R., killed at Snicker's Gap, Va., July 18, ’64.

Evans, Samuel B., captured April 6, ’65, on retreat from Petersburg; released after the war.

Farrior, John W., wounded and captured at Gettysburg; released June 26, ’65.

Forlaw, Robert H., detailed as Quartermaster Sergeant; discharged June, ’63.

Fountain, Jere W., discharged January 12, ’63.

Futrall, Allen, captured April 2, ’65, at Petersburg; released after the war.

Futrall, David, captured April 2, ’65, at Petersburg; released after the war.

Futrall, Nathan, wounded at Hanover Junction May 24, ’64, and died in June, ’64.

Futrall, William, killed at Hanover Junction May 24, ’64.

Grady, Leonidas C., discharged September 1, ’62.

Grady, Stephen H., wounded at Charleston, Va., August 21, ’64, and absent at close of the war.

Grady, L. D. H., killed at Snicker's Gap July 18, ’64.






Grady, Atlas J., died of disease in ’64.

Grady, Lewis J., surrendered at Appomattox.

Grady, R. M. S., wounded near Washington City July 12, ’64; surrendered at Appomattox.

Grady, Thomas N., wounded at Hare's Hill March 25, ’65; captured at fall of Richmond; released after the war.

Grady, William, detailed as shoemaker in Quartermaster's Department in Richmond in ’62.

Grisham, Lewis R., detailed on special duty, March, ’65.

Guy, Alex., wounded at Cold Harbor June 3, ’64; surrendered at Appomattox.

Hodges, Buck L., sick at home at close of the war.

Horne, William H., died at Petersburg Sept. 7, ’62.

Horne, Jesse, surrendered at Appomattox.

Halso, James G., wounded at Winchester September 19, ’64; surrendered at Appomattox.

Jarman, Samuel D., died in Richmond Nov. 21, ’63.

Jones, Amos, captured April 6, ’65, on retreat from Petersburg; released after the war.

Jones, George W., wounded at Gaines’ Mill June 2, ’64, and died a few days later.

Jones, Stephen, died at Orange Court House December 21, ’63.

Jones, Stephen L., discharged May, ’62.

Kenan, William R., left college at Chapel Hill and enlisted on December 13, ’63, and, having been made Sergeant-Major of the regiment, was not entered on the company roll; promoted to Junior Second Lieutenant June 10, ’64, and placed in command of corps of sharpshooters from the left wing of the regiment; wounded at Charlestown, Va., August 22, ’64, and from about November 1, ’64, acted as Adjutant of the regiment; surrendered with the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox.

Kornegay, A. S., wounded at Cold Harbor June 3, ’64, and died during the war.

Kornegay, Benj. T., sick at home at close of the war.

Kornegay, Dudley, captured April 6, ’65, on retreat from Petersburg, and died in prison at Point Lookout, Md.

Kornegay, Hargett, wounded and captured at Gettysburg; subsequently exchanged and returned to the army; wounded at Bethesda Church May 30, ’64; surrendered at Appomattox.

Lanier, Green L., killed at Bunker Hill, Va., September 3, ’64.

Lanier, Jacob S., wounded at Bunker Hill September 3, ’64; captured at Winchester, Va., September 19, ’64; released after the war.

Loftin, Jason W., killed at Snicker's Gap, Va., July 18, ’64.

Matthis, Kedar L., killed near Washington City July 12, ’64.

Maxwell, James D., died at Staunton, Va., July 18, ’63, from wounds received at Gettysburg July 3, ’63.

McGowen, Henry J., died at Petersburg Aug. 10, ’62.

Mitchell, John, transferred to 57th N. C. Regiment March 24, ’64.

Mobley, George S., disabled by wounds received at Charlestown, Va., August 21, ’64, and discharged.

Murray, Robert F., discharged December 18, ’63.

Outlaw, James E., captured at Winchester, Va., September 19, ’64; released after the war.

Outlaw, John E., wounded at Snicker's Gap July 18, ’64; wounded at Cedar Creek, Va., October 19, ’64, and captured; left leg amputated; released after the war.

Outlaw, John H., killed at Snicker's Gap July 18, ’64.

Outlaw, John J., killed at Gettysburg July 1, ’63.

Padgett, George W., wounded at Bethesda Church, Va., May 30, ’64; died from effects of the wound after the war.

Padgett, James L., killed at Gettysburg July 1, ’63.

Padgett, William A., captured; died in prison.

Pate, William R., captured at Winchester, Va., September 19, ’64; released after the war.

Pearce, George W., discharged, May 18, ’62.

Pearsall, Jere J., captured at Fisher's Hill September 22, ’64; subsequently exchanged and returned to the army; surrendered at Appomattox.

Powell, David R., detailed on special duty in North Carolina.

Quinn, Lewis J., wounded at Plymouth April 18, ’64; killed at Charlestown, Va., August 21, ’64.

Rich, Lewis J., wounded at Hanover Junction May 24, ’64; surrendered at Appomattox.

Rogers, Calvin I., wounded at Cold Harbor June 3, ’64; surrendered at Appomattox.

Rogers, John B., died Jan. 29, ’63, at Goldsboro, N. C.

Rogers, William P. D., captured; died in prison.

Sharpless, William J., killed at Gettysburg July 1, ’63.

Simmons, Amos W., captured at Hare's Hill March 25, ’65; released after the war.

Simmons, Frank A., promoted Sergeant May 14, ’62; wounded at Bethesda Church May 30, ’64; surrendered at Appomattox.

Smith, Chauncey G., captured at Gettysburg July 3, ’63; released after the war.






Smith, John E., surrendered at Appomattox.

Southerland, Ransom, at home on sick furlough at close of the war.

Southerland, Robert J., promoted to Sergeant August 1, ’62; captured at Gettysburg July 4, ’63; released after the war.

Stokes, William J., discharged September 9, ’63.

Streets, Boney W., discharged May 12, ’63.

Strickland, Jere, wounded at Harper's Ferry July 5, ’64; surrendered at Appomattox.

Strickland, John W., detailed on special duty in North Carolina.

Turner, Andrew J., died August 11, ’62 at Petersburg.

Turner, James B., wounded and captured at Fisher's Hill September 22, ’64; subsequently exchanged and returned to the army; at home on furlough at close of the war.

Turner, John M., was with the company when the army withdrew from Malvern Hill, Va., in July, ’62; has never been heard of since; supposed to have died from exhaustion during a night's march.

Wallace, Bland, disabled by wounds received at Gettysburg July 1, ’63, and discharged.

Wallace, John R., transferred to 38th N. C. Regiment, and promoted to Sergeant-Major in November, ’64.

Westbrook, Jesse E., captured near Washington City July 12, ’64; released after the war.

Whaley, Maxwell, captured at Gettysburg; released June 24, ’65.

Whaley, William, captured at Gettysburg July 3, ’63; died in prison.

Williams, Brozard, died of wounds received at Hare's Hill March 25, ’65.

Williford, John W., disabled by wounds received at Hanover Junction May 24, ’64, and discharged.

The following is a list of the members of the company who surrendered with the Army of Northern Virginia on April 9, 1865, at Appomattox Court House, Va.: Thomas J. Bostic, William R. Kenan, Benjamin F. Hall, William B. Blalock, William N. Brinson, James D. Brown, LaFayette W. Brown, Alex. Chambers, Thomas E. Davis, Lewis J. Grady, R. M. S. Grady, Alex. Guy, James G. Halso, Jesse Horne, Hargett Kornegay, Jere J. Pearsall, Lewis J. Rich, Calvin I. Rogers, John E. Smith, Jere Strickland, Frank A. Simmons.

RECAPITULATION

Commissioned and non-commissioned officers13
Privates enlisted at different times117
Total on roll during the war130

Of this number there were—killed and died of wounds, 25; died of

disease, 22; disabled by wounds, 10; discharges for disability, 12; transferred to other companies or regiments, 5; on roll at close of the war, 56; number living at close of the war, 83.

Of the fifty-six (56) on the roll at the close of the war, twenty-one (21) surrendered with the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox, and the remaining thirty-five (35) were either in prison or on parole, or on detail or furlough. There was not a deserter from the company during the entire war.

(Sketch of the Duplin Rifles, Prepared in 1895 by Participants in its Movements.)

HISTORY OF COMPANY E

20th N. C. REGIMENT

CONFEDERATE GREYS

INTRODUCTION

This little sketch has been prepared by a committee of the survivors of Co. E, 20th N. C. Regiment, at the request of the survivors of the company.

To B. B. Carr, mainly, is due the credit of its preparation. To his retentive memory and his unwearied efforts in obtaining information from members of the company and from other sources, is due the completeness and correctness of this sketch.

It is published with the desire to preserve to future generations a record, though incomplete, of the services of this company in defense of what they believed to be their rights.

The lapse of time and the removal—by death, disability and capture—of so many members of the original company from the active scene of operations has prevented the obtaining of information as full as desired of the services of the company during the latter part of the war.

J. B. OLIVER,

E. F. HICKS,

B. B. CARR,

Committee.

August 24, 1904.

Among the first troops that offered their services to the Governor of the State of North Carolina, was a company composed largely of the students of Franklin Military Institute, situated six miles east of Faison, of which institute C. B. Denson was the principal.

This company was organized at Faison on the 16th day of April, 1861, and elected C. B. Denson, Captain; R. P. James, Ist Lieutenant; L. T. Hicks, 2nd Lieutenant; and L. W. Hodges, 3rd Lieutenant; and was called the “Confederate Greys.”






This company went in camp at Franklin Institute, and was quickly recruited to its full quota from the young men of the surrounding community, and was drilled in a regular course of military tactics. During this time the ladies in the vicinity of Franklin and Faison with patriotic zeal labored in the school building early and late to equip the company with uniforms, underwear, blankets, and camp equipage without cost to the State, the funds to supply the same being donated by the citizens of the Franklin and Faison communities. The farmers of the communities furnished provisions to the soldiers in camp while they were being drilled and disciplined to the stern realities of the life of a soldier.

About the first of May the Company received orders for active duty. Camp was struck and amid many sad farewells, tears and cheers, the company boarded the cars at Faison and was transported to Fort Johnston, Smithville, N. C., now known as Southport, at the mouth of the Cape Fear River, below Wilmington, N. C.

About the 20th day of June, 1861, this Company and other companies stationed at Fort Johnston and other points about the mouth of the Cape Fear River, and consisting of one company from Brunswick county, Two companies from Cabarrus county, three companies from Sampson county, and three companies from Columbus county, were organized into the 10th N. C. Regiment of Volunteers, afterwards changed into the 20th N. C. Regiment of State Troops. The field officers of this Regiment were Col. Alfred Iverson, former officer of the regular army of the U. S.; Lieutenant Col. Frank J. Faison, and Maj. Wm. H. Toon, Columbus Co.

The “Confederate Greys” was known as Co. E after the Regimental organization.

The company spent the first year of the war garrisoning different points from Wilmington to the mouth of the Cape Fear River.

About the middle of June, 1862, the 20th N. C. Regiment, of which this company was a part, was ordered to Richmond, Va., and assigned to Gen. Garland's Brigade of Gen. D. H. Hill's division, and assisted Gen. Lee in forcing Gen. McClellan from the front of Richmond, and was ever afterwards a part of and following the fortunes of Gen. Lee's army.

During the first year of the war two members of the company, Geo. L. Kornegay and John K. Flowers, died from pneumonia.

During the spring of 1862 the Confederate Congress passed the Conscript Act, retaining all the regiments then organized during the war, but discharging all the men over thirty-five years old after they had served an additional three months. There were five men only in this company entitled to discharge under this Act.

The Seven Days Battle around Richmond was over before the expiration

of their term of service, and it is sad to relate that only one, Marshall Branch, remained to claim his discharge. Of the others, Archibald Dail was in hospital in Richmond with a shattered knee, a wound received in battle at Cold Harbor, June 27, 1862, and for disability on account of this wound he was honorably discharged, and not on account of his age. Isaac Barfield, Theophilus Barfield and Riley Tew were all killed in battle at Malvern Hill, July 1, 1862.

The 20th Regiment arrived in Richmond from North Carolina on the 17th of June, 1862, and went into camp on the Charles City road in front of Richmond.

The Regiment was engaged in a severe skirmish with the enemies’ pickets on this road, and Geo. F. Kornegay and John L. Tew of Co. E both received slight wounds in this skirmish.

On the morning of the 26th of June, 1862, Gen. D. H. Hill's division, of which Co. E and the 20th Regiment was a part, broke camp on the Charles City road in the advance of Gen. Lee's army against Gen. McClellan, which precipitated the Seven Days Battle around Richmond, and was engaged in the battle of Mechanicsville on the evening of the 26th of June. On the evening of the next day, the 27th of June, it was engaged in the battle of Cold Harbor. In this battle the 20th Regiment charged and captured a section of artillery that was supported by Gen. Sykes’ Regulars of the U. S. Army. Gen. Garland said the capture of those guns was the turning point of the battle, and gave the victory to the Conferedate forces.

Co. E of the 20th Regiment lost heavily in this charge. Thomas M. McIntyre, James D. Winders, A. S. Parker and Marshall Flowers were killed on the battle field. Willis Cherry and Bryant Southerland died in hospital and John D. Shine and Cicero Rogers died after reaching home—all from wounds received in this charge. Thomas B. Wright lost an arm. Peter Davis lost part of his hand. Archie Dail had his knee shattered. Ivey Baker was badly wounded in the foot, and all were discharged on account of disability from wounds.

The company in that battle sustained a permanent loss of twelve men. Eight or ten more were wounded, but recovered and returned to duty. Lieutenant Col. Frank J. Faison was killed in this battle, and Col. Alfred Iverson was slightly wounded.

The company carried into this battle 60 men, and had a permanent loss of twelve men, one fifth of the entire number.

This battle was on Friday evening. On the following Tuesday. Co. E with the balance of the Regiment, was engaged in the battle of Malvern Hill. Isaac Barfield, Theophlius Barfield, Riley Tew and E. J. Winders were killed in this battle, and James Whitfield died after reaching home






from wounds received. Thos. M. Faison and John H. Edwards were assigned to light duty from disability on account of wounds received in this battle, making a permanent loss of seven men to the company, about one fifth of those of the company present at the battle. In addition, six others were wounded but afterwards returned to duty.

Co. E of the 20th Regiment, during what is known as the “seven days fight” around Richmond, Va., had 13 members killed or mortally wounded and 6 members permanently disabled, making a permanent loss of 19 men—over 30 per cent. of the number of the company engaged. The balance of the Regiment lost in about the same proportion.

This company with the 20th Regiment was encamped near Richmond for several weeks after the seven days battle, and had a great deal of sickness from a very malignant type of camp fever. There were carried from the camp and battle field to the hospitals in Richmond sick from fever William Bason, Lewis Bradshaw, John H. Carr, William B. Cogdell, Robert Kornegay, Benjamin Philips, John A. Swinson, Frank Swinson and John Wright—all of whom died. In addition there were several in hospital sick from fever who eventually recovered and returned to duty.

The company with the command broke camp at Richmond and marched to Manassas, arriving there just at the close of the second battle of Manassas.

The command then crossed the Potomac river at Falling Waters, and was engaged in the battle at South Mountain in checking Gen. McClellan while Gen. Jackson was capturing Harper's Ferry. This battle was on the 14th of September, 1862. In this battle John Davis was killed and David Wilson was wounded, and died from the effects of the wound after reaching home.

On the 17th day of September, 1862, Co. E participated in the Battle of Sharpsburg. Several of its members were wounded in this battle, but all recovered and returned to duty. After the Battle of Sharpsburg, Gen. Lee's army re-crossed the Potomac river and remained in camp in the valley of Virginia for some weeks.

After a series of marches and maneuvers in which Co. E., and the 20th Regiment participated, Gen. Lee's army and the Northern army finally faced each other in battle at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, 1862. The company was present at this battle, but was not actively engaged, the command being held in reserve. The Regiment, however, sustained slight loss.

After the Battle of Fredericksburg, Gen. Lee's army went into winter quarters on the Rappahannock River, and remained comparatively quiet until the spring.

During the winter the company lost two men from sickness, Needham Brock and Henry Galloway.

The following is the muster roll of all those who had been, or were members of the company until this time, April, 1863:

Captain, Denson, Claudius B., Duplin County.

Elected Captain at organization of the company, April 16th, 1861. In April, 1862, transferred to Engineer Corps, Army of Northern Virginia.

Captain, Hicks, Lewis T., Duplin County.

Elected 2nd Lieutenant of company at organization, April 16th, 1861. Elected Captain at re-organization, April, 1862. Captured at Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. In prison at Johnson's Island, Ohio. Paroled and returned to Richmond, March 1865.

Chaplain, Sprunt, James M., D.D., born Perth, Scotland.

January 14, 1818. Enlisted from Duplin County, N. C., April 16th, 1861. Served until near close of war, was paroled due to poor health.

1st Lieutenant, James R. Pryor, Duplin County.

Elected 1st Lieutenant at organization, April 16th, 1861. Appointed Adjt. of Regiment at organization, June 1861. Resigned, November, 1862.

1st Lieutenant, Hicks, A. Doane, Duplin County.

Elected 1st Lieutenant at re-organization, April, 1862. Slightly wounded at Chancellorsville, May, 1863. Captured at Gettyburg, July 1st. 1863. In prison at Johnson's Island. Paroled and returned to Richmond, last of March, 1865.

2nd Lieutenant, Hodges, Lemuel W., Duplin County.

Elected 2nd Lieutenant of Company at organization, April 16th, 1861. Resigned, July, 1861. Afterwards Collector of Tithes for the Confederate Government.

2nd Lieutenant, Cogdell, Daniel A., Wayne County.

Promoted July, 1861, to 2nd Lieutenant. April, 1862, Captain Co. D, 67th N. C. Regiment. Resigned afterwards.

2nd Lieutenant, Ireland, J. Frank, Sampson County.

Promoted to 2nd Lieutenant, April, 1862. Appointed Adjt. of Regiment Oct. 1862. Promoted to Captain Co. D 20th N. C. Regiment, Oct. 1863.

2nd Lieutenant, Oliver, Joseph B., Duplin County.

Promoted from Sergt. Maj. of 20th Regiment to 2nd Lieutenant Co. E, Oct. 1862. Captured at Gettysburg, July 1st, 1863. In prison at Johnson's Island, Ohio. Paroled and returned to Richmond, Va., last of March, 1865.

2nd Lieutenant, Grimes, H., Duplin County.






Elected 2nd Lieutenant at re-organization, April, 1862. Resigned, October, 1862. Transferred to Pioneer corps.

Sergeant, Baker, Henry, Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Captured at South Mountain. Wounded at Gettysburg.

Sergeant, Blalock, John H., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Captured at Harper's Ferry, July 4th, 1864. In prison until close of war.

Sergeant, Broadhurst, Geo. W., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th. Discharged for disability, Jan. 1862. Afterwards in Tithe Department.

Sergeant, Carr, John H., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Died in hospital, July, 1862.

Sergeant, Carr, Benjamin B., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Cold Harbor. Wounded and captured at South Mountain. Wounded and captured at Gettysburg. Exchanged and placed on light duty in Com. Dept. Discharged on account of disability, February, 1865.

Sergeant, Cogdell, Marion, Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861, Died of wounds received at Gettysburg.

Sergeant, Edwards, John H., Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Malvern Hill. Placed on light duty in Quartermaster's Department.

Sergeant, Flowers, Marshall, Sampson County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Killed at Cold Harbor.

Sergeant, Millard, Bryant J., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Chancellorsville. Captured at Fort Steadman, March 25, 1865. In prison until close of war.

Sergeant, Swinson, John A., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Died in hospital, July, 1862.

Sergeant, Winders, Noah, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Chancellorsville. Wounded at Strawsburg. Captured at Fort Steadman, March 25, 1865. In prison until close of war.

Corporal, Cherry, Willis D., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Died in hospital of wounds received at Cold Harbor.

Corporal, Bennett, Richard, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Killed at Gettysburg.

Corporal, Flowers, John K., Sampson County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Died in May, 1862.

Corporal, Hill, Lewis H., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Captured at Gettysburg. Exchanged. Captured at Fort Steadman, March 25, 1865. In prison until close of war.

Corporal, Kornegay, Geo. F., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded in skirmish, June, 1862. Wounded at Chancellorsville. Captured at Gettysburg. In prison until close of war.

Corporal, Parker, A. S., Sampson County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Killed at Cold Harbor.

Corporal, Wright, Thomas B., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Lost an arm at Cold Harbor. Discharged.

Drummer, Millard, Kenan, Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Captured Oct. 1864. In prison until close of war.

PRIVATES:

Baison, William, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Died in hospital August, 1862

Barfield, Isaac, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Killed at Malvern Hill.

Barfield, Theophilus, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Killed at Malvern Hill.

Barfield, William, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Spottsylvania. Captured at Fort Steadman. In prison until close of war.

Baker, Ivey, Greene County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Cold Harbor. Discharged.

Baker, Jesse, Greene County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Killed at Gettysburg.

Bradshaw, Lewis J., Sampson County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Died in hospital, August, 1862.

Benton, William, Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Color Sergeant, Aug. 1864. Killed at Strawsburg, Sept. 1864.

Blalock, David, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Ensign of Regt. Killed May, 1864.

Broadhurst, W. G., Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Transferred to Cavalry. Wounded in October, 1864.

Broadhurst, David J., Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Sergt.-Maj. Regt. Promoted March 1st, 1863, to Captain Co. K. Lost hand at Chancellorsville. Wounded at Cold Harbor.






Broadhurst, Thomas W., Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Sergt. Maj. Regt. Captured at Gettysburg. In prison until close of war.

Brock, Needham, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Died Nov. 1862.

Brock, Chas., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Cold Harbor. Captured at Gettysburg. In prison until close of war.

Brock, Jonah, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th. 1861. Killed at Winchester, Sept. 1864.

Branch, Marshall, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Discharged. Afterwards joined 68th Regiment.

Branch, Reuben, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded and captured at Gettysburg. In prison until close of war.

Burnham, John F., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Captured at Cold Harbor. Captured at Gettysburg. Exchanged and returned to duty. Wounded at Wilderness, 1864.

Byrd, Henry, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Killed at the Wilderness, May, 1864.

Carr, Robert D., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Sergt.-Maj. of Regt. from July, 1863. Wounded at Winchester, Sept. 1864. Killed at Fort Steadman, March 25, 1865.

Cherry, E. J., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Chancellorsville.

Cowley, Stephen, Portsmouth, Va.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Promoted to assistant Adjt. Gen. to Gen. Quarles, Army of Tennessee. Killed at Franklin, Tenn., 1862.

Cogdell, William B., Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Died in hospital 1862.

Cogdell, John A., Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Malvern Hill, Captured at Gettsyburg. In prison until close of war.

Davis, Peter, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Cold Harbor. Discharged.

Davis, John, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Transferred to Co. A, of 20th Regt. Killed at South Mountain.

Dail, Archie, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Cold Harbor and discharged. Afterwards served on Provost Guard in Goldsboro.

Denson, Joseph E., Portsmouth, Va.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Discharged for disability.

Dobson, Daniel B., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861.

Faison, Thos. M., Sampson County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Cold Harbor. Placed on light duty in Q. M. Dept. Paroled at Appomattox.

Flowers, Robt. B., Sampson County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Discharged.

Galloway, Henry, Brunswick County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Died Oct. 1862.

Grant, Stafford, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861.

Grant, Jackson, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Captured at Gettsyburg. In prison until close of war.

Giddens, Lewis, Sampson County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Transferred to band of Regiment, 1861.

Hicks, E. Faison, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Chancellorsville. Wounded at Spottsylvania. Wounded at Winchester. Wounded at Strawsburg. Transferred to Co. C. 5th Cavalry.

Hicks, John M., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Discharged for disability.

Hicks, John H., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Promoted to Surgeon of Regt., 1862.

Huggins, James H., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. REgimental Quartermaster Sergeant. Promoted to Lieutenant of Co. I. Jan. 1863. Captured at Gettysburg. In prison at Johnson's Island. Paroled and returned to Richmond last of March, 1865.

Huggins, W. Henry, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Winchester. Placed on light duty in Q. M. Dept. Paroled at Appomattox.

Ireland, James D., Sampson County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Gettysburg. Placed on light duty as Brigade Postmaster. Paroled at Appomattox.






Jernigan, Geo., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Detailed on Corps Provost Guard. Captured May, 1864. Died in prison.

King, William B., Sampson County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Promoted to Lieutenant, Co. I.

Kellit, James, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Cold Harbor. Wounded at Chancellorsville and discharged.

Kellit, John, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Chancellorsville. Wounded at Hatcher's Run, Feb., 1865.

Kornegay, Joseph H., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Gettysburg and placed on light duty in hospital in Petersburg.

Kornegay, Robert, Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Died August, 1862.

Lambert, Henry, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Cold Harbor.

Lane, John B., Sampson County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Transferred to Regt. Hospital Corps.

Lane, Jesse W., Sampson County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Transferred to Regt. Band, 1861.

Loftin, Major, Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Discharged. Afterwards served in cavalry.

Martin, Giles, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Sharp shooting corps. Wounded and captured at Gettysburg. Paroled and returned to duty.

McIntyre, Thos. M., New Hanover County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Killed at Cold Harbor. The first member of the Company killed in battle.

Outlaw, Alex., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded and captured at Gettysburg. Exchanged. Paroled and returned to Appomattox.

Padgett, James M., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Malvern Hill. Wounded at Chancellorsville. Discharged for disability.

Price, Dallas, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Gettysburg. Placed on light duty with Regt. hospital corps. Paroled at Appomattox.

Phillips, Benjamin, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Died in Hospital, Sept., 1862.

Pollock, David, Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Transferred as mechanic to Ordinance Dept., in Richmond.

Rogers, Henry, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861.

Rogers, Cicero, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Died of wounds received at Cold Harbor.

Shines, John D., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Ensign of Regt. Died of wounds received at Cold Harbor.

Swinson, Erasmus, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Discharged for disability. Afterwards served in 5th Cavalry.

Swinson, B. Frank, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Died in hospital, 1862.

Southerland, Bryant, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Died of wounds received at Cold Harbor.

Tew, Riley, Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Killed at Malvern Hill.

Tew, Ashley, Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Killed at Gettysburg.

Tew, John L., Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded in skirmish, June, 1862. Wounded at Gettysburg. Exchanged. Placed on light duty in Conscript Department.

Wallace, Geo. W., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Wounded at Chancellorsville. Wounded at the Wilderness, May, 1864.

Wallace, Thos., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Died in hospital, April, 1863.

Watkins, Jesse F., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Regt. hospital corps. Paroled at Appomattox.

Williams, Geo. W., Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Regimental hospital steward.

Williams, Jesse P., Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Promoted in 1862 to Captain in 55th Regt. Resigned. In 1863 to Captain 68th Regt.

Wilson, David, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Died of wounds received at South Mountain.

Winders, James D., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Killed at Cold Harbor.






Winders, Edward J., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Killed at Malvern Hill.

Winders, William, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Discharged for disability in 1863.

Whitfield, James, Wayne County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Died of wounds received at Malvern Hill.

Wright, John, Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Died in hospital, July, 1862.

Watson, John L., Duplin County.

Enlisted April 16th, 1861. Discharged for disability, January, 1862. . . .

The Company remained in camp near Fredericksburg until Gen. Hooker, Commander of the Federal Army, commenced his “On to Richmond” campaign by crossing the Rappahannock river near Fredericksburg (1863). Gen. Rhodes then in command of the old Gen. D. H. Hill division, went in line of battle near Hamilton's crossing and remained in front of the enemy for two days. Gen Hooker having in the meantime thrown the bulk of his army across the Rappahannock on Gen. Lee's left flank, Gen. Rhodes’ division (of which this company was part) was withdrawn and moved up towards Chancellorsville. The company participated in Jackson's march to the rear of Hooker's army, and was a part of the attacking forces on the evening of May 2nd and the morning of May 3rd. The company had in this battle ten or twelve wounded, but none killed, but James Padgett and James Killet were so badly wounded that they were discharged, and D. J. Broadhurst—then Captain of Co. K—lost his right hand.

The company was next in the Gettysburg campaign and was a part of Gen. Rhodes’ division that drove Gen. Milroy's forces from Berryville and Martinburg out of the valley. It then crossed the Potomac into Williamsport for the second time, the Brigade to which this company belonged being the first to enter Maryland and also Pennsylvania, then back to Gettysburg and was engaged in the first day's fight and lost four men, killed i.e. Marion Cogdell, Richard Bennett, Jesse Baker and Ashley Tew. Wesley Campbell, James D. Ireland, Joseph H. Kornegay, Dallas Price, John L. Tew and B. B. Carr were so severely wounded that they were either discharged or placed on light duty. Giles Martin and Reuben Branch were also severely wounded, and every one of the thirty members of the company then present that went into the fight were either killed, wounded or captured except William Barfield and he went in with the sharp shooters and not with the regular lines. Only nine were captured unhurt. Capt. L. T. Hicks and Lieuts. A. D. Hicks and J. B. Oliver were captured and remained in prison until near the close

of the war, and the company was out of a commissioned officer until the close of the war.

The 23rd, 20th, and 5th Regiments of Iverson's Brigade in this battle were nearly all killed, wounded or captured. Of the 20th Regiment every officer, 24 being present, were killed, wounded or captured. So far as known, every officer, about 250 in the Rigiment, that went into line of battle were killed, wounded, or captured. Only sixteen men of the 20th Regiment, commanded by one Lieutenant, J. F. Ireland, marched away from Gettysburg. Lieutenant Ireland and a portion of these sixteen men reached Gettysburg after the first day's fighting. The remainder were members of the skirmish corps who escaped.

Iverson's Brigade was uselessly sacrificed. Gen. Ewell, in his report said, “The left of Iverson's Brigade was thus exposed, but these gallant troops obstinately stood their ground until the greater part of three regiments (5th, 20th and 23rd) had fallen where they stood in line of battle. A few of them, being entirely surrounded, were taken prisoners. A few escaped.”

Gen. Rhodes officially reported of Iverson's Brigade: “His men fought and died like heroes. His dead lay in a distinctly marked line of battle. His left was overpowered and many of his men, being surrounded, were captured.”

The Brigade Commander, Gen. Alfred Iverson, did not go into the battle, and was relieved of his command.

The next severe campaign was in May, 1864, at the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, and on in front of Gen. Grant's army to the Second Cold Harbor—one of the roughest campaigns that Gen. Lee's army ever experienced. The Company lost in that campaign, David Blalock and Henry Byrd killed, and several wounded.

The regiment of which this company was a part was highly spoken of for its action on May 15th, 1864, by Gen. Lee. This is what he said:

Headquarters Army Northern Virginia, May 16, 1864.

Sir:

Yesterday evening the enemy penetrated a part of our line and planted his colors upon the temporary breastworks erected by our troops. He was immediately repulsed, and among the brave men who met him, the 20th North Carolina, under Col. T. F. Toon, of the brigade commanded by Gen. R. D. Johnson, captured his flag. It was brought to me by Major John S. Brooks of that Regiment who received his promotion for gallantry in the battle of Chancellorsville, with the request that it be given to Governor Vance. I take great pleasure in complying with the wish of the gallant captors, and respectfully ask that it be granted, and






that these colors be presented to the State of North Carolina as another evidence of the valor and devotion that have made her name eminent in the armies of the Confederacy.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, General.

Hon. Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.

About the middle of June, 1864, Gen. Early was detached from Gen. Lee's army, and sent on the famous Early and Sheridan Valley Campaign. The company was a part of Gen. Early's troops that was at Harper's Ferry on July 4, 1864, and captured and enjoyed the Federal's Fourth of July dinner. From there across the Potomac at Williamsport into Maryland for the third time, and assisted in defeating Gen. Lew Wallace at Monocacy Bridge, then on towards Washington City near enough to see the dome of the capitol, thence back across the Potomac river into the valley, and participated in the battles of Winchester, Strawsburg, Cedar Mountain and other battles of that noted campaign. The company lost in that campaign, two men killed, William Benton (then ensign of Regiment) and Jonah Brock, besides several wounded and two or three captured.

The company was a part of the “thin line” of North Carolina moving off in retreat that Gen. Bradley T. Johnson saw at Winchester on the 19th day of September, 1864, and went to its assistance. He gives a thrilling account of what he witnessed:

“There was not a fence, nor a house, nor a bush, nor a tree to obscure the view. Away off, more than two miles, we could see the crest of the hill covered with thousands of Yankee cavalry, and five hundred yards in front of them was a thin grey line moving off in retreat, solidly and with perfect coolness and self possession. As soon as I got to realize what was going on, I quickened our gait and when within a mile broke into a gallop. The scene was as plain as day. A regiment of cavalry would deploy into line, their bugles would sound a charge, and they would swoop down on the thin grey line of North Carolinians. The instant the Yankee bugle would sound, North Carolina would halt, face to the rear rank, wait until the horses got within one hundred yards and then fire as deliberately and coolly as firing volleys on parade drill. The cavalry would break and scamper back and North Carolina would ‘about face’ and continue her march in retreat as solemnly, stubbornly and with as much dignity and discipline as if marching in review. But we got there just in time. Cavalry aids the Tar Heels. Certainly half a dozen charges had been made at the thin grey line in retreat, and each and every time the charging squadrons had been driven back, when the enemy sent his line with a rush at the Brigade of Tar Heels and

one squadron overlapped the infantry line and was just passing it as we got up. In another minute they would have been behind the lines, sabering the men from the rear, while they were held by the fight in front; but we struck a headlong strain and went through the Yankees by the flank of North Carolina, and carried their adversaries back to the crest of the hill, back through the guns to their battery, clear back to the infantry lines. In a moment they were charging us in front and on both flanks and back we went in a hurry, but the thin grey line of old North Carolina was safe. They had gotten back to the rest of the infantry and formed a line at right angles to the pike west of Winchester.”

About the time Gen. Early's command left the valley to rejoin Gen. Lee at Petersburg, twelve men from Wayne County that had heretofore been exempt from military duty were sent to recruit the Company. They were John B. Bowden, James Grady, Geo. W. Kornegay, C. F. R. Kornegay, John H. Loftin, John C. Price, Oliver Summerlin, Nergil Walker, James Williams, H. J. Williamson, Charles Denning and Addison Fields.

The Company lay in the trenches around Petersburg and was engaged in the battle of Harper's Run on the 5th day of February 1865, and sustained some loss from wounds. About all of the last named recruits were engaged in that battle.

In a short time the company with the balance of the Brigade was sent to guard the Roanoke river, but was soon ordered back to Petersburg to participate in the assault on Fort Steadman or Hare's Hill on the 25th day of March, 1865. In this battle R. D. Carr was killed, (the last member of the company to be killed in line of battle) and nearly all the balance were captured, and what was left of the company followed the fortune of Gen. Lee's army to the surrender at Appomattox.

The parole list is: T. M. Faison, W. H. Huggins, J. D. Ireland, Alex. Outlaw, Dallas Price and Jesse F. Watkins.

There were only nine guns in the regiment at Appomattox. Alex. Outlaw, of this county, had one of them. The balance of the parole list were detailed for light duty men from wounds.

The total number of the original Company whose enlistment bears date of April 16th, 1861, was, officers and men107
Recruits received Feb., 18639
Recruits received Nov., 186412
Total128
Of this number were killed in battle or died of wounds26
Died of disease15
Total41
Permanently disabled from wounds16






Of the original company, 107 in number, 26 were killed or died of wounds; 14 died from disease, leaving 67 living at the close of the war. Of this 67, 15 were permanently disabled on account of wounds. 16 others were wounded and recovered from their wounds entirely, leaving 36 who passed through the war without receiving any wounds. Of this 36, 19 were men who, on account of being detailed for other duty, were not exposed to the dangers of battle, leaving only seventeen who passed through the entire war without a scratch. Of the entire company, recruits included, not one was ever punished by the decree of a court martial. None except the two Basknights deserted their colors. As a rule they all did their duty faithfully and uncomplainingly, offering their lives as a sacrifice to their country. So far as known, not a single one of the survivors has ever been prosecuted for any crime. The original company of 107 are now all dead.

(Courtesy Mrs. Rachel Witherington Stroud.)

The foregoing historical sketches of The Duplin Rifles and the Confederate Greys are typical of other Duplin soldiers, and exemplifies the courage, valor, and bravery of our fighting men.

THE CHAPLAIN SERVICE
TWENTIETH REGIMENT

James M. Sprunt, D.D., Presbyterian, Duplin County; born in Scotland in 1818. Came to Wilmington in 1839, taught and preached in Duplin until 1861; Commissioned June, 1861, and served through 1862 and 1863. His friends in the army can never forget him. He walked hundreds and hundreds of miles. Perhaps no one ever saw him on a horse or in an ambulance during the war. The devout, scholarly man preached in his beloved Duplin, to the delight of the people, till the close of his long and useful life. He died in Kenansville, 6 December, 1884.

(N. C. Regiments, vol. IV, page 608.)

THIRTY-EIGHTH REGIMENT

Julian P. Faison, Missionary Baptist, Duplin County; Commissioned February, 1862; resigned 10 November, 1862; died at Harrell's Store 1 July, 1890, having devoted the intervening years to the blessed work of preaching.

(N. C. Regiments, vol. IV, page 613.)

THE CHAPLAIN SERVICE

N. C. Officers In Prison at Johnson's Island 1864:

NameRankRegimentHome
R. B. CarrLieutenant43rdMagnolia
L. T. HicksCaptain20thFaison
T. S. KenanColonel43rdKenansville
Jas. G. KenanCaptain43rdKenansville
H. C. MooreLieutenant28thDuplin County

(N. C. Regiments—Vol. IV, pages 706, 708, and 709.)

N. C. Officers Prisoners Under Fire at Morris Island

7 Sept. to 21 Oct., 1864:

First Lieutenant R. B. Carr, 43rd N. C., Magnolia.

(N. C. Regiments, vol. IV, page 722.)

FIFTY-FIRST N. C. REGIMENT, Company B

Lieutenant W. R. Bell, promoted to Captain April 9, 1863; wounded at Cold Harbor May 31, 1864; arm amputated; retired November 4, 1864, to Invalid Corps; resigned March 5, 1865.

(Confederate Records 51st Regiment, Company B; N. C. Regiments, 1861-’65, Vol. III, page 218; and copy of resignation in possession of family.)

Mr. Bell's family advised that “he kept the yankees from ripping up the rail road tracks in Warsaw before going to Charleston.”

He served as Clerk of the Court in 1866-’68.

LETTER FROM A CONFEDERATE SOLDIER

Camp Near Petersburg, Va. July 30th, 1862 Mrs. L. Carr—Dear Mother, I seat myself again to let you know how we have been getting along since I wrote you last. Since then we have moved nearer Petersburg. Our camp is a very private place about a mile North East from the city. Can see the city from our camp. My health seems to be improving slowly; have had a very bad cold and cough. Had some sore throat. I thought I would be ready for duty this morning, but found out I was getting rather fat under my left jaw; would not be much surprised if I am getting the mumps. Our brigade has been moving one regiment at a time for several days. Don't know where they went. They carried their baggage with them. This morning our regiment and the balance of the brigade got marching orders and were off by 7 o'clock. They left some of the old guard and all that were unfit for duty. They carried nothing but their blankets and one or two days rations. I do not know






where they are gone. They went toward Petersburg. Some one heard Col. Daniel tell the wagon master to carry the Wagons to Petersburg and take the City Point road. We suppose by that they are gone to City Point. It was reported in Petersburg this morning that the Yankees had landed at City Point and were cutting artillery roads towards the Weldon and Petersburg Rail Road, but there is nothing of it in this morning's Express. We have several men that are quite sick at the hospital yet. They are J. R. Wallace, R. A. Chambers, J. B. Turner, Rbt. Barden and J. M. Bostick. Barden and Bostick were sent there yesterday. J. J.* started to Ral.† yesterday morning after conscripts. 28 are wanting to file out our company. A Lieutenant or Sergeant went from each company in the brigade. John wrote to J. J.* I got his letter yesterday evening. He seems to be very much dissatisfied. I hope that he will come to our company with Joe if he cannot get a substitute. If he should come to our company he will stand as good chance to get a substitute here as he would at Raleigh. I would be very glad if I could have gone home and spent the time that I have been unfit for duty there. But there is no use in talking about it. We had orders one evening some time ago that no sick furloughs were to be granted. Mack‡ wrote to me that Uncle Osborn had sent us some shirts, but did not say how they were sent. We have inquired at the Rail Road and Express office and can't find them at either. When anybody sends us anything they ought to write to us how and when they sent them. I sent $25 of my bounty home by Mr. Bass§. I want Mack to pay my Tax and Dr. Graham's account and any other little account I may have. If my bacon and lard has not been sold you have it sold whenever you think best. Provisions of all kinds are very high here. Gov. price for bacon is 40c; market price for hams and lard is 75c. I have not drawn any clothing yet. Cap. Hinson∥ went to Ral.†and got 500 uniforms for the regiment, but they have not come yet. I would be very glad if you would have us some woolen undershirts wove for this winter. It will be almost impossible to get any knit ones. J. H., J. J.** and myself want a pair each. J. H. said ask his father to have some wool spun and have some wove with ours. If you will get the warp we will pay for it and any other expense about it. We do not want them until the weather gets cooler. They will only be in our way now.

Yours affectionately,

W. D. Carr

* J. J. was a Carr† Ral. was Raleigh‡ Mack was his farm supervisor§ Bass was from Magnolia∥ Cap. Hinson lived in Kenansville; old residents there still call his home the Hinson Place.** John James Carr, grand.

(Duplin Times - Progress Sentinel, Oct. 30, 1969.)

SWORD FACTORY

Report of Maj. Gen. John G. Foster, U. S. Army, Commanding

Department of North Carolina

HDQRS. EIGHTEENTH ARMY CORPS, DEPT. OF N. C.

New Berne, July 7, 1863.

General: I have the honor to report that the cavalry, under command of Lieut. Col. George W. Lewis, consisting of about 640 men of the Third New York Cavalry, sent out by me on the 3rd of July, for the purpose of destroying communications on the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad, have safely returned.

The force left here on the morning of July 3, and reached Trenton that night; starting the next morning for Kenansville, via Comfort and Hallsville, driving in the enemy's pickets, arriving at which place they surprised a company of cavalry there, capturing their arms and equipments, some horses, and 6 prisoners.

At this place an armory was destroyed which contained some 2,500 sabers and large quantities of saber bayonets, bowie knives, and other small-arms, a steam-engine and implements for manufacturing arms. A store-house full of implements and materials, a manufactory of knapsacks, and some commissary store-houses were burned. A large Confederate flag and some cavalry guidons were also found.

At 6 a.m. of the 5th of July, the force started for Warsaw, a station on the line of the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad. Finding no enemy there, the town was occupied, a portion of the force dismounted and put at work destroying the telegraph and railroad, using the plan of Colonel Haupt, whilst the remainder of the force were thrown out as pickets, and kept mounted for defense. The rails were twisted, thoroughly destroying the track for 2 miles, and the culverts destroyed for 5 miles more. The telegraph wire was destroyed for some 2 miles, the poles cut down, wire removed, etc.

At Warsaw, two cars, a freight house full of confederate stores, some 4,000 barrels of rosin and turpentine, a safe said to contain a large amount of Confederate money, and some powder were burned and destroyed. Three or four bags of mail were taken.

An hour before the arrival of the cavalry at Warsaw, a train of fourteen empty cars had gone toward Wilmington for troops, and as there was no doubt but that these were intended to re-enforce the four companies of infantry and four pieces of artillery stationed at Magnolia Bridge, a station 10 miles below, and learning that the enemy were concentrating some 7 miles above, at Rusk's Bridge, and that (W. C.) Claiborne's cavalry, 600 strong, were to arrive at Warsaw that day,






Colonel Lewis wisely decided to return, and started for Trenton that afternoon, at which place he arrived yesterday evening, driving and dispersing small forces of the enemy, guerrillas, all the way in.

About 150 animals and 30 prisoners were taken, and about 100 men and 300 women and children, negroes, followed the cavalry into our lines.

At this point (Trenton), General Heckman, with his command, was stationed, holding the bridge and roads, so as to cover the return of the cavalry.

General Heckman's advance had that day met the enemy's advance from Kinston, at Free Bridge, and, after a short engagement repulsed them with a loss of 3 wounded on our side, one of whom, I regret to say, was Lieutenant-Colonel Chambers, of the Twenty-third Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers.

I have the honor to be very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. C. FOSTER,

Major-General, Commanding.

Maj. Gen. H. W. Halleck,

General-in-Chief.

The sword factory at Kenansville was built and owned by Louis Froelich, a native of Bavaria, Germany, who went to London and built motors for the steamship, The Great Eastern. He then went to New York, and in 1861 came to North Carolina to manufacture swords. After the factory was burned, he moved to Enfield, North Carolina.

Today I had a visit with his grandson, Louis Froelich, Jackson, North Carolina. The name is pronounced FRAYLY.

Claude H. Moore,

Littleton, North Carolina

Returns and Assessments of Confederate Tax on Property, moneys and Credits (value of property to be assessed on the basis of the market value of the same, or similar property in the neighborhood where assessed in the year 1860, except land, slaves, cotton or tobacco purchased since 1st January, 1862, when they are to be assessed at the price paid.)

Under Tax Act of Feb. 17, 1864—Totals for Duplin CountyUnder Tax Act of Feb. 17, 1864, and Amendments and Act “To raise money to increase the pay of Soldiers” approved June 10, 1864—Totals for Duplin County
Land or other real property$ 1,228,419.00$ 1,240,184.00
Slaves4,357,050.004,411,650.00

Under Tax Act of Feb. 17, 1864—Totals for Duplin CountyUnder Tax Act of Feb. 17, 1864, and Amendments and Act “To raise money to increase the pay of Soldiers” approved June 10, 1864—Totals for Duplin County
Horses, Mules, Asses and jennets$ 150,879.00$ 120,758.00
Cattle of the bovine species49,027.0049,606.00
Sheep, goats and Swine31,530.0031,805.00
Cotton and Wool10,721.0010,751.00
Tobacco5,644.005,644.00
Corn47,286.0047,534.00
Wheat539.00548.00
Rye, oats, buckwheat, rice and all other kinds of grain443.00444.00
Potatoes of all kinds, peas, ground peas, beans, and all other products of the farm, garden or orchard5,459.005,488.00
Flour, meal, sugar, molasses, bacon, lard, and all other groceries, goods, wares, or merchandise, spirituous liquors, wines, cider, vinegar, &c.36,098.0036,555.00
Values of all household and kitchen furniture, agricultural tools and implements, and all tools of mechanics or others, musical instruments, and all articles of domestic use126,093.00127,948.00
Carriages, Wagons, Carts, drays, and every species of vehicles on wheels43,262.0043,683.00
All gold and silver wares and plate, jewels, jewelry, and watches—10 per cent15,056.0015,266.00
Books, maps, pictures, paintings, statuary, and all other works of art9,696.0010,231.00
Amount of all solvent Credits, bank bills, and all other paper issued as currency (exclusive of






Under Tax Act of Feb. 17, 1864—Totals for Duplin CountyUnder Tax Act of Feb. 17, 1864, and Amendments and Act “To raise money to increase the pay of Soldiers” approved June 10, 1864—Totals for Duplin County
non-interest bearing Confederate Treasury Notes) not employed in a registered business$ 727,105.00
Value of all Articles of personal or mixed property not in terms included in any of the foregoing columns nor exempt from taxation57,768.00
Gross aggregate of amount to be taxed at 5 per cent6,927,684.00
Exemptions10,400.00
Net Amount liable to tax at 5 per cent6,917,284.00
All gold coin, gold dust, or gold bullion1,965.50
Silver coin or silver bullion value of Moneys held abroad, bills of exchange on foreign countries, promissory notes, rights, credits and securities payable in foreign countries2,052.00
Rate of Commutation gold coin Rate of Commutation silver coin Amount paid in gold coin Amount paid in silver coin Amount of tax on specie or foreign credits paid in Confederate States Treasury Notes3,513.05
Amount paid for Soldiers Fund Tax on specie and foreign credits payable in Confederate Treasury Notes of new issue at commutation rates702.63
Amount of tax on moneys, property and credits, other than tax on

Under Tax Act of Feb. 17, 1864—Totals for Duplin CountyUnder Tax Act of Feb. 17, 1864, and Amendments and Act “To raise money to increase the pay of Soldiers” approved June 10, 1864—Totals for Duplin County
specie, foreign credits and Soldiers Tax Fund tax, payable in bonds or currency$ 347,389.30
Soldiers’ Fund Tax on moneys, property and credits, payable in notes of new issue69,477.06
Aggregate paid in Bonds, &c.350,902.45
Aggregate Soldiers Fund Tax70,180.49
Aggregate payable in specie
Deductions on account of abatement of taxes by district collector, and by reason of appeals:
From aggregate amount paid in bonds, &c.
From aggregate Soldiers Fund Tax
From aggregate payable in specie
(1864 Duplin County Tax Scrolls on file with Co. Board of Education.)

OTHER LETTERS

Bear Swamp, Duplin County, N. C., May 30th, 1865.

Mr. R. W. & H. E. Blackmore

Dear Brothers, I once more take the opportunity of writing you a few lines which leaves us all well. Truly hoping that this may reach safe and find you both well. I have no news of importance to write to you at this time. We have not heard from you since the 10th of March, and then Mr. James Kornegay came home and he said that you sent a scrip of writing by him but he has lost it. We have wrote to you twice since that time but received no answer. So if you have wrote we never received your letter. We feel uneasy about your long absence, but hope that you will soon be liberated and sent home. We can hear of men returning from Elmira but none of them can tell anything about you. So if you ever receive this letter write immediately and direct your letter to Daniel Bowden, Goldsboro, N. C. via of Newbern, N. C. as there is no regular post office this side of Goldsboro, and Mr. Bowden






would be more apt to get a letter from there than we would. We have understood that no prisoners get away now only them that takes the oath, and if that is what detains you Father and all of us advise you to take the oath and come home, as the South is subjugated and the Southerners cause is lost forever. So don't stand back now about taking the oath.

Write soon and write if you know what has become of Willis Thompson and I. J. Taylor.

So, may the all-ruling Providence be with you and protect you from all danger and harm and guide you safe home is our prayers.

Your ever truly affectionate brother,

B. L. Blackmore

(Courtesy W. C. Blackmore, Burgaw, N. C.)

Elmira, N. Y. June 11, 1865

Brother, I write you a few lines this morning which leaves me in tolerable good health, but I am compelled to announce to you the death of my ______?______ brother. He was taken sick with the chronic diarrhea March 1 and was confined to bed until June 5. About 4:00 o'clock P. M. he departed this life, poor fellow. He suffered a great deal but I am in hopes that his sufferment was in this world.

Mother, I have written you a good many letters but I suppose you have not rec'd any of them. I have rec'd all of yours. It takes only about eight days for a letter to come to me when you write me. I can't see why you do not get my letters. All the letters that you write come to me. The one that you wrote to Col. Moore came and he sent for me and I read the letter.

There are orders here now to release all this camp and I think I will get out in the course of three or four weeks if I keep living and am able to travel, but it seems to me that I am born for hard luck. I expect I will be on the last load that leaves this place. You wrote to me to take the oath. I am ready to do that any time when they will let me take it and have been for some time. Mother, I have a notion of going to the State of Texas as my fortune has been so bad I think I will try a new country. They give a man transportation anywhere he wants to go, but if I live to get out of this place I reckon I will come by and give you a call. My fare here is very hard. I do not get anything to eat scarcely enough to sustain life, but with the help of God I will get out of this sometime.

Yours truly,

H. E. Blackmore

(Courtesy W. C. Blackmore, Burgaw, N. C.)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

I, H. E. Blackmore, Private Co. “A”, 36 N. C., of the County of Duplin, State of North Carolina, do solemnly swear that I will support, protect, and defend the Constitution and Government of the United States against all enemies, whether domestic or foreign; that I will bear true faith, allegiance, and loyalty to the same, any ordinance, resolution, or laws of any State, Convention, or Legislature, to the contrary notwithstanding; and further, that I will faithfully perform all the duties which may be required of me by the laws of the United States; and I take this oath freely and voluntarily, without any mental reservation or evasion whatever.

H. E. BLACKMORE

Subscribed and sworn to before me, this 7 day of July A. D. 1865, at Elmira, N. Y.

J. R. LEWIS

Col. 1 St. Reg. Company Depot

The above-named has Florid complexion, Light hair, and Grey eyes; and is 6 feet __?__ inches high.

(O. C. G. P. No. 6.)

(Courtesy W. C. Blackmore, Burgaw, N. C.)

THE STRENGTH OF BROTHERHOOD

You will say that this story is really about the Civil War, not Masonry. But underlying this episode is genuine respect for Masonry.

Robert Bryan Carr, of Rose Hill, was a bachelor. He fought in the Civil War and was wounded and captured at Gettysburg. For a long time he was a prisoner in New York. He wrote home to his brother, Gipson Sloan Carr, and described a Northern lady who was truly an angel of mercy. She was very good to him and to the other Confederate prisoners. This lady's name was Mary Pedrick.

Robert Bryan Carr knew that his brother, Gipson Sloan Carr, and wife, Bathsheba Carr, were expecting a new baby. So he wrote to them and said, “If your new baby is a girl, please name her Mary Pedrick.” The baby was a girl and Gipson Sloan Carr and wife Bathsheba named her Mary Pedrick. (By the way, this Mary Pedrick Carr was the mother of O. P. Johnson of Kenansville, former superintendent of Duplin County Schools.)

Gipson Sloan Carr and family lived in a large house in the big field behind the present Claud Rivenbark home on Highway 11. The old oak tree that shaded the house still stands in that field. It can be seen from Norman Carr's front porch.






On the day that Bathsheba Mallard Carr was about to give birth to that baby girl, the Yankees were passing through that section and they were foraging for food. They were stealing hogs and chickens, taking meat from the smoke houses, taking corn and potatoes, etc. All this was quite upsetting to Bathsheba, the woman in labor. She sent her oldest step-daughter, sixteen-year-old Catherine, to tell the Yankees that if they took everything it would mean starvation for the family. (Bathsheba's husband, Gipson Sloan Carr, was away serving in the Home Guard at that time.) When Catherine went out to talk to the Yankees, the officer in charge said, “You're a right pretty girl.” But the Yankees continued to forage for food anyway.

Suddenly Bathsheba remembered that her husband, Gipson Sloan Carr, had told her that in case of real distress she should hang his Masonic apron where it could be seen. Bathsheba sent her stepdaughter, Catherine, to tie the apron to the post on the front porch where it could be seen by the Northern soldiers. Immediately the foraging and stealing ceased. The officer in charge of the Northern soldiers went inside the house and beheld the newborn baby about two minutes after it was born. He placed a guard of several men around the home to prevent any more pilfering. The guard stayed there and protected the family and their possessions until the Northern Army and also the stragglers had all passed by.

Even an enemy had respect for brotherhood.

Gipson Sloan Carr was the grandfather of Norman Carr and of O. P. Johnson.

He was the father of Mary Pedrick, O. P. Johnson's mother.

Gipson Sloan Carr was born July 21, 1821, and died February 21, 1912.

Mary Pedrick Carr was born on February 12, 1865, and died on July 8, 1924.

Final terms of surrender were signed April 26, 1865.

DESTITUTE CONDITIONS AFTER THE CIVIL WAR

(As Told by Joe Wallace, son of Bland Wallace)

When Mr. Bland Wallace (who later became sheriff of Duplin County) returned home as a Confederate veteran after being released from prison, he found destitute conditions—no livestock and very little food.

Since he had been wounded, he was told that he would be given a horse if he would go to Mount Olive for him. He was told to take a bridle. He was lucky to find a bridle. With the bridle in his hand, he set out walking to Mount Olive. When he arrived there, he was given

a horse that was sick and very poor. That lean horse was a discouraging sight to Bland. He could not refuse the horse because he was in desperate need of him. Instead of riding back to his home at Pasture Branch (about nine miles south of Kenansville) as he had planned, he had to walk back home leading the horse.

Never before did any horse get such treatment. He doctored the horse and put him on grass for several weeks. Finally he was ready to be worked again.

Many commodities were very scarce after the Civil War. Salt was not available. Nearly all the people in Pasture Branch Neighborhood went without salt for more than a year. Most of them ate greens cooked without salt or seasoning meat. Finally, Bland Wallace and three neighbors decided to go to the ocean and boil salt water to get salt. They filled their two carts with big iron pots and drove to the ocean. Roads were very poor, but they finally reached the Atlantic Ocean. They built fires around the pots and boiled water for two weeks. On the way home a storm came up and some of the salt got wet. However, they arrived at home with a year's supply of salt.

(The Editors.)

“For three generations, we have hated you, General Sherman. But we have been wrong, and I apologize.

THE OLD HATE

“Long before you ever came into North Carolina, your name was a terror to us; news of your march through Georgia and South Carolina had preceded you. ‘Massa Harold’ (my great-grandfather) had expected you to have horns and hoofs; he must have been surprised when you appeared on a neighboring plantation as an ordinary man of forty-five with a head of unruly red hair and a shaggy beard.

“But your soldiers were hungry, and they scouted the country-side for food. That is why they came to our house. (No, it was not one of those story-book mansions with white columns; it was only a two-room log cabin. There had been better days for the family, but that is another story.) On that morning in March of 1865 when your ‘bummers’ rode up to our gate, ‘Ole Mammy’ (my great-grandmother, then a woman of forty-seven) was standing in the yard. Beside her stood a young woman of eighteen (Aunt Fed), a boy of nine (Uncle Richard), a little girl of six (Aunt Queen), and a Negro slave (‘Aunt Bessie’) who was not very bright. ‘Massa Harold’ and Frank (my grandfather, then aged thirteen) were down in the swamp with an old horse and a cow. (Three older sons had been taken prisoners at the fall of Fort Fisher just the month before.)






“Your men found the cow; she would not be quiet and so ended in your pot. (She was dry anyhow.) Frank came up to the house and found your men digging in a ditch for a keg of gold which ‘Aunt Bessie’ had told them was buried there. (People still come and dig for that treasure, but ‘ther ain't nare been one.’) Thanks for cleaning out the ditch. And we got the feathers picked up and the bed ticks sewed back together. Thus far, we were about even: you got the cow, and we kept the horse; you cleaned out the ditch and made us clean up the house. But the thing that made us mad was that pot of chicken stew.

“Frank remembered it well. It was the last chicken they had. ‘Old Mammy’ had saved it for an emergency. When she heard that you were over on the Faison Plantation, she knew that that emergency had come. She had hoped her family would have had it eaten before you came, but it was still in the pot when she heard that dreaded cry, ‘Yankees, Yankees; the Yankees are coming.’ And everyone had to hurry to his place. At first your soldiers were nice enough, but after all that digging they were short on manners. They ransacked the house, and not finding the gold, they spied the small pot on the hearth.

“Now, if your men had drawn up a chair and had said grace like Christians ought to do and had eaten the stew, it might have passed without being recorded. But no, your men were mad and poured out stew on the floor and then stepped on the pieces of chicken. This was too much for that hungry thirteen-year-old boy; he darted up from his stool with fire in his eyes. ‘God damn you, dirty rascals.’ ”

(From “A Southerner's Apology to General Sherman”, A Reticule by Dr. James H. Blackmore).

More than two thousand years ago Pericles, speaking of his Country-men who had fallen in a great war, said: “In all time to come, whenever there shall be speech of great deeds they shall be had in remembrance.” More truly than to the Athenian soldiery can these memorable words be applied to those North Carolinians who for four long years carried the fortunes of the Confederacy upon the points of their bayonets.

(Walter Clark, N. C. Regiments 1861-’65, Vol. I, Page X.)

“And so should we, as true sons of Carolina, in the education of our children, teach them to ever refuse that savage lesson that ‘Might Makes Right.’ Teach them that

Right lives in a thousand things;Its cradle is its martyr's grave,Wherein it rests a while untilThe life that heroisms gaveRevives again at God's own will,And rights the wrong.”

(N. C. Regiments, vol. I, Page 156, Clark.)

22. MORE GLIMPSES
NEWS ITEMS—1874

—There are 14 stores in Warsaw, including dry goods, groceries, confectioneries, etc.; 2 turpentine distilleries, 1 shoe shop, 1 steam cotton gin, 1 hotel, 1 school, 1 church (Baptist), 1 lodge of Good Templars, 1 grange, and 1 Sabbath School.

—There were shipped from Magnolia, October 21st to November 24th, 347 bales of cotton, 128 bbls. of spirits turpentime, 687 bbls. rosin, 184 bbls. tar and 6 car loads of lumber—all to Wilmington, except the lumber, which went to Washington, D. C.

The following advertisement:

On Hand. 25 bbls. Choice Liquors, 50 bbls. choice family flour, 5,000 lbs. prime bacon, besides a complete assortment of confectioneries (wholesale or retail), cigars, tobacco, fruit, cakes, nuts, etc., etc., which I will sell at the lowest figures for cash.

When I am not personally present, Mr. William T. Rivenbark will be most happy to wait upon customers.

A liberal share of patronage is respectfully solicited.

F. E. REGISTER, Magnolia, N. C.

(The Duplin Record, Magnolia, N. C., November 27, 1874.)

GLIMPSES OF LIFE IN DUPLIN THE LATTER PART OF
THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

(From News Clippings Written by George Melvin Carr. These press clippings were preserved in his scrapbook, and reproduced without change by Mrs. Virginia Ellsworth Southerland Marshall. Written permission to use these news stories has been given by Mrs. Marshall.)

DUPLIN COUNTY LETTER

Wallace, Jan. 2, 1880.

Editor of Messenger:

Since you have no correspondent in these parts, I take it upon myself to pen a few lines to North Carolina's best newspaper, which I hope will be perused with pleasure by your readers.






On Christmas eve a large assemblage of ladies and gentlemen, estimated at two hundred from Pender, Duplin, Sampson, Bladen and Wayne, gathered at the new buildings of Duplin Road High School to join in the festivities of an entertainment, Festival and ball given by the pupils of the school and the neighboring ladies and gentlemen.

Hon. J. D. Stanford and O. H. Allen, of Kenansville, did the occasion honor by a few eloquent and well-timed remarks. Then came the exhibition of dramas, charades, tableaux, etc., which were well acted by the different characters. After this entertainment the audience repaired to the festival room, where every kind of “goodies” were found and eaten by the crowd. After satisfying the inner man, the disciples of Terpsichore repaired to the ball-room where the fascinating dance was participated in till the wee sma’ hours o’ morn. All seemed to enjoy themselves immensely and expressed themselves as highly entertained. The proceeds, about $85, was given our beloved teacher, Mr. Clement, as a Christmas present.

No better, worthier and more efficient tutor ever lived than Prof. Samuel W. Clement. He has nearly completed his large and commodious school building and has ample accommodations for 75 boys. He designs to establish his excellent school on a military basis at an early date. All honor to him in his noble work, for he is truly our benefactor.

MELVIN.

Wallace, N. C., January 15, 1880.

. . . A grand ball and festival took place at Duplin Road Seminary on the night of the 9th inst., which resulted in the realization of about $50 to be added to the building fund of the school. The new buildings which are under erection are as large and commodious as any country seminary in North Carolina. The main building is 75 by 35 feet, three stories high. On the lower floor are three spacious recitation rooms, while the upper stories contain dormitories sufficient to accommodate at least seventy-five pupils. Prof. Samuel W. Clements, the projector of this institution, is a graduate of the University and has an experience of twenty years. . . .

G. M. C.

DUPLIN COUNTY

(Correspondence of The Raleigh News)

Magnolia, N. C., May 28, 1880.

Editor News:—Magnolia is a lively little village of about three hundred population, located on the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad, forty-eight miles north of Wilmington. Of its inhabitants your correspondent

must say that he never found a more accommodating set of people. The business part of the village is made up of about a dozen stores, two turpentine distilleries, one cotton gin, one steam mill, a pump factory, a hotel, and one of the largest and most commodious warehouses on the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad. Trade is very good for the season.

The community has had no rain, except a very light shower last Saturday, in nearly four weeks, and farmers are more or less despondent over their failing crops. The wheat crop is not much hurt as yet, but Spring oats will be a total failure without rain very soon, while corn and cotton are already injured by the drought to an alarming extent. Vegetables, fruits, and, in fact, everything needs rain.

For the past week local travel over the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad to Wilmington has been immense, owing to a one cent per mile excursion, given by the merchants of that place. I guess they got the idea from the Richmond merchants, who first adopted this plan of getting the country trade some two years ago, and a very good idea it is too. It is for the mutual benefit of both farmer and merchant.

Our clever Sheriff—B. Wallace—boarded the cars here Tuesday morning with a new recruit for the Penitentiary—Joe Bennett, colored, who goes for two years for stealing a boat.

The transportation of vegetables over the Atlantic Coast Line has become wonderfully great. Twenty-four car loads—seven thousand packages—from the South to the Northern markets, passed through this place in one day this week. Although this line charges from twenty to thirty-five cents more per box than the steamship lines, still shippers will patronize it, showing their appreciation of rapid transit and careful handling of freight.

G. M. C.

DUPLIN COUNTY NOTES

(Correspondence of The Raleigh Times)

Magnolia, N. C., July 7, 1880

. . . The Wilmington and Weldon Railroad is doing quite an extensive business at this place. From January 1st, until July 1st, 1879, there were shipped from this point 517 barrels of spirits turpentine, 1,434 barrels rosin, 156 bales cotton, 1,009 barrels tar. For the same time this year it foots up as follows: 736 barrels of spirits turpentine, 1,198 barrels rosin, 70 bales cotton, 564 barrels of tar. During this spring and summer 140 packages of vegetables have gone from this place to Northern markets. There can be no doubt as to the capacity of the soil in this






county for producing vegetables of the finest quality, but this season has been remarkably unfavorable. Watermelons are coming in. Your correspondent ate a mess of green corn Sunday. . . .

G. M. C.

THE ENTERTAINMENT AT KENANSVILLE

Editor Messenger:—Grant me space in your valuable journal to notice the dramatic entertainment given at Kenansville on the evening of the 8th inst., by the young ladies and gentlemen of that village, for the purpose of raising funds to enclose the cemetery.

The first play on the programme was a drama, entitled “The Results of a Harmless (?) Glass,” composed for this special occasion, by that rising young member of the bar, Mr. J. W. Powell. In its nature it was a tragi-comedy—consisting of seventeen characters, each of which was appropriately selected. Every part was acted almost with the ease and grace of a regular theatrical troupe. In fact we never saw it excelled by amateurs.

We do not wish to be accused of discrimination, but we must doubly compliment and render laudation to Misses Emma Blount, Anna Stanford, Ella Blount and Tempe Betts; and Messrs. J. C. Cox, J. W. Powell and I. J. Kelly, for the worthy and extraordinary manner in which they acquitted themselves on the stage.

We deem it the most appropriate piece that could have been played just at this epoch in the history of North Carolina politics when Prohibition is the common theme for conversation and argument. We thought the drama a very strong argument in favor of prohibition—but excuse this disgression, we are not discussing politics.

The drama consumed about one hour and a quarter, when our clever Register of Deeds, H. C. Moore, favored the audience with “Down in a Coal Mine,” as an interlude, which was complimented very highly.

Then came the second and last play—a most laughable comedy, entitled, “Who's to Win Him.” We must bestow unlimited praise on every actor for the excellent manner in which the entertainment was conducted. It was a complete success, and we are on the qui vive for its repetition.

Owing to the inclemency of the weather many were no doubt deterred from attending. Some $30, clear of all expenses, were realized. They propose giving another entertainment Tuesday night of court week.

G. M. C.

NOTES FROM “LOWER DUPLIN”

CHINQUAPIN, April 11, 1881.

. . . Our genial and clever merchant, Mr. M. T. Horne, has just returned from Baltimore, where he purchased an extensive stock of spring

and summer goods; and the enterprising W. H. Sloan, Esq., than whom no man is more able to select what the people want must have, is daily increasing his stock. . . .

G. M. C.

A NORTHEAST FISH FRY

CHINQUAPIN, May 3, 1881

Editor Messinger:—The time for picnics being at hand, and the good people of this remote portion of Duplin county not wishing to be considered backward in that respect, a large number of them convened on the banks of the Northeast river, two miles above here at Williams's seine hole, on Friday last for the purpose of participating in that most pleasureable and gratifying type of all country picnics known as a fishfry.

Never having attended such a thing before, your correspondent hardly knew what was incorporated in the generic term—“Fish-Fry,” but if the one under consideration can be taken as a symbol, it simply means a gathering together of entertaining ladies and gallant gents for the sole purpose of fishing, eating, dancing and being merry in general. Of course the chief diet was of a piscatory character but there was no lacking of other edibles. In fact the table fairly groaned under the weight of the luscious viands.

To the lover of the terpsichorean art there was no deficiency, since a spacious platform had been constructed and excellent musicians employed; and boat riding too contributed its share to the pleasure of the occasion.

So enjoyable was everything that, not until old Sol, showing his menacing face just above the western horizon, threatened to leave us in darkness, did the pleasures of this ever memorable fish-fry terminate.

Never tiring of a good thing, that clever old farmer, Mr. David Brock, extended the crowd a cordial invitation to dance at his house that night, which was accepted, and the “Wee sma’ hours o’ morn” found us still tripping the light fantastic toe.

In conclusion, I must say that these good people knew exactly how to make a fellow enjoy himself.

G. M. C.

DUPLIN RIFLES

Editor Messenger:—On Monday evening, Dec. 26th, the above named organization gave a hop at the Masonic Hall, in Kenansville, which was hugely enjoyed by all the participants of the Terpsichorean art in attendance.






Notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather a goodly number of the elite of Duplin's fair sex put in, showing their appreciation of our military band. The boys all got credit given them for their urbanity and gallantry, but especially gallant and soldierly was our noble old captain; we must deem it a little hateful in him though for being an eye witness then laughing at the young corporal, who came so near running his car(r) off the track that the “ladies to the right” couldn't tell for the life of them whether he was dancing or not.

The light fantastic toe was shuffled till early in the morn, when many an aching heart wended its way homeward severely pierced by cupid's cruel dart.

Our company will give another hop anniversary day, which comes on the 19th of January. The boys all look forward with great anticipations to that gala day of our patriotic few. Till then adieu.

G. M. C.

THE ANNIVERSARY OF THE DUPLIN RIFLES
AT KENANSVILLE

Editor Messenger:—Owing to the very inclement weather on the 19th inst., the anniversary of the Duplin Rifles—the program for the day was a failure, but it had but little if any effect on the ball for the evening. Barker's Italian band from Wilmington was on hand at the proper time, and at seven and a half o'clock, sharp, “ball was put in motion,” at the seminary. A lovelier and more graceful cortege of young ladies could not have been gathered together had North Carolina been explored from Currituck to Cherokee; and as for the young men in attendance, it is a fact too well known to need mention, that the members of the Duplin Rifles are among the handsomest and most gallant boys in America (?) and at the ball they were joined by many others of the same kind from various quarters.

Old Duplin and every county adjoining her were represented by their respective lovers of the giddy dance. The crowd was not too large though, but just large enough. The music was perfectly melodious, and many a foot kept time with its harmonious strains. About midnight the very sudden, but prepared for announcement that supper would be served in the next room, struck upon the tympanum of many a hungry dancer. Oh! and such a supper! The writer would like for the ladies of Kenansville to have the preparation of his wedding supper. The table was not filled with the worthless delicacies so frequently prepared for such occasions, but it was groaning, as it were, under its burden of edibles—luscious, bountiful and substantial.

After doing justice to the inner man, the musicians again struck up, and everything went on as merry as a marriage bell till about half past three in the morning, when we all reluctantly separated knowing that we all had enjoyed an occasion long to be remembered.

G. M. C.

RAILROAD MEETING IN DUPLIN

Chinquapin, N. C., Feb. 25, ’82.

Editor Messenger:—Pursuant to previous notice, a goodly number of the citizens of Chinquapin and vicinity assembled here today for the purpose of considering the question of a railroad leading from Teachey's depot on the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad to some point in Onslow.

On motion, Mr. Rhaford Lanier was called to the chair, and Mr. M. T. Horne requested to act as secretary.

On further motion Major Owen Kenan and Mr. Robert Wallace were invited to seats with the chairman, and Geo. M. Carr requested to assist the secretary.

Major Kenan stated the object of the meeting in a few well-timed remarks.

At the request of the chair, Capt. J. C. McMillan, of Teacheys, addressed the meeting, setting forth the great advantages of a railroad, and showing the great blessing it would be toward the education and prosperity of this little outside world. He stated the proposition of the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad Company, which is to lay the track and furnish the rolling stock if the citizens along the line will grade and cross-tie the road.

Much enthusiasm prevailed, and everybody is a “railroad man.” After they gave out a few subscription papers, the meeting adjourned, to meet again (at Chinquapin) Saturday, March 11th.

Geo. M. Carr,

Ass't. Secretary

RAILROAD MEETING AT CHINQUAPIN

Chinquapin, March 11, ’82.

Editor Messenger:—According to adjournment a large and enthusiastic meeting of the friends of the Teacheys’ and Onslow Railroad was held here today with Messrs. Rhaford Lanier and Robt. Wallace in the chair, and Messrs. M. T. Horne and Geo. M. Carr as secretaries.

Eloquent and well timed addresses were delivered by Capt. J. C. McMillan, of Teacheys’, the earnest and persevering projector of the proposed






line, Dr. Duffy, Col. Taylor and Mr. Rodolph Duffy, of Onslow, and Rev. G. S. Mobley, of this vicinity: each urging, in the strongest terms, the necessity of an outlet from Onslow and this fertile, out-of-the-way country, and showing the feasibility and practicability of the proposed plans and the ability of the people to construct the road contemplated.

A committee, consisting of Messrs. M. T. Horne, W. H. Sloan, J. S. Kenan, G. W. Bradham, G. W. Lamb, Rhaford Lanier and J. Andrews, was appointed to solicit subscriptions in the country surrounding this place, and report at the meeting to be held at Jacksonville Monday of Onslow court.

The meeting then adjourned when the subscription of this immediate neighborhood was augmented to an amount aggregating nearly $5,000. It is certain that this will be largely increased by the energy of the soliciting committee, before the Jacksonville meeting.

These people mean business in this very important measure, and are sanguine of its success. They seem to think that they have lived long enough “in the back-woods,” and intend to make themselves a wiser, better and wealthier people if the toot of a railroad engine will add anything in that direction.

G. M. Carr,

Assistant Secretary.

DUPLIN DOINGS

(From Our Own Correspondent)

WALLACE, N. C., May 4th, 1882.—The spirit of improvement has reached this little “burg,” consequently the enterprising firm of Mallard & Houston, formerly of Deep Bottom, have just completed a new and neat store, and put in a heavy stock of general merchandise. Their debut adds much to the trade and appearance of the place. Dr. L. W. Robinson has just about completed his new dwelling. Dr. D. McL. Graham is renovating his premises to some extent, and Prof. S. W. Clement, is finishing up his commodious school building. Messrs. G. Boney & Sons are offering some very desirable lots for sale as may be seen by referring to the advertising columns of this paper. For health and general advantages, Duplin Road cannot be surpassed in Eastern Carolina. Our genial and clever mercantile friend, L. L. Mallard, desiring to do like all men, concluded to take unto himself a wife. So at noon on Thursday, April 27th, by mutual consent, Rev. Jas. M. Sprunt, D. D., united as one him and Miss Ella Blount, the amiable daughter of Dr. J. H. Blount, of Kenansville. A very pleasant reception was given the bride and groom

and attendants at Mrs. Mary Mallard's, in this place, that evening. May happiness shine upon this union.

A social hop and May party was given by the young men of the village, at Clement's Hall, Monday night. It passed off very pleasantly.

The municipal election held here May 1st, resulted as follows: Mayor, W. J. Boney; Town Commissioners: Newkirk Southerland, J. E. Pigford, L. S. Mallard; City Marshall, W. A. Houston, (Ahem!)

G. M. C.

DUPLIN DOINGS

(From our own Correspondent)

KENANSVILLE, N. C., Aug. 3, 1882.—The soldiers’ reunion held here yesterday under the auspices of the surviving members of Houston's cavalry company was well attended and a grand success in every particular. The crowd was variously estimated at from 2,000 to 4,000. At about 11 o'clock Capt. Swift Galloway was introduced to the audience in a neat little speech by Mr. Powell of Clinton. The Captain was particularly happy and felicitous on the occasion and the oft repeated applauses showed that the same spirit prevailed among the audience.

Col. Thos. R. Kenan was next presented by Mr. Hill of Duplin. The Colonel is always at home when he is with Duplin folks and there are few better speakers than he when fully warmed up before an appreciative and attentive audience.

After the addresses, dinner was announced, and every body was “filled to the brim.” The ball at night was a decided success. The susceptible heart of your correspondent was completely “mashed.”

G. M. C.

THE OPENING OF THE CAMPAIGN IN DUPLIN

Wallace, Oct. 7, ’82.

According to previous appointment, the candidates for the various county offices, and for seats in the next General Assembly, met in joint discussion for the first time at this place to-day.

Mr. E. J. Hill, the democratic nominee for the Senate, led off in a happy little speech of thirty or forty minutes, in which he thoroughly defined and discussed the political issues of the day. His tirade against the so-called liberal movement was particularly good for a debutant in the political field, this being his first political speech. Judging from this effort, he will undoubtedly give his competitor enough of it before the fight is over.






Mr. Hill was followed by Mr. J. C. McMillan, the well-known disorganizer, whose principle object seems to be to defeat the democratic ticket and draw his pay as usual. He still claims to be a democrat, but in his harangue of nearly an hour we failed to see a single instance wherein he said one word in favor of a democrat or against a republican. He claims to stand on the “coalition anti-pro-hi-be-tion” platform and intends to fight it out on that line till his defeat. He failed to announce for what office he was running, but no doubt he is awaiting the action of the “rads” in Wayne. He is the same old “snake in the grass” and can fool nobody in Duplin.

Mr. J. D. Stanford, our nominee for the lower branch of the Legislature, next followed in a speech of an hour, which made McMillan and his handful fairly squirm at the invincible truths manifested.

Mr. J. D. Cavenaugh, who claims to belong to no party, but who desires to go to the Legislature in place of Mr. Stanford, next spoke briefly. He endorses the “Olomargarine” platform, and belongs to McMillan's branch of sore-headed democracy. Of course they will all go down to defeat together on the 7th day of November.

Next, the candidates for the various county offices announced themselves, and the crowd dispersed with a more united determination to roll up a rousing majority for the democratic nominees.

G. M. C.

On Thursday October 19, at the residence of the bride's father, Mr. Jera Sandlin, near Hallsville, Duplin county, Mr. W. A. HOUSTON TO Miss LIZZIE A. SANDLIN. The attendants were J. B. Sandlin and Miss Mollie Houston; Gaston Houston and Miss Lucy Davis; W. P. Boney and Miss Cattie Sandlin; W. J. Wallace and Miss Frances Burton. Rev. W. M. Kennedy officiated.

May they travel a lengthy journey on life's pathway, ever remaining as happy as they now are.

G. M. C.

DUPLIN COUNTY, November 28. . . . Mr. R. M. Middleton, of Warsaw township, in Duplin County, has made to the acre 2,250 pounds of sugar, and 120 gallons of molasses in one season; and Mr. William Brice, of Rock Fish township, in same county, on upland, by extreme fertilizing, has continuously for the past eight years, made to the acre from 1,000 to 1,200 gallons of molasses.

During the month of May, 1881, Mr. A. H. Morris, of Teacheys, in this county, discovered in the woods what he thought to be a remedy for the cure of hog cholera, and after being thoroughly tested by the

farmers of this neighborhood for twelve months, and its virtue and success as a sure remedy for that dreadful malady being established beyond a doubt, he placed it upon the market, and has since shipped 2,500 packages to the Northern and Eastern States. He informs me that he has also handled and shipped to Northern markets during the present season 20,000 pounds of botanical roots, and 200,000 pounds of vanilla, familiarly known as dog tongue.

Duplin is settled by an industrious, thrifty and enterprising population, but the most serious obstacle to the advancement of this section, as is too greatly the case all over North Carolina, is the want of a sufficient number of good schools, and the lack of enthusiasm in the people on the all important subject of education. The time is not far distant, however, I trust, when the people will be thoroughly awakened to a sense of their duty on this subject.

G. M. C.

THE TEACHERS’ INSTITUTE AT WARSAW

WARSAW, N. C., July 21, ’83.

Editor Messenger:—The joint Teachers’ Institute for the counties of Duplin and Sampson assembled in this place on Monday, the 16th inst.; the white teachers in the Warsaw High School building and the colored teachers in the colored school house. There were in attendance, during the week, 37 white teachers and 24 colored; about equally divided between the two counties.

The Institute (for whites) was called to order at 10 o'clock, by Superintendent B. F. Grady of Duplin, who stated the object of the Institute and gave the teachers some very good advice. The residue of the day was spent in illustrating arithmetic, on which the methods are founded, and the best methods of teaching that branch.

Simultaneously, Superintendent I. Royall, of Sampson, opened the colored Institute by impressing on his hearers the responsibility and necessary qualifications of teachers.

P. W. Moore, (col.) gave, what he thought to be, the best methods of teaching the alphabet and arithmetic.

On Tuesday morning, at the white division, Mr. Grady lectured on the study of Geography. He solicited the views of the different teachers on the subject, which proved very interesting and improving. During the evening session Mr. Royall lectured on Phonics and the word method.

The diversity of opinions and peculiar views expressed on this branch proved very amusing as well as beneficial.

At night a very interesting paper on the “Benefits of Popular Enlightenment”






was read by Mr. B. F. Grady in the Baptist Church, to a large and appreciative audience.

Mr. Royall had charge of the colored teachers during the forenoon and Mr. Grady during the afternoon.

On Wednesday morning, Rev. W. M. Kennedy opened the white Institute with prayer. Prof. T. R. Cooper, of Clinton then proceeded to lecture on English Grammar. His theme was a lengthy one which requires much forethought. He did the subject full justice, notwithstanding there was some difference of opinions on some points, as there always is on this particular branch of study. All the day being consumed, but about an hour, Mr. Grady devoted that to an explanation of the earth's daily and yearly motions and astronomical geography.

During the morning Mr. Grady instructed the colored teachers on Geography and Elementary Sounds and during the afternoon D. B. Nicholson, Esq., gave to them the best method of teaching writing.

At night C. B. Aycock, Esq., of Goldsboro, lectured in the Baptist church on “The Origin of the Rights of Property.” His discourse was highly entertaining and delivered in his usually felicitous style.

On Thursday, Mr. Grady consumed the day at the white division on the subject of History. Messrs. Royall and Nicholson instructed the colored division on arithmetic, grammar and history.

At night, Dr. Mathews of Kenansville, lectured to the whites on Physiology and Prof. Cooper, of Clinton, to the blacks on “The Duties of Intelligent Colored Men.”

Friday and Saturday were devoted to the examination of applicants for certificates to teach public schools.

E. W. Kerr, Esq., of Clinton, lectured Friday night on the “Responsibilities of Teachers.”

We were unfortunate in not hearing the lectures of Thursday and Friday nights.

By this Institute the teachers of Duplin and Sampson have been inspired to a higher ideal of scholarship and awakened to a longing for greater proficiency in conducting the studies of the school room; and to Superintendents Grady and Royall the people owe a heavy debt of gratitude for arousing their respective counties to the great educational movement of the State.

G. M. C.

DUPLIN COUNTY NOTES

By our Special Correspondent.

We are glad to note that the long contemplated graded school at Magnolia has at last opened, and under favorable auspices too. Rev.

J. N. Stallings and two of his daughters have charge of the school. Ninety-one pupils were registered the first day. This school will no doubt add new life to Magnolia and that vicinity.

At Duplin Roads the passer-by can see the spirit of improvement gradually entwining itself in the hearts of the inhabitants. The Methodists have in course of erection at this place a house of worship, which will greatly adorn the village when completed. The Presbyterians are considering the expediency of building a new church also, in place of the old house known as Rock Fish, situated just outside the incorporate limits of the village. Clement's High School, we are more than pleased to note, is in a very prosperous condition.

An extra term of Duplin Superior court will begin on Monday, the 18th inst. for the trial of civil cases only, Judge Shepherd presiding. It will no doubt be a long and interesting term, as we understand that there are a great many cases on the docket. . . .

. . . When we think of Maj. W. L. Young's recent discovery of phosphate rock in Duplin, and what a great blessing and benefit the people of our native county can realize from it if they will only allow some capitalist to step in and utilize it for them, we grow enthusiastic. There is an unlimited amount of this fertilizer in parts of Duplin, and it would be worth millions if properly manufactured. Dr. Phillips says the commercial value of this rock is about $6.40 per ton, while Dr. Dabney says it would be worth $20.20 per ton if crushed and treated with sulphuric acid. We hope to see measures put on foot at an early date to start a factory to utilize this cheap fertilizer which nature has so lavishly bestowed upon our section. Let the good work begin at once.

It would not be out of place right here to suggest a mass meeting of the citizens of Duplin, for the purpose of discusing and ascertaining what part their county will take in the proposed State Exposition. If the working people of old Duplin will bestir themselves, they can make an exhibit which will do honor to themselves and their native county. This matter of phosphate rock in itself would be a big consideration. We have many of the essentials necessary for a glorious exhibit. It only needs the proper effort to insure success. Let our farmers come to the front and earnestly cooperate in this enterprise.

G. M. C.

DUPLIN COUNTY NOTES BY OUR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT

. . . There is some talk of a new industry making its debut at Duplin Roads. A gentleman by the name of Westbrook, brother, we think, of the nurseryman at Wilson, proposes to start the culture of strawberries,






apples, grapes and other fruits, on a large scale, at that place, if the citizens show him the proper encouragement. It is said that strawberries will ripen three weeks earlier at Duplin Roads than at Faison, which makes it a very desirable location for their culture.

The name of the post office in this county, which, for a long time, has been known as Rock Fish, has been changed to Joe Ford, with Mr. Frank Register as post master. The change was made because there is a post office in Cumberland county, in this State, by the name of Rock Fish, which caused some confusion as to the proper delivery of the mails.

Mr. A. H. Morris, the discoverer and manufacturer of “Morris’ Hog Cholera Cure,” informs us that at no distant date he will build a large and commodious laboratory at Teacheys, in which to put up his medicines. He contemplates making it 30 × 40 feet, two stories high, and add to its dimensions, as the growth of his business increases. . . .

G. M. C.

KENANSVILLE, N. C.

A Bit of History Concerning Duplin's County Site, and the News of That Section in Brief

KENANSVILLE, N. C., Feb. 23, ’84.—Upon entering this little town, the stranger is immediately struck with the quiet and antiquated appearance of things in general. In ante-bellum times Kenansville was one of the most flourishing and dashing little towns in North Carolina. She was especially noted for her fine schools. Many of the mothers and fathers of the rising generation received a practical education in the high schools of Kenansville, and they almost revererence the place now as something sacred, from the memory of the good times they had there in their youthful days. The place received its name from one of the most prominent and honored families of the county, a member of which Col. Thomas Kenan, now occupies the honored position of Attorney General of our State. In years past many different members of the same family have held positions of trust and honor within the gift of the public, as can be seen by reference to the annals of history. . . .

. . . Dr. Barker, the venerable and noted phrenologist, has been here during the week, lecturing at night and manipulating heads during the day. As to his feelings we have not ascertained to what degree he replenished his purse, but as a lecturer he is one among the most interesting we ever listened to; in fact the most interesting on the subject

of phrenology. We regret very much to have to announce that the child of Mr. Archie Black at this place, which was recently burned so terribly is still suffering intensely. May it soon recover.

We understand from a citizen of Magnolia that their graded school at that place is rapidly increasing, both in numbers and popularity. There are now on the rolls between 110 and 120 pupils. Our informant says that the citizens generally are well pleased with the workings of the school, and that it will be a success. . . .

G. M. C.

NOTES BY THE WAYSIDE

What Our Traveler Sees and Hears in His Rambles.

. . . The largest and finest shad that we have seen this season, are being caught at present in the North-East River, in Duplin and Pender counties. We are informed that about a hundred were drawn one night last week, at what is known as “Landing's seine hole,” near Chinquapin, in Duplin, which is very remarkable work for that high up the river. These North-East shad are said to be the finest in our State, and are still retailing for from sixty cents to one dollar per pair.

DUPLIN ITEMS

“The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou heareth the sound thereof, &c.” flashes through our brain as we sit and listen to the first winds of March howling round our gables this morning. In the words of an old friend—“It is regular Pneumonia weather.” There is a good deal of sickness, too, scattered promiscuously over this county at present. Some of the physicians have about as much on their hands as they can well attend to.

We regret very much to have to announce the death of Mr. Archie Black's little child, which was, a few weeks ago, so seriously burned, and which, notwithstanding every attention that loving and tender hands could bestow upon it, suffered so intensely until relieved by the angel of death. Its fond parents have the sympathy of a host of friends in their sad bereavement.

Notwithstanding the recent bad crops and consequent scarcity of “Hog and hominy,” the young folks will marry. On Tuesday evening before last, at the residence of the bride's father, near Magnolia, Mr. Elhainer Sanderson, of Hallsville, was joined by the ties that make two hearts beat as one, to Miss Katie Forlaw, the beautiful and sweet daughter of Mr. David Forlaw. We wish them a long, happy and prosperous life.






We notice that considerable trucking is being done near Magnolia this season. Large quantities of Irish potatoes have been put in in that locality, while in the vicinity of Duplin Roads they are cultivating beans mostly for the Northern markets. For several years Mr. W. T. Rivenbark, of Magnolia, has done a large and profitable business in the cultivation of tube roses, the bulb of which he ships North.

The sad announcement of the death of Col. William A. Allen has cast a gloom over his many friends in Duplin. So much has he done for the welfare of our county and so thoroughly has he identified himself with the best interests of her people that there is hardly a man in Duplin but mourns his loss as he would that of a brother. Peace to the slumbers of that noble and good man.

We understand that Gen. Gaston Lewis has opened a bed of the Duplin phosphate on the farm of Mr. I. W. Best, near Warsaw, from which he proposes to ship a large amount, about 60 tons, we think, to Dr. Hogg, at Castle Hayne, to be ground up in the latter's mill, and distributed among the farmers to test its virtue as a fertilizer. If this much spoken of rock turns out to be of the superior quality that they all hold it is, there is a source of almost unbounded wealth to many of the property owners of Duplin.

G. M. C.

DUPLIN COUNTY NOTES

Inferior Court—Honor Paid to the Memory of Col. William A. Allen

Kenansville, N. C., March 22, ’84. The spring term of Inferior court convened here Monday morning, with Justices Bowden, Moseley, and Carroll on the bench. D. B. Nicholson, Esq., delivered a very concise charge to the jury, which displayed much legal study. Of the twenty some odd cases on the docket all were disposed of but two, which were continued. There were three appeals to the Superior court. One negro was convicted of larceny and sentenced to the penitentiary for a term of two years. Court adjourned on Friday.

Speeches touching the life and career of our lamented friend were made by several members of the legal profession to every one of whom Col. Allen had extended a welcome and helping hand in their outset as lawyers. Truly, he was an honest, generous, Christian-hearted gentleman and a practitioner of no ordinary ability.

G. M. C.

WARSAW COMMENCEMENT

The Closing Exercises of the Kennedy School

WARSAW, N. C., May 16, ’84. The last two days have been gala days for Warsaw, there having been a large crowd in the village in

attendance upon the commencement exercises of the Warsaw High School, under the management of Messrs. W. M. and D. S. Kennedy and efficient assistants.

The exercises were opened on Wednesday evening at 8 o'clock, by essays and declamations by the pupils of the school. In this department there was considerable competition between the diffeernt pupils, since the principals of the school had wisely offered two beautiful and admirably engraved golden medals—one for the best essay—the other for the best delivered declamation. The young ladies did exceedingly well in the reading of their respective essays, as did also the young men in the delivery of their declamations. They all did credit to themselves and honor to the school and its worthy tutors. The awarding of the two medals was left to two separate committees of strangers, the decisions of whom were to be announced the next morning after the annual address.

At 10:30 o'clock Thursday morning the calisthenic drill by the female pupils of the school took place. This exercise was the most elaborate we ever saw of the kind, and was splendidly executed. This department is under the supervision of Miss Bevvie Kennedy.

At 11:45 o'clock Rev. T. H. Pritchard, D.D., who had been selected and invited to deliver the annual address, was very gracefully introduced by Master Frank Penny, of Wilmington, a student of the school, and by the way, a boy of only sixteen summers. The subject of the Doctor's discourse was “A History of the English Tongue,” which was a literary treat of the highest order, depicting much study and delivered in the Doctor's usually happy and graceful manner. He occupied fifty minutes in its delivery, and everyone present felt himself doubly repaid for his time in listening to it. At the close of the address the principal of the school announced that the declaimer's medal had been awarded to Joseph H. Gillespie, of Duplin. Thereupon it was delivered to him by W. L. Hill, Esq., of Duplin, in an encouraging little speech. The principal then announced that the essayist's medal had been awarded to Miss Emma Jordan, of Wayne, which was presented to her very becomingly by John Bland, Esq., of Burgaw. At 3 o'clock p. m., J. H. Gillespie, the orator chosen by the young gentlemen's literary society, was introduced, and, taking for his theme “Our Country,” entertained his audience for the space of twenty minutes, with as much ease and flow of patriotic sentiment as would have been expected of one much his senior in age. Then came the society debate, the query for the evening being “Resolved, That North Carolina is destined to become a commercial and manufacturing rather than an agricultural State.” The debaters on the affirmative side were R. J. Walker and S. A. Strickland;






on the negative side, S. S. Satchell, Jr., and W. L. Bell. This exercise was the most amusing and interesting feature of the whole commencement, especially the picture of the average North Carolina farmer, drawn by Mr. Walker. For an hour and a half the debaters entertained their audience. Some very good points were made on each side.

At 8 o'clock, p. m., the exercises conducted by the Young Ladies’ Literary Society were opened by a salutatory by Miss Emma Jordan, of Wayne. Then followed recitations and musical performances by the different young ladies of the school. They all acquitted themselves nicely. The valedictory, which closed the exercises of the commencement, was delivered by Miss Annie Moore, of Duplin. Upon the close of the literary exercises the crowd was invited to participate in a reception which lasted till about midnight, and was greatly enjoyed by all present. Thus ended the spring term of one of the best high schools of Eastern North Carolina.

G. M. C.

The amount of whortleberries bought in the little village of Magnolia is simply wonderful. We are reliably informed that on Tuesday of last week one Magnolia merchant bought 59 bushels while on the same day another purchased 40 bushels, making a grand total of 99 bushels sold in that market in one day. The price paid for them was five cents per quart, aggregating for that day $158.40. Pretty good for the women and children. . . .

G. M. C.

DUPLIN DOINGS

Scraps of Miscellaneous News from the “Great State of Duplin.”

Notwithstanding the great dearth of news that now prevails throughout the land, greatly to the chagrin of newspaper reporters, generally, we have become the happy possessor of a few items from the “Great State of Duplin,” that may prove interesting to the readers of the Messenger.

Crops, as a general thing, are looking tolerably well, although a good many of the farmers are complaining of “bad stands” and “too much rain.” One thing is evident from the present prospects, and that is that the yield will be much more satisfactory this year than it was last. The farmer that has old corn for sale at present is called “blessed.”

We notice, with gratification, that the spirit of improvement continues

in the villages round about. At Duplin Roads Mr. D. H. Wallace is erecting a handsome residence, and work on the Methodist church is still progressing.

At Rose Hill Mr. W. J. Wallace is putting up a very imposing looking store, which he contemplates filling with goods during the month of August.

At Teacheys our old friend Augustus Morris has about completed his commodious laboratory, and so the ball continues to move.

We have often heard that whiskey was a sure cure for a snake bite, but we had our doubts about its virtue, even in that respect, until two weeks ago we saw it fully exemplified. A little darkey at Duplin Roads, while hoeing corn, was bitten on the leg, just above the ankle, by what is known to some as the rattle snake pilot, and to others as the white oak snake. Whiskey was procured immediately, and enough of it poured into the boy to make him beastly drunk. The swelling and pain ceased, and the boy has experienced no trouble from the bite since.

Duplin can boast of an apple-tree one hundred years old, and still prolific. It is on the plantation of our good friend, Mr. Dickson S. Register, in Rockfish township, and is of that variety known as the “rusty-coat,” which is a very eatable apple at first frost. Mr. Register tells us of men, who, if now living, would be between ninety and a hundred years of age, have told him that they ate fruit from this tree when mere school-boys, and that it then had the appearance of being an old tree. It has an abundance of apples on it this season, and we would suggest that he send specimens of them to the Fruit Fair, as a matter of curiosity, and also to the State Exposition.

Talking about big “collards,” if Mrs. David H. Williams, of Rockfish township, has not got them, then we are no judge. She has one in her garden that measures eight feet across the top, one leaf of which is eight feet in circumference. It is not to say that she has only one of these huge fellows, for her garden is filled with them. She has cabbage ready headed that cannot be put in a half bushel measure. That is the way to cultivate a garden.

On last Tuesday several men and boys went down to Rockfish creek, in the vicinity of Duplin Roads, to go in swimming. The creek being very full, none were so venturesome as to go in except Ben. Stallings, a negro man, about twenty-five years of age. Upon jumping in, it is supposed that he was seized with cramp, as he came up screaming for help; but before assistance could be rendered, he was drowned. His body was soon after recovered near the spot where he sank. . . .

G. M. C.






A MODEL ORGANIZATION

The “Maxwell Farmers’ Club”—Its Objects, Its Benefits, Its Success and Its First Anniversary.

By invitation, your reporter, on Wednesday of last week, took occasion to attend the twelfth monthly meeting of what is known as the “Maxwell Farmers’ Club,” an organization instituted some twelve months ago in Duplin county, by the farmers residing in the “Maxwell” neighborhood. The objects of the club seem to be the promotion of the agricultural and social interest of that particular community, the mutual benefits arising to its members in having the experience and advice of each other, pertaining to their common interests as farmers, and the meeting together, at least once a month, at some member's house, to “eat, drink and be merry.”

The meeting attended by us was held at the residence of Mr. Dickson S. Register than whom there is no more successful farmer in Duplin. In fact this club is composed of some of the most successful farmers and worthy citizens of the county.

Some time after our arrival upon the scene of action, refreshment in the way of cider and wine flowed in sweet profusion, until dinner was announced—and such a dinner! Well, it was one of that kind of dinners that is calculated to make a fellow eat until his gluttonous propensities get the better of him. Suffice it to say that the table was abundantly supplied with every delicious edible to be procured on the farm or the farm-yard.

After relieving the table of doubly our share of its superior burden, we had the pleasure of listening to a very practical address on farming, by Mr. William Mathews, one of Sampson county's best farmers. Then, in a body, the club gave the farm of their brother and entertainer, Mr. Register, a close examination, which is their custom at each meeting. It being the first anniversary of the organization, the election of officers was in order. Mr. Joseph H. Carr was elected president and Mr. G. W. Carroll, secretary for the ensuing year. On motion, Geo. M. Carr was invited to prepare an article to be read before the body at its next meeting.

The following premiums offered at a previous meeting, will show the reader the interest taken in the club and something of its import:

Five dollars in cash to the member who makes the most seed-cotton on an acre.

A bushel of corn from each member to the member raising the most corn upon one acre of upland.

A bushel of potatoes from each member to the member raising the most sweet potatoes on a half acre of land.

A half bushel of rice from each member to the member raising the most rice on a half acre of upland.

These premiums will tend to bring about a competition among the members which will be conductive of much good. These farmers’ clubs should be established in every farming community. The horny-handed tiller of the soil occupies the most important, the most honorable, the most independent and decidedly the happiest sphere of any class of men on the globe, and the one thing needful among them is thorough organization and co-operation in every particular. As a class they too generally allow themselves to be imposed upon by clap-traps and swindles of every conceivable variety. They need thorough organization against these things. At these club meetings they can discuss topics of interest common to them all. Let us have more Farmers’ clubs, and that speedily.

G. M. C.

DUPLIN AFFAIRS

Small Talk From the Banner County of the State

Crops are looking so fine throughout this county that everybody is greatly encouraged. We have heard farmers say that they would make two or three times as much this year as they did last.

A week or so ago some miscreant entered the kitchen of Mr. G. Boney at Duplin Roads and stole therefrom a side of meat and some cooked victuals. He then entered the crib and appropriated a half bushel of corn. Quite a liberal thief.

Mr. William Parker, a young man about 28 or 30 years of age, residing near Rose Hill, died quite suddenly, one day last week. He was a hard working man and left a wife and several children to mourn his loss.

The Teachers’ Institute for whites, opened at Duplin Roads on Monday, under the supervision of Superintendent Grady and Mr. McIntyre of the Faison School.

Next week will be devoted to the colored teachers at Kenansville, and the next to whites again at the latter place.

At the recent State Convention J. D. Stanford, Esq., in a short speech before that august assembly, said that Duplin had never had but four straight out white radicals, and that two of them had been indicted for horse stealing, were defended by him at the bar, cleared of the charge upon some technicality, but neither has ever been the man to pay his lawyer's fee.

G. M. C.






23. EARTHQUAKE SHOCK IN DUPLIN

“On August 31, 1886, Charleston suffered terribly from an earthquake shock, the severest in the history of the United States. Seven-eights of the houses were rendered unfit for habitation, many persons were killed and property valued at over $8,000,000 was destroyed. The damage was quickly repaired.

“An earthquake is a tremor or shaking of the ground produced by natural subterranean concussion, from tectonic, or volcanic causes.

“Earthquakes travel through the ground as elastic waves. The rocks which constitute the outer zone of the earth, or the so-called crust, as well as the underlying layers, which are of uncertain nature, behave within certain limits like elastic media, transmitting vibrations in a manner similar to the air when set in motion by sound. Any jar or disturbance of equilibrium within the rock mass produces a series of waves of alternate tension and compression which advance by communicating the motion from particle to particle. The vibrations may take place in the same direction as the disturbance is transmitted and are then called longitudinal waves, or they may occur at right angles to the direction of travel, when they are known as transverse waves. Both kinds are concerned in the propagation of an earthquake. The waves are of small amplitude—a mere fraction of an inch in the unfelt tremors, but possibly an inch or two in the very violent shocks. . . . The periods, or time consumed in a single vibrating, range from two or three seconds to about a half minute, as measured at a distance from the focus.”

(The New International Encyclopedia, Second Edition, Volume V, by Dodd, Mead & Co.)

This earthquake shock was felt in Duplin County. Thomas James McGowen, father of one of the editors, told him the house began to shake, quiver, squeak, and rock back and forth. The members of the family were frightened. They went out into the yard until the shock was over. The fields had large cracks in them from the shock.

The McGowen home, which was built in 1844, showed some damage from the shock. The braces to the corner posts and sills were fastened with lightwood pegs or pins. The earthquake shock had loosened these

pegs or pins. Some of the doors in the house have never closed properly since this tremor.

A number of persons whose parents were living at the time of the shock still tell about what their parents told concerning this earthquake. Many people were said to have thought that this was the end of time, and expected to hear Gabriel blow the trumpet any time.

In the summer of 1970, the editors spent a delightful afternoon with Mr. Ernest Middleton, and his sister-in-law, Mrs. Carrie Middleton, near Warsaw. Mr. Middleton verified what the editors had already heard from their parents about the earthquake of 1886. He remembered the large cracks in the ground after the shock was over. Mr. Middleton also remembered that some stack chimneys were destroyed by the earthquake.

(The Editors.)






24. JAMES SPRUNT INSTITUTE
CHARTER

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact:

SECTION 1. That the name of the institution of learning owned and controlled by the Presbytery of Wilmington, located at Kenansville, in the county of Duplin, in the State of North Carolina, and known at present as the James Sprunt Institute, shall be hereafter known as the same. And that the Rev. Peter McIntyre, Henry Farrior, Sr., Dr. J. W. Blount, B. F. Hall, W. L. Hill, Oscar Pearsall, S. O. Middleton, Thomas B. Pierce, S. B. Newton and others, as trustees thereof, and their associates and successors in office be and are hereby created and constituted a body corporate by the name and style of the “James Sprunt Institute,” and by that name shall sue and be sued in all the courts of the land, shall use a common seal and have power to make such rules, regulations and by-laws as the said trustees or their successors may deem best for the government and operation of the institution, not inconsistent with law, not contrary to the regulations of said Presbytery of Wilmington.

SEC. 2. That said trustees or their successors are hereby authorized to elect a president, secretary, treasurer and superintendent, and prescribe the terms and services of their offices, and they are further authorized to elect or appoint such other officers, teachers and instructors as may in their judgment be necessary to serve the purposes and to carry out the objects of said institution of learning, and further, that they shall full power and authority to establish any departments or schools of general and special instructions of study in said institution, and may issue any scholarship, certificate and diplomas, and confer any degree of merit and honor which they may determine upon, and to these ends may co-operate with other institutions of like character.

SEC. 3. That the said corporation by its name and style aforesaid shall on behalf of the Presbytery of Wilmington have, hold, use and enjoy, succeed to all the estates, titles, properties and possessions now held and possessed by the institution of the same name, and all rights, titles, estates and property in and to the same is hereby vested both by law and in equity in the same, and further, the said corporation shall

have power to acquire, hold, receive, take and possess on behalf of said Presbytery of Wilmington all property, real, personal or mixed, donations, gifts, devises and bequests, and to use and enjoy, alien, exchange, invest, convert and re-invest all of its property and assets in as full and ample manner as other institutions of the State similarly chartered, and in no greater degree.

SEC. 4. That until further action by the said trustees above mentioned the said Rev. Peter McIntyre, as president; Henry Farrior, Sr., as secretary; Dr. J. W. Blount, as treasurer; Professor W. M. Shaw, as superintendent; shall be and the same are hereby created as the respective officers of said institution.

SEC. 5. That it shall be unlawful for any person or persons, firms, partnerships or corporations to retail, sell or manufacture any spirituous, vinous or malt liquors in any quantity whatever within two miles of this institution of learning, upon the penalty of being guilty of misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof to be fined or imprisoned, within the discretion of the court.

SEC. 6. That this act shall be in force from and after its ratification.

In the General Assembly read three times, and ratified this the 11th day of March, A. D. 1901.

(An Act to Incorporate the James Sprunt Institute of Duplin County, North Carolina, Pr. 1901, Chapter 370.)

JAMES SPRUNT INSTITUTE
GENERAL INFORMATION

The James Sprunt Institute was established in 1896 by Mr. Henry Farrior and the late Dr. James W. Blount, of Kenansville, N. C. They conceived the idea of building and maintaining a school of collegiate grade for the promotion of Christian education for the girls of Wilmington Presbytery, and especially for Duplin County, at a cost that would put such an education in reach of those of limited means, who could not avail themselves of the advantages of more expensive colleges. They purchased a nice site with good building and, in 1897, deeded the property to trustees for the use of Wilmington Presbytery. Other donations have since been made by patriotic gentlemen, and in 1901 the Institute was incorporated by the General Assembly of North Carolina and vested with authority to issue diplomas to those completing the prescribed courses. The Wilmington Presbytery elects ten trustees for the government of the school; the trustees choose their own officers and the faculty, and make semi-annual reports to the Presbytery, and the Presbytery has assumed responsibility for the work.

IMPROVEMENTS. The Institute has recently purchased the Pearsall Property, containing fourteen acres, which is being greatly improved.






Commodious dormitories will be erected in connection with the Pearsall Building and a large dining hall in the rear of the cottage, which will be connected with the two main buildings by a covered walk. With these improvements, which are hoped to be completed by September 1st, 1906, the Institute will be able to accommodate comfortably one hundred boarders. The grounds now comprise about eighteen acres of rolling land, abundantly supplied with trees and a spring of pure water, and laid out into an attractive park with walks, rustic seats and bridges. Every opportunity is afforded the girls for outdoor exercise and recreation without going out of the grounds.

LOCATION. Kenansville is an attractive, beautiful country town about half-way between Wilmington and Goldsoboro and seven miles east of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. It is easily accessible from either Warsaw or Magnolia, where conveyances can be had at a reasonable price. There is now in course of construction, under the direction of the United States Government, a sand-clay road from Kenansville to Magnolia, which will likely be completed during the year. This will add much to the convenience and pleasure of the drive, and the students will find no difficulty in reaching Kenansville from either point. The town is a typical one for the location of a female school, and the school is located in the most beautiful part of the town; the land is rolling and undulating; the drainage natural and perfect; the trees beautiful and symmetrical. The moral influences of the community are unsurpassed and vice and temptations almost unknown. It is an ideal spot for study and for the attainment of those graces and accomplishments which count in producing refinement and in building character.

RELIGIOUS FEATURES. While the Institute is Presbyterian in its management, yet care is taken that the religious views of other denominations are not interfered with. Religious services are required of every pupil—the daily duties of faculty and students are opened with religious exercises. All have to attend the Sunday morning Bible class and one of the Sunday schools in the village. However, each student is encouraged to attend her own church and Sunday school, and this is done under the direction of one of the faculty, who is a member of the same church.

LIBRARY AND LITERARY SOCIETIES. The Institute has a constantly increasing library, carefully selected. Thirty minutes of systematic reading is required daily of the students under the direction of the teacher of English and History, who gives special attention to the cultivation of a taste for literature and historical investigation on the

part of the indifferent pupil. The Literary Society, organized in September, 1901, contributes to the social life and literary attainments of the students. It cultivates ease of manner and power of expression, while affording a knowledge of parliamentary law. The programs consist of recitations, readings, debates and music.

HOME LIFE. Every effort is made to give the Institute the character of a Christian home; to establish cordial relations between teacher and pupil; to render the school life of each student attractive; and to cultivate those graces of character which mark refined women. With this end in view, receptions, arranged by students and faculty, will be held in the parlors at stated intervals. The health and comfort of the girls are guarded and watched carefully by the trained nurse, under the general supervision of the Lady Principal, and it is the purpose of the school to give every girl such attention as to guarantee the best possible results.

HEALTH OF THE GIRLS CARED FOR. The Institute has recently adopted a plan which insures the most perfect condition among the girls and reduces the danger from ill health in school to a minimum. The trustees have secured the services of a professional trained nurse of knowledge and experience, who resides in the buildings with the girls and will give her personal attention to every girl in school, directing what is necessary to be done in case of illness and when a physician shall be called. In addition to this, physical culture is taught in the school and all pupils are required to take it, and every thing is done to develop the girl's physical strength as well as her mind and character.

EXERCISE AND MANUAL TRAINING. Out-door and open-air exercise is encouraged and at least one hour daily is required of each pupil. Match games of tennis and other out-door sports are indulged in alternately. The recent acquisition of the Pearsall property has made it possible to offer the girls every opportunity for out-door sports without the necessity of leaving the school enclosure.

OUR IDEAL. Our ideal for the James Sprunt Institute is not that of a high grade and expensive College; but to fill the gap existing between the public schools and such colleges; to furnish to a girl such an education as will equip her for the ordinary duties of life and prepare her to enter an advanced year in the higher colleges if she can pursue her work further; to teach her the duties of domestic life and the refinements of social intercourse with others; to enlighten her and inform her as to those matters which are necessary to be known in order to insure real happiness and usefulness and to make of her a true woman.






PERSONAL OUTFIT. Each girl is expected to furnish her own towels, napkins, blankets, two double sheets, one counterpane and one pillow, with cases, all of which must be marked with the full name of the owner. Also, an umbrella and over-shoes are necessary.

HOLIDAY AND VISITING. The Institute has adopted Monday instead of Saturday as the weekly holiday and the results have been so satisfactory that this policy will be pursued in the future. After exercises are over Saturday afternoon the girls are free from their studies until Monday night, when they are all required to assemble for study hour and prepare their recitations for Tuesday. As a result we have five days of good work and avoid the proverbial bad lessons for Monday. Also, girls who live in the country in reach of the Institute can go home to their parents on Saturday afternoon and return Monday afternoon, having the unbroken Sunday at home. Visiting is allowed on Monday under proper restrictions, and fellowship with each other is encouraged among the girls. Permission to spend the night out of the buildings is discouraged and parents are earnestly requested to cooperate with us in obtaining the best results from their daughters’ work by not allowing them to go home or ask permission to visit their friends except in urgent cases. We find such permissions demoralizing upon the pupils and upon the discipline of the school.

SCHOOL TERMS

The school year consists of an eight months session, divided into quarters of two months each, as follows:

First quarter begins Sept. 4, 1906, and ends Oct. 30, 1906.

Second quarter begins Oct. 30, 1906, and ends Dec. 22, 1906.

Third quarter begins Jan. 1, 1907, and ends Feb. 26, 1907.

Fourth quarter begins Feb. 26, 1907, and ends Apr. 25, 1907.

CONDITIONS OF ENTRANCE

The conditions of entrance are that charges must be paid in advance at the beginning of each quarter; and all bills unless a special arrangement is made, must be paid for the first quarter in advance and thereafter on or before the first day of each quarter.

No pupils will be received in dormitories for less time than from date of entrance to end of term.

Those leaving before the close of the term will be charged for board and tuition to the end of the term, unless compelled to leave on account of sickness and in accordance with the advice of the Physican or trained nurse of the Institute.

All of our arrangements for teachers are made by the year. Our

accommodations are limited, and it is hardly fair to us to engage one of our rooms and not be willing to pay for it throughout the term, when we might have filled it with some one else.

The justice of these regulations is evident. Not having room for all, we only desire students who are seeking an education. It will be remembered that this is no money-making establishment; we give these opportunities at actual cost and claim that they are the best offered for the money in the State.

We provide good appointments, home comforts, and a well-equipped faculty, large for the number of pupils, so that the girls are brought in close contact with the instructors.

Hence, parents, not having access to good home schools, need not hesitate to send even very young daughters to the Institute.

To maintain these advantageous conditions, it is absolutely necessary that payments be made when due.

Pupils desiring to enter the higher classes must furnish by examination, satisfactory evidence of proficiency in the preceding studies.

We feel it of great importance that parents have their daughters in place on the FIRST DAY of the session. This means much to the pupil and to the Institute.

EXPENSES FOR COLLEGE YEAR

Heretofore the school has been endeavoring to furnish board at $8.00 per month; but with present prices we find it absolutely impossible to do so, and it has been raised to $9.00 per month.

The necessary expenses required of each student for the entire College session, except for books, are as follows:

Board, fuel, lights, laundry, &c.$ 72.00
Tuition in regular course36.00
Rent for rooms, furniture, &c.8.00
Medical fee3.00
Contingent fee1.00
Total for quarter, $30.00; for year$120.00

The medical fee and contingent fee are required of all boarders and in case of sickness, however long, physician and nurse are furnished without charge for their services.

BOARDING DEPARTMENT

The boarding department will be operated in the future by the Trustees and Faculty under the direction of an experienced matron and every






effort will be made to furnish pure, wholesome food and to give our patrons value received for their money. A separate kitchen and dining room will be arranged for girls, who wish to furnish their own provisions and board themselves. By doing this they can utilize their provisions and avoid the payment of the $72.00 for board, and will have every other advantage that the other girls have with an expenditure of only $48.00 cash per year.

MUSIC AND ELOCUTION

Music and elocution are not required of any pupil; but this department of the work of the James Sprunt Institute has been provided for with exceptional care and is very efficient. The fees for this department are as follows:

Piano lessons and rent of pianoper year, $30.00; per quarter, $7.50.

Voice lessons, including use of piano per year, $30.00; per quarter, $7.50

Violinper year, $24.00; per quarter, $6.00.
Elocutionper year, $20.00; per quarter, $5.00.

Theoretical and Historical Music:

First year, per year$ 3.00; per quarter, $ .75
Second year, per year10.00; per quarter, 2.50

If a student in elocution wishes to make a specialty of it, more than the regular time will be given to her and an extra charge made.

MEDALS

The “Cordelia Whitehead Medal” has been established by Mr. Z. W. Whitehead of Wilmington, in memory of his mother, and is awarded to the girl who prepares the best graduating essay.

COURSES OF STUDY
PREPARATORY DEPARTMENT

Miss Brown

This department is under the charge of a well-trained preparatory teacher. Spelling, Dictation, Language, Reading, Number work, Nature study, Elementary Geography, History of the United States, Penmanship, and Bible Lessons are taught.

PREPARATORY DEPARTMENT

This course extends over a period of four years, and includes the following studies, according to the advancement of the pupil.

FIRST YEAR

Arthmetic, Grammar, History of the United States, Latin, Physiology and Hygiene.

SECOND YEAR

Algebra begun, English History, Rhetoric, Latin, Physical Geography and Botany.

THIRD YEAR

Algebra finished, Geometry begun, Ancient History, Literature and Latin.

FOURTH YEAR

Geometry finished, Modern History, Elizabethan Era, Latin and Modern languages.

Entrance examinations are required.

Diplomas are conferred upon pupils who successfully complete the four years’ course.

MATHEMATICS

Miss Loftin

The purpose in this course is to give a thorough course in Mathematics through Arithmetic, Algebra, and plain and solid Geometry. All students entering the Sophomore, Junior or Senior Class will be required to pass an examination in the work of the preceding year before graduating and must be able to explain and solve correctly any ordinary problem in Arithmetic.

Freshman Year—Arithmetic, Compound Quantities to percentage, by Colaw and Ellwood; Wentworth's First Steps in Algebra.

Sophomore Year—Arithmetic, by Colaw and Ellwood, continued; Wentworth's New School Algebra.

Junior Year—Algebra completed; Wentworth's Plain Geometry.

Senior Year—Solid Geometry; Review in Higher Mathematics.

ENGLISH

Miss Hicks

The purpose of the course in English is three-fold: To cultivate a taste for good literature; to acquaint the student with the principles and rules of English grammar and composition, so as to insure readiness and accuracy in her use of language; and, finally, to prepare her to enter an advanced year at college. From the beginning strict attention is paid to the study of grammar, the classification, inflection and syntax of words. Master pieces of prose and poetry are studied each year and






this work is supplemented by a course in English composition and parallel reading, so that the student may become familiar with the spirit and forms of literature.

Freshman Year—Grammar; Scott & Denny's Composition; Rhetoric; Theme Writing; Study of Irving, Hawthorne and other prose writers of this country.

Sophomore Year—L'Allegro and Il'Penseroso, Carlyle's Essays; Prisoner of Chillon, Adonais, Eve of St. Agnes, Enoch Arden, Browning's Saul, and other selections.

Junior Year—Elementary Study of Shakespeare, including the leading plays such as Julius Caesar, Hamlet, Macbeth, King Lear, Twelfth Night, The Tempest, &c. Original work is required, and papers must be prepared on the plot, thought, characters and story of the play.

Senior Year—Tennyson's In Memoriam, Maud, The Princess and Idyls of the King. An original essay is required of each senior in the course as a requisite for graduation, upon which much time and thought must be put during the year.

HISTORY

Miss Hicks

The object of the course in History is to give the student a fund of historical knowledge which will be both useful to her in life and prepare her for future historical and literary work. Parallel reading on topics of interest connected with the subject under discussion is assigned from time to time and students are required to make written reports of their work, which are read in class. In connection with the historical work each student is required to make geographical maps in order to fix in her mind the location of the places under consideration.

Freshman Year—Chambers’ History of the United States; Parallel reading; maps and written reports of work.

Sophomore Year—Myers’ History of Greece and Rome; other work as above.

Junior Year—Green's Shorter History of the English People; other work as above; North Carolina History.

Senior Year—Myers’ Modern and Mediaeval History; Review by topics of American History, using Hart's Source Book; Parallel reading, maps, essays &c.

LATIN

Miss Barden

The study of Latin is begun in the first year and covers the entire four years’ course. No preparation is required for entrance; but accuracy and thoroughness is required as the study proceeds; and if,

after graduation at the James Sprunt Institute, the student desires to pursue her course at college, her preparation will be complete so far as the Institute attempts to go.

Freshman Year—Collar and Daniels’ Latin Grammar.

Sophomore Year—Collar and Daniels’ Latin Grammar; Caesar begun; Bennett's Grammar and Composition begun.

Junior Year—Caesar; Bennett's Grammar and Composition continued.

Senior Year—Virgil, Cicero.

MUSICAL DEPARTMENT

Misses Henkel, Wright and Farrior

The James Sprunt Institute spares no pains in endeavoring to make its Musical Department equal to any similar work in the country. The faculty is well equipped for the work and every subject is taught that is necessary for the student to know, including Piano, Violin, Voice, Physical Culture and Elocution, Theory and Harmony and Musical History. The regular course extends over four years and at the completion of the course a certificate of proficiency is issued to the student. If the student enters already advanced she can complete the course and receive her certificate in less time than the four years. Theory and Harmony and Musical History are required before a certificate is granted; but no student is required to take this course unless she desires a certificate. An extra charge is made for this course in case student elects to take it as it is expensive and not ordinarily required in the course of study.

COURSE IN PIANO
FIRST YEAR

First Term—Mathew's Graded Studies, Book I. Scales begun.

Second Term—Mathew's Studies, Book II. Scales continued. Easy pieces. Easy duets.

SECOND YEAR

First Term—Mathew's Studies, Book III. Cramer, Book I. Scales continued. Selections from Mendelssohn's “Songs Without Words.” Studies by Heller and Bertini and Czerny.

Second Term—Mathew's Studies, Book IV and V. Cramer, Book II. Scales continued Selections from Chopin, Haydn, Mozart.

THIRD YEAR

First Term—Mathew's Studies, Books VI and VII. Scales continued. Moscheles, Op. 70, No. 1. Selections from Beethoven, Schumann; Schubert






and other standard composers. Piano Solos and Duos for two pianos.

Second Term—Moscheles, Op. 70, Book II. Kullak's Octave studies. Scales continued. Classic selections from modern composers.

FOURTH YEAR

First Term—Clementi's Gradus ad Parnassum begun. Scales continued. Bach's inventions and “Well Tempered Clavichord.”

Second Term—Clementi's Gradus ad Parnassum continued. Scales continued. Selections from Weber, Liszt, Craig, Tschaikowsky, Leschetizky, and other masters.

THEORETICAL AND HISTORICAL MUSIC

Only two years of theoretical and historical music will be given and this may be taken at any time the student is prepared for it. The course is not required except for those who desire a certificate of proficiency in the music department; and no certificate will be awarded without it. The course is as follows:

First Year—Theoretical facts—rudiments of music scale structure, both diatonic and chromatic, various forms of accent as regulated by the time signature musical vocabulary, graces of embellishments, intervals. Notes on Music and History. Three dollars per year.

Second Year—A bass or simple melody to be harmonized in three or four parts using chords up to and including the dominant seventh; Cadences, Analysis of Chords, Transposition, the elements of Form and Analysis. Crowest's Story of the Art of Music. Ten dollars per year.

VOICE AND VIOLIN

Instruction in voice and violin is given to all students desiring it and the fees for this will be found elsewhere in the Catalogue. This department has been a strong feature of concerts and commencement exercises, and the James Sprunt Orchestra adds much to these occasions. In fact the department of music at the James Sprunt Institute is as good as that of any institution of its class and the work is being broadened and extended every year.

COMMENCEMENT 1906

GRADUATES
Mary ColvinAtkinson, N. C.
Etta JonesPink Hill, N. C.
Cora KornegayKenansville, N. C.
Edna RobinsonDelta, N. C.
Kate SuttonCalypso, N. C.
Ruth ShawKenansville, N. C.
Leah ThompsonJacksonville, N. C.

MEDALIST
Cora Kornegay“Cordelia Whitehead Medal.”
MUSIC CERTIFICATE
Myrtle JonesKenansville, N. C.
ANNUAL SERMON
Rev. C. G. VardellRed Springs, N. C.
ANNUAL ADDRESS
Hon. R. D. GilmerRaleigh, N. C.

STUDENTS’ ROLL 1905-’06
Butts, LucyMt. Olive, N. C.Moore, KatieTurkey, N. C.
Butler, MaggiePireway, N. C.Murray, MaggieMagnolia, N. C.
Butler, StellaPireway, N. C.McLaurin, InezKenansville, N. C.
Burney, IraClarkton, N. C.Newton, CatherineMagnolia, N. C.
Barrs, RuthBowden, N. C.Newton, MaryKenansville, N. C.
Beasley, MildredKenansville, N. C.Newton, AltonKenansville, N. C.
Bostic, QuinnieHallsville, N. C.Newton, KatieKenansville, N. C.
Colvin, MaryAtkinson, N. C.Peirce, SallieWarsaw, N. C.
Cooper, LibbieKenansville, N. C.Page, KittieBurgaw, N. C.
Cooper, EllaKenansville, N. C.Page, EffieBurgaw, N. C.
Cooper, DelilahKenansville, N. C.Petteway, NannieJacksonville, N. C.
Chambers, MargaretKenansville, N. C.Pridgen, MattieWarsaw, N. C.
Chambers, HesterKenansville, N. C.Pridgen, ChristineWarsaw, N. C.
Farrior, HetKenansville, N. C.Powell, CorrinneWallace, N. C.
Farrior, HettieKenansville, N. C.Quinn, EllaChinquapin, N. C.
Farrior, HesterKenansville, N. C.Quinn, GertrudeChinquapin, N. C.
Farrior, MinnieKenansville, N. C.Quinn, FloyKenansville, N. C.
Farrior, John A.Kenansville, N. C.Quinn, MatKenansville, N. C.
Farrior, AudryKenansville, N. C.Robinson, EdnaDelta, N. C.
Farrior, WardKenansville, N. C.Royall, MadgeKenansville, N. C.
Farrior, KennethKenansville, N. C.Royall, ChristineKenansville, N. C.
Farrior, BerniceKenansville, N. C.Sutton, KateCalypso, N. C.
Ferrill, KateKenansville, N. C.Shine, PattieFaison, N. C.
Ferrill, SallieKenansville, N. C.Shine, LucyKenansville, N. C.
Ferrill, LloydKenansville, N. C.Shine, GeorgiaKenansville, N. C.
Henry, EttaLong Creek, N. C.Shaw, RuthKenansville, N. C.
Herring, Minnie LeeKenansville, N. C.Shaw, Rosa LeeMaysville, N. C.
Smith, KatherineKenansville, N. C.
Jones, EttaPink Hill, N. C.Southerland, SusieKenansville, N. C.
Jones, MyrtleKenansville, N. C.Southerland, Annie MayKenansville, N. C.
Jones, ElmoreKenansville, N. C.
Jones, HarmanKenansville, N. C.Southerland, LucyKenansville, N. C.
Jones, DoraKenansville, N. C.Southerland, ElbertKenansville, N. C.
Johnson, MayeTomahawk, N. C.Southerland, PattieKenansville, N. C.
Kornegay, CoraKenansville, N. C.Southerland, BettieKenansville, N. C.
Kornegay, IreneKenansville, N. C.Thomas, SueShallotte, N. C.
Kornegay, HattieAlbertson, N. C.Thomas, DoraShallotte, N. C.
Loftin, SadieKenansville, N. C.Taylor, NannieMt. Olive, N. C.
Loftin, MariaKenansville, N. C.Thompson, LeahJacksonville, N. C.
Loftin, MarthaKenansville, N. C.Thompson, LouiseJacksonville, N. C.
Loftin, AdrianKenansville, N. C.Turner, BerthaKenansville, N. C.
Loftin, HildaKenansville, N. C.Turner, MayKenansville, N. C.
Loftin, BettieBowden, N. C.Williams, PearlKenansville, N. C.
McKay, LouineFolsom, N. C.Williams, EmilyClinton, N. C.
Mallard, EllaKenansville, N. C.Worley, BessiePink Hill, N. C.
Mallard, ListonKenansville, N. C.Weeks, AnnieRosindale, N. C.

(From Annual Catalogue, 1906-’07.)






GROVE INSTITUTE SUCCESSOR TO JAMES SPRUNT INSTITUTE

During the year 1918 the Presbytery changed the name of the school, at the request of the Trustees, from James Sprunt Institute to Grove Institute. In choosing the new name they were guided in part by a desire to perpetuate the name and history of the old Grove Academy, a male school organized and chartered about the year 1786, and which continued its noble work until after the Civil War. The present girls’ school was a female Seminary under private ownership long before the Presbytery assumed charge in 1896. Thus the work of the two schools merged somewhat in our new name, has continued under one name or the other without interruption for about one hundred and thirty years. We hope to maintain and perpetuate the noble ideals and traditions of the past.

(Grove Institute Catalog, 1922-1923.)

GROVE INSTITUTE
1921

CLOSING EXERCISES

GROVE INSTITUTE

Kenansville, N. C.

May 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th

Commencement Sermon, Sunday, 11. a.m.

Presbyterian Church

By Rev. George Mathis

MARSHALS:

Chief, Sadie Robeson
Carol WilliamsVirginia Outlaw
Helen MaultsbyNancy Sidbury

PROGRAM, SATURDAY, 8 p. m.
Chorus—Flying SongVerdi
By the School
MarchRolfe
Georgia Bethea
The Contented BirdRowe
Polly Gavin
RondolettaFrank-Lynes
Erena Williams
MazurkaPriszonka
Virginia Outlaw
A FrolicMatthews
Margaret Jones
ValseDurand
Ella Quinn

HumoresqueDvorak
Mary Ellis Beasley
Nursery RhymesCurran
Erena Williams, Polly Gavin, Margaret Jones
Recitation—As Father Used to MakeNancy Sidbury
L'AvalancheHeller
Laura Gavin
S'cherze (a)Gurlitt
Punchinello (b)Aletter
Thelma Cromartie
BarcarolleReuk
Bennie Sidbury
Spring FlowersW. Fuils
Myrtle Burch
ConsolationHeller
Helen Maultsby
Sonata in C Major (a)Mozart
Voices of Spring (b)Kern
Martha Bowden
Bird SongFranz Abt
Syble Wagner
Daddy (a)Behrend
Open Thy Lattice (b)Louis Gregh
Alice Carter
Reading—Mrs. McGloggerty on Roller Skates
Zena May Gibson

CLASS DAY EXERCISES, MONDAY 5 p. m.
Address of WelcomeDorothy McDowell
Class SongSenior Class
HistorianBeulah Carr
StatisticianAnnie L. Fisher
GiftorianAugusta Martin
GrumblerAudrey Alphin
Last Will and TestamentCelesti Weeks
ProphetConstance Harrelson
PoetBeatrice Towsend
SongClass

PROGRAM, MONDAY, 8 p. m.
Chorus—Gondolier SongBy the School
Reverie (a)Engleman
Caprice (b)Parker
Nancy Sidbury
A Whispered VowHartwell-Jones
Myrtle Burch and Syble Wagner
A Japanese FantasyTerry
Sara Anderson
I Wonder WhyM. David
Vivian Pittman
Trio—InstrumentalStroebbog
Sara Anderson, Constance Harrelson, Myrtle Burch
Danse ColumbineStrickland
Syble Wagner

PLAY—PATSY FROM DAKOTA
(In Three Acts)
CAST OF CHARACTERS
Mrs. Leroy Madison—one of the Four HundredSadie Robeson
Patricia Greyson—her niece just from the WestHelen Maultsby






Mrs. Rebecca Repeter—Spending the Winter with Mrs. MadisonRachel Davis
Mrs. Brandon Makepeace—who finds Mrs. Repeter “Difficult”Tiffany Rich
Miss Virginia Carter—ready for any emergencyCharlotte Evans
Miss Ethelyn Astor—the pink of FashionCarol Williams
Countesse Duval—a Parisian visiting Miss AstorLucile Johnson
Louis Duval—her cousin, in business in AmericaThelma DeVane
Miss Kurgus—a “Lady Reporter”Alice Carter
Celestine—the Ideal MaidBennie Sidbury
Place—New York.Time—The Present.

SYNOPSIS:

Act I. Drawing Room of Mrs. Madison's House. Patricia Greyson, born and reared in Dakota, having just lost her father, comes to New York to live with her aunt, a member of “the 400.” Patricia tries to get accustomed to the ways of New York Life. Act II. Tea Room in Miss Astor's House, 2 months later. Patricia is quite changed, and is fitting into New York Social life. She thinks it no harm to monopolize Mr. Duval, who is supposed to be in love with Miss Astor, and thereby worries her aunt and other visiting ladies.

Act III. Same as in Act I. 2 years later. Everything happens wrong for everybody, except Patricia and Mr. Duval. They seem to be satisfied.

PROGRAM, TUESDAY, 10:30 a m.
Graduating Exercises
Song by Choral Class—RosesDenza
Whistling SoloSyble Wagner
Carmena—WilsonAugusta Martin
Essay—Why Should I go to College?Lucile Page
Essay—The Ideal American CitizenConstance Harrelson
Essay—The School of LifeSyble Wagner
Felice—LieuranceConstance Harrelson
Delivery of Diplomas
Awarding of Honors.
Announcements
Song by Choral Class—HumoresqueDvorak
Benediction

GRADUATING CLASS:

Audrey Alphin, Sara Anderson, Rosalyle Bonum, Lois Bordeaux, Myrtle Burch, Aniese Cromartie, Beulah Carr, Margaret Davis, Sallie Davis, Annie Louise Fisher, Zena May Gibson, Constance Harrelson, Thelma Jones, Dorothy McDowell, Faison McGowen, Augusta Martin, Mary Nicholson, Lucile Page, Cleora Quinn, Eleanor Robinson, Beatrice Townsend, Lucy Wells, Celestia Weeks, Syble Wagner.

Concert By The Pupils

at

Grove Institute, Kenansville

May 19th, 1923, at 8 o'clock

Miss H. E. WOODRUFF, DIRECTOR

PROGRAMME
Piano Duett—“Qui Vive Galop”Ganz
Misses Martha Bowden and Margaret Jones
Piano Solo—“Star of Hope”Kennedy
Virginia Alderman
Song—“In Old Madrid”Trotere
Mary Ellis Beasley
Piano Solo—“In High Spirits”
Sara Brown

Piano Solo—“Mazurba”Martin
Melva Huhn
Quartette—“Beauteous Night”Offenbach
Misses Bowden—Beasley—Craig—Bradshaw
Piano Solo—“Serenade”Lange
Effie McGowen
Piano Solo—“Bell Tones”Heins
Nancy Sidburry
Song—“Serenade”Shubert
Martha Bowden
Piano Solo—“Con Amone”Beaumont
Mary Ellis Beasley
Piano Solo—“Tarantella”Heller
Margaret Jones
Quartette Waltz—“The Students”Lacoure
Misses Bowden—Beasley—Craig—Bradshaw
Piano Solo—“Capricante”Wachs
Martha Bowden

CURRENT HISTORY
JAMES SPRUNT INSTITUTE

When a well-conceived idea is supported and implemented by an energetic and capable group of citizens, something important is sure to happen. This is the story of James Sprunt Institute near Kenansville. The idea was that the agricultural, business and industrial community of Duplin County needed trained technicians and skilled craftsmen and that high school graduates and working adults wanted the opportunity to develop these talents; accordingly, there should be a college-level institution to provide this training.

Spearheaded by Dr. Dallas Herring, Chairman of the North Carolina State Board of Education, and O. P. Johnson, then Superintendent of the Public Schools in Duplin County, the first extension unit of the state's rapidly growing system of industrial education centers was created in 1960 at Rose Hill and named the Duplin County Unit of the Goldsboro Industrial Education Center. Russell Swindell of the staff in Raleigh and Kenneth Marshall, then Director of the Goldsboro Industrial Education Center, started a program of instruction in Automobile Mechanics in an abondoned agricultural shop behind the Rose Hill Elementary School. Paul Johnson, Automobile Mechanics Instructor at the Burlington Industrial Education Center, selected the equipment for the shop and Leon Mobley and Laverne Pickett were employed as part-time instructors for an evening program to train automobile mechanics.

Evening instruction for the poultry industry as well as other short-term courses in business and industrial trades such as electrical wiring were soon initiated.

Practical Nurse Education was added in the fall of 1962 with the employment of a full-time instructor, Mrs. Susan Saunders. Graduating a class of 12 in July, 1963, the nursing graduates scored the highest






in the state on the Licensed Practical Nursing Examination administered by the North Carolina State Board of Nursing. Not only was the class average the highest, but Mrs. Mary Murphy made the highest individual score that year.

In the fall of 1963, soon after the passage of the Community College Act by the State General Assembly which absorbed the industrial education centers and created technical institutes and community colleges under the control of the North Carolina State Board of Education, Preston Raiford, Director of the Duplin Development Commission, realized the advantage of having a technical training facility in Duplin County as an asset in recruiting new industry to the county. Under Raiford's leadership, a group of Duplin County citizens toured Wayne Technical Institute (formerly Goldsboro Industrial Education Center) in Goldsboro, North Carolina, returning home with plans for the development of a technical institute in Duplin County.

On March 2, 1964, a delegation of twenty persons met with the Board of County Commissioners to express their interest in the establishment of an adult education program for Duplin County. Among the members of the delegation were: P. B. Raiford, Executive Director of the County Industrial Commission; C. W. Surratt, Jr., Chairman of the Board of Directors for the Industrial Commission; and Garland P. King, Vice Chairman of the Industrial Commission. Members of the Education Committee of the Industrial Commission were present and included D. D. Blanchard, Chairman, Willard L. Westbrook, W. D. Thigpen, R. L. Pruitt, W. G. Britt, and Harvey Braddy. Reverend Lauren Sharpe, Mayor of Kenansville, and several interested citizens were among the group. This group urged the Board of Commissioners to purchase property that might be utilized as a technical institute.

Meeting in joint session two weeks later, the Board of County Commissioners and the Board of Education voted unanimously to expand the adult education program operating as a branch of the Wayne Technical Institute with the Duplin County branch to be re-named the James Sprunt Institute for the celebrated Civil War chaplain, educator, county official and Presbyterian minister. Dixon Hall was named Director of the school. Members of the Duplin County Commissioners included J. W. Hoffler, Chairman; Kenneth G. Grady; Murphy Simpson; Lott Kornegay; and J. B. Stroud. Members of the County Board of Education were: D. D. Blanchard, Chairman; Russell Brock; William F. Dail; E. E. Rogers; and James F. Strickland.

On April 6, 1964, members of the two boards met again in joint session and named the following advisory committee to assist the Director in development of James Sprunt Institute: Frank Steed, Jr.; C. H.

Millard; Fred Graves; Elbert Davis; Mrs. Willard Westbrook; Jack Patterson; Ray Franklin Smith; Calvin Mercer; Arliss Albertson; Gordon B. Thigpen; I. J. Sandlin, Jr.; Mrs. Agnes Ives; Rifton M. Raynor; Willis Batts; Mrs. Frank Blanchard; Lloyd McGowen; Freeman Marshburn; H. M. Price; David A. Chestnutt; and David John Kilpatrick. Lauren Sharpe was later appointed as Chairman of the Advisory Committee.

Campus Purchased

In August of 1964, a 51-acre tract of land was purchased 1½ miles south of Kenansville on Highway 11 by the Duplin County Board of Education with an appropriation from the Duplin County Commissioners. Cost of the land purchased from Lloyd Ferrell was $18,000. An offer from the State to sell the prison property to the county for $30,462 for use by the school was turned down as being too expensive. The library building was moved to the campus and added to the tenant house already on the property to provide temporary administrative office space for the school until permanent facilities were completed and occupied in the fall of 1966.

Teaching What People Want to Learn

By this time, classes had been initiated in each one of the 13 townships of the county and some 500 part-time students were attending classes in vocational and technical education, adult basic education and the arts and humanities. In the fall of 1964, a program in Business Administration and Secretarial Science was added to the curricula. Business Administration and Secretarial Science were taught in the Kenansville Elementary School and a programmed learning laboratory was added with rented facilities, utilizing the C. E. Quinn Building in Kenansville.

In January, 1965, a 20-member survey team was appointed by the Director to survey business and industry in the county to determine the demands by employers and students for occupational education. Members of the team, chaired by Dennis Ramsey of Ramsey Feed Company in Rose Hill were: O. C. Blanchard, B & R Frozen Foods, Wallace; I. J. Sandlin, I. J. Sandlin General Merchandise, Beulaville; B. E. Bryan, President, Calypso Plywood Company, Inc., Calypso; Merritt O. Watson, Manager, Rose Hill Poultry Corporation, Rose Hill; James Albert Brady, Personnel Manager, J. P. Stevens Company, Wallace; H. M. Price, Southmont Manufacturing Company, Rose Hill; J. L. Nichols, President, Wallace Sewing Company, Wallace; Dr. Corbett L. Quinn, Magnolia; Dr. Glen Rasmussen, Kenansville; Dr. Mett Ausley, Warsaw; Wilma






Pate, Supervisor of Nurses, Duplin General Hospital; Ruth Grady, Editor, Duplin Times, Kenansville; L. Vince Lowe, Branch Banking and Trust Company, Wallace; Milford Quinn, Quinn Wholesale Company, Warsaw; Dr. Oscar L. Redwine, Kenansville; Larry McCullen, Mack Oil Company, Warsaw; Vernon Reynolds, County Agriculture Agent, Kenansville; Leona Brown, Brown's Beauty Shop, Kenansville; and Dallas Herring, Heritage Design Service, Rose Hill. Consultant for the team was Dr. Joseph Nerden of North Carolina State University.

The survey results indicated a positive need for a community college in Duplin County. Of 752 businesses surveyed, some 80% responded and nearly 90% of the high school students responded to the survey.

First Building

In the spring of 1965, funds were appropriated by the Duplin County Board of Commissioners for the construction of a building. Herbert McKim of the firm, Ballard, McKim, and Sawyer Architects was employed to design and supervise construction of the $265,000 plant. Funds were provided from the existing county tax structure without a tax increase or bond issue. The 22,000 square-foot building was completed in the fall of 1966 and was equipped to house these educational programs: Practical Nurse Education, Drafting, Radio and Television Servicing, Commercial Art, Cosmetology, Agricultural Business, Poultry and Livestock, Business Administration, Executive Secretarial, the library and administrative offices, and the student lounge area. Instructional and administrative salaries, supplies, and equipment were provided by State funds appropriated by the General Assembly with the able assistance of Representative Hugh Johnson and Senator Leroy Simmons.

Trustees Appointed

By the fall of 1967, it became apparent to the State leadership that James Sprunt Institute should become an independent institution separate from Wayne Technical Institute and an eight-member Board of Trustees was appointed to oversee the institute program. The four members appointed by the County Board of Commissioners and their term of office were: J. Willard Hoffler, June 30, 1969; Hugh S. Johnson, June 30, 1971; A. P. Cates, June 30, 1973; and F. W. McGowan, June 30, 1975. The four members appointed by the Duplin County Board of Education and their initial term of office were: Leroy Simmons, June 30, 1971; James F. Strickland, 1973; Mrs. Edward L. Boyette, 1975; and O. P. Johnson, 1969. Charles H. Yelverton was appointed in July, 1969, to succeed O. P. Johnson who resigned. Willard Hoffler was re-appointed

for an 8-year term in 1969. At the first meeting of the board in September, 1967, James F. Strickland was elected Chairman and J. Willard Hoffler was elected Vice-Chairman.

Second Building

With the enrollment increasing at a rapid rate upon the completion of the first permanent home in the fall of 1966, it became apparent to the staff and President of James Sprunt Institute that another facility would be needed by the fall of 1970. A public meeting was held in the courtroom of the courthouse to discuss long-range plans of the Institute with the people and members of the County Board of Commissioners, County Board of Education and the Duplin Development Commission in the spring of 1967. Within the next year, a plan for financing the second building was developed. The county would provide $106,000; the State would provide $108,000 in equipment; and the Economic Development Administration in Washington, D. C., a division of the United States Department of Commerce, agreed to match the State and county contribution with a $214,000 grant that was announced on April 6, 1968. Much assistance was provided by J. D. Foust of the State Department of Community Colleges in Raleigh; Charles Edwards of the Economic Development Administration; and the Honorable David N. Henderson, Congressman, Third District, from Wallace.

Construction began in June, 1968, on the 18,000 square foot building that was completed in August of 1970. The new facility provided space to expand the educational programs in Commercial Art, Radio and Television Repair, and to house programs previously operated in temporary facilities. Automobile Mechanics was transferred from temporary facilities at B. F. Grady School. Welding was transferred from a student-constructed temporary facility on campus and the Building Trades programs in Electrical Wiring, Carpentry, and Masonry were transferred from the Magnolia Elementary School campus.

Taking the School to the People

Permanent facilities are provided by the Duplin County Board of Education for off-campus centers that provide instruction in occupational education, literacy education for adults, general interest courses, and adult high school diploma programs. Two centers are in operation at Albertson and Chinquapin in former public school buildings. Advisory committees at each center raise funds for maintenance of the facilities and recommend to the Institute the courses to be taught at the center. Chairman of the Albertson Adult Education Center Advisory Committee is Rodney Kornegay, while the Chairman of the Chinquapin Advisory






Committee is Jerry Hatcher. A third center is to begin during the 1970-71 school year at Rose Hill with eventual “permanent” centers to be established in each one of the 13 townships.

Supplementing the off-campus centers are borrowed facilities from business, industry, government, and civic organizations. The prison department provides four buildings for occupational education, literacy education, and an adult high school diploma program for inmates housed in the Duplin County Unit of the North Carolina Department of Correction.

National Spinning Company near Warsaw provides space in the plant for personnel who desire to complete their high school diploma or take general interest courses in a programmed materials laboratory staffed and equipped by the Institute.

Each one of the 14 volunteer fire departments in the county provides space for fire fighting instruction and general interest courses requested by members of the community. In addition to this, the volunteer firemen have donated funds for the material cost of a fire tower on the James Sprunt Institute campus that was constructed by students enrolled in building trades programs. Ernest Taylor donated heavy equipment for the construction of a pond for draft water to accompany the Fire Service Training program on campus.

Other facilities are provided upon request by churches, schools, and commercial institutions to enhance the Institute's ability to “teach the people what they want to learn, when they want to learn, and where they want to learn.”

Enrollment

With an enrollment in excess of 600 full-time equivalent students during the 1969-70 school year, it is anticipated that by 1974 the school will house some 1000 full-time equivalent students in a variety of educational programs. Occupational programs currently offered (1970-1971 school year) include Plumbing, Masonry, Carpentry, Electrical Installation and Maintenance, Cosmetology, Mechanical Drafting, Fire Service, Welding, Automobile Mechanics, Practical Nurse Education, Radio and Television Repair, Commercial Art, Business Administration, Executive Secretarial, Library Assistant, Poultry and Livestock Technology and Agricultural Business. In addition to occupational education, a one-year transfer program is offered to students who desire to complete the freshman year and transfer as a sophomore to the upper levels of a college or university. Short-term courses are also available to the general adult populace on demand. Specialized training in Police Science, Fire Service

Training, New Industry Training, and other programs on request are available at a time and place convenient to the people.

New programs to be added include: Registered Nursing, Automobile Body Repair, Machinists, Farm Machinery Repair, Diesel Mechanics, Electronic Data Processing, Accounting, Legal Secretarial, Medical Secretarial, and sophomore year of the college transfer program.

The variety of educational programs from literacy education to sophisticated technologies that are dispersed throughout the Duplin County community enhance the school's ability to put into practice the philosophy of North Carolina's Community College Systems so eloquently stated by Dr. W. Dallas Herring, Chairman of the North Carolina State Board of Education, who says:

“The only valid philosophy for North Carolina is the philosophy of total education; a belief in the incomparable worth of all human beings, whose claims upon the State are equal before the law and equal before the bar of public opinion; whose talents, (however great or however limited or however different from the traditional), the state needs and must develop to the fullest possible degree. That is why the doors to the institutions in North Carolina's System of Community Colleges must never be closed to anyone of suitable age who can learn what they teach. We must take the people where they are and carry them as far as they can go within the assigned function of the system. If they cannot read, then we will simply teach them to read and make them proud of their achievement. If they did not finish high school but have a mind to do it, then we will offer them a high school education at a time and a place convenient to them and at a price within their reach. If their talent is technical or vocational, then we will simply offer them instruction, whatever the field, however complex or however simple, that will provide them with the knowledge and the skills they can sell in the marketplaces of our state, and thereby contribute to its scientific and industrial growth. If their needs are in the great tradition of liberal education, then we will simply provide them the instruction, extending through two years of standard college work, which will enable them to go on to the university or to senior college and on into life in numbers unheard of before in North Carolina. If their needs are for cultural advancement, intellectual growth or civic understanding, then we will simply make available to them the wisdom of the ages and the enlightenment of our own times and help them on to maturity.”

Buildings Dedicated

Attorney General Robert A. Morgan was the keynote speaker for the






dedication of the two buildings on September 16, 1970, at the noon ceremonies attended by some 400 people.

James F. Strickland, Chairman of the Board of Trustees, made the dedicatory remarks and named the buildings in honor of a Faison Wells McGowen and William Dallas Herring. The first building to be completed was named the McGowen Building and the newest facility was named the Herring Building.

(By Dixon S. Hall, President.)

James Sprunt Institute was accredited by the State Board of Educacation on December 3, 1970, under its new policy on accreditation. It was one of three technical institutes accredited at this time.

25. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE
VISIBLE IN DUPLIN COUNTY

May 28, 1900

A major eclipse here was on May 28, 1900—70 years ago. Since there were no radios and televisions and very few newspapers at that time, most people in Duplin had no advance information about it. Consequently, many people were very frightened because they thought that the end of time had come. Mr. Thomas J. McGowen, father of one of the editors, told about the 1900 eclipse. He said that as the sky became dark, cows came to the barn as if it were night. Chickens went to the chicken house and got on the roost. Laborers working in the fields came to the house. People were deeply concerned over this unexpected occurrence.

There were some individuals whose eyes were permanently damaged by watching the sun during that eclipse in 1900.

Total Solar Eclipse on March 7, 1970

This eclipse was no surprise to the people of Duplin. For several weeks the news media prepared us for the event. Capable people talked over radio and television and wrote articles informing us about what to expect and exactly when to expect it. They explained the procedure for watching the eclipse without injuring the eyes.

On March 5, 1970, the Wallace Enterprise carried an article prepared by R. M. Helms, Professor of Physics at East Carolina University. Here we see some excerpts from this article:

. . . “Bailey's beads are perhaps the most spectacular view during total eclipse. Just as the moon covers, or uncovers the disc of the Sun there appears to be a thread of the Sun's circumference and this thread has irregularly spaced beads as the Sun's light passes through valleys between mountains at the Moon's edge. Sometimes there will be a single brilliant bead, and the phenomenon is called the ‘diamond ring.’ Due to liberation of the angle of approach, the phenomenon of Bailey's beads is different for various eclipses. For this eclipse, the beads will not be prominent at beginning of totality, but should be seen at the end of totality.






“Perhaps the most dramatic phenomenon of a total eclipse is the red flash, lasting only a second. This is the result of the Moon covering the Sun's disk, but not the chromosphere. At that instant the brilliant red of hydrogen-alpha emission is seen. Presence of Bailey's beads is detrimental to the red flash. Helium was first discovered by study of the red flash spectrum in 1868, long before its discovery on Earth in 1895.” . . .

As people learned more about what to expect, they became more and more excited. Since Duplin County was in the path of the eclipse, Duplinites made special preparation for viewing. They also invited outsiders to join them in the watch.

The Wallace Squadron of the Civil Air Patrol and the Wallace Moose Lodge sponsored an observation station at the Wallace Municipal Airport. Among the hundreds of visitors, there were some from New Hampshire, Wyoming, Illinois, Maryland, Iowa, South Carolina, and other states.

The Boy Scouts of Croatan District joined together to view the eclipse with an Observe-O-Rama Camporee at Wallace, across from the Airport.

Warsaw was host to some scientists from Ohio and also a chartered bus load of students from Independence High School in Charlotte.

During this weekend, many Duplin homes held open house to outsiders from Western North Carolina and from other states.

At the editors’ home, a large group of children and grown-ups devised their own methods and observed the eclipse. They simply used two pieces of white paper held about a foot apart and facing the sun. The pieces of paper nearest the sun had a small hole in it. The eclipse showed through the hole and on the second piece of paper. The viewer stood with his back to the sun. The progress of the eclipse was visible.

The total eclipse was along a path 85 to 100 miles wide. The center of totality passed near Wallace and Warsaw. The total solar eclipse occurred in the Wallace area at 1:31—30 P. M. EST. The duration of the totally eclipsed sun was 176 seconds.

As the moon covered the sun, gray evening twilight appeared. The temperature dropped. When the sun was fully covered, darkness prevailed. Street lights automatically came on. (A farmer told us that his chickens went to roost and his pigs went to their beds as if it were night.) People traveling in cars turned on their lights. Some stars were visible. It was cold outside.

As totality ended and the sun began to shine partially again, there was gray twilight and the temperature began to rise. Street lights went out. Some people observed the eclipse on television. It was wonderful to behold.

During the two minutes and fifty-six seconds of total eclipse, bright

streamers were seen flowing out from the edge of the sun. They were the sun's corona—flaming gas thousands of degrees hot and stretched out millions of miles into space.

A young person observed the Eclipse at Warsaw in 1970 and wrote about it as follows:

. . . “Like many others, I was excited over being in the path of the total solar eclipse. I got a large brown box and made a sunscope from which I could view the eclipse. I taped a sheet of white paper on one end of the inside of the box. This would serve as a screen. On the other end I taped a small piece of aluminum foil with a pinhole in the center of it. On the side of the box, I cut a hole large enough for me to put my head through. When it was almost time for the eclipse to occur. I went outside and stood with my back to the sun and the box over my head. From this position, I viewed the eclipse.

“At first, a small white crescent appeared on the white piece of paper. This crescent gradually decreased in size until it finally disappeared. When this happened, I knew that totality had begun. I slipped the box off my head and turned to glance at the sun.

“When I looked, I saw a large black ball, the moon, of course, with the sun's bright corona surrounding it. This was truly a spectacular sight. In a few minutes, however, totality ended and I quickly slipped the box back on my head. Once again the white crescent appeared and grew larger and larger until the inside of the box was filled with a brilliant glare. The eclipse had ended.

“Although many have studied the stars, and so many have stood in wonder and amazement viewing an eclipse, not one of us could cause such a phenomenon to happen. ‘In the beginning God created the heaven and earth.’ Genesis 1:1. ‘For by Him were all things created that are in heaven.’ Colossians 1:16a. ‘Lift up your eyes on high and behold who hath created these things.’ Isaiah 40:26a.” (By Betty Jo Page.)

The next total eclipse of the sun here will be on April 8, 2024. Many of us will not be present on that date. Betty Joe Page and other Duplin County graduates of 1970 will probably view again God's handiwork with awe and admiration. May they again lift up their eyes and “behold Him who hath created these things.”

The Editors






26. GLIMPSES OF COUNTRY LIFE IN
DUPLIN COUNTY DURING THE FIRST
PART OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

(The names used in this section are fictitious; the incidents mentioned herein are true.)

Dickson was reared on a farm in Duplin County. Some of his earliest recollections are about Santa Claus, Christmas dinners, and geese! He thought the little goslings that were hatched out in the spring of the year were beautiful. Some of his most vivid recollections are about holding geese for his mother and his aunt to pick them. The old ganders were bad about biting when their feathers were being pulled out. (The feathers were used for making feather beds, pillows, and bolsters.)

Dickson liked watermelon. His dad always had a big patch, and usually had some ripe melons by July 4. When Dickson was small, he ran away from his mother and went to the watermelon patch, which was quite a distance from the house and beyond a corn field. He pulled a big melon from the vine, but he was too small to carry it. He began trying to roll it on the ground and soon gave out, sat down on the watermelon and started bawling aloud. His mother missed him and began looking for him in the field. She soon heard his woeful cries and found him sitting on the melon. She took the melon and carried it to the house, sliced it open and gave her little boy a piece of it. He thoroughly enjoyed it. A few years later Dickson could eat a half of a big melon, scrape the rind, and drink the juice.

Dickson's mother made delicious watermelon rind pickles and preserves. She canned these for the winter months.

Dickson's dad also grew cantaloupes.

Dickson remembers going to Kenansville with his dad while the new courthouse was under construction in 1911-1912. He thought that the yellow bricks and pinkish mortar joints were simply beautiful.

Dickson also remembers the “bone yard” just south of the Kenansville Baptist Church. On the “bone yard” horses and mules were tied to trees

and hitching posts while their owners attended court and looked after their business.

During court weeks a number of fish carts were parked on the “bone yard.” The owners sold fish. They cooked bread and dressed and cooked fish to sell to the people. (That was before Duplin County had sanitarians.)

Horse traders swapped horses and mules on the “bone yard.”

The people of Duplin County enjoyed getting together one day in August to celebrate the Old Soldiers’ Reunion. This was probably the greatest social event of the whole year.

Each year an outstanding speaker addressed the crowd in the courtroom. Band music was enjoyed before and after the speech. Then followed a delectable picnic lunch on a long table near the spring. There was a baseball game in the afternoon.

Scattered about the grounds were lemonade stands. For five cents one could buy a good glass of cold lemonade.

There was much conversation and fellowship. The old soldiers wore their gray uniforms. These men were cherished above all others present. Two or three thousand people usually attended the Old Soldiers’ Reunion.

During the fall and winter months Dickson had to “tote” lightwood and oakwood from the woodpile in the back yard to the woodboxes in the kitchen, and in the living room and bedroom.

Dickson's mother had a small deep skillet in which she heated water in the fireplace every night with which to wash the children's feet.

The fire in the fireplace was punched and stirred with a metal fire poker that was made from an old sword, from which the handle had been cut off. Dickson's father said that his father, who worked at the Arms Factory in Kenansville, secured this old sword there.

Dickson enjoyed assisting his mother in getting up orders for a company. A catalog containing numerous cooking utensils, dishes, household supplies, etc., was shown to friends, neighbors and kinsmen, who were asked to place an order for items they needed from the catalog. His mother consolidated these orders and sent them to the company. For her services the company permitted her to select a set of dishes, a cut glass water set, a pitcher and bowl set, or other household items.

The merchandise was shipped by freight to Dickson's mother in a big






box, or in a big barrel. When it arrived it was unpacked and the items were delivered to the persons who had ordered them. They paid for the merchandise when it was delivered, and Dickson's mother remitted to the company, retaining the merchandise which she had selected for her services.

Dickson remembers that for getting up these orders he and his mother received two sets of china, various bowls and berry sets, a cut glass lemonade set, a washbowl and pitcher set, and other household items.

Shopping in the early part of the twentieth century was not like shopping today. Travel by horse and buggy was rather slow. Nobody ran to town for a spool of thread. It was a well-planned, all-day trip. They carried a memorandum and spent hours at Margolis and Brooks’ Department Store and at L. P. Best's Store, and others. Clothes for the whole season were purchased on that day because they would not go shopping again in several months. A little later on when people had cars, they went shopping about once a month. Those first cars would go fast—up to thirty-five miles per hour!

The shopping tour was different from the trading tour. Farmers drove to near-by towns and villages for the purpose of trading. Dickson's mother sent her husband to town on Saturdays with some chickens, eggs, butter, homemade syrup, honey, hams, etc., to pay for the staple groceries and for necessities on her memorandum. (This usually included cloth for bonnets and aprons, plow points, hoe handles, etc.) If the commodities carried to the merchant amounted to more than the merchandise bought, then a due bill was given showing the amount of credit on the next trading trip.

In those days, salesmen often came by and sold their wares. Frequently they spent the night. The Watkins Products salesman came by two or three times per year. He always managed to arrive at Dickson's home late in the afternoon so that he could spend the night. He had a large covered wagon drawn by two big horses. These were taken out from the wagon, watered, put into stables, and fed fodder and corn. After a “company” supper was over, the family looked at the salesman's products. The mother usually bought some flavoring extracts, black pepper, salve, etc. The next morning after a good breakfast of ham, eggs, grits, fried sweet potatoes, biscuits, and coffee, he was on his way.

Dickson enjoyed taking a jug of fresh, cool water to his dad who was plowing crops down in the field. The refreshing water came from the old well in the yard. This well had a curb around it. Water was

drawn from the well in a bucket attached to a wooden hand pole that was fastened at the top to the long heavy well sweep. This sweep was pivoted to the top of a tall post.

Dickson learned to plow while he was a small boy and thoroughly enjoyed breaking the fields in the spring of the year with a two-horse plow. He communed with nature as the plow turned the top soil over. He especially enjoyed siding the crops with a cotton plow with sweeps. There was never a dull moment as he guided the plow and observed the soil it pushed and turned over to cover up small weeds and grass and to put a small ridge to the growing crops.

Many people living in Duplin County during the early 1900's can well remember the first time they ever saw a car, an airplane, a radio or a television. When Dickson was very small, he knew nothing about any of these. What would it be like not to have cars, airplanes, radios, or television today?

Dickson remembers when the first radio came to his community. Several families including Dickson's family visited a neighbor who had purchased a radio with ear phones. Dickson thought his time to listen would never come. What a thrill to hear voices coming through space from such a long distance. They were listening to Station KDKA.

Some of the conveniences that we now have were unheard of during the first part of this century. We didn't have freezers and we didn't have refrigerators. Many bought a big block of ice and wrapped it in newspapers or in sawdust. Some used old-fashioned ice boxes. Most families did have ice cream freezers that they turned by hand. They froze the cream on Sunday morning, packed it with salt and extra ice, securely wrapped it, and went on to church.

In the fall of the year, Dickson and his kinsmen and friends would get some big acorns, remove the acorn meat with a knife, get a small reed for a pipe stem, and smoke rabbit tobacco in the pipe. This was a good smoke. Rabbit tobacco was a weed that grew wild on the farm. Sometimes a corn cob pipe was used.

Also, in the fall of the year, Dickson and his friends would go to the woods and look for chinquapin bushes and trees. There were some of these bushes and trees on the farm. The nuts were gathered and carried to the house. These were good to eat. Occasionally some of the nuts were boiled and strung with a needle and thread. Dickson enjoyed taking some chinquapins in his pockets to school.






Dickson's early recollections about school did not include school buses. He had to walk more than three miles to get to school. He carried his first grade reader in one hand and his little lunch bucket in the other. During the winter months when the days were shorter, Dickson would leave home before sunrise and return home after sunset. After supper he did his homework by a lightwood and oak wood fire in the fireplace and by an oil lamp.

The school house was heated by a wood stove. The boys had to go into the near-by woods and cut the wood with an axe and bring it to the school house.

The students drank water from a dipper or from their individual collapsible drinking cups.

At recess and during most of the lunch hour, the students played games. Bought playground equipment was unheard of. Boys and girls played baseball, hopscotch, marbles, etc. But the favorite of all sports was riding the flying jenny!

Dickson and the other boys cut down a pine tree on the school grounds, leaving the stump about five feet above the ground. Then they sawed around this stump about twelve inches from the top, and with an axe they split off the outside wood so as to form a spindle about 2½ inches in diameter in the center of the stump. About twenty-five feet of the tree which had been sawed off was cut and trimmed. A large hole was bored in the middle of this log to fit the spindle left on the stump. Thus the flying jenny was ready for use. Several children could get on each end of the log and others would push it around and around, getting up considerable speed. This same contrivance has been called a flying mare, a merry-go-round, and a carrousel. Whatever it was called, it was real pleasure for school children!

When Dickson reached the third grade, his parents sent him to another public school in the county seat. This was a one-teacher school taught by a very capable lady, Mrs. M. H. Wooten, the wife of the county superintendent. She taught students from the first grade through some high school subjects.

Dickson had to walk to school in Kenansville. On one occasion after a flood, the footway across Grove Swamp was covered with water. Mr. McKoy Kennedy, who was squirrel hunting in Grove Swamp and was wearing hip boots, took Dickson on his back and carried him across the run of the swamp over the water-covered foot log.

In the early days of this twentieth century, public schools ran for only four months. Dickson's parents sent him for two additional months to a private school taught by Mrs. Susie Southerland Lee.

When Dickson was in the fourth grade, his sister was old enough

to enter school. She was too small to walk to school. Their parents, wanting their children to get a good education, made arrangements for Dickson and his sister to attend James Sprunt Institute. The parents paid their tuition.

Dickson and his sister traveled to James Sprunt by horse and buggy. Dickson carried corn and fodder which he fed the horse upon arrival each morning at Mr. Dave Hugh Wallace's stables. Each afternoon Dickson hitched the horse to the buggy and he and his sister went home. This procedure continued until Dickson finished high school at James Sprunt Institute. His sister continued at James Sprunt.

Corn has always been a main crop in Duplin County. Corn was stored in a large crib and was ground into meal for kitchen use, fed to chickens, horses, and hogs.

Did you ever attend a corn shucking? Dickson did. In the fall of the year, a farmer who desired to have his corn shucked pulled his corn and hauled and dumped it into a pile in front of the corn crib door. He invited his neighbors (youngsters and oldsters) to come to help shuck corn. Two inducements were offered. First, a good supper was served to all present when all the corn had been shucked. Second, the person who found a red ear of corn while he was shucking corn could kiss anyone present. Many boys shucked corn fast looking for that red ear of corn! Poor Dickson complains that he never found a red ear.

In the early twentieth century, farmers did not usually buy corn meal at the local stores. They carried corn to the water mill. Dickson's father always loaded several bushels of shelled corn into a cart and sent him to Cooper's Mill on Nahunga Swamp. Dickson started making these trips to the mill when he was only ten or twelve years old. Since it took a whole day to go to mill, get it ground, and to return home, Dickson's father could accomplish much on the farm while Dickson went to mill. The lad did not encounter congested traffic on the way. He drove to Cooper's Mill which was operated by his kinsman, Mr. Abb Guy. Mr. Guy was very kind to him. He always unloaded the heavy bags of corn from the cart, measured it, and got his toll. (He was not at all like the miller in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales.) Dickson told Mr. Guy which corn to grind as fine meal, as coarse meal, as grits, and as chicken feed.

If you think Dickson's trip to the mill was a difficult chore, you are wrong. There was a small store in the mill house. Dickson feasted on Johnnie Cakes and cheese while he was waiting for the corn to be ground and loaded on the cart. There was one dreaded moment, however.






Dickson had to drive by the old Patsy Williams home place in which there was a skeleton (formerly used by some medical students). He watched the sun sinking in the west and tried to whistle as he drove by the Williams house. When he arrived at home, his father unloaded the bags from the cart. Some of Dickson's sweetest memories are about the trips to the mill and Johnnie Cakes and cheese.

In those days, farmers always saved their fodder for feed for horses and cows. (Fodder pulling time came between the harvesting of tobacco and the grading of tobacco. Thus there was never a lull from strenuous, hard work.) The leaves were stripped from the corn stalks by hand and were tied with corn blades into small bundles. These ties were hung on corn stalks to be cured in the sun. When these small bundles were dry, they were tied into larger bundles and stacked around a stack pole in the field. In the fall and winter the fodder was hauled to the barn and used for feed.

Dickson enjoyed helping his mother make big hominy in the early spring. They selected choice ears of corn, removed the best grains, and put them in strong lye water to soak. The corn swelled and the husks came off. They washed the corn many times and packed it in bowls. As they needed a mess of big hominy, they placed some of it in a big frying pan with ham gravy or with chicken gravy. Possibly nobody in Duplin still makes whole grain hominy (or Big Hominy), but this delectable product can be bought in cans in most of the stores in Duplin County today.

Duplin County people found many uses for corn shucks.

Dickson's mother used shucks to bottom chairs (homemade chairs or bought chairs that needed to have new seats). She was very proficient in the work.

She selected the best inside shucks from big ears of corn and soaked them in warm water about five minutes. Then she removed them from the water and shredded into strips one-half to three-fourths of an inch wide and wrapped these strips in a towel. She rolled the pieces of shucks together, tacking the end of the first roll to the chair seat round, and continued to roll the shucks until the roll was a little more than one-fourth inch in diameter and long enough to go around the chair round on the opposite side. Then she continued back to the opposite seat round. This was continued until she had gone across the chair bottom. She then changed and fastened the roll of shucks to the chair round on the opposite side and continued to roll shucks, weaving the roll between the shuck rolls already inserted. This was continued until the chair bottom was finished. Shucks made nice and durable chair bottoms.

Dickson helped his mother make corn shuck scrubbing brooms. Better grade corn shucks were selected. These were put in a bucket of water to soften. A board about two inches thick and about 18 inches long had holes bored in it about an inch apart. A handle was placed into a slanting hole in the middle of the board. The wet shucks were torn apart and inserted into the holes in the broom base with the butt end being left on top. This made a good scrubbing broom to use with home-made lye soap.

Dickson's mother made tufted corn shuck door mats. The shucks were soaked a few minutes in water, then shredded into strips of width desired (about ½ inch). These strips were braided (as if braiding hair), using three strands, (3 strips = 1 strand). When the braid is started, nine strips (3 strands) are tied together about one inch below the nubby end. About fifteen yards of the braided shucks are required to make a mat. The braid was sewed together with strong twine.

Corn shuck mats are coming back in the latter part of the twentieth century.

A field of corn gave people of that time many products: grits, meal, whole grain hominy; feed for chickens, cows, hogs, horses, etc.; fodder; shucks for chair bottoms, scrubbing brooms, floor mats, etc. (There is a rumor about another use of corn.)

Farming in Duplin County in the early 1900's was in many respects different from farming today.

In January the farmers prepared their tobacco seed beds by placing on the selected spot some fat lightwood, green pine, and green oak. They poured kerosene on these logs and struck a match. This heap burned for hours and killed grass seeds, insects, etc. After they had burned these logs, the farmer dug the bed and thoroughly pulverized the soil. Then he planted tobacco seed. Green logs were placed on all four sides of this rectangular seed bed. Tobacco cloth cover was attached to the logs with nails. This helped protect the young tobacco plants. Inside the seed bed, next to the logs, the farmer usually planted cabbage seed and collard seed so that they also could be protected from the frosts.

The last of April and the first part of May was tobacco setting time. The fertilizer was put out and the rows ridged. The farmer then cut off or packed down the places where the plants were to be set out. Plants were pulled from the plant beds. The farmer used a wooden peg to make a hole for each plant. He dropped a plant into the hole and used the peg to press the dirt firmly around the roots. If the ground was dry, the farmer had to haul barrels of water from the branch with which






to water the plants. (Several years later the hand transplanter displaced the peg; then the riding transplanter displaced the hand transplanter.)

As the tobacco plants grew, the bud worms and horn worms endeavored to take over. Some people sprayed tobacco with Paris Green poison to kill the worms. (This method was not very effective because the poison often damaged the tobacco leaves.) Other people picked the worms off by hand and mashed them with their fingers! Imagine that. Tobacco was topped and suckered by hand. Sucker control came a little later.

The growing tobacco had to be stirred and cultivated to keep down weeds and grass.

Tobacco barning time was a busy time. Preparation for this was made in advance. The barns were checked inside and outside for needed repairs. The pack house was cleaned. Tobacco slides (or trucks) were checked and put in readiness. (During the previous winter, wood for curing had been cut in proper lengths and neatly placed near the barn ready for use.) From the time that the farmer started curing tobacco until he had finished grading and tying the last load of tobacco, he was in a rush. After the first barn was cured, the dry tobacco had to be removed from the barn—sometimes at very unusual hours. Dickson's father often called him at 2:00 A. M. to help get the cured tobacco out of the barn before the hands arrived at 6:00 to start putting in tobacco.

Dickson straddled the tier poles and handed the sticks of cured tobacco to his mother who passed them on to Dickson's dad, who piled them on the wagon. When the pile was high on the wagon, it was taken to the packhouse and neatly piled therein.

About 6:00 the hands arrived. Four croppers and a driver for the tobacco slide (or truck) were off to the tobacco patch. A second truck arrived and the rat race was on. Truck after truck came to the barn, unloaded green tobacco, and returned to the fields. Work, work, work! In hot, sultry weather and in rainy, sticky, clammy weather they just kept on!

When the first tobacco truck arrived at the barn, the handers and loopers were busy getting the tobacco looped on sticks. There were three loopers and six handers and another person to take the full sticks and pile them under the shelter (to be put on the tier poles in the barn later). The rush of hard work did not interefere with gossip. “Have you heard . . . ?” “I don't know whether it is true or not, but. . . .”

Late in the afternoon the croppers had finished and returned to the barn. Two of them climbed the tier poles and the others handed the sticks of green tobacco to them. These two placed the sticks the proper distance apart throughout the barn until the barn was full. A fire was

built in the furnace. The heat was kept low for about two days while the tobacco was coloring. Then heat was gradually moved up to 170 degrees and kept there until the leaf and stems were dried.

Since they used wood for curing and had to watch the barn twentyfour hours a day, it was necessary for someone to stay at the barn at night to keep the fire going and to watch the thermometer. Under every tobacco barn there were bunks for the watchers to sleep on. Usually two fellows stayed at the barn at night. One watched the theremometer and kept the fire going while the other slept. Young people often enjoyed chicken suppers at the tobacco barn. Sometimes there were hints that chickens were “borrowed” from a neighbor's chicken coop. More gossip.

In the day time Dickson always looked after the curing of the four barns of tobacco while the other members of the family and the hired help topped, suckered, and wormed tobacco.

The cured tobacco that had been stored in the pack house was removed from the sticks and carefully graded. Every leaf was opened out and placed on a grading bench according to the grade in which it seemed to be. There were usually five grades. Then the stems of the separate grades were pressed together and tied into small bundles. Each day these were put on grading sticks and packed down in a pile. When a barn of tobacco had been graded and tied, it was ready to be carried to the auction market. In 1919 Dickson's father carried a two-horse wagon load of cured tobacco to the market in Warsaw and received an average of over one dollar per pound for it.

Later, in the 1960's, tobacco was taken off sticks, a few bad leaves thrown out, packed on sheets and sold untied. So much easier!

Dickson helped his dad rive tobacco sticks on which green tobacco was later looped to be hung on tier poles in the tobacco curing barn.

Tobacco sticks were rived with the froe by using a wooden mallet to drive the froe into the cuts of pine logs that had been sawed the proper length for tobacco sticks.

Some farmers in Duplin County grew asparagus. During December or January large four-furrow beds were plowed with a two-horse plow to cover the asparagus crowns. Then dirt from the middle of the rows was piled on these beds with shovels so that the asparagus stalks would be longer.

It was a few minutes past midnight on the third Sunday in March when Dickson's father called him to get out of bed. It was time to go to cut the asparagus. Dickson carried the lantern so that his father and mother could see to cut the asparagus stalks. When it was all cut,






it was carried to the well, washed, put in bunches, tied, and trimmed. These bunches were placed on wet water moss in homemade boxes. Then the cover slats were nailed on. The name and address of the grower and the name and address of the commission merchant to whom it was shipped were stamped with rubber stamps upon the boxes. These boxes were loaded on a wagon and taken to West's Siding to be shipped. The company to whom the asparagus was shipped sold it and sent the proceeds (less commission) to the grower.

In late fall Dickson's dad set out onions. In early spring these onions were pulled out of the ground by hand, carried to the packing shed, washed, tied into small bunches, and carried to the market. Many were dried and kept for home consumption.

In the early part of this century almost every Duplin farm family grew sweet potatoes. These were dug after the first frost in the fall and banked in potato hills that were in the shape of a cone. Each hill contained about 30 bushels of potatoes. The “floor” or ground of this hill was covered with about eight inches of dry pine straw. The potatoes were carefully poured on the straw. Then dry pine straw was placed all over the bank of potatoes. A vent made of boards was placed at the peak of the pile of potatoes so that they could “breathe.” Then the entire potato hill was covered with dirt to protect the potatoes from the cold. Many farmers had eight or more big hills of top grade potatoes, two or three hills of inferior potatoes to be fed to the hogs, and one hill of small “seed” potatoes or potato slips which were kept in the bank until March and then planted or bedded. (This bed was covered with about three inches of soil. When the potato plants came up, and grew to be about a foot high, they were ready to be set out in rows for another crop.)

Later the potato curing houses relieved our farmers of much hard work in making potato hills.

Of the many ways to prepare potatoes for cooking, one time-consuming method was to grate the raw potatoes to make potato pudding. The pudding was delicious, but who likes to grate raw potatoes and snag every finger on the old grater? The editors of this book discovered that there was an easier way. Mash the baked (or boiled) potatoes, add brown sugar, butter, and cinnamon. Before pouring the pudding into the pan for baking, fold into it about two cups of All-Bran. The result? The taste of good old-fashioned grated potato pudding. Fool your friends. It works.

During the early 1900's many Duplin farmers produced their own sweetening or syrup. They grew different varieties of cane. In the fall of the year, the fodder was stripped from the cane stalks and they were cut and piled near the cane mill. The cane mill mashed the juice from the stalks. This juice was then cooked in a huge pan with sections in it. Most farmers tried to have at least a fifty gallon barrel of homemade syrup each year.

Hog raising has always played an important part in the economy of Duplin County. In the early part of the twentieth century, nearly all farmers of Duplin raised more hogs than they could use at home. However, they did keep much of the meat for home consumption.

Hogs were always killed on the first or second day of a severely cold spell.

Hog killing time was a pleasure and also a real chore. Dickson's mother prepared in advance the food for the occasion. Dickson's father prepared a gallows by putting up strong forked posts upon which he placed a long heavy pole or log. Gambrels were prepared on which to hang the hogs (by their heel strings).

Nearby he dug a ditch with a shovel. In this ditch he placed lightwood and oak wood. Then he put several big iron pots on the wood for hot water. A large scalding vat was placed near the pots. All of this was done the day before the hogs were killed. Can't you imagine that the hogs had much curiosity as they watched from their pens all these preparations going on? (Let's hope they did not understand it all.)

On the next day the hogs in the pen were killed by a blow on the head with an axe or by a shot in the head with a 22 calibre rifle. (Sounds gruesome, doesn't it? But it was quick; there was no suffering.) Then they were stuck in the neck in order that they might bleed. Next they were carried to the scalding vat. Each hog was rolled over and over in the vat, scraped and washed until the skin was clean. Then each hog was hung on the gallows by means of the gambrels. Dickson's father always opened up the hogs with a sharp butcher knife. The liver, lights, and heart were taken out and placed in a wood tub. The intestines were taken from the carcass, placed in pans and carried to a table. Here the fat was removed. Then the intestines were carried out to a hole that had been dug in the field and were emptied. The cases were scraped and washed in warm water and put to soak over night in strong salt water. The next morning they were washed and scoured with salt. Again they were put to soak in salt water. The cases were now clean and very clear and were ready to be stuffed with sausage and






pudding. Any cases not used for stuffing sausage and pudding were boiled, chopped up, and fried. This delectable dish was known as chitterlings.

The carcasses were taken from the gallows and were carried to a table near the smokehouse. Here the hams, shoulders, sides, backbones, spareribs, and heads were cut out and spread on boards, in the smokehouse to cool overnight. (Remember that this was severely cold weather.) The next morning the meat was thoroughly salted, each piece being rubbed several times. The spare ribs and backbone were salted and packed in a barrel. Hams, shoulders, and sides were packed in a pile after being salted.

In the latter part of the winter, the salt was washed from the hams, shoulders, and sides. Then they were rubbed with borax and black pepper and dried for a few days. After that the hams and shoulders were tied up in heavy paper bags and hung up in the smokehouse.

The livers, etc., were trimmed out the first day and were soaked overnight in salt water in wood tubs. On the morning of the second day, the livers, lights, and hearts were cooked in a big pot until they were thoroughly done.

All of the fat from the hogs was cut up and this was cooked in big pots until the lard was done and put into large stone crocks. The small pieces of fat meat that were left after this cooking process were referred to as cracklings. Some people made crackling bread.

Crackling bread was often used to give the pudding body and also a good taste. When the livers, etc., were well cooked, they were taken up and ground in a hand grinder. Pieces of crackling bread were added along with salt, and pods of red pepper and sage. This pudding was then stuffed into the cleaned cases. These stuffed cases of liver pudding were put into a huge pot of boiling water for a few minutes, then removed. The long cases of liver pudding were hung on big corn stalks, which were placed on wood beams in the smokehouse and left there to dry out. Dickson's mother always canned some of this delicious liver pudding in fruit jars (covering the pudding with hot grease) to be used the next summer.

Sausage was made by grinding the tenderloins and other good pieces of lean meat, home-grown red pepper, sage, and salt. This was stuffed into the small cleaned cases and the cases were hung in the smokehouse on large corn stalks to dry. Some of the sausage was canned for the summer.

Souse meat was made by cooking the cleaned pig feet until the meat fell from the bones. The bones were removed. To this pig foot meat was added salt, and red pepper. Then this meat was packed in bowls

and left overnight to congeal. It was then ready to be served in slices. Some people preferred dipping these slices in apple cider vinegar. (Today many hostesses cut these souse meat slices into small bite-size cubes, place a tooth pick on each cube, and serve as an hors d'oeuvre.)

During this time Dickson's father raised cows. He always kept ten or fifteen cows and yearlings. The stock had free range. They ran loose in the woods. The calves of those cows giving milk were kept in the barn stalls. This caused the cows to come to the barn late each afternoon. When the cows were milked, the milk was strained into large milk pans and covered. These pans were placed in a milk house out under a shade tree. This milk house was built on four posts about five feet high. The “house” part of it was about three feet by three feet with a door in front.

After the milk was stored in the milk house about a day, the cream rose to the top. It was then skimmed off and churned into butter. The butter was packed into pound molds and stored in buckets hanging in the open well of water. In this way the butter was kept cool and fresh.

When yearlings grew to proper size, they were sold for beef cattle or were saved for milch cows.

Many Duplin farmers kept bee hives. Dickson's father had about fifty hives. It fell to Dickson's lot to hive the bees when they swarmed in the springtime. What made the bees swarm? When there was a population explosion in the bee hive, the queen bee became restless, and all workers became agitated. Then on a sunny day in the spring, preferably in May, the queen rushed forth and a swarming, buzzing colony thronged out after her. Not far off, on some hanging bough of a tree, she settled; and all the swarm settled on her or on each other, hanging in a long thin bunch. This bunch ranged in size from a peck to a half bushel.

When Dickson hived bees, he puffed on to the hive of bees some smoke from a smoker in order to calm the bees down. He took a pan and dipped it full of bees and placed the bees at the mouth of the new gum. He continued until he had carried to the new gum all of the bees in that hive. The bees always adopted the new gum and immediately set up housekeeping for the purpose of honeymaking. (Meanwhile the young bees left in the old hive continued to live there for a while. Before many weeks there was a swarming from the newer generation. Often there were three or four swarms in one season from one hive.)

In the early twentieth century (before the time of the patented bee






gums) most bee gums in Duplin County were made from a hollow tree sawed in three to four foot lengths with a board nailed over the top and three or four small v-shaped openings cut out of one side of the bottom. This gum was then placed on a board.

Another form of making bee gums was by nailing together four wide pieces of boards into a square or rectangular shape and putting a top on it and sawing out three or four v-shaped small openings from one of the boards at the bottom. This was placed on another board for a base.

In the fall of the year, the farmers robbed the bees of their supply of honey. Taking honey from the old-fashioned bee gum was dangerous if the bees became belligerent. Thus a farmer usually invited several neighbors to help with this task. Night was the best time for the surprise attack on the bee gum. Dickson's father had previously prepared sulphur matches by winding some cotton on the end of a small stick about a foot long, then dipping the cotton in some melted sulphur and letting it harden. Holes were dug in the earth about eight inches square just behind the bee gums from which they were going to take the honey. Two of the sulphur matches were placed in each of the holes. These were lighted and a bee gum was set over each hole. Dirt was pushed up around each gum. It took only a short while to kill the bees. Then the gums were carried to the yard and placed on a table. The sheets of honey were cut and removed from the gums. The white honey was placed in lard stands or in jars. Honey in the dark honeycomb was kept separately and was dripped to fill the stands with the clear honey.

The neighbors who had come to help with the task had been told to bring along their families. When the work was done, everyone was served hot biscuits, butter, honey and drinks (coffee or lemonade).

They all had a good time. Some enjoyed gossiping; some enjoyed courting, all enjoyed eating, and each family carried home several jars of honey. Sometimes there were as many as twenty or twenty-five people present. A “honeytaking” was truly a social event.

Furthermore, beekeeping helped the economy of Duplin County. It was a profitable cash crop. Duplin County honey was sold as far away as New York City. Anyway, what was better than apple dumplings sweetened with honey?

Some Duplin County farmers grew strawberries. During December and January, pine straw was raked in the woods, hauled to the field, and a roll of it was placed in the middles beside each row of strawberry plants. This straw was later carefully raked over the plants while they were in bloom to protect them during severely cold weather. Some

nights Dickson's father would decide that it was not cold enough to place straw on the strawberry plants. Then about midnight he would decide that it was getting colder. He would call everyone in the house to dress and go to the strawberry patch to rake the straw onto the plants. After breakfast when the sun was getting warmer, the family went out and removed straw from the plants.

When strawberries were ripe, many people were employed to pick the berries and place them in quart cups. Dickson's dad picked up the full quarts of barries and carried them to the packing shed. Each time he picked up a quart of berries he gave the picker a little metal check with the grower's initials cut upon it. (On Saturdays, the pickers cashed these metal checks at the packing shed.)

The packers at the sheds looked through each quart of berries, removing trash and bad berries, and arranging them to look the best possible. These quarts of berries were placed in crates on which was stamped with rubber stamps the name and address of the grower and also the name and address of the commission merchant to whom they were being shipped. These crates were loaded on a wagon and taken to Warsaw for shipping. Berries were shipped to Richmond, Philadelphia, New York City, and many Northern markets.

Dickson's family enjoyed huckleberrying in the summertime. Most years there were many wild huckleberries in the woods on the farm. The big blues got ripe the last of June and the first of July. When the berries were really plentiful, they picked some for sale. Quite a few were canned in jars for making pies in the winter. Huckleberry pies and dumplings were enjoyed almost daily during the huckleberry season.

Nearly all Duplin farm families had grape vines—black grapes, white grapes, Concord grapes, Babson grapes—all kinds. A familiar phrase was “Come under my grape vine.” Grapes were canned to be used in grape pies during the year. Grapes were used in wine making. Of course, the wine was used only for fruit cakes at Christmas time and for medicinal purposes!

Fruit trees were abundant on farms and in the yards of those who lived in the small towns of Duplin. Apples, peaches, plums, and pears were plentiful.

Many Duplin County people dried fruits in the summer. Peaches and apples were cut and placed on a clean cloth out in the hot sun. The






heat of the hot sun and the air removed or reduced the moisture content. If there was any indication of rain, the fruits were quickly brought inside. Dried peaches and apples made delicious pies.

Since apples were in abundance all over Duplin County; many families made their own cider. If a man did not have his own cider press, one of his neighbors did. Dickson and his father would harvest a cart load of apples in the fall of the year and take them to Dickson's uncle's house to be made into cider. The apples were washed, put into a large wood trough made from a big oak log, then mashed with a wooden maul. The apples were then put into the cider press and all the juice was squeezed out. For about a week this juice was delicious sweet cider. As it fermented, it became hard cider, and later vinegar.

In the early 1900's Dickson's family always had a year-round garden. That garden had cabbage, collards, turnips, mustard, butter beans, string beans, (including gold wax beans), tomatoes, cucumbers, squash, okra, corn (roasting ears), field peas, garden peas, radishes, bell pepper, hot pepper, onions, rhubarb, etc; and herbs including mint, sage, catnip and horse-radish.

Just before frost in the fall, the hot red pepper was gathered and strung on long strings to cure out. This pepper was used for seasoning sausage, liver pudding, and fresh meats. Strings of red pepper in the kitchen and pantry were decorative.

Since home freezers were not in existence, many vegetables and fruits were canned. Vegetable soup mixture and many vegetables and fruits were properly prepared, placed in jars, sealed, and placed on the ground in the tobacco barn when the barn was in high heat. These fruits and vegetables boiled in the jars.

Many fruits and vegetables could not be “cooked” in the tobacco barn. Peach pickles, grape jellies, jams, etc., had to be done in the kitchen.

All of this added up to a good live-at-home program.

Dickson's mother made sauerkraut every summer from the cabbage grown in her garden. The cabbage heads were brought to the old log kitchen. (This log kitchen was about twenty feet from the house and for about a hundred years had been used as a kitchen. When Dickson's father married in 1902, he added to the dwelling house a dining room and kitchen with a very modern home comfort range! Then the old log kitchen became a utility room and storage room where wash pots,

wash tubs, wash boards, old spinning wheel, etc. were stored.) In the old log kitchen the cabbage heads were trimmed, washed, and quartered with a big sharp knife. A layer of quartered cabbage was packed in a big oak barrel and beaten down with a wooden maul. A layer of salt was added; then another layer of cabbage was added and beaten down—another layer of salt and another layer of cabbage—until the barrel was almost full. Some boards were placed over the cabbage and a large stone was placed thereon to hold the cabbage down. Water was added until it stood a few inches above the boards. A piece of white homespun was tied across the top of the barrel and some boards were placed over that.

In the late fall and winter Dickson's mother would uncover the sauer kraut barrel and take out a pan full of the sauer kraut. This was put in a tub full of water and left to soak about fifteen hours. The sauerkraut was then washed and boiled in a pot until it was well done. It was cut up and placed in a frying pan with some ham gravy and was cooked some more. Some people ate sauerkraut with some hot pepper vinegar poured over it. Sauerkraut was very good with corn bread or with baked sweet potatoes.

Fishing was an enjoyable as well as a profitable sport during the early 1900's. In the late spring and early summer, Dickson's dad would instruct him to go to the branch and get some small fish (little perch) to be used as live bait. After lunch, Dickson and his dad went to Grove Swamp fishing. Within an hour they often caught four or five nice jack fish (not counting the really big ones that got away). The family enjoyed fresh fried fish for supper that evening.

Most of the fishing in those days was done in local creeks and ponds.

Dickson's father had a seine. When the crops were laid by, some of the neighbors were invited to go seining. When they arrived at the creek, two persons took the seine and stretched it across the creek. Two or three persons with hoes and sticks went down the stream, got into the water, beating and slashing with the hoes and sticks to drive the fish up stream. When they were near the seine, the person holding the staff of the seine on the opposite side of the run of the creek quickly brought the staff to the other side to surround the fish. Two people stayed behind the seine to hold the cork line to keep the fish from jumping out. Two people pulled the lead line on the bottom of the creek. Out came several nice fish—jacks, pikes, trout, suckers, perch, and catfish. Then the seine was moved on to the next hole.

When it was time to go home, they had almost a bushel of fish in a burlap bag.






Upon arriving at the house, the fishermen placed the fish in piles—a pile for each man who had participated. They endeavored to make these piles of the same size or value. One person was asked to turn his back. Another person pointed to a pile of fish and asked, “Who will take this pile?” The man with his back turned answered, “Enoch Newton.” “Who will take this one?” he asked.

The man with his back turned answered, “John Doe.”

This went on until all participants had received his share of the fish.

This method of fishing was good sport. The method of dividing the fish was always interesting and absolutely fair.

Many Duplin County people purchased salt herring fish in the spring of the year. Sometimes they cost only a penny per fish. In the fall they ate salt mullets. Salt fish were usually soaked overnight, then fried brown. These were very good with corn bread and sweet potatoes.

As busy as people were during the first part of this century, they still took time out for hunting. They hunted animals for food, for hides to sell, and sometimes just for the pleasure of hunting. Dickson's father hunted deer, squirrels, rabbits, coons, opossums, otter, mink, foxes, muskrats, birds, turkeys, etc.

There were many wild turkeys. Dickson's father killed three large wild turkeys from his turkey blind with one shot of the gun before breakfast one morning. On one occasion just before Thanksgiving, Dickson's father and Hiram Phillips went hunting in Duplin County woods and killed enough turkeys to fill a flower barrel which they shipped to Wilmington by train.

In the early twentieth century, people who did not care to eat coon or opossum would go hunting anyway for the sport of it. (They could always give their game to those who liked it.) It was fun to hear a dog barking as he chased his prey. The dog would chase a coon or an opossum up a tree, then he would put his front feet on the tree and bark. Dickson's father used a flashlight to locate a coon perched high up in a tree. Dickson shot the coon and he came tumbling down. What a thrill! This unique accomplishment made Dickson feel quite grown up! His coon was placed in the bag with the others and the group started home. They got lost. After losing their sense of direction, they walked one way and then another for about an hour. Suddenly they came to the same tree where Dickson had killed his coon. They lighted a lightwood torch and stuck the lower end of it in the mud. Then they went a straight course to the edge of the swamp and finally got out of the woods.

This episode was a coon hunt, but it was more than that; it was an experience that is a valuable page in a lad's book of memories—the joy of accomplishment and the joy of associating with Dad and the other grown men!

Dickson's father, like most others in the area, sold his original growth pine timber to a lumber company early in the twentieth century. This timber was cut by the lumber company about 1916.

The company built temporary logging railroads through the timber. The pines were cut down with saws and the logs were sawed. The logs were hauled with log carts to the railroad tracks and loaded on log cars with a skidder and then were on their way to the big mill to be sawed into lumber.

Dickson assisted his father in clearing some new ground. Trees were cut down. The logs were piled into large heaps, set on fire, and burned. Stumps were dug out of the ground. Some were burned out. The land was plowed with a coulter. After they worked the land for a year or so, it became good tillable soil.

In the early 1900's Dickson's father had a tar kiln. He dug a shallow pit. Then he hauled from the woods by horse and cart some lightwood. This he heaped in a conical stack depressed at the center, covered it with earth, and fired it. The tar condensed and ran to the center of the pile. His father sold some of the tar and kept some of it to use as a medicine when some of his horses, cows, or hogs got hurt.

In the early 1900's many Duplin families made persimmon beer—a tasty, refreshing drink, which is not intoxicating.

A farmer often used a clean, empty molasses barrel with a wooden faucet near the bottom. He removed (temporarily) the top of the barrel.

In the barrel he placed the following: About a one-inch-thick layer of broom straw; a layer of green pine boughs; a peck of well baked yams (with peelings broken); a layer of brushed honey-locust pods (if available); a bushel or more of ripe persimmons. He covered these ingredients with water and placed the lid on top. Then he let it set for two or three weeks, tasting from time to time. (There was a very thin line between the time that the persimmon beer had reached the peak of its taste and the time it began to get an acid or vinegary taste.)

Murphy Canady used the above recipe and prepared the persimmon beer at the proper time for it to be at its peak during Christmas week.






Dickson's dad made composts during the fall and winter months. Dickson helped him rake and haul straw, leaves, decaying matter, stable manure, and rich soil from ditch banks. This was put in layers in a long pile with some acid phosphate and cotton seed meal and let to stand and decay until the spring. Then some of it was broadcast over fields that were to be tended and the remainder drilled in rows. This made good fertilizer.

Many early twentieth century Duplinites believed in a scientific way of finding water underground. Did you ever hear of a divining rod or divining stick? Webster defines it as a rod, commonly of witch hazel with forked branches, used professionally as an aid in discovering water or metals under the ground.

When Dickson's father wanted to put down a new water pump or dig a new well, he asked his wife to help him find the best location where underground water was available. His wife was one of those persons in whose hands the divining stick would turn as she had much electricity in her body. He would secure a small limb of persimmon, hickory, chinquapin, or hazel wood. (These woods were hard and good conductors of electricity.)

Dickson's mother would take each end of the divining stick in her hands, gripping each end of the stick tightly with her hands, moving her arms closer together to form a bowlike curve of the stick. She then walked over the area where a new water pump or new well was desired. As she passed over underground water, the bow of the stick began to turn downward. When the underground water was plentiful the bow would turn even if the stick was being held tightly enough for the bark on the stick to crack and break. When the well was dug or the water pump put down on the spot where the bow turned, water was always found.

The bow would not turn in Dickson's father's hands, possibly because he did not have enough electricity in his body.

Is this superstition? Is it scientific fact? You be the judge.

This is a quotation from the International Encyclopedia: “The divining rod is a forked branch, usually of hazel, sometimes of iron or even of brass and copper, by which minerals and water are alleged to have been discovered beneath the surface of the earth. The rod, when suspended by the two prongs, sometimes between the balls of the thumbs, is supposed to show by a decided inclination the spot under which the concealed mine or spring is situated. The divining rod seems to have been known in all times, ancient and modern. It is clearly described by both Cicero

and Tacitus, and an unbroken line of references to it can be traced from their days to this.”

In the early 1900's many fences were made of rails. Dickson's father had his entire farm fenced with rails.

Dickson helped his dad split rails for making fence. A nice pine tree was selected, cut down, and logs the length for the rails were sawed. A large iron wedge was driven into the log with a good heavy maul made from a dogwood tree and seasoned. Other wooden wedges made from dogwood or hickory trees and seasoned were driven into the log until it was split open. This was continued until the rails of the proper size were split out. Rails were used for making new fence and for repairing old fence. In later years, about 1920, Dickson's father replaced the rail fence with wire fence.

Dickson's mother made her own soap. She would fill one of the big black iron pots half full of water and build around this pot a hot fire with lightwood and oak wood. When the water was boiling, she would pour in two or three cans of lye. A little later she would add a quantity of meat skins, meat trimmings, and meat grease. These were stirred and boiled until all solids were eaten up by the lye. The soap was left in the pot until the next day to cool and congeal. Then his mother would use the big butcher knife to cut the soap into pieces. She placed these in boxes. This soap was used for washing clothes, washing dishes, scrubbing floors, etc., but not for bathing.

In the first part of the twentieth century, many Duplin people gathered and sold jerusalem oak seed in the fall of the year. Some made their Christmas money this way. On a day when the weather was dry, Dickson and his mother would break off the branches containing the seed, pile them on a sheet, and rub or beat the seed out. They removed the trash and sold the seed by the pound to the local merchants. (The seed were later used in the manufacture of medicine.)

At present many of us carry to the shoe shop a pair of shoes that are worn through on the bottom. In the first part of this century, many Duplin County families half-soled their own shoes. At night after supper the father would get out the shoe stand. There were five different sizes of lasts that would meet the needs of the various members of the family. Let us say that there was a last for Pa, Ma, big brother, knee baby, and baby.






The father would take from a paper sack the half-soles that he had purchased at a store for about fifteen cents for each pair of soles. He would take out a nickel box of shoe tacks. Then he would put the last on the stand, place the shoe on it, place the new half-sole on top of the old sole, and with a hammer he would tack the new half-sole on over the old one. If the new half-sole was too large for the shoe, he would use his good sharp pocket knife to trim it down to the right size. The cost of half-soling a pair of shoes was about twenty cents.

Did you ever go to a quilting party? Quilting parties were quite a social event in the early twentieth century.

In preparation for the party, the hostess prepared in advance a delicious dinner for the guests. She set up the quilting frames and tacked the quilt lining to the frames. Then she placed the carded bats of cotton (or of wool) over the quilt lining. Then she placed the lovely quilt top (which she had spent much time in making) over the cotton. (This quilt top was sometimes appliqued.) She basted and tacked the quilt top to the lining. Quilting is stitching or sewing together two layers of cloth with some padding (wool, cotton, or down) between them.

When the guests arrived, they were given needles and thread. Then the quilting and the gossiping began!

There was usually much conversation about quilt top patterns. There was the wagon wheel pattern, a tree pattern, a star pattern, etc. Women exchanged patterns in a friendly way, but they usually tried to surpass all their friends and neighbors in making unusual quilt tops. Sometimes lovely designs were made from small pieces of cloth from the sewing basket.

Dickson enjoyed observing his mother as she crocheted counterpanes, center pieces, bureau scarfs, etc. She also knitted counterpanes, socks, and gloves. She made tatting and embrodiered pillow cases, center pieces, scarfs and camisoles.

In the early part of this century there were many home remedies used in Duplin County. They were not all based on superstitions. They were often helpful suggestions passed around from one to another. Some of these are listed below:

For colds—catnip tea, sassafras tea, cherry bark tea, mint tea, horehound tea, ginger tea, hot toddy, etc.; greasy cloth on chest (hot cloth covered with Vicks Vaporub and oil made from pig feet).

For cough or croup—a mixture of honey and vinegar; a few drops of kerosene oil on sugar; a few drops of spirits of turpentine on sugar.

For a tonic—rhubarb tea

For dysentery—blackberry wine

For sunburn—milk or sweet cream; vinegar and table salt

For stings of wasps, bees, yellow jackets, or hornets—a part of a chew of tobacco or a part of a dip of snuff

For sprains—a poltice of red clay and vinegar

For sore or inflamed part of the body—a poltice made of a soft mixture of bread and flax seed

For indigestion—baking soda

For headache—camphor (made from camphor gum and alcohol)

For rheumatism—mullen tea

For seven-year itch—a hot wicky bath (a bath in hot water that has just been boiled with the wicky plant in it)

Let us take a glimpse at church life in Duplin in the early part of the twentieth century. On Saturday before the first Sunday in each quarter, Dickson's church held a Quarterly Conference. There was a sermon followed by a business session, or conference. These meetings were well attended. It was at church conferences that business was transacted. As late as the early twentieth century, some church members were tried in church conferences for dancing, gambling, adultery, etc., and were dismissed from the church roll.

Dickson and his sister were baptized in a Baptismal pool at Johnson's Church. A spring supplied the water for the pool. Candidates for baptism dressed in the Lanefield Schoolhouse which was near the pool. Most churches had revival meetings at least once a year—usually in the fall.

On Sunday morning Dickson's family rode to church in a buggy. His sister rode in the seat with his mother and father. Dickson stood on the rear axle of the buggy. He was pleased when his father purchased a saddle for him to ride a horse to church. At that time he was still too small to put his foot in the stirrup of the saddle and jump upon the horse. So he led the horse to a stump near the barn where he could stand on the stump and reach the stirrup. Stock Law proved a hazard. There were gates between his home and the church. Near West's Siding there was a Stock Law fence gate that had to be opened and closed every time anyone went through. Luckily, near that gate there was a stump on which he could get down from the saddle, open the gate, lead the horse through, close the gate, lead the horse to another stump, get back on the horse and be on his way. Dickson was proud to ride that horse! When his father bought a family car, Dickson still preferred that beautiful horse.






Church attendance was not only a religious event but also a social event. In those days people stood around in front of country churches for a half hour or more and talked about the weather, crops, sickness, etc. Friends invited others to go home with them and have dinner. Whole families went to have dinner with other families. If a family of nine invited a family of nine to dinner, the big table was set for the grown people. (No short cuts—paper plates, paper napkins, cook outs, etc.) After the grown people had finished, the table was prepared for the children. (Such a practice made children want to grow up fast!)

In those days people were usually prepared to serve visitors a meal or a snack. Most housewives could get ready in a short time a delicious dinner consisting of fried chicken, old cured ham from the smoke house, sausage that had been hanging in the smoke house until it had cured, or sausage that had been canned in fruit jars in hot grease, canned vegetables, homemade whole grain hominy, dried fruits (apples and peaches).

Dickson's mother took pride in her cooking, especially her pound cakes and her “tea cakes.” She always served callers (especially children) some cake and lemonade.

Christmas, a celebration of Christ's birthday, has always had meaning. In the early 1900's people made elaborate preparations for the event.

The house was decorated with red and green paper garlands, bells, tinsel, and numerous ornaments. Holly, pine, and mistletoe were used throughout the house. There was a Christmas tree (holly or cedar) that had been carefully selected from the near-by woods. Nothing was more thrilling than to go out into the woods with an axe, a dog, and a gun to look for a Christmas tree!

The greatest preparations were made in the kitchen. Before Christmas day, most families had cooked several cakes—a fruit cake, a pound cake, a walnut cake, an orange cake, and a cocoanut cake. A turkey was baked. A pork ham was cooked and set aside to cool.

Children did hang up their stockings for Santa Claus just as they do now. Most children then were happy to get some fruits, nuts, and candy and just one toy for Christmas. What a thrill to get a doll, a little monkey, a toy horse, or a little red wagon from Santa Claus. Some times there were firecrackers. (They were legal then.) Dickson's mother always exploded a big fire cracker before day on Christmas morning. Another tradition of hers was to make and serve syllabub on Christmas

morning. (Syllabub was a drink made by whipping in the churn sweet cream and wine.)

Relatives and friends came during Christmas day. Several ate dinner. Nobody had to have an invitation to eat with other families on Christmas day. It was a period of visitation and joy.

On one occasion a four-year-old boy saw the Christmas dinner table loaded with food with a beautifully decorated cake in the center of the table. He asked, “Whose birthday is it?” There was a pause. Then one of the grown people said, “It is the birthday of Jesus.” The little boy said, “Why don't we sing ‘Happy Birthday’ to Jesus?”

They did, and since that time that family always sings “Happy Birthday, dear Jesus” at all Christmas dinners.

As a part of the social life during the early part of this century, many people went on excursions. The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad used to run excursions to Wilmington on week ends. Dickson went with some kinsmen on one of these excursions. They went to Warsaw before day by horse and buggy, caught the excursion train to Wilmington, transferred to a trolley car, and went on to Wrightsville Beach. What a crowd of people. What fun! Since the day was cloudy, Dickson thought he would not get sun-burned. He stayed in the water all day. When he arrived at home, he was unable to go to bed at all because he had a solid blister all over his back, shoulders, and arms. That did it. Since that day he never stays in swimming more than twenty minutes at a time.

One Sunday afternoon as Dickson was returning from a neighborhood visit, he had an interesting experience with a horse. He was showing off. He had his feet out of the stirrups of the saddle and had even turned loose the reins when a wasp stung the horse on the neck. The horse gave a sudden plunge and was off on a run. Dickson tried to get his feet in the stirrups of the saddle but missed one foot. He fell off the saddle and was left hanging with one foot in a stirrup. That thirteen-year-old fellow took quite a speedy ride across a big field. He was not hurt; his time just had not come!

Do not think that the early 1900's was all work and no play. The excursions, honeytakings, corn shuckings, the square dances, quilting parties, Sunday visitations, picnics, Old Soldiers Reunions, etc., constituted a network of social activities.

In the 1920's the young people had a good time. The dresses were disgracefully (?) short—almost two inches above the knees! The oldsters






shook their heads and said, “What's this generation coming to?” And, to top it all, many Duplinites engaged in that ballroom dance called the Charleston. In this dance the knees were twisted in and out and the heels were swung sharply outward on each step. (Want any lessons? See Faison Smith and Margaret Williams.)

During the first part of the twentieth century, Duplin County farmers had a live-at-home program. Almost every family grew or raised enough to be almost entirely self-supporting. Not many things had to be bought. Slow transportation and bad roads kept people from traveling as much as they do now. Thus there was a live-at-home, stay-at-home program which caused the family to be a more solid unit. They learned co-operation and responsibility sharing. There was a togetherness that was commendable. Chores around the house or any difficult tasks that had to be done were done together. One Duplin family had seven family members: the father, the mother, four girls, and one boy. Their duties were performed like clock work. There was a definite schedule of work for each family member.

Inhabitants of Duplin lived a busy, happy life during the first part of the Twentieth Century.

The Editors.

27. NEW COURTHOUSE DEDICATED—1913

A history of the public buildings of Duplin County must of necessity be in a large measure a history of the men who have been prominent in public life as her officials. The writer does not mean by this that there will be any attempt in this meager article to give a history of all the famous sons of Duplin; the aim will be to give an outline of the relevant points in our history, keeping well in sight the subject we are pursuing, with the hope that it may be instruction to our youth and helpful to the future historian when he shall write the complete history of our grand old county.

The name Duplin was derived from Lord Dupplin and not from a corruption of Dublin, as some writers have erroneously asserted. At the date of this first permanent settlement made by Roger Green in 1653, little was known of the great territory in southeastern North Carolina, and it was not till after the Swiss Colony or Palatines of DeGraffenreid came to New Bern in 1705, and the settlement on the Cape Fear that colonists began to come into Duplin County. At that time it was a part of New Hanover County. After the Lords proprietors had ceded the Carolinas to the Crown, all of the part of North Carolina from Brunswick to Carteret County was known as the County of Bath, and there was a precinct in Bath County called the precinct of New Hanover, including the present territory of New Hanover, Pender, Sampson and Duplin Counties.

This precinct became a county with the same territory, the County of New Hanover, with the County seat at Newton, now Wilmington. While Duplin was still a part of New Hanover, and in the year 1726, the first settlement was made in Duplin County at Sarecta Hill, where a town was later incorporated by the Legislature. These people were sent over by Henry McCulloch, a rich man who lived in London and who sent numbers of settlers to the new world, simply for the purpose of gain for himself. The Swiss colonists, after DeGraffenreid had sold out to Gov. Pollock or Palatines having lost their land and even their cooking utensils, many of them were forced to seek other homes and shortly after 1730, many of them came to Duplin County and today






their descendants may be traced in Duplin County and among the oldest and most prominent people, those coming from the German side of the Alps bearing German names, and those coming from the French side of the Alps having French names, such as Simmons, Moore, Teachey, Kinsy, Miller, Farrior, Wells, Rouse, Croom, Kornegay, Mallard, and Quinn. Other settlers came from Maryland, Virginia, from Ireland and England direct from the settlement on the Cape Fear and a few from the Scotch settlement on the upper Cape Fear. By far the greatest number were sent over by Henry McCulloch who seemed to have the confidence of King Geo. II and the King's Council. An ordinary man living in the New World, if he wanted a few acres of land, got it from the Governor, upon certain conditions. A man of McCulloch's standing applied to the King direct and we find from the Colonial records, that on the 29th day of April, 1736, at the court at St. James, London, McCulloch filed before his Majesty, King George II, in Council, a petition, setting forth in most seductive terms the richness of the New World, the advantage that England would derive by allowing him to send people to America to make products that had theretofore cost England a great amount of money, and finally coming to the point by asking the King to grant to him two tracts of the said large quantities of uncultivated land; that is to say one tract of Seventy Two Thousand Acres, situated upon the North East Branch of Cape Fear River from the Second High Bluff upwards or thereabouts and leading towards the point of Trent River on the East side, and on the West side towards the head of Black River, the other tract of Sixty Thousand Acres situated towards the North East, at or near a place there commonly called Hawfields, and lying between North East Branch of Cape Fear River and the head of the Neuse River. The tracts were granted to him in 1738, and the grants of the same may be seen in the office of the Secretary of State at Raleigh. One of them starting on the Black River, and running to a point just South of the Golden Grove Swamp, and thence northward across the same, and then along the edge of Goshen westward, etc. The old land titles call for Mr. McCulloch's lines, like he was a great man in that day. Kenansville is situated upon one of those grants. McCulloch sent his people in, still in greater numbers to Sarecta together with the physician, Dr. William Houston. And in the last few years, Mr. Lee Albertson, who owned the land where the town of Sarecta was laid out in excavating accidently discovered in the ground the remains of the Doctor shop of Dr. Houston, containing the usual vials in an apothecary shop. McCulloch sold off land for what he could get and when North Carolina became independent what land he and his descendants had not

sold was confiscated, and again made subject to grant, and for that reason we have many land grants in Duplin embraced in the area of the McCulloch Grants.

By 1740, the territory had become so populous, and had so many business interests, and it was so far to Wilmington, the County Seat, that the people began to clamor for a New County. Time and again the legislature passed the bill for a New County but the King would Veto the measure, and it would fail but finally in 1749, they succeeded. . . .

The Duplin County so formed embracing the present Counties of Duplin and Sampson under the name of Duplin County and the Commissions under the act created a Court house about 3 miles West of Warsaw; where the Warsaw and Clinton public road crosses the public road leading from Faison to Wilmington, known locally as the old Wilmington Road then famous in history, up which a part of Cornwallis’ army under command of Lieutenant Col. Tarleton of Cowpens fame marched towards Yorktown, and over which Mary Slocumb, wife of Capt. Ezekel Slocumb, took a midnight ride over to Moore's Creek battle-ground. In that Courthouse the records of Duplin were kept till 1784, and these records are now in the office of the Register of Deeds of Sampson County being Duplin County books. All instruments recorded in them being headed, North Carolina, Duplin County, and were recorded by Duplin County men, Wm. Dickson, for instance being Clerk.

The wonder is that when the County of Sampson was formed from Duplin, our officials did not attend to the matter of the records, and keep the records in the parent County where they belong. As it is, all records of Duplin County, prior to 1784, are in Sampson County. (Copies are now in Duplin County.) The County of Sampson was formed from Duplin in the year 1784. . . . The boundries of Duplin County as fixed by that Act have remained as there fixed for One Hundred and Twenty Eight years.

The Commissioners named in the act were representative, and one might say patriotic men, many of whose descendants can now be traced: Southerland, Hicks, Dickson, Lanier, Whitehead, and Teachey. Many of them from the place where they decided to locate the Courthouse at Kenansville; and one must agree that they were not biased by any personal interests when they made this decision, for Thomas Hooks and David Hicks lived in Faison Township. John Lanier lived below Chinquapin in Cypress Creek township, but a few miles from the Pender Line. Daniel Teachey lived in the Southwest part of the county while Robert Southerland lived in Limestone Township on the road from Hallsville






to Muddy Creek. John Whitehead and Edward Dickson lived near Kenansville and William Hubbard lived in Smith's Township where B. G. Williams now lives.

The James James Store mentioned in the act was at the Crossroads near the present County Home, at that time the James James Plantation.

The Court met there as directed by that act, as will appear from the Minutes of the Court, now in the Clerk's office being transcribed in a parchment covered book processed in London, as the label on the inside shows, being as follows: W. A. Fielding, Notary Public, Stationer and Book Seller, Lumbond Street, London, England.

The entry on the first page of the Minutes is as follows: At a meeting of a County Court of Pleas and Quarter Session held for the County of Duplin at the Cross Roads thereof at James James plantation, where he now lives, on Monday the 18th day of October, 1784, it being the third Monday of Said Month, present the worshipful, the Justices, Wm. Houston, Sr., Col. James Kenan, Col. Tho. Rutledge, Esques.

Ordered that Mr. Plunkett Ballard be appointed State Attorney, and the next entry relates to deeds that were ordered probated and follows the usual routine of Court work, such as the Court had Jurisdiction to dispatch.

The next term of the Court was held as follows: At a County Court begun and held for the County of Duplin, at the house of James Pearsall on the Third Monday of April, being the 18th day of Said Month, in the year 1785 present the Worshipful: Joseph Dickson, Joseph Thos. Rhodes, Esquires.

The first business of the Court was to fine the Jurors for non- attendance as follows: Ordered that the following persons, to Wit: Thomas James, Edward Dickson, Arthur Stokes, John Carr, James Mills, William Rigsby, David Caraway, William Hooks, Thomas Hill, Richard Moore, William Newton, John Housman, William Nethercutt, James Bizzell, and John Sheffield, who were appointed Jurors to this Court and Summoned by the Sheriff, and did not attend, be fined, nisi etc.

On Tuesday morn Justices came to sit, as the record shows to Wit: Kedar Bryan, Charles Ward, and James Gillespie. The next Court was held in the Court house being present as shown by the Minutes as follows: At a Court began and held for the County of Duplin at the Court house thereof on Monday the 18th day of July in the year of our Lord 1785, being the 3rd Monday of the Said Month, present the Worshipfuls, Thos. Rutlege, James Kenan, Joseph Dickson, Charles Ward, Keder Bryan, Joseph T. Rhodes, Esquires. . . . The Court passed on estates, deeds, etc., allowing the Tax Collectors for insolvents, etc.

The tract of land on which the Commissioners located the Court

house in 1785, and on which the present structure is located, is described in a deed from James Pearsall to the Justices of Duplin recorded in Book 1, page 114, Register's Office of Duplin County and dated Jan. 17th, 1785, being a square piece of land containing 4 acres and beginning on James Pearsall's Spring Branch, 50 feet below the spring. The Court house is now situated on that square. James Pearsall owned 800 acres of land on this side of the Grove Swamp, and this lot was about the center of the tract. The Home of James Pearsall where the Court house was located just beyond the residence of Dr. O. J. Jones on the right as you go from the Court house and was for a long time the only home in the village.

It may be inferred from the records that the Commissioners appointed to build the Court house completed this work in less than Six Months, for the records show that the July Term in 1785 was held in the Court House. That Court house Stood from the time of its erection in 1785 until the month of June, 1911, when it was torn down by the Board of Commissioners of Duplin County and the present fireproof and modern structure was erected in its stead. The old Court house was 40 feet square outside measurement and was originally erected two stories high, the lower portion being left open, and the upper story supported on pillars; the stairway going up to the Court room from the outside.

It was thus used till the year 1848, when Justices of County contracted with one Dudley, a contractor, to remodel and repair the Same.

This was completed before 1852, by adding a third story to the same, and by filling in with brick between the supports under the Second Story, thus making rooms on the ground floor; and thus repaired, it was the Same Court house that we all know. The old Court House stood for more than 125 years, a splendid Monument to the pluck, patriotism and energy of our County in its youth, and was amply sufficient for our County comprising nearly 700 Square Miles of territory, and with a population as the Federal Census of 1790 shows of less than 700 heads of families. The Cotton gin of Eli Whitley had not been invented, and only enough was made for home use, and the seeds had to be removed by hand. There were no railroads, no steamboats, no telegraph lines, no telephones lines, no electrical devices, no post offices, and but few newspapers. The motion power on sea was wind, and on the land was the horse. The taxable property then was worth but a few thousand dollars. Now it is worth millions. The inhabitants then but a few hundred, and now the last Census, that of 1910, shows 25,442. The old Court house as we know it would seat in the Court room auditorium, by actual Count, 55 persons. When it was first built, it was one of the best Court Houses in the state, but by the year 1911, the






other Counties in the State had made such rapid progress, and erected such fine courthouses, that it was said by almost every Superior Court Judge who came to hold our Court that we then had the poorest Court House in the State. Grand Jury after Grand Jury recommended that a new Court house be built. Judge after Judge advised that same course. As to how the new courthouse was built, that is not my province to relate, but it is here right in the exact spot where in 1785, Daniel Hicks, Thos. Hooks, and Daniel Teachey, three men on the Western Edge of Duplin County; William Hubbard, Robert Southerland and John Lanier, three men of the Eastern part of the County; and Edward Dickson and John Whithead, two men in the Center of the County, located the old Court house. A new, modern, up to date, fireproof structure, as fine as the best, as fine as in the State, as comfortable as need be with all the modern conveniences, an indisoluble bond, which will successfully resist all efforts to wreck the County for hundreds of years to come. We want no territory belonging to any of our sister counties and never will we permit anyone to take ours. February 17, 1913. L. A. Beasley.

Mr. H. D. Williams was introduced by the Chairman and said, May it please Your Honor, Ladies and Gentlemen:

In behalf of the Board of Commissioners, I take pleasure in presenting to the people of Duplin County and the Judiciary of the State this building. In doing so it is well to mention briefly the circumstances and conditions under which it has been constructed. But I shall not undertake to describe the house or to tell you of what it is built. It shows for itself better than I can explain to you. The Board of Commissioners is content to say only that it is the most approved construction practised by leading architects of the time.

A new Court House had been the crying need of the County for years but it remained for Messrs. D. J. Williams, Robert James, and W. J. Grady to supply.

On February 6th, 1911, the Commissioners held a meeting with reference to the erection of a new Court House, and after deliberation adopted a resolution appointing Messrs. S. O. Middleton, Hallsville; Maury Ward, Rockfish; Thad Jones, Kenansville; M. F. Westbrook, Albertson; A. L. McGowan, Wallace; and George T. Sutton, Calypso, as an advisory Committee and ordered that they be notified and requested to attend on February 16th, 1911, to further consider the matter.

Commissioners Minutes, Page 375

On February 16th, 1911, the advisory Committee, Mr. A. L. McGowan being absent, met the Commissioners in the old Court House. All Commissioners were present. The whole matter was gone into fully, and each

of the advisory committee expressed himself in favor of a New Court House and advised that the Commissioners proceed.

The Commissioners thereupon adopted a resolution declaring the necessary steps toward building, should be at once taken and the Board requested Messrs. S. O. Middleton and Maury Ward to visit with them Some of the New Court houses of the State and to make report on March 7th, 1911.

Commissioners Minutes, Page 376

The Board was again in Session on March 7th , 1911, and heard the report of the Committee, Messrs. Middleton and Ward and Commissioner James who had visited and inspected the Court houses of Halifax and Sampson Counties. At this meeting the Board of Commissioners ordered an advertisement inserted in the News and Observer, Raleigh, asking architects to submit plans for a building to cost not more than $30,000, and agreed to meet again on March, 23rd, 1911, to further consider the Same.

Minutes of Commissioners, Page 385

On March 23rd, all members of the Advisory Committee being present, the Board (All members being present) held a meeting in the old Court house and agreed to proceed with the Selection of a site for the new building and also plans and specifications for Same. It was ordered that a special meeting be held on Tuesday after the first Monday in April to discuss same with the taxpayers of the County.

Minutes of Commissioners, Page 386

On April 4th, 1911, the Board was again in Session. There were many citizens present. Some opposed and Some approved the new building. After a full and open discussion of the entire subject, the Board of Commissioners by a Majority Vote adopted a formal resolution for a New Court house and the issuance of bonds in the sum of $30,000 to pay for Same, the building to be constructed on the site of the old Court House. At this Meeting Messrs. Wheeler and Stern, Architects of Charlotte, N. C., were retained by the Board of Commissioners to perfect plans and specifications and superintend its construction work.

Minutes of Commissioners, Pages 398 and 399

At the regular monthly meeting on May 1st, the Board again adopted and ratified the resolution of April 4th and adopted the plans of the architects for the proposed New Building. An order was also entered directing that advertisement be made offering $30,000 Court House






bonds for sale to the highest bidder at 12 o'clock, Monday, June 5th, 1911, and also advertisement was ordered made for proposals for furnishing labor and material, and the erection of the new building in accordance with the plans. These were published in the Manufacturers Record of Baltimore and in the Eastern Carolina News.

Minutes of Commissioners, Page 411

On June 5th, bids both for the bonds and construction of the building were opened. The bonds were awarded to Seasongood and Meyer, of Cincinatti, O., for $30,693 and the Contract for the New building was awarded to C. C. Tatherow and Company of Birmingham, Ala. at $31,169.00 The Contractors qualified and on Monday, June 12th, 1911, began removing the old building. Ground was broken for the new Structure within a few days. The New building is located on the exact spot where stood the old Court house measuring from its center. On the same day that the Contract for the New building was signed, the Board, by resolution, appointed Mr. L. A. Beasley to act with me jointly as the agents of the Board with full power.

Minutes of Commissioners, Page 423 to 435

During the Month of June, differences arose between the Board of Commissioners and Seasongood and Meyer, with reference to the sale of the $30,000 bonds and it was finally determined to abandon negotiations with them on August 7th, 1911. (Minutes page 456) The award of the bonds to Seasongood and Meyer was cancelled and they were sold to E. H. Rollins and Son, of Boston, Mass.

These bonds are for $1,000 each Numbering 1 to 30 inclusive, dated May 1st, 1911, bearing interest at the rate of five per cent per annum, interest payable semi-annually on November 1st and May 1st of each year. Both principal and interest is payable at the Banking House of E. H. Rollins & Son in New York City. These bonds are payable in installments as follows: $1,000 on the 1st day of May of each of the years, 1913, 1915, 1917, 1919, 1921, and 1923, and $3,000 on the last day of May in each year 1924 to 1931, inclusive, without option of prior settlement. They are Signed by D. J. Williams, Chairman of the Board of Commissioners and Countersigned by James J. Bowden, Clerk, and Carry Coupons for the interest as it matures. Upon Signing the bonds they were delivered to J. O. Carr, Treasurer under a resolution of the board, and a draft for $30,893.67 was drawn on the purchaser and the same deposited with the Bank of Duplin at Wallace for Collection. It was paid promptly and the Money was kept on deposit with said Bank.

Minutes of Commissioners, Page 463

On Friday, November 17th, 1911, the Grand Lodge of North Carolina A.F. and A.M. held a special Comunication and with the usual Masonic formalities laid the Corner Stone. In it is deposited Numerous articles, Writings, books and newspapers which will interest those who in the distant future shall open and inspect its contents.

Hon. R. N. Hackett, Grand Master of Wilksboro, N. C., two other Grand Lodge officers, Mr. R. H. Bradly of Raleigh and Mr. H. A. Grady of Clinton were present.

The work of Construction was very slow and finally on December 2nd and 10th, 1912, orders were made by the Board of Commissioners, (Minutes pages 12-19) to which Contractors agreed, placing the whole construction work in the hands of Mr. Fred Schcoon, an Engineer; and the Board of Commissioners furnished the necessary money to complete the job.

On January 16th, 1913, the New building was accepted as a substantial compliance with the contract. (Minutes page 21). The sum of $882.90 was allowed for extra work not included in the original contract, the most of this being for Torrizo work on floors and steps.

Full settlement was made with the Contractors and the sum of $313.02 was drawn from the Current County funds to make final payment.

The exact Cost of the building is therefore, $30,000 in five per cent bonds as heretofore stated, and the Sum of $313.02 cash. This does not include the Compensation of the architects or any other Expense incident to the building nor does it include Furniture, etc.

The Board of Commissioners believe that this is such a Court House as the people of the County are entitled to have and they Express the hope that it will stand for ages as an index finger pointing the way to our people where righteous justice can be administered in the interest in this, one of the oldest Counties of the State, now in its 164th year.

To you, Judge Allen, one of her highly esteemed citizens, and through you to be the Courts of the State, and to all the people of the County, I present this magnificent structure.

H. D. Williams, County Attorney

Acceptance of the Court House by Judge Allen:

The delivery of this building this day to the people of Duplin County, is an event of no unusual impart. It means a condition already begun that marks the intellectual and moral uplift of all her population. The manner in which these Servants have discharged their duty, is one that should be of general gratification to them and to the public. It is a service faithfully performed in every way. It has been built with an eye to the






best possible Structure for the least money. No such structure has been built for the Same money in my oppinion and I have seen all the Court houses in the State. There are few of them but what Some mistake has been made in some way, but it seems to me that none has been made as to this one. There is not the least appearance or charge of graft about it. These men, faithful servants, can hold up their hands and say, (as I once heard the great and much beloved Vance do), “Not one cent has ever stuck to these old hands.”

The building is a specimen of beauty and durability and convenience. Duplin has long needed an Auditorium, not only for her Courts, but for the assembling together of her people in all public occasions, which occasions are increasing all the time.

I can but believe that these faithful men acted wisely in selecting the same old location, and I say it with regard for any other Community that desires the preference in its favor. It was commendable in any place to want to be the County seat of Duplin, but any possible change would have resulted in great inconveniences to some parts of the County, and eventually in a division of the County, which would mean strife and expense, with likely no good results. As it is, the old land marks are preserved and the Bible tells us to “depart not from the ancient land marks.” The relationship between the people is retained. The individuality that marks a noble people still grows on. The spirit of communalism and selfishness had no place with these men in the work they have done, but rather the Spirit of Patriotism.

In a few years the inconvenience that some complain of will be removed. The day is not far distant when good roads will be built in every part of the County, and automobiles will be as common as buggies, and then what now seems an inconvenience will be a pleasure. Why should this then not be what it is, beautiful and substantial? It is the ideal place for the administration of Justice. The building is a fine piece of architecture.

What is architecture? It is the art of building according to principles, not merely by the ends the edifice is intended to serve, but by consideration of beauty and harmony. The time has come when we should study architecture especially. The end of architecture as an art is so to arrange the plain masses and enrichment of the structure as to impart to its interest beauty, grandeur, unity, and power. It is elevating and ennobling and necessitates the gift of imagination as well as technical skill.

Like all other arts, it did not spring into existence at the early periods of Man's existence. The origin of art is found in the endeavor of man to provide for his physical wants. Primitive Man first dwelt in caves, then in huts, tents, and then in houses. So that all men are concerned

in architecture and have at some time of their lives business with it. And as man became civilized and educated, it is the expression of natural life and character. All great nations have their magnificent specimens of architecture and a people may be judged by it. It tells the thought and taste of a people as nothing else does. They are the Expressions of the Mind of Manhood.

The time has come for this expression to manifest itself in America, and it is being done throughout the country. Who does not admire our great Capitol building at Washington, and that Library building there? The Spirit is coming down to counties and Duplin has determined to stand in line with others. What will be the result? Let us See. (1) being a beautiful structure it will promote the sense of beauty. “A thing of beauty is a Joy forever,” the poet has said. (2) It will promote a sense of good taste and harmony of custom. (3) It will promote a sense of grandeur and power. (4) It will tend to promote the home life.

Many a young man has left his home and gone into distant states never to return because the home was not attractive. Many a poor woman has been driven to insanity or a life of shame when an attractive house with flowers and pictures and such beautiful surroundings as could be produced with a little effort and expense would have saved her; many a little child has been dwarfed for the want of the little things around the home that would make him grow strong and happy. There is nothing more uplifting nor more to be admired than a happy family in a beautiful home. . . .

It may take many years to see the full effect of this building but it will come to a people who are prepared for it and who have capacities that will respond to it. Who are these people? They are the descendants of the very best protestant blood of Europe. We have descendants of the French Huguenots, the descendants of the German Palatines driven from home by Catholic persecutions, who came first to New Bern under DeGraffenried, and after losing their homes by injustice, were taken farther out into the neighboring Counties and given the lands. We have a sprinkling of the Scotch who like the others were in search of religious liberty. Then we have the descendants of the Irish, who were prominent among the first settlers of the County. Then we have many of the descendants of a settlement that came down from Maryland on account of Catholic oppression, and added to them are scattering English. All of them seeking a land of liberty.

No wonder then that whenever opportunities are open up to them they at once manifest the very best talent and character and became leaders.






All praise to the commissioners who this day turn it over to them.

Mr. J. O. Carr presented a portrait of Col. Thos. S. Kenan painted by Mrs. Marshall Williams of Faison and donated to the County by Mrs. Thomas S. Kenan.

Mr. Carr Speaking as Follows: The illustrious ancestors of Col. Kenan have been associated with and helped to mold the political and social life of Duplin County during Colonial, Revolutionary, and present times. Col. Kenan graduated at Chapel Hill, began the practice of Law at Kenansville, moved to Wilson, and in less than one year, returned to Kenansville, formed a Company, and then followed the vicissitude of the War Between the States, ’61 to ’65. From Captain, he was soon promoted to Colonel. Under the administration of Governor Vance, he ably filled the office of Attorney General for Eight years. Afterwards he was selected as clerk of the Supreme Court. He was an honor and ornament to his native County, and he never ceased to love and cherish the friendship of his boyhood. The little I have done in historical research of Duplin County was through the suggestion and encouragement of Colonel Kenan. The needs and welfare of Duplin lay next to his heart. This handsome portrait is the work of Mrs. Marshall Williams, a native of Duplin.

Mr. Henry E. Faison accepted the portrait on behalf of the Bar. In very feeling words he said:

It is eminently fitting the first portrait to adorn the walls of this beautiful structure should be the likeness of Duplin's favorite son, Colonel Thos. S. Kenan. His love for Duplin was well known and his influence was felt by many a young man. He ever held out a helping hand to an aspiring youth, but to a Duplin boy he gave both hands. Some men, when they leave home and meet with success, forget the faces and places—not so with Colonel Kenan, he seemed to have loved his comrades and native places more and more as the years rolled by, and he bound his friends with hooks of steel. We are glad to have his noble features here in this magnificent Court House, to be an inspiration to our youth, to love and bring honor to Duplin. Gratefully, we accept this splendid portrait.

Mr. E. J. Hill, and Mr. R. D. Johnson of Warsaw made brief addresses on the progress of the County. Attorneys present were H. D. Williams, L. A. Beasley, John A. Gavin, Jr., Thad Jones of Kenansville; R. D. Johnson and Jas E. Johnson of Warsaw; Geo. R. Ward of Wallace; Oscar B. Turner of Rose Hill; H. E. Faison and Col. John D. Carr of Clinton; James O. Carr of Wilmington, and Solicitor Henry E. Shaw of Kinston.

Court officers—D. H. Wallace, Clerk; F. E. Wallace, Deputy Clerk;

G. G. Best, Sheriff; John S. Herring, Deputy Sheriff. Mr. H. D. Williams moved that a Committee be appointed to report the proceedings to the Court and the Chairman appointed Mr. Williams and R. D. Johnson to report the same.

Pursuant to a resolution of a Citizens Meeting held on the 1st day of the present Term of Court, we submit the foregoing report of Exercises upon the dedication of the New Court House and respectfully move the same be spread upon the Minutes of this Court, This Feby. 22nd, 1913.

H. D. Williams

R. D. Johnson, Committee.

It is ordered that the proceedings of this meeting above referred to be spread upon the Minutes of this Court upon pages set apart for that purpose.

O. H. Allen, Judge

(Court Minute Docket—Feb. 17, 1913, Pages 203-224.)

PORTRAITS PRESENTED

Exercises attending the presentation of the portraits of Col. William A. Allen and Captain John D. Stanford to the County Commissioners of Duplin County to be hung upon the Court House walls on Monday, September 1st, 1913.

On Monday of the Second week of the term of Duplin Superior Court over which Judge Oliver H. Allen was presiding; at the hour of eleven o'clock George R. Ward, Esq., moved that the Court adjourn until the hour of two-thirty o'clock to witness the exercises of the presentation of the portraits of Col. William A. Allen and Capt. John D. Stanford. The court took a recess until the hour above named. The exercises were held in the Courthouse and the meeting was called to order by H. D. Williams, Esq., who invited Col. John D. Kerr to preside over the meeting; R. D. Johnson, Esq., was named as Secretary and the Chairman recognized A. D. Ward, Esq., of New Bern (formerly of Duplin) who presented the portrait of Col. Wm. A. Allen on behalf of his family which was a gift of the family. Mr. Ward said: “Mr. Chairman, Members of the Board of County Commissioners, Ladies and Gentlemen: It is esteemed a great honor that I am commissioned by the family of the late Col. William A. Allen to present in this beautiful Temple of Justice his handsome oil portrait, painted by the distinguished Duplin Artist, Mrs. Mary Lyde Hicks Williams. Col. Allen was born of a good old family in Wake County, April 29th, 1825, and died in 1884. He was educated at Wake Forest College in the class with his life long friend and later his law partner, the lamented Capt. W. J. Houston of






this county. He read law under the late Judges Nash and Bailey at Hillsboro. After which he taught school for awhile. He married Miss Maria G. Hicks of a distinguished Granville County family. From that union sprang the presiding Judge of this Court and an able associate Justice of the Supreme Court, Hon. W. R. Allen, and Miss Elizabeth Allen of the faculty of Louisburg College, all of whom are present here today. Many of their fine grand-children are also present. Col. Allen represented Wake County in the House of Commons in 1852, removed to Duplin County in 1858 and became associated in the practice of law with Capt. W. J. Houston. He was a Breckinridge and Lane elector in 1860; was for several years County Solicitor; entered the Confederate Service as a Lieutenant of Volunteers under Col. Thomas S. Kenan and served six months, and when it disbanded came home and raised a company and was elected Lieutenant Colonel 51st N. C. Regiment and served till forced by ill health to resign, and upon his return home became Commander of a battalion of Home Guards. In 1865 he was a member of the Constitutional Convention that repealed the ordinance of Secession and was one of the immortal nine who refused to vote to repeal the ordinance, because the repealing ordinance declared that the ordinance of Secession was void and always had been void. He supported an amendment simply repealing the ordinance and upon its failure to pass, voted against the repealing ordinance. He was elected to the State Senate in 1868 but not allowed to serve because of political disabilities. He was elected again in 1870 and 1872 and was among the ablest of the body, serving each Session as Chairman of the Judiciary Committee. He drew the General Amnesty Act, which relieved former members of the Ku Klux Klan and others in Similar trouble from unlawful acts of bodies of men from prosecution. He was reared and spent his early manhood at a time when the rush did not prevent thorough preparation, and in the prime of his manhood he was one of the chief actors in the time that tried men's souls and developed men's character. He stood the test and was put in the forefront to work out a new civilization. He was a thorough and conscientious Lawyer and advisor and left his impress for good on the State and particularly on his Section. This Section has developed no better Lawyer or truer man and his influence for good cannot be overestimated. It is a great privilege to me to present this beautiful portrait.”

Acceptance of Portrait By L. A. Beasley, Esq.:

“Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: It is especially fitting that the first portraits to adorn the walls of our magnificent new court house include those who have done so much for the upbuilding of our Grand

Old County; and I esteem it quite an honor to be permitted to accept this portrait of Col. W. A. Allen on behalf of the Board of Commissioners and the people of Duplin County, his friends and their descendants. These portraits will remain upon these walls, a reminder of Duplin's Glorious past, an incentive to her youth in the future, a tribute of respect and affection, a stimulus to renewed exertion. The County may well feel proud of the record of Col. Wm. A. Allen, as a Lawyer, statesman and citizen, a man who gave the best part of his life to the upbuilding of the County of his adoption. His distinguished sons, Judge Oliver H. Allen and Associate Justice W. R. Allen, his daughter Miss Elizabeth Allen of the faculty of Louisburg College, three of his grand-daughters, Elizabeth and Dorothy Allen and Miss Martha Allen, and two of his grandsons, Matt H. and Connor M. Allen, both lawyers, are with us on this occasion and we welcome them to this County, the home of their distinguished ancestors.”

Mr. H. E. Faison of the Sampson Bar, presented the portrait of the late Capt. John D. Stanford, on behalf of the family, which was a gift of the family. Mr. Faison said:

“Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: I deem it quite an honor to be selected by the family and friends of Capt. John D. Stanford to present his portrait in this presence to the Court House Authorities of Duplin County. Capt. John D. Stanford was in every sense a Duplin County product. He was born March 5, 1833, two and one-half miles south of Kenansville on the Wilmington Road, the oldest son of Alexander Torrans Stanford and his wife, Martha Washington Dickson. His grandfather, Rev. Samuel Stanford, a native of Orange County, was a gallant Revolutionary soldier and fought in the battle of Camden and and the Cowpens against the bloody Tarleton. In the year 1790 after independence was secured he moved to Duplin County, was one of the pioneers of Presbyterianism in this section and was for years the Pastor of Grove Church. In this connection it may not be out of place to recall the fact that he was the minister who united in marriage Miss Rachel Miller, the grandmother of the artist who painted this portrait, to the Rev. Alexander McIver of Moore County. He married Miss Torrans whose other sisters married Mr. Bryant, Mr. Kenan and Mr. Shine. Mr. John D. Stanford was prepared for college at the Grove Academy under Mr. Jas. M. Sprunt and finished his college education at the Columbia University in Washington City in the year 1854. He read law with Daniel Reid, Esq., at Kenansville, N. C., who occupied the office now occupied by John A. Gavin, Jr., Esq., secured his county license in 1856 and his Superior Court license in 1857 and married Miss Alice A. Spicer of Onslow County in 1860. Under the English






System the practice of the law was divided up: one Lawyer was called the Barrister or Counsellor who prepared the pleadings and the evidence and got the case ready for trial; the other was known as the Advocate, who presented the case to the Court and jury. Our friend, Capt. Stanford, belonged to the latter class, and in this class he easily stood at the head. He was in every sense a great advocate. He knew the people of Duplin County better perhaps than any other man of his generation. In this forum and before a Duplin County jury, he was practically invincible. On the records of this court and the old County court are recorded the great and numerous victories he won over his brethern of the bar and from term to term as you read the Minutes of the court his great success as a jury Lawyer stands out. This sketch of Capt. Stanford would not be complete without some reference to his public life and the great service he rendered his State and County. As a member of the General Assembly, he served the people of the County almost continuously from the year 1858 until 1889, nearly a generation, and his record as a Legislator reflects great credit upon the people of his native county. For years he was an important member of the committee that built up for the State its great charitable institutions, and his was the first voice raised in the Legislative halls to do some justice to the poor Confederate Soldier.

. . . “He was at his best when he took the stump with a legislative journal under his arm and a linen coat on his back, shelling the woods for democracy.

“He was happy in his style of oratory, easily exposed the fallacies of his opponent, with pleasant anecdote or compelling logic, readily capturing the crowd and putting his opponent to flight. The people of Duplin County believed in him, they gave him their political confidence, and he faithfully served them. He was Duplin County's greatest Commoner. In after years he quit the practice of the law, gave up politics and joined the Presbyterian Ministry, and like his grandfather pointed his fellow man the way of eternal life. In Church and state he was liberal in his views, firm in his convictions and just to his fellow man. The poor, weak and oppressed, had in him a great champion and no people ever had a greater advocate. Mr. Chairman, this portrait is presented in the name of his family and friends. It is a faithful likeness of the great advocate at the Bar, this champion of the popular rights of the people of Duplin County. Let it in common with the others prove an incentive to the youth of Duplin County to inspire them to greater achievements and more patriotic endeavor.”

H. D. Williams, Esq., accepting the portrait on behalf of Commissioners and the people of the County said:

“Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: The life and character of Capt. Stanford having been so well portrayed by Mr. Faison, I feel myself at a loss to supplement what he has so well said of him, who in the strictest sense was the greatest Commoner Duplin has ever had. It was not my good fortune to know Capt. Stanford while at the bar, and my knowledge of his career as a practitioner has been gained from the older members, his family, friends and the records of this County.

“It is said of him that the first case he ever had was when he defended a young man, the son of a widowed mother, acquitted him before the jury, and when he received his fee gave it back to the poor woman to buy provisions for herself and family. Such acts of kindness characterized him at the bar, and marked him early in life as a friend of the common people. As a jury lawyer he was without a peer in this County, and he reached the climax of his career in the defense of a murderer of this county in 1882 who everyone thought guilty until Stanford had spoken to the jury and his speech acquitted the criminal, and it was said by the late Judge McRae who was presiding at the trial that it was the best speech he ever heard in a court house in the defense of any man. The good that Capt. Stanford did for the county can never be overestimated, his was a life of devoted service both to country and to his God, and he ever rendered unto his fellowman his just dues. In these distinguishing characteristics he was truly loved by all the people.”

Mr. Judd Croom, one of Duplin's oldest citizens, paid a beautiful tribute to the memory of Col. Allen as a soldier, in whose Company he was private, how his kindness to his men made him a favorite Commander in the Confederate Service and of his loyalty and devotion to the cause he so nobly espoused.

Capt. Jack Andrews, an old and aged citizen, now nearing his 88th birthday, a life long friend of both Col. Allen and John D. Stanford paid a tribute to them. His acquaintance with them which lasted so long as their friendship to him which was unbroken, and every kind, made the knowledge of their memory ripe with him, and that all too soon he would join them out yonder in that great beyond to renew that friendship and that acquaintance here made on earth.

At the conclusion of the exercises, the Chairman, Col. John D. Kerr, of the Sampson Bar, spoke of his acquaintance with the gentlemen whose portraits have been here presented, and of their influence for good upon the morals of the county and the progress in the lives that had made for a better development of the County which was prompted by the teachings of these beloved brethern of the bar who have crossed over the river and now rest under the shade of the trees.






J. O. Carr, Esq., of the New Hanover Bar (formerly of Duplin) introduced the following resolution: Resolved: That the Secretary of this meeting keep an accurate copy of these exercises, and that the Minutes so kept, be signed by the Chairman and Secretary, and that one copy be spread upon the minutes of this court and that a copy be furnished the Clerk to the Board of County Commissioners, to be spread upon the Minutes of that Board. The resolution was accordingly carried. In pursuance of the above resolution we have the honor to submit herewith a true copy of the proceedings and exercises held in the court house on Monday, September the 1st, 1913.

John D. Kerr,

Chairman.

R. D. Johnson,

Secretary.

(Court Minutes, Book 6, Page 87.)

CHARGE TO GRAND JURY

And County Officials Et. al. by

Henry A. Grady, Judge.

Fall Term—1933.

Mr. Foreman, Gentlemen of the Grand Jury, County Officers, Ladies and Gentlemen:

Several years ago Prof. Albert Coates of the University Law School, acting in co-operation with various other parties who were interested in Government, its history and functions, undertook to establish what they were pleased to call The Institute of Government; which is an association of public officers from the Governor of the State down to and including Township Constables, who meet at stated times for the discussion of public problems, the interchange of ideas, and the promotion of good Government by intelligent co-operation. One of the primary objects of the Institute is the establishment of a School of Instruction at the University, where those who have been elected or appointed to office may receive reliable information in respect to their duties; information which will enable them to discharge those duties not only with efficiency and honesty, but with some degree of satisfaction to the people who have elevated them to positions of trust.

As a kind of forerunner or adjunct to this Institute of Government, the several Judges of the Superior Court have been requested to deliver lectures from time to the officials of the several counties, and to invite to such lectures all those who have an interest in Government and the proper administration of the law.

This program has caused me to invite to this meeting the several County officers, School Teachers, pupils in advanced grades, and such

others as may be concerned with civic righteousness, in popular education, and in common honesty. What I shall say will concern the origin of our State Government, the development of its official life, with certain comments upon the duties which we, as officers, owe to the State, and to the people who have elected us.

In the limited time at my disposal I cannot possibly go into detail, or do more than scratch the surface of Government, its development and evolution. However, I shall try to deal with some features of that development that are worth while, especially to those who are engaged in the administration of the law; and there is no better place to discuss those matters than in the presence of a Grand Jury.

When we consider that government, as we understand the term, is the result of thousands of years of experience; that those habits and customs which crystalized into English law and English Institutions were in existence in Northern Germany for more than 1,000 years before America was discovered, we can easily see that only the merest mention of some of them would be possible at this time.

Much of our history is mythical, veiled in obscurity, or confused in the partisan legends of biased writers. The Story of Mankind, the socalled history of the human race, has been written by the dominant tribes, who were unwilling to tell the truth on themselves, or do justice to the vanquished. The weaklings, the conquered races have never lifted their voices in defense of their rights; or if so, the story was tabooed by those in authority and thrown into the waste-basket of oblivion. However, we do know that for the Fatherland of the English race we must look far away from England itself. In the fifth Century after Christ, the one Country which bore the name of England was what we now call Schleswich, a district in the heart of the peninsula which parts the Baltic from the Northern Seas. The dwellers in this district were one of those three tribes, all belonging to the low German branch of the Teutonic family, who, at the moment when history discovers them were bound together in a confederacy by the ties of a common blood and a common speech. To the North of the English lay the tribe of of the Jutes, whose name is still preserved in their District of Jute-land or Jutland. To the South of them the tribe of the Saxons wandered over the sand flates of Holstein, and along the Marshes of Frieslane and the Elbe River, although these people were all known to the Romans as Saxons, who touched them only on the South where the Saxons dwelt, the three tribes bore among themselves the name of Englishmen. And the name English is from the original word Angle. We know the three sets of tribes as Anglo-Saxons.

In the year 449, two brothers from Schleswich, Hengest and Horsa,






landed at Ebbsfleet, on the Island of Thanet, on the Southeastern coast of England, bringing with them several ship-loads of soldiers. They gained easy access to the mainland, gave battle to the Britons, and Horsa was slain. He was buried beneath a large pile of Flint rock, and the place was called “Horsted” in his honor.

Hengest and his army over-ran the Island, and established a Government of their own upon the ruins of old Britan. The completeness of the conquest is shown by the fact that they gave to the new Country not only their name but their language, their customs and their laws; and while the nomenclature of the law, both in England, and in America, is largely influenced by Latin and Norman French derivatives, the spoken word that we hear in everyday conversation is practically the same language used by our ancestors in Northern Germany, who drove the Celtic tribes out of Britan, or intermarried with them, or slaughtered them, so that their language has been lost, and their identity as a race in England destroyed. Our language is Anglo-Saxon, with some borrowings from the neighboring tribes; and the original Celtic tongue of old Britain has taken refuge in Wales, and some parts of Ireland and Scotland.

These people seem to have had a genius for self government, for law and order. There was a virility about them, an aggressiveness and tenacity of purpose, which not only withstood the shock of the Norman Conquest in 1066, but was sufficient to transmit even to the generation in which we live, the laws, customs and Institutions which prevailed in Schleswich more than a Thousand Years before the discovery of America; for in personal appearance, in manners, customs and ideals, we are pretty much the same kind of people as those who landed at Ebbsfleet 1,340 years before the adoption of the Federal Constitution. Practically every white person living in this County is related by blood to these Anglo-Saxon invaders. We have in us a liberal admixture of Irish, French and High German; but the predominant strain is Anglo-Saxon. We should feel no shame in claiming kin with a race which has given to the World so many Philosophers, which has never been out-witted in diplomacy, and which has preserved intact, to all intents and purposes, the same form of government for more than ten centuries—longer than the life of any other Kingdom upon the face of the earth. All of which was due to their genius for government, their knowledge of human nature, and their ability to control themselves in times of stress.

Knowledge is power. Ignorance is the greatest curse that government has to contend with, whether that government be Legislative, Executive or Judicial. The English settlers in North Carolina were unlettered; they were ignorant; the same was true of the Irish and German immigrants; but they have succeeded in spite of this awful handicap. It is

the driving force within us, the Anglo-Saxon genius for self government, tempered by the imagination of the Irish and the sturdy qualities of the German, that has sufficed to overcome the handicap of ignorance and superstition; these are the things that have made us what we are here in North Carolina. If the result is bad, we can't help it; for no man can choose his own ancestors.

In the early days of this Commonwealth our forefathers had to rely upon the instinct rather than the culture of the citizens; and this was particularly true in respect to public officers. Corruption in office always has been, and always will be an ugly factor in popular government. This thing that we call Government is a human Institution; it is made up of common clay, just as common as the clay of the average man; it is no better and no worse than the men who compose it. However, it is my personal observation, and my honest belief that men usually want to do the right thing; and will do the right thing if left alone to do their own thinking.

Ignorance, Superstition, and Religious Fanaticism are responsible for all of the Wars that have cursed the human race; and they are responsible for 90 percent of the ills that we endure; and, I can say with perfect candor that the one word—IGNORANCE—is the father of the other two; for superstition and religious fanaticism are but the off-spring of Ignorance. Religious fanaticism placed in the first Constitution of this State a proviso that no one except a believer in the Protestant Christian religion could hold office in North Carolina. When Judge William Gaston, a Catholic, was elected to the Supreme Court Bench, his great learning, private virtues and nobility of soul were so outstanding that no man had the courage to deny him a seat on the Bench, although he was disqualified under the law. He took his seat, and no State in the American Union ever had a wiser, nobler or juster judge. It is but proper to say that this proviso was struck out of the Constitution as soon as possible. Our people were ashamed of themselves.

Mr. Foreman and Gentlemen of the Grand Jury: I regret to say to you that people as a rule know very little about Government. They have never had an opportunity to learn much about public affairs. It is not taught in the public schools except in a most superficial manner. The very word Government has a fearful sound to many people. I can testify to that fact from my own personal experience. When I was a boy, over in “Chocolate,” in Albertson Township, sometimes my father would come back from Kenansville with some Judge of the Superior Court, or, maybe a Congressman, and they would sit by the fire at night and talk about the Constitution and Government in words so ponderous and fearful that I was afraid to go out to the well after a bucket of






water for fear one of those awful creatures would get me in the dark. After listening to them for several hours I came to the conclusion that the Constitution was something like the Peace of God, which passeth all understanding, and that Government was some kind of a Banshee that got after little boys, and that, worst of all it was responsible for the Tariff and pensions for Yankee Soldiers. That was when I was a child. Since then I have come to know that the Constitution is nothing but an agreement, entered into by the people or their duly elected representatives, for the government of the State in one instance, and of the United States in the other. Mr. Hendryk Van Loon, the great Dutch Writer, who has become a citizen of the United States, says in one of his latest books, that the Constitution of the United States is as simple a document as was ever penned by men; and that its very simplicity is its most enduring quality. There is nothing holy or sacrosanct about a Constitution; it is neither intricate nor abstruse, save when intricate and abstruse interpretations are put upon it by designing politicians. Both the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of North Carolina, are just as simple as they should be; they are not absolutely permanent, for they can be altered, amended or repealed, to suit the shifting conditions of the times. In this discussion I am dealing only with the Constitution of the State. The people made it; and the people can unmake it. It is theirs to do with as they please.

Government is the Constitution at work. We see it going on about us every day: this Court, the several offices of the County, the Public School System, road building, progress in the several departments of human conduct—all these things are contemplated by the Constitution. The Constitution is more or less stable; it may be changed, it is true, but not so easily as Government. It is provided in the Constitution that the Government of the State shall be changed every four years, and that the Government of the County shall be changed every two years. When Government becomes oppressive the people have a right to declare its unfitness at the ballot box. Frequent elections have proven to be the safety valve of popular liberty.

Some of you gentlemen here in this Court room have been elected to office in this County. When you came before the Clerk to be qualified, you took a solemn oath that you would support the Constitution of the United States; that you would be faithful and bear true allegiance to the State of North Carolina, and to the Constitutional powers and authorities which are, or may be, established for the government thereof. For the time being, and until it is amended or altered in accordance with law, you are honor bound to support the Constitution of this State, and be faithful to the Government operating under it. It is well for every

public officer to remember that at all times. All of the offices now established in this State are sanctioned by the Constitution.

I have promised to talk to you about the origin and development of the Government under which we live; and especially the origin and evolution of our system of laws. It must be remembered that the customs and traditions of this State were borrowed almost in a body from the mother Country; and these customs were brought into England by the Anglo-Saxons in 449, as already stated. The earliest conception of Government among English speaking people was based upon independent communities—small territories where everybody in the community knew everybody else. Such system prevailed in Schleswich before the Anglo-Saxon invasion of England, and it is laid down in the Enactments of Alfred the Great of England as being a wise and beneficient rule; and upon this custom we have builded the idea of local self government here in North Carolina.

Under this system the Kingdom was divided into Shires or Counties, each County being governed by an officer appointed by the King; Counties were subdivided into Hundreds, corresponding to our Townships; and it was supposed in the Hundreds or Townships that every man in them was acquainted with every other man who resided within their boundaries. A recognized head of each Hundred was responsible to his immediate superior, and through him to the King. In this manner there was always some representative of the Government near at hand, to whom complaints might be made by the citizens, and through whom the citizens might seek a redress of grievances. Under such a system every man was easily accessible for all purposes of government, such as levying taxes, mustering in for military training, or the service of process from the Courts. The present Counties in England are almost identical in respect to their boundaries with the Shires laid out by Alfred the Great sometime prior to the year 901. The chief Judicial officer of a shire was called the Shire-reeve, which word has been corrupted into our word Sheriff. Ancient England with its Shires or Counties, its Hundreds or Townships, and its Tuns or Towns, each with its own governing body was very much like our own State. This plan of having small governmental districts in which all of the people were acquainted is of great advantage in any democratic or republican form of government. As a necessary result of this custom the people of England, who moved about very little, intermarried with their neighbors, and in the course of time all of the people who dwelt in any particular Hundred, or Township, would be related by blood; and often the entire population of such District would take as their family name, the name of the District in which they lived. In such manner did the names Lancaster, Whitaker,






Broadhurst, Blackmore, and many others arise, too numerous to mention. I will tell you something about family names a little later in this charge.

When the Colony of North Carolina seceded from King George III of England, and set up a government of its own, there were very few changes in the habits and customs of the people. Before the Declaration of Independence we had a Governor, we had Courts, we had an Assembly of representatives which met at various places in the Colony; we had Sheriffs, Constables, Clerks and Justices of the Peace. In many instances these officers were allowed to retain their positions under the State, simply by taking an oath of allegiance. The people moved along in the same old ruts. In fact, people change very slowly in their habits and customs. Our habits are a part of us; just like our speech, our religion, and usually our politics; we inherited them from our ancestors. Even so pronounced an upheaval as the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, according to Froude, the Historian, failed to bring about any decided changes in the habits of the people. Many a rustic, living in the Hinterland of Great Britain went about his business in the usual manner. He probably never heard of William the Norman, or how Harold, the King, had been shot in the eye and killed at the battle of Hastings. In fact, he didn't care much about it anyway.

Here in North Carolina men went about their usual occupations, just as is if nothing had happened; they swapped their raw products for rum and molasses; they traded horses, some of them went to Church, some went to school, but not many; and the man in the Styx didn't know or care who was running the Government of the State; whether it was Richard Caswell, the rebel Governor, or old George Guelph, the German King of England. In fact, people care very little about Government so long as it doesn't interfere with their business. That one peculiarity of the people is largely responsible for the present control of our Governments, State and National, by Multimillionaires, International Bankers and the Great Power and Tobacco Trusts. The people have gone to sleep and the Government has been taken over and plundered by the favored few. Many years ago some wise man said that “Eternal Vigilance is the price of Liberty.” That injunction is just as sound today as it was in 1776, or at any other time in the World's history. I could dwell at some length on this subject; but must pass it along.

Over in England, and here in America, when we were a Province, there were certain officials who made up the Government; when we cut loose from the Mother Country we kept the same system; and there has been no substantial change in it up to the present time.

When I was in England several years ago, I could hardly tell the

difference between that Country and my own. They talked pretty much as we do; they wore clothes just as we do; they had the same manners and customs that we do, and, in fact, if I had not known better, I could well have supposed that I was in New York, Baltimore, or Raleigh, when I walked down the Streets of London. And so we people here are living pretty much under the same laws, the same customs, the same Institutions, that prevailed among our ancestors in England. We can't get away from our inheritances; we cannot lose our ancestors.

And so, Mr. Foreman and Gentlemen, as we are the creatures of habit, as we have inherited our habits and customs from England, and as all law is based upon custom, I will now discuss with you the origin of some of those customs and institutions which have crystalized in the form of law here in North Carolina. In the first place, the word office has a very significant meaning; like most of our law terms, it is derived from the Latin. Ob means before or against, and Facio means to do or perform some task. The Latin word is Officium, and it means to be faced with duty, or to stand before a task. Our ancestors remembered that meaning and whenever a new office was created they endeavored to name it according to the duties that it imposed upon the incumbent. The meaning of words is an interesting study as you will see from what I am going to say in respect to the several offices existing under our system of government. Let us begin with the word Constable. We all know what a Constable is; but what does the word mean? In ancient times horses were just as necessary in time of war as soldiers. Each soldier carried a heavy armour, weighing sometimes as much as seven or eight hundred pounds, and it required a strong, well trained horse to support him. In each Battalion or Legion there had to be a keeper of the horse, a man well trained, whose duty it was to feed them and keep them in proper shape for battle. He was a very important person, and he occupied pretty much the same position in those days that the Regimental Adjutant does at this time. The Latin word for Keeper is Comes, and the word for stable is stabulum; putting the two words together we have constabulum, and from this we take the word Constable. It simply means a keeper of the horse. It is rather peculiar that the word Marshal means the same thing, except that Marshal is Anglo-Saxon. This word was brought into England in 449 by Hengest and his followers. In that language Marah means a horse, and schal means a keeper; so that Marah-schal, or Marshal means a keeper of the horse—the same thing as Constable.

The functions of this office have varied from time to time. When England changed from a strictly military to a civil form of government, when shot and powder took the place of spears and battle axes, horses






were no longer necessary to the common soldier; there was no further need for a Keeper of the Horse, or Constable.

It happens that about this time the highways of England were infested with roving bands of robbers who preyed upon the traveling public to such an extent that the Government was compelled to patrol its roads. As these Constables were expert horsemen, they were assigned to that duty; and so, in this way, the Keeper of the Horse became the Keeper of the Peace; and that is what he is in North Carolina—the Chief Peace Officer of his Township.

Another word that the Normans brought into England is Coroner. It is from the Latin word, Corona, which means a crown, and refers to the King or Ruling Prince, who wore a crown. Coroner simply means a Crowner, that is, the King's Man. In ancient times his duties were manifold. He had the immediate investigation of all murders, arsons, burglaries, robberies, rapes and other felonies which, at that time, were punishable by death. He held his commission direct from the King. This office under our system of Government has become practically useless. All of its functions may now be performed by a Justice of the Peace, sitting as a Committing Magistrate, but it is retained, so far as I can see, simply as a matter of custom. It is another proof of the fact that we are unable to get rid of our ancestors.

The word Sheriff is pure Anglo-Saxon. He was the chief Judicial officer of the Shire or County. Shire is a variant of our word shear; and it means to cut off; so that a Shire was a piece of territory cut off from the balance of the Kingdom. Reeve means a ruler; and the Sheriff was originally the Chief Justice of County Court. He usually sat with two Barons, and the three made up what was called the Court Baron. In the course of time it became the custom for the chief Justice or Shire-reeve, to serve all writs issued by his Court. In performing these duties he took less interest in the sittings of the Court; and finally the custom became the law; he sat no longer as a Judge, but served only as a process officer of the Court. When North Carolina was established as a State, the Sheriffs who had represented the King were retained in office, if loyal to the State; but they had no judicial powers whatever.

The office of Sheriff was in existence in England long before the Norman Conquest in 1066. The Norman Government was strictly military, and they had no such office as a Sheriff; and so this name was retained in use although a pure Saxon word. Furthermore, it was an office with which the people had long been familiar. It was close to them, and they probably refused to give up the name. It is just another case of custom ruling the law.

After the Norman Conquest, the Courts as a matter of course, were controlled by them. Their Court language was Latin. Nobody was able to read and write in those days except the Priests, who were Roman Catholics. In fact it was considered disgraceful for a gentleman, a soldier or Knight, to have any literary training. Richard the Lion Hearted had to make his mark; he could neither read nor write. Even so late as the year 1513, Sir Walter Scott in his great Poem called Marmion, makes the Earl of Angus thank all the Saints that only one of his sons could read and write; and that son was a Bishop by the name of Gavin Douglass. It was very proper for a Bishop to read and write; but not so with gentlemen who lived by the sword. All Deeds were executed by means of a mark or sign. This was usually done by impressing the Seal on damp paper. This seal was usually attached to the Signet Ring of the Lord or gentlemen; and by this sign he was known among all other Lords and gentlemen. The Latin word for sign is Signum, and Sigillum means a little sign. From this word we have derived our word, seal; and that is why we say today that a man signs a deed; we ought to say “he subscribes his name” to the instrument; for in reality he does not sign it. This is the custom from which the use of seals arose. It is a useless custom and ought to be abolished. A man who can write his name needs no seal.

In those days papers were written by Priests, as they were the only people who could write. The Latin word for priests is Clericus. The Clericus became the reporter of the Court; and in course of time the name was shortened into Clerk. In England they call it Clark; just as they say Darbey for Derby. The family name of Clark, which is found nearly everywhere today, simply means that some ancestor of the family was a Clericus or Clerk, who wrote Deeds and other documents for the community, and so naturally he was called Mr. Clerk or Mr. Clark, just as we say Mr. Sheriff or Mr. Justice. Such names are plentiful all over the world.

Right here I might remark that family names were unknown prior to the 12th Century. Men had but one name originally, that which we call the Christian or personal name. In the course of time the population increased, and there were so many Johns, Jameses, Andrews, Williamses, etc., that they had to be designated by family or local groups. This necessity arose especially under military law, and surnames were applied to the several families or groups in order that the individuals might be found in case of need. But even after this custom arose, it was only the landed gentry that were allowed to have surnames. It was considered a distinct honor to have a surname; and these names were






sometimes adopted by the family and became established by usage; or they were conferred upon the owner by special warrant from the King or Lord of the Manor. Family names in England, Scotland, and in some cases, in Ireland, were derived from the occupation, place of residence, or some peculiarity of the person, or in the habits of the person who took them. Or, sometimes the name of the father, the personal name, was adopted with either a prefix or a suffix to indicate the relationship. The ordinary serf or common laborer, who was scarcely better than a slave, was not permitted to have a family name for many years after the custom was adopted by Nobility.

Here in North Carolina we have a great many names which arose from occupations, such as Smith, Carpenter, Joyner, Brewer, Tanner, Webster, Cooper, Fisher, and many others too numerous to mention. There was a blacksmith in every community who made the nails, plow shares, horse shoes and other necessary implements of iron or steel. In the beginning of the Empire such men had no name other than that given them by their mother, which was John, or James, or Peter, perhaps. The community by common consent call him “John the Smith,” or “James the Smith,” and in the course of time the word the was dropped, and he was simply called John Smith or Jas. Smith or Peter Smith. This word is from the Anglo-Saxon tongue, and means one who strikes, or smites iron. The name is found in all European Countries—Not, of course as Smith, but some word in the native tongue which means the same thing—one who strikes or who works in iron. If the smith specialized in gold, he was Goldsmith, if in silver, he was Silversmith. If he engaged in manufacturing horse-shoes, he took the name of Farrior, or Ferrior, which means one who works in iron. The Spanish name Farrar and the French name LeFevre, mean the same thing; they are all from the Latin word Ferrum, which means iron.

Other names which are familiar to all of us, were derived from some peculiarity of the person, or from the color of one's armor, or, perhaps of the skin, the eyes, or the hair. And so we have the family names of Brown, Black, Green, Blue and Redd. We also have the name Rouse, which means redheaded. Sometimes a name was taken from the locality in which the man lived; for instance, Broadhurst means a wide tract of woods; Whitehurst means a white forest; and the name Hurst means simply a forest or tract of woodland. Blackmore means a dark, boggy place; while the name Moore means a bog, or low meadow.

We also have such common family names as Branch, Brooks, Bowers, Forrest, Hill, Lake, Lea, and Woods—all indicating the place of residence of the person who first adopted the name.

And then too, there are numerous names which seem to indicate some

resemblance or similarity to an animal or bird; such as Lyon, Bear, Fox, Wolf, Hogg, Eagle, Hawks, Sparrow, Crow and Byrd.

I do not know it to be true, but I am of the opinion that the name Kornegay means Dark Grain. They came over here in 1710 with Baron De Graffenreid; they were Germans, and the German word K-o-rn means grain, such as wheat or barley; and the word Neger means dark. The name, therefore, may mean that the original person who adopted it was a farmer, and raised darkgrain. He was Kornneger.

I was reading sometime ago in one of our so-called Histories an account of the Wells family of Duplin County. The author claimed that the name was a corruption of the French word Vallee, which means valley in our language. This is evidently a far-fetched and imaginary meaning, for Wells is a German name. The word Wells is an old Saxon word, from the verb wellan, which means to boil.

Sheriff Williamson is of English stock. His name simply means a son of William. Alberet Timothy Outlaw, your Register of Deeds, is of English blood. His ancestors came here from County Bedford in England. The name suggests its origin. When rival claimants were aspiring to the Throne of England, and one of them won out, very little mercy was shown to his opponents. He and his adherents were outlawed; that is, they were declared beyond, or out of the law. Sometimes a price was put on their heads. Naturally they were called Outlaws. The name is variously spelled in England. It is Outlaw, Utlaw, Otlawe; and there are other spellings; but they all mean the same thing.

McGowen is a Scotch name, and means the son of Smith; Gowen and Cowen and Gow, all mean smith in the celtic language. We have these names here in North Carolina. Bowden is a corruption of Booth-den, which means a Booth or dwelling place in aden. Bowman means an archer—one who shoots with bows and arrows. Wallace is Scotch, and means little Gaul, or a person of the Gallic race. It used to be spelled Gallois.

We have in this County a name which is strangely mispronounced. I refer to the name Houston. It originated from a Welshman by the name of Hugh, who settled in England many years ago. He and his family founded a small village which they called Hugh's tun, or Hugh's town, for tun means town in the Saxon language. He and his descendants adopted the name of Hughstun. It was finally corrupted into H-o-u-s-t-o-n; but this is wrong, absolutely wrong. The name should be pronounced Hughston, not House-ton.

Another old family name in Duplin is Maxwell. It was originally Maccuswell. Long before the invasion of William the Norman a certain Scotsman by the name of Max, owned a large tract of land on the Tweed River. There was a valuable well or pool on the land, and the place






naturally took the name of Maccus'well. Maccus is the Latin form of Max. The name Maxwell as it is now spelled, was first assumed by Hubert Maccuswell about the year 1116.

Coming to the local Bar of this County I will take the name Beasley. This word was originally Bees-lea, and means a meadow or lea, where bees were kept, or it probably means a keeper of bees. This latter meaning is the more probable.

Williams is a Welsh name, and means the son of William. In Wales, when a family or surname was coined out of a Christian or personal name, they added an apostrophee and an s, thus putting the word in the possessive case. Thus William, the father, had a son named John. This son would be John William's, or of William. The apostrophee was finally dropped and left the word as we now have it—Williams. Jones in Welsh means the son of John. Evans means the son of Evan; Matthews means the son of Matthew. We have a number of such Welsh names here in North Carolina.

Gavin is pure Scotch and means a Battle-hawk, or falcon used to carry messages in time of War—just as we use Carrier pigeons today.

Boney is probably from the French word Bonnet, which means a woolen cap, and may refer to the habit of the man in wearing a cap or hat of wool.

Blanton, I take it, is also French; and, if so, it is from the two words Blanc, which means white or clean, and ton which means color or hue. If this is the derivation it simply means the White man, just as we have the name in English, Whitman, which was originally white-man.

Ward is Norman French, and means a guard or warder. It was a military title assumed by the keepers of Castles.

Cordell is pure French and means one who handled the tow-line on a ship. It was a nautical term, and shows that the original ancestor was a sailor, whose duty it was to handle the tow-line.

Johnson is English, and means a son of John; and John is from the Hebrew and means God hath been gracious. I am not advised as to whether or not Rivers’ people knew the meaning of that word when they named him.

Stevens means the son of Stephen. It is Welsh. Stephen means a crown, and the name originated from the fact that the owner of the first surname lived on the crown or top of a hill. Turner comes from an occupation and needs no explanation.

Carlton used to be Carrolton, and meant Carrols-town. Carroll means strong; and so the name Carlton really means the City of the Strong man.

Gresham is Anglo-Saxon and means Great House. It was originally Gross-ham. Gross means great, and ham means house or home.

One other name I will mention and then proceed with the regular order of business. I refer to the name John. There is no other name in the whole world that has met with such universal favor as a baptismal or Christian name. It is found among all races, white, brown, yellow and black, who have, in any manner been influenced by the Old Testament.

This word is first mentioned in II Kings, Chapter 25 and the 23rd verse, in the form of J-o-h-a-n-a-n, which, in the Hebrew language means, God hath been gracious. It was the natural exclamation of the Hebrew mother when she was told that she had given birth to a man child. In ancient Rome the word was Johannes; in Modern Italy it is Giovanni; in Russia it is Ivan; in Wales it is Evan; in Scotland it is Ian (pronounced Ee-yon); in Germany it is Johann; in France it is Jean; in Spain it is Juan; in Holland it is Jan; and from this ancient Hebrew word we have also the surnames of Johnson, Jones, Evans, McEwwn, McCann, and various others too numerous to mention. The world is full of Johns whether God has been gracious or not.

Now gentlemen, this short dissertation on the meaning of names has nothing whatever to do with the business of the Court; but it is an interesting study, and I feel that the time has not been wasted. I have known several gentlemen who offered large sums of money for a certified family tree that would connect them up with some well known character of the past. I must now return to my subject, which is the common law of England, and the origin and meaning of the offices that are provided for under our state Constitution. The next office that I will mention is that of Justice of the Peace. Justicia in Latin means one who loves justice; and the root word is justus, our word just; so that a Justice of the Peace was a man who was just and honest in preserving the Peace of the Kingdom—a man who loved justice. He was appointed by the King because of his high character, and he sat in judgment upon his neighbors. It is a very fine word—this word Justice. Like the majority of law terms it came into England from Normandy with William the Conqueror. In the early days when the population was sparse the King went about the Country, and sat in Judgment at such places as suited him. He was the source of all power, and his judgment was final. He usually sat with his advisors within some walled enclosure. The Latin word for such place was Cortis, from which we derive our word Court. Inside of this Cortis or Court was the Hall, where the King and his advisers sat; and this place was called the






Aula Regis, or Hall of the King; and so this Court was known for many years as The Aula Regis. But the common people referred to it as The Court. After the population increased and the business of the Courts became congested and the King was unable to handle it in person, he appointed certain officers to conduct these Courts for him. They were called Justiciars; and the Court was then called the Court of King's Bench. These Justiciars rode their various circuits, held Court and administered justice as best they could; but the litigants had a right of appeal to the King. As time progressed, and business increased, these Justiciars found it impossible to dispose of the great accumulation of cases. These Justiciars were usually Churchmen, who were educated; they felt that some lesser tribunal should be established for the trial of petty causes; and that these tribunals should be presided over by a local man in each County of the Realm, authorizing him to try all petty misdemeanors, and certain civil matters which were considered too trivial to be brought before the Justiciars. He called the officers Justices of the Peace.

The powers and privileges of this office were changed from time to time, to suit the needs of the hour. The number was increased, and finally each Hundred or Township had a local Justice who was known to all the people in that District, and this brought it home to the people in such a way that it became very popular as an Institution. Finally we find that several Justices were required to sit together, and to ride the circuit, with wider jurisdiction, and greater power. This Court was then known as the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, because they sat each Quarter at some designated place in the County. And they administered what was known as the Common Law of England. These Justices were not required to be educated—not in books, at least; but they had to be well informed as to the customs of the realm.

Many people will inquire then, What is meant by the Common Law of England? It will be remembered that in the early days nobody could read and write except the priests, and their writings were mostly in Latin or Norman French. The King, the old Common Law Judges, the Sheriffs—none of these could read or write. The only officer of the Court who knew his letters was the Clericus, the Clerk. The Common Law was made up of certain rules of civil conduct, which derived their authority from long usage or custom, and which have immemorially been received and recognized by Judicial Tribunals. As the Common Law can be traced to no positive statute, its rules or principles are to be found only in the records of the Courts and in the reports of judicial decisions. In other words, the Common Law of England consisted of those rules of conduct, customs and traditions of the people, which had existed so

long that the memory of man runneth not to the contrary; and this means that these customs had existed so long that no living man could remember when a different rule or custom prevailed. The Judges, while unlettered, were supposed to know the manners and customs of the people, and especially those customs which ran beyond the memory of man; and were, therefore, declared to be the law. When the Parliament in later years began to enact statutes, when men became educated, the laws so enacted were designated as the Written Law, or Lex Scripta, to distinguish them from the Common Law or Lex Non Scripta. Many of our statutes here in North Carolina are simply declarations by the General Assembly of what the Common Law formerly was. It has been declared by the Courts of this State many times that the Common Law of England prevails here, except where it has been expressly abrogated by statute. This instinctive veneration for custom, and the ancient Latin rule that Custom rules the Law (Mos legem regit, in the Latin phrase), is evident by the decisions of our Supreme Court in Kay-V-Menzies, 186 N. C. Report, at page 149, that “Where there is a well known custom, which obtains in a given trade or business, it is presumed that all persons engaged in such trade or business, where it prevails, contract with a view to such custom or usage, unless such presumption is excluded by the contract of the parties.”

The Law of Negotiable Instruments, which makes up an entire Chapter in Our North Carolina Code, is simply a declaration by the Legislature of what the Common Law or Law Merchant was prior to its passage. The Law Merchant of England was not written; it was just a system of rules, accepted by the business men of England in reference to the obligation assumed by them as makers, endorsers or guarantors of negotiable instruments. This system became a part of the law of this State after the Revolution.

The office of Register of Deeds was unknown in England. It is strictly an American Institution. It is found in practically all of the States. Sometimes it is called Recorder of Deeds, sometimes, Register, and at others, the duties are imposed upon the Clerk of the County Court or Prothonotary. The need of such an office has been recognized in England, and they are now imitating us in this respect.

Our County Government is copied largely from the English Constitution. Prior to the Norman Conquest each County was governed by a Sheriff and an Alderman. These two, sitting together, performed those duties which are now discharged by the Board of Commissioners. In early days the duties of these gentlemen were performed by the old County Court. We have changed the name of the office; but the functions are the same.






Our Departmment of Education is strictly American in character; during Colonial days there was much prejudice against education; the priests of the Church of England were heartily despised by the average citizen, and they had a contempt for his learning. As time progressed and Independence came, men began to see that some sort of Education was essential. It was seen that the ignorant boy was unable to compete with the educated one. With this knowledge, the man in the Styx began to wake up; the public conscience was quickened, and the need of a common school education became a paramount issue with the people. There is no office in this State of more importance than that of Superintendent of Schools, or membership on the Board of Education. It ought to be a serious crime, indeed, it is a crime, for any man to rear in this state an unlettered family of children. A man may be ever so poor, which is no disgrace; but if he is educated, if he is enlightened, if his mind has been trained to think and to enjoy the lofty thoughts and ideas of the great men of the past, he will never be absolutely unhappy. The body may be at rest, but if the mind can travel, if it can reach out into the depths of space, if it can go sight-seeing down the highways of Science, Invention, Philosophy and Art; though its surroundings may be poor, such a mind can find contentment. Such a mind is not afraid. This is the object of education. It fits a man for this battle that we call Life; it establishes him in his own reputation; it gives him self confidence. He is no longer like the poor Incas of Peru, who fought the cut-throats from Spain with bows and arrows; and who went down in defeat before the deadly rifles of the enemy; such a man has a rifle of his own. I am willing always to take off my hat to an educated man. We have here in North Carolina a very fine system of public education. It is not perfect; but it is very good. It is our duty to encourage those who are engaged in that department of Government, to lend them a helping hand; and in the course of time we may be able to say to the balance of the World: This is our system—come and see it, for it is the best on Earth.

And now, Mr. Foreman and Gentlemen of the Grand Jury, I shall leave the subjects that I have discussed, and endeavor to aid you as best I can in the performance of your duties as Grand Jurors. The Grand Jury, as an institution, has existed over in England for something more than eight hundred years. The word Juror is a corruption of the old Latin word, coming to us through the Norman-French, Jureor, which means one who has been sworn. Just when the system of trial by Jury began is unknown. Even the greatest of English Historians admit that its origin is veiled in antiquity. Running through the old records of the Priests, we find at time some mention of the word Juror, and of

trials by free-holders; but all that we can say with any degree of assurance is that the system was in vogue during the reign of King Henry II, which was from 1155 to 1189 A. D. In the beginning there was no difference between the Grand and Petty Jury. One body of men performed the functions both of a Grand Inquest, or Inquisitorial Body, and as a trial jury. It was not limited to 12 men, nor was a unanimous verdict required. If the Jury disagreed, others were called in and added to the body until so many as 12 were able to agree, and in this manner verdicts were rendered.

When sitting as a Petty Jury it seems that it was customary for the Presiding Judge to ask questions in the trial of Civil Causes; and in the discussion that arose, 12 men would finally agree upon a verdict which was accepted by the Court.

When sitting as a Grand Jury, or Grand Inquest as it is sometimes called, evidence was offered and the Jury simply declared whether or not it suspected the defendant of being guilty. If they did not suspect him, he was discharged. If they did suspect him, he was put upon trial; and upon trial the burden was on him to prove his innocence; for, after he had been suspected by the Grand Jury, he was presumed to be guilty. The accusee had an election of several methods of trial. First, he could demand the ordeal of Compurgation, which was a trial before several free-holders, drawn from the community where the accused person lived, and who declared upon oath (Compurgation meaning a cleansing together) whether or not they believed him when he swore to his innocence. Their judgment as to his veracity was based upon their personal knowledge of the man. Their judgment was therefore the judgment of his neighbors, of those who knew him; and it is said that Justice was usually administered in this way with surprising correctness.

If the accused was afraid of his neighbors, he had another method of trial, known as the Ordeal of Water, another by fire; both of which were performed by the Priests. The accused was turned over to the Church; Solemn prayer was offered, the blastments of God were called down upon all who doubted the correctness of the decision; water was then heated to the boiling point, some small object was placed at the bottom of the tub, and the accused was required to reach for the object with naked hand. If his hand came out unscalded, he was pronounced innocent; if scalded, he was adjudged guilty.

The ordeal of Fire was equally as silly. In this ceremony the accused was required to walk over a series of red hot irons, with bare feet. If he was innocent the Lord was supposed to come to his rescue and save him; but if the Lord failed to protect him, he came out with blistered






feet and with a death sentence staring him in the face. It is almost impossible for us to believe that such silly, monstrous and inhuman practices prevailed among our ancestors less than 800 years ago. One can easily imagine, and I have read in some books of recognized worth, how the right culprit bought his peace with the Priests, and how the poor man met his doom just as the poor man has always done in this wicked world where the love of money is the root of all evil.

Yet these detestable rites were supposed to have Divine sanction. The poor people really believed that God entered into the ordeal and directed the result through his Priest craft. The abolition of such ordeals by an enlightened public opinion, and the establishment of trials by jury upon sworn testimony, speaks in thunder tones against the usurpation of any Governmental function by priests, prelates or any other ecclesiastical bigot; and I am happy to know that here in North Carolina, and in the United States of America, there has been a complete separation of Church and State; and that in the administration of Government, the Ecclesiastics have no voice, other than admonitions from the pulpit. This is as it should be. The Church, like Government, is administered by human beings. If it is holy, it is so because holy men control it; but no man, or set of men, can be intrusted to interpret the will of God so long as the well being of the interpreter is at stake, or when such interpretation will put money into his pocket. Anathemas and Excommunication are things of the past; they no longer appeal to men of common sense; they carry no terrors to the sane, they put no fear in the righteous; for the world is rapidly coming to the conclusion that:

“The honest, well intended man,Who tries to do the best he can,Need never fear the Church's ban,Nor Hell's damnation;For God will need no special plan,For his salvation.”

The passage of time, the spread of knowledge, a quickened public conscience, molded in large degree by the precepts of the Sermon on the Mount, have brought about many changes in the Jury System. Today we have two separate and distinct bodies; one is the Grand Jury or Grand Inquest of the County, composed of 18 men; the other is the petty Jury, composed of 12 men. This system, like many others adopted by us, has proven to be the best that human ingenuity can fashion for the trial of causes, or for the investigation of public matters, where the State as a party is interested. While no merely human institution can be perfect, the Jury system is the best we know; and until our

Constitution is changed, it will be the only method by which causes can be determined in our Courts of Justice.

Our forefathers fought for it, and we should be slow to change it.

A Grand Jury is composed of 18 free-holders who reside in the County where the Court is being held. The duties and responsibilities of a Grand Jury are manifold; most of them are fixed by statute, but many of them are established by custom, just as custom established the common law of Great Britain. Like all deliberative bodies it has a Chairman, or Foreman, who presides at all meetings, and who is armed with certain powers and privileges that his fellows do not enjoy. He is the only member of the Grand Jury who can administer an oath; he is the only member who comes in direct contact with the Court; he is the only member who can grant excuses or leaves of absence to other members; he is the only member who has the right to bring into the Court a Bill of Indictment after it has been passed upon by his fellows; he is the lawful custodian of all papers sent to the Grand Jury, and he is responsible to the Court for all such documents. And so, Mr. Foreman, and gentlemen, with these preliminary remarks upon the duties of the Foreman, I will now take up and discuss with you the duties of the entire panel.

It requires the unanimous approval of 12 members of the Grand Jury when acting in any capacity. A bare majority is not sufficient. This being true, it would not be proper for the Foreman to excuse more than six members at one and the same time. The presence of twelve members is absolutely essential at all times.

It has been my custom for several years past to make certain suggestions to Grand Juries, which, if followed, will enable them to transact business more hurriedly, and I shall make those suggestions to you at this time. The most important function of a Grand Jury is the finding of Bills of Indictment. All Bills are prepared by the Solicitor, or by some one under his direction; they are signed by him, and each Bill contains one or more charges against one or more persons. Each charge in a Bill of Indictment is called a Count, and there may be as many counts as the Solicitor sees fit to insert therein. Each Count is an accusation, or information furnished to the State through the Grand Jury, upon which, when a True Bill is found, the party is put upon trial before the Judge and Petty Jury. The word Indict is from the Latin word indictus, which means an accusation. Endorsed upon each bill you will find the names of the witnesses for the State, who are to be examined by you. No other witness can be interrogated by the Grand Jury unless his name be added to the Bill by the Solicitor. Neither is the Grand Jury at liberty to discuss any Bill of Indictment with any






person, or receive any information concerning the charge in the Bill, except from witnesses whose names appear upon it, or who are sent to you by the Court and Solicitor. This warning does not apply, however, to matters of law or legal inference; because you are at liberty at any time to come before the Court for instruction upon matters of this kind.

When a Bill of Indictment is sent to you for action, I suggest that you read it over in the presence of the entire Grand Jury; so that every member may know and understand the nature of the matters under investigation. The Foreman should then request the officer of the Grand Jury to call into the room all of those whose names appear upon the Bill. Then the Foreman should administer to them the oath, which is done in this way: Each witness must place his right hand upon the Bible, or New Testament, and the Foreman then says to them: “You and each of you do solemnly swear that the evidence given by you in this investigation shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth; so help you God.” Each witness should then kiss the Book, else the oath would not be a binding one under the law. All of the witnesses, save one, should then be excused from the Grand Jury room, and you should examine them one at a time. Any member of the Grand Jury can conduct the examination; and the purpose of such examination should be to draw from the witness everything that he or she may know of and concerning the charges or counts in the Bill of Indictment. Each witness is compelled under the law to answer all questions asked him, unless such answer would tend to degrade or incriminate him. If a witness refuses to answer, he should be reported to the Presiding Judge who has the power to punish him for contempt.

When you have finished the examination of those witnesses whose names appear upon the Bill, or as many of them as you may deem necessary, it then becomes your duty to inquire among yourselves, and determine whether you will return it a True Bill or Not a True Bill. Sometimes it happens that a Bill may be returned upon the examination of only one, or maybe two witnesses. If the Grand Jury is satisfied from a less number of witnesses than the whole, that it should be returned a True Bill, then it would be a useless waste of time to examine other witnesses. In determining such matters you should apply your own common sense and experience in life.

If the evidence given in by the witness is sufficient to satisfy so many as 12 members of the Grand Jury, 1st. that a crime has been committed, such as is named in the Bill; and 2nd. That there are probable grounds for believing the accused guilty of the crime, then it should be returned a True Bill. Probable grounds, or probable cause simply means that

there is a strong suspicion of guilt; or, as we sometimes say, a state of facts is found to exist, which unexplained, would indicate guilt on the part of the accused. If the evidence is not sufficient to suggest guilt, then it should be returned Not a True Bill; and that would end the matter, certainly for the present Term of Court.

As each witness is examined and excused, the law requires that a Cross mark be made opposite his name on the back of the Bill; and so you gentlemen will observe this rule. After the bill has been passed upon, it is brought into the Court room by the Foreman and laid on the Judge's desk—delivered to him in person; and, as I have already stated, no other person is at liberty to bring a Bill into the Court room.

If you should happen to pass upon any Bill that charges a person with a capital felony, such as Murder in the First Degree, Arson, Rape or Burglary in the First Degree, then the law requires that the entire Body of the Grand Jury accompany the Foreman into the Court Room when such Bill is returned; in all other cases, only the Foreman is required to enter the Court Room when a Bill is returned.

After you have finished all Bills of Indictment sent to you by the Solicitor, then it becomes your duty to make a thorough examination into the affairs of the County. This examination is required by law, not only for the protection of the public, but for the satisfaction of the various officers who are in charge of the County's Business. If they are giving to the people an honest and economical government, they are to be commended. If any one of them is false to his trust, he should be condemned. A public office is a public trust. That is an old adage; it is gray with age; but, in spite of its age, it is an eternal truth, and will never die.

In making this investigation there is no privacy recognized by law. No public office is a private affair when the Grand Jury approaches. For the time being your powers are supreme; you may enter anywhere without knocking, provided you are entering upon public property. All records of the County are subject to examination by you; and you are the Guardians of its property. It is useless for me to say more to an intelligent Grand Jury in respect to these duties, where you act as an Inquisitorial body. All that I can say is, that you have a free hand, and no man can stay it.

See that your officers are discharging their duties; see that your property is protected by Insurance, and in good repair; see that all Justices of the Peace have filed their returns as required by law.

(Duplin County Court Minutes—Book 43, Pages 64-75.)






28. THE GREAT DEPRESSION
THE CRISIS AND CRASH

The stock market soared in the early months of 1929. The Federal Reserve Board warned against making speculative loans. This Board increased the rediscount rate to five per cent in June, and to six per cent in August, 1929. The speculative fever continued.

From and after June 1929, industrial production, commodity prices and employment continued on the downward trend.

The stock market continued to boom; however, in September and October the market wavered, and on October 23 prices crumbled. During the next two weeks the market almost collapsed.

It was during July 1932, that the market fell to the bottom.

(See The National Experience (Second Edition), A History of the United States, The End of an Era, by John M. Blum, et als.)

Mar. 2, 1931.

Mr. J. O. Bowaman, County Superintendent

Board of Education

Kenansville, N. C.

Dear Sir:

Due to the inability to collect taxes and the inability to sell Revenue Anticipation Notes, which conditions are brought about by the general conditions over North Carolina, it will be impossible for the Board of County Commissioners of Duplin County to supply the necessary funds for operation of the extended terms of the several local school districts of Duplin County. The County will be able to supply only the funds as they are collected.

Very truly yours,

Board of County Commissioners of Duplin County

By: I. J. Sandlin, Chairman.

(Minute Book 9, Page 256.)

Petition

To the County Commissioners of Duplin County:

The undersigned citizens and voters, men and women of Duplin County, hereby petition your honorable body to stand unflinchingly and

unfailingly in a financial way by our able representatives in the Senate and House of Representatives of North Carolina for their wonderful work and their wise stand on the School bill for relieving the present crushing tax burden on the homes and farms of North Carolina. We ask that resolutions be passed expressing our appreciation for their untiring fight in regard to tax reduction. Also let it be known to the General Assembly that the people of Duplin County will back their representatives no matter how long the Assembly stays in session. That a copy of this petition be sent to each of our representatives at Raleigh. (74 individuals and businesses signed the Petition.)

(Minute Book 9, Page 262, Mar. 12, 1931.)

Whereas, our able Representatives in the State Senate and House of Representatives are doing a wonderful work and have taken a wise stand on the School bill for relieving the present crushing tax burden on the homes and farms of North Carolina. And, whereas, we are desirous of expressing our appreciation for their untiring fight in regard to the tax reduction program;

Now, Therefore, be it resolved by the Board of County Commissioners of Duplin County:

1. That we express our appreciation to our Senator and Representative, and let it be known to the General Assembly of North Carolina that the people of Duplin County will back their Representatives no matter how long the Legislature stays in session.

2. That a copy of this resolution be spread upon the minutes of this Board.

3. And that a copy of this resolution be transmitted to our Senator and our Representative.

(Minute Book 9, Page 263, Mar. 12, 1931.)

Resolution

Whereas, the General Assembly has now been in session for more than 100 days, and the Representatives of Duplin County in the General Assembly have served for more than 40 days without compensation at a great loss and inconvenience to themselves and their business at home; And, whereas, the efforts of the said representatives have been to carry out the will of the people who elected them, to secure tax relief for the farmers and to give to the people of the State the public school system in the way and to the extent intended by the framers of the Constitution, that is, a six months term sponsored and paid for by the State, without resort to an advalorem tax; and, whereas, there is now danger from the opponents of foregoing plans and principles that school houses in many parts of agricultural North Carolina may be closed next fall for






want of funds as taxes cannot be collected from land to run the same, and it is necessary to the life of the agricultural classes that the representatives of Duplin County remain in attendance in said General Assembly until the same may adjourn;

Now, Therefore, be it resolved by the Board of Commissioners of Duplin County in special session, all being present, that Duplin County pay to Hon. R. D. Johnson, Senator, and Hon. D. M. Jolly, Member of the House, the sum of one hundred and fifty Dollars each, out of the Treasury of Duplin County and from any funds the county may lawfully use to pay same, to defray a part of the expenses incurred by them for their extra time spent by them for board bills, etc. And it is so ordered.

(Minute Book 9, Pages 263 and 264, Mar. 12, 1931.)

AN ACT TO AUTHORIZE THE SCHOOL AUTHORITIES AND COUNTY AUDITOR OF DUPLIN COUNTY TO ISSUE CERTIFICATES OF INDEBTEDNESS TO TEACHERS.

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact:

Section 1. That the Board of Education of Duplin County, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, and the County Auditor of said County, and/or any Board of School Committeemen of any Local Taxing School District of Duplin County, be and they are hereby fully authorized and empowered in their discretion to issue to the school teachers employed in the public schools of said county for the six months term, and/or to any teachers employed in any Local Taxing School District for any extended term, certificates of indebtedness or warrants, drawn upon the Treasurer of Duplin County, in payment of salaries of the school teachers for any part of the six months term, or for any extended term.

Sec. 2. That said certificates of indebtedness, or warrants or vouchers, shall be issued in such form as the Auditor of Duplin County may determine; that said certificates, vouchers or warrants shall state in their face that they are payable only out of current expense fund for school teachers salaries, or for any part of the six months term, and/or out of local school taxes levied in any district, if for the extended term; and shall only be payable by the Treasurer of Duplin County when the funds derived from said taxes from the current expense fund for teachers for the six months term, and/or only when the funds derived from said Local School taxes in any district are available for said purposes.

Sec. 3. That when any of the said certificates of indebtedness, warrants or vouchers herein authorized have been duly issued, they shall constitute the legal and valid obligations of Duplin County (if issued for any part of the six months term), and/or of any Local Taxing School

District of Duplin (if issued for any part of the extended term), and they shall be a direct charge against the proceeds of the current expense fund for the payment of school teachers for the six months term, and/or against the proceeds of the local taxes levied in any Local Taxing District, for the present fiscal school year (one thousand nine hundred thirty, one thousand nine hundred thirty-one); and it shall be lawful for said certificates of indebtedness, warrants or vouchers to be issued in negotiable form, as the County Auditor of Duplin County may determine.

Sec. 4. That said certificates of indebtedness, warrants or vouchers authorized by this act shall only apply to the payment of salaries of school teachers, for the remaining unpaid portion for the six months term, and/or to all or any part of the salaries of school teachers in any Local Taxing School District for the extended school term, for the present school year (one thousand nine hundred thirty, one thousand nine hundred thirty-one).

Sec. 5. That the Board of Commissioners may in their discretion relieve school teachers and other employees of Duplin County, from the penalties and interest accruing on taxes, where the County is indebted to said parties, the reduction to be made from the maturity of the obligation by the county.

Sec. 6. That all laws and parts of laws inconsistent with the provisions of this Act be and the same are hereby repealed.

Sec. 7. That this act shall take effect upon its ratification if ratified subsequent to April first, one thousand nine hundred thirty-one, and if ratified prior to April first, one thousand nine hundred thirty-one, this act shall be in force from and after April first, one thousand nine hundred thirty-one.

Ratified this the 7th day of April, A. D., 1931.”

(Public-Local Laws 1931, Chapter 365.)

The following joint resolution of the Board of County Commissioners and Board of Education dated February 18, 1932:

Whereas, there are insufficient funds available at the present time for the operation of the extended term, 1931-32 school year in the several Special School Taxing Districts of Duplin County;

And, Whereas, it is deemed desirable both from the standpoint of pupil progress and the organization and standardization of the schools of Duplin County, that said schools be operated for the period of the extended term;

And, Whereas, the said Boards are unable to finance the said extended terms and by law the payment and financing of the said extended terms






in the several districts are obligations of the said Special Taxing Districts, and not of the said county;

Now, Therefore, be it resolved by the Board of Education of Duplin County and the Board of Commissioners of Duplin County in joint session assembled, that the Secretary of the Board of Education be and he is hereby directed to forward a copy of this resolution to the Chairman of the several said special school taxing districts and to the principals of said schools, thus advising them that Duplin County will not be responsible for any expense or obligations incurred in the operation of the extended term in said districts, and that any obligations so incurred for instructional services or other expenses will be payable only out of district funds as and when the taxes are collected for said district and available for said purpose. The teachers in the several schools who desire to see the standards of the said schools maintained are requested to execute the following agreement before entering upon the extended term:

“Whereas ______________ School District, Duplin County, has insufficient funds available at the present time for the operation of the extended term of 1931-32 school year, and it being deemed desirable both from the standpoint of pupil progress and the organization and standardization of this school that said school should continue to operate for the period of the extended term as shown in the organization sheet for Duplin County for the above named school year. I hereby agree to teach in this school throughout the said extended term and to receive payment therefor as and when taxes are collected and/or funds are made available for said purpose in said district. This February ____, 1932.

___________________________________________, Teacher

______________________________________School District.

That a copy of this resolution be recorded in the minutes of the Board of Education and on the minutes of the Board of Commissioners and that a copy be mailed to the principal of the several schools as hereinbefore set out.”

(Minute Book 9, Page 431.)

“In 1932 barbeque pigs were 5c per pound. Eggs sold for 5c a dozen. Three piece bed-room suites were advertised for sale at less than $40.00. Farm wages were 50c per day.”

All but two banks in the county were forced to close their doors during the depression. (Over five thousand banks had failed in the nation during the past three years.)

The day after President Franklin D. Roosevelt was inaugurated, he

first summoned Congress into special session and then boldly issued his proclamation closing all banks in the country until the fierce financial gale had a chance to pass over, and then calmly sat down to the microphone to ask his fellow Americans to have faith and confidence in what was transpiring. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation was then established and was a real blessing. Banks reopened on a sound basis.

(See Behind the Ballots—“The Birth of the New Deal,” by James A. Farley.)






29. THE DUPLIN STORY (1949)
ADVERTISING THE DUPLIN STORY

On last Sunday from 3:00 to 4:00 o'clock, Warsaw presented its chapter of the Duplin Story over Radio Station WRRZ—880 on your dials. John Sikes of Wallace, Secretary to the Wallace Associates, acted as Master of Ceremonies and produced an hour of good entertainment aimed at giving publicity to The Duplin Story, a pageant to be presented in Kenansville on September 22, 23, and 24 as a bi-centennial celebration of the founding of Duplin County. This story is being written by Sam Byrd, author, actor, playwright and producer, and a native of Mount Olive, N. C., now living in Charleston, S. C. Mr. Byrd appeared on the program Sunday and explained that The Duplin Story would be a two-act drama with eight scenes and that he was well along in its writing. He said that the natural bowl which has been selected for the building of the amphitheater was perfect and would afford spectators and actors alike a wonderful setting for the play. In commenting on the historical richness of Duplin County, Mr. Byrd said that there was no dearth of material, that the amount already on hand was so great that it took much time and study to select that best suited for use in the pageant. He also said that he felt sure that there was much of the historical background of Duplin which he did not yet have which should be considered before he could finally complete his work. He requested those in possession of this material to send it to Mr. Gilbert Alphin, President, Duplin County Historical Association, Kenansville, for transmission to him.

The broadcast originated in the studios of WRRZ in Wallace and John Sikes introduced Mr. John Diefel, President of Wallace Associates, who welcomed the Warsaw participants and other distinguished guests and expressed Wallace's gratitude at having them present.

During the program The Five Sporting Tones—boys from the Warsaw High School, sang “Swing Low Sweet Chariot,” “Bones,” and “Gonna Lay Down My Burdens.” These boys deserve great credit for their singing. Pete Peterson, accompanied by Miss Nell Brookhouse, sang

“Take My Hand Precious Lord” and “Love Ye The Lord.” George Best presented a piano solo, “Heart and Soul.”

Robert L. West, Judge of Duplin County Court and President of the Warsaw Rotary Club, spoke briefly and said that Warsaw was proud of the opportunity to have part in these Sunday broadcasts and to present today the Warsaw Chapter of the Duplin Story on the air, and that he was sure every other town in Duplin was equally glad to present its chapter. He said that he felt sure that the pageant to be presented in September would be long remembered by all who see it.

Mrs. Robert L. West, President of Warsaw Business and Professional Women's Club and of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, urged everyone to buy tickets now for the pageant and to help in every way possible to make the showing of the DUPLIN STORY a great success.

Preston Wells, County Commissioner, came to the microphone to say that the County Commissioners were wholeheartedly behind those working to have the pageant presented and that all the people in his section of the county were very enthusiastic about it and would support it fully.

County Auditor, Faison W. McGowen, gave the following summary of the beginning and growth of the pageant idea: “Friends of the Radio Audience: This year being the two hundredth anniversary of the incorporation of Duplin County, the Board of County Commissioners, knowing of the County's rich history, and being desirous of seeing our two hundredth birthday celebrated in a manner becoming to our glorious past, on November 1st, 1948, appointed a committee composed of members from all sections of the County to organize the Duplin County Historical Association. This Committee met on November 15, 1948, and named an executive committee.

“The Executive Committee elected the following officers: G. E. Alphin, President; Mrs. John D. Robinson, Vice-President; Mrs. J. D. Sandlin, Jr., Secretary; M. F. Allen, Treasurer.

“The Duplin County Historical Association was duly incorporated on November 29, 1948. The Association is sponsoring the DUPLIN STORY, a historical pageant being written and produced by the famous Sam Byrd. It will be given in an amphitheater in Kenansville on September 22, 23, and 24. Three to five hundred school children from all of the schools in the county will be included in the cast of characters.

“Tickets were put on sale last week, and are being rapidly distributed throughout the county. All civic clubs and other organizations in the county will be selling tickets.

“Much interest has been manifested, both locally and from outside the County.






“We cherish the magnificent history of Duplin, live and enjoy its present, and have implicit faith in the future of our county. Thank you.”

Mr. G. E. Alphin, President of the Duplin County Historical Association, spoke and said in part: “First, I want to thank our friends from Warsaw for making this radio program possible, and thanks to all of you—everywhere—for the interest you have shown in the Duplin County bi-centennial celebration. It is very encouraging to have such wonderful co-operation and support from the people. Through these programs we hope to advertise Duplin County and the pageant to be given in September.

“These Sunday broadcasts will continue for the next fourteen weeks with a different Duplin town or community presenting its local talent each Sunday. Next Sunday—March 13—at 3 o'clock over Station WRRZ—880 on your dials, the town of Magnolia will be on the air with a good show. Tune in, won't you?”

(Newspaper Story, March. 11, 1949.)

BACKGROUND AND SYNOPSIS OF THIS HISTORICAL PLAY

Something new, novel and highly entertaining in a modernized treatment of historical drama is promised when Sam Byrd's The Duplin Story, a two-act historical play with music, is presented September 22, 23, and 24 in a scenic outdoor amphitheater at Kenansville in commemoration of the 200th anniversary of Duplin County.

North Carolina has long been nationally famous for its historical dramas through the attainment of Dr. Frederick H. Koch, Hatcher Hughes, Paul Green, and many others distinguished in the dramatic arts.

Sam Byrd has written, is directing, and will act in his own play, and it now bids fair to mark another important milestone in Tar Heel dramatic history, which began, strangely enough, just 10 years after the establishment of Duplin County, when Thomas Godfrey, Jr., in 1759 completed at Wilmington The Prince of Parthia, a five-act tragedy, the first play written by an American to be produced professionally on the American stage.

NATIVE PRODUCES PLAY

Byrd is staking his reputation on his Duplin County production. Successful on Broadway in acting and producing plays and in the nation for his two books, he now wants to make good in his native section. He was born in nearby Mount Olive, and has come home from New York to put over successfully what he hopes will be the most significant achievement of his career so far.

Duplin citizens are so sure of it that they are devoting their time, energy, and money to help in every way possible.

Every North Carolinian interested in Duplin County in particular and in North Carolina history in general, as well as outsiders and all persons in or out of the State who like dramatic entertainment, will be given a hearty welcome on the three gala nights, with Duplin's assurance of wholesome and stirring entertainment.

HISTORY IS FICTIONIZED

It will not be the same kind of historical drama as Paul Green's magnificent productions, The Lost Colony, and The Common Glory. Indeed, it will be far different from the usual history lesson or historical pageant. It is fictionized history, with actual characters called by name and true events in real places of which Duplin is justly proud, seen through the eyes of a homesick GI in London and from the viewpoint of two English children.

This means that the audience will in a measure form an integral part of the dramatic sequence that Byrd has written graphically to be depicted in strikingly moving and impressive form, with every-day conversation, in action rather than monologue, pictures instead of words, human interest and humor more than tragedy or melodrama.

An ideal locale was found for the open-air production when H. D. Williams offered use of a large field between his home and the community school. This is being arranged appropriately and beautifully, with adequate stage and seats to accommodate 5,154 spectators. There will be nearby parking space for 500 cars, traffic to be directed by State Highway patrolmen.

CAST TO INCLUDE 500

Throngs of people are expected from a wide are to witness this unusual production, with its 500 actors headed by Byrd himself in the leading role. Various scenes are being handled by different schools of the county. Byrd, as the director, means to have the entire program move rapidly, without lags or delays, from beginning to end in two and a half hours.

Besides the stage proper, there will be a side fountain. The action in 17 scenes of three minutes each will switch from the stage to the fountain, thus permitting quick changes of backdrops for the varied scenes under the overall background of the historic Duplin courthouse.

Eight handsome drops for these scenes are being painted, 20 by 30 feet in size, by Corwin S. Rife, who obtained a leave of absence from






his duties as technical director of the Dock Street Theatre in Charleston, S. C., in order to serve as technical director for The Duplin Story.

Since 1946, Rife has been associated with the famous Dock Street Theatre. Formerly he was with the Kanawha Players in Charleston, W. Va.; the Kalamazoo Players; the Cain Park Theatre in Cleveland, Ohio; and the Nashville Community Theatre. Last summer he was guest director at the Colorado University School of the Theatre in Denver.

WORKS IN COURTROOM

While at Charleston, Rife designed and drew the plans for the vast amphitheater at Kennansville and is directing its construction. When he began in Kenansville the difficult task of painting the scenery, the Duplin County court room was found to be the only place large enough for his gigantic sketches, so the county authorities are permitting him to use that large hall. To prove the interest and cooperation of the county, Superior Court was held there recently, while in the rear of the auditorium Rife worked on a huge painting of the Battle of Rockfish.

Microphones and amplifiers will carry the voices of the actors and accompanying sound effects clearly to the audience, even those on the back rows. For, this play will not have a narrator, as is so often the case with colossal pageants. The characters will speak their own lines.

Just a year ago, on September 17, 1948, plans were started for the production as the central feature of the County Bi-Centennial Celebration. Byrd was engaged for $2,500 to write the play around the history of his neighboring county. Since July 18 he and Rife have been at Kenansville, residing in the Presbyterian manse, one of the many architectural gems for which the ancient village is far famed.

WOMEN LEND HAND

With them there, assisting with detailed preparation, are Mrs. Rife and Pat Bolam, an English girl who is Byrd's legal ward. Both will have parts in the play. Pat will be a “natural” in the role of Jennifer Carrington, who, with her brother, Tony Carrington, in the drama will inquire of Johnny Lambert, an American chief petty officer in London all about America. Byrd will play the part of Lambert.

Mrs. Rife has appeared in musical comedies at the Cain Park Theatre in Cleveland and received theatrical training at the Cleveland Playhouse. She studied under Lila Robeson of the Metropolitan Opera.

The first scene of the play opens in complete darkness. The night is September 22, 1949, and the place is a London park near the Houses of Parliament. The voice of a tobacco auctioneer is heard. Lights dim up to reveal a fountain with water playing from the top, an unlit street

lamp, and the Naval chief petty officer seated by the fountain, staring absently into space. Distant traffic noises may be heard beyond Lambert's auctioneering chant.

British commuters and shoppers pass by, all authentic types. Some of them glance curiously at the sailor, then hurry homeward. A newsboy advertises his papers. Then a girl of about 13 and her ten-year-old brother enter, the girl concentrating on the rhythmic strokes of her yo-yo, the lad suspiciously counting each stroke. They stop by the Chief and ask him questions. He says he is from “the most wonderful place in the world,” and its “Horn of Plenty,” Duplin County.

FRYING PANS MAKE MUSIC

Other puzzled questions follow, and Johnny tells them about Duplin's “music in the air,” its name honoring a Scotch Lord, its hallowed early beginnings, its musical names of places and people, its democratic practices, its colorful products, its prize cucumbers, its hush puppies, whose grease sizzling in frying pans makes music “like Beethoven's,” and its luscious barbecue, which he describes as “what they serve in Heaven for Sunday dinner.”

The opening tobacco field scene near Faison is regarded as one of the finest things of the kind ever portrayed in the nation. The unique chant of a tobacco auctioneer will lend realism and interest.

The boy asks about American Indians. Johnny tells also about Henry McCulloch, who came up the North East Cape Fear River in 1755. In that scene the pioneer landowner is welcomed by costumed townspeople and children who dance for him in period clothes.

Not like the customary battle scenes, the Battle of Rockfish is portrayed. Johnny informs his young listeners about George Washington and the Revolutionary War, working up to the slavery question and States’ Rights, with the resultant War Between the States. He describes the Kenans for whom Kenansville was named and their fine mansion, “Liberty Hall,” with its several hundred slaves, its fine English furnishings and its hospitable motto: “He who enters this open gate never comes too early and never stays too late.”

BATTLE DEPICTED

The eighth scene changes to the stage, an open field “Somewhere in Duplin County,” on a Spring night during 1863, at the headquarters of Capt. James Kenan and the Duplin Rifles. From the distance on a rolling hillside the first campfire has been lighted, and troops are singing, “We're Tenting Tonight on the Old Camp Ground.”






A sentry brings to Captain Kenan a middle-aged Negro, recognized as Charlie Prince, a slave owned by a Duplin friend, who had been caught in a skirmish with the enemy. Humorously the Negro describes the fight, with a frank admission that “courage ain't in my line, cookin's my profeshun.” A loyal Negro woman slave brings the captain his supper, with late reports on his family's health, while they hear the distant roar of cannon.

His mother arrives, and as the captain kisses her goodbye, the campfire is extinguished, the troops “fall in,” with a wild Rebel yell, and march in front of their leader singing, “When Johnny Comes Marching Home.” Kenan mounts his horse and rides off with his men. Suddenly from the darkness there is a blinding flash, an explosion and the piercing wail of a Negro woman's voice.

A STORY OF DEFEAT

The closing scene of the first act transpires on an afternoon in June, 1865, at Liberty Hall. The Negro's wail sets the key for a Negro chorus, whose voices rise in sorrowful chant from the direction of the terrifying explosion. The musicians file in pilgrimage fashion and turn to watch a procession of tattered Duplin Conferedates returning from the war.

Colonel Tom Kenan tells his father, Major Owen Kenan: “The war has ended, Papa. We have buried our hatred in the beloved graves. . . . The hearts of my men are too full of sorrow, too full of honor for hatred. The guns have been stacked. Our duty is peace. We have come home to rebuild, to cultivate, to revive our industries, to raise patriots and Christians to take the places of those who are gone.

“North Carolina and Duplin County have wept over their devoted sons. The sword has settled the quarrel. We are a united country now, Papa. May the blood of Dick Carr and all the others cement forever its bonds.”

While he is talking, the choir and Negro chorus hum, “I Cannot Sing the Old Songs.” As he finishes, a voice from the chorus chants, “Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory.” The chorus, the choir and the people gathered in front of Liberty Hall sing, “The Battle Hymn of the Republic.”

LIGHTER SIDE

Act 2 begins with a lighter touch, a political barbecue in 1908 during the heated Taft-Bryan campaign, and Duplin's participation with a Third Political Party. There are a brass band, a square dance, and political speeches replete with typical humor of that unique era.

Commencement exercises at James Sprunt Institute in Kenansville on May 10, 1910, are re-enacted, with the graduation address and some of the descendants taking the parts of their fathers and grandfathers.

A later stage scene is in 1917 at the railroad station at Warsaw when World War I soldiers left to fight in the conflict “to make the world safe for Democracy.” The train comes in, with modern lighting effects. The name of one of the soldier characters is Charles R. Gavin, who in the real war was killed overseas on November 10, 1918, the day before the Armistice. The local American Legion Post is named for him. Relatives and friends have provided the playwright with actual descriptions, so that he and other characters in the drama may be depicted just as accurately as possible.

STORY INCLUDES PRESENT DAY ERA

To conclude the performance, there is an inspiring patriotic and religious scene about the American Flag, tracing the unity of England and the United States, and the principles for which the Star Spangled Banner has stood through the years and will continue to stand in the future.

The background for this scene is unusually impressive. It portrays a beautiful stained glass window in a cathedral or church, representing Christ on a rainbow. The action is supposed to be on V-J Sunday in Duplin County during 1945. A minister delivers an inspirational address.

The stained glass window was designed by Stephen Bridges and would grace any church. Bridges had an early ambition to be a designer for the stage. Most of his life, except for the war years, has been spent in stained glass shops. As a soldier, he made windows from beer bottle bottoms for a regimental chapel in New Guinea. He is now viewing medieval windows in France and England, and upon his return this month will be associated with the Rambusch Studios in New York. He is editor of the Stained Glass Quarterly, published by the Stained Glass Association of America. His windows are in an Archbishop's private chapel, a Presbyterian seminary and a score of churches of different denominations.

HAS TO BE SEEN

In this brief review of The Duplin Story, not all the fine portions of the play can be mentioned. Nor should they be. Only a few to show the type of production which may be expected. To appreciate its worth and enjoy its entertainment's value to the fullest extent, it must be seen.

All residents, schools, officials and civic clubs of the county are cooperating with the production. For instance, the Lions Club met to






build a picket fence. Other groups have accepted other assignments. Men through the region are growing beards for roles in the play.

J. R. (Bob) Grady, editor of The Duplin Times, has been one of the chief spark plugs from the beginning. County Commissioners, headed by A. C. Hall of Wallace, as chairman, last fall appointed two or three citizens from each township to draft plans.

HISTORICAL SOCIETY ORGANIZED

These township representatives met and organized the Duplin County Historical Society. Their officers are Gilbert E. Alphin, Jr., of Kenansville, president; Mrs. John D. Robinson of Wallace, vice-president; Mrs. J. D. Sandlin, Jr., of Beulaville, secretary; Mitchell F. Allen, Jr., of Kenansville, Treasurer; L. P. Wells of Route 2, Mount Olive, chairman of the finance committee, and G. E. Alphin, chairman of the executive committee.

Some of them went to Washington recently to invite President Truman to see the play. Whether or not he comes, its success seems assured, judging from the wholehearted interest of the entire county. It is slated as a non-profit enterprise, but if there should happen to be profits, they will go toward the Kenan Memorial Auditorium, already under construction at Kenansville.

The amphiteater is being rapidly cleared, parking space is being arranged, the stage has been set, posters have been distributed, rehearsals of players and choirs are under way, and all other preliminary work is being elaborately and carefully planned.

DEPENDS ON ENTHUSIASM

“We have no money, no union, perhaps no talent, though we hope the play will develop talent that will take Duplin County to Broadway,” says Sam Byrd. “But we do have enthusiasm. Lots of enthusiasm. And enthusiasm is the greatest asset in the world. We'll put it over with our enthusiasm.”

Speaking of his purpose in writing history so differently from the way it has usually been written, he declares, “The play is not a narrative, nor should it be retrospective. It is real action. A drama is history in the making. Most people don't write a book or a drama or a history. They write about a book or about a drama or about an historical event.

“History is more exciting in the making than in the reading, so I have written to portray history as it is being viewed or reviewed. The telling of history can be made just as interesting as at the time it occurred, if the listener is made to feel that he is a part of it.”

A PERSONAL STORY

(By Sam Byrd)

“Of course, under the surface, we want to call attention to the outstanding record Duplin County has written through its two centuries and to the real contributions it has made in every war in which our country has been engaged. But, more than that, we are endeavoring to depict the lives of its citizens, their every day bravery and their human interest affairs.

“If I can just bring to the stage those heart-warming days, those days of struggle and hardship, mixed with laughter and gaity, when our forefathers built Duplin County, when the beginnings and development of Sarecta, Kenansville, Faison, Calypso, Warsaw, Magnolia, Rose Hill, Wallace, Beulaville, and all the places in between were laid, I will be satisfied.

“And if I can re-enact the spirit of a pioneering people to show to those of the present generation why they should be proud of their county and their predecessors, if I can show to our neighbors some of the things that took place in the growth of Duplin County, I will feel that I have shown what took place in each and every county, in spirit at least, from the days long before the Revolution down until this present day. If I can just do this in some successful way, I think that our efforts this year will not have been in vain.

“One of my chief aims is to make people like history, especially the story of their own region and of their own ancestors. If this, my new method of presenting history works well, and my friends here believe that it will, it will serve first to prove that history can be taught interestingly, not just a mere chronology of dates or a dull, dull naming of outstanding men, but a moving, living spirit of historical drama; and second, it should set a pattern and example for all other counties to follow, if they choose, for Duplin is typical of all areas and each and every county has a great background that should be studied and appreciated as a stimulus for even greater progress in the present and inspiration for future advance.”

(By: Gertrude Carraway, Duplin Times, 9-16-49.)

THE DUPLIN COUNTY HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION, INC.
Presents
THE DUPLIN STORY

Characters in the Play

(In Order of Their Appearance)

Johnny LambertSam Byrd
A CommuterZ. W. Frazelle
Two Girl StudentsBarbara Mitchell, Sally Newton






A NewsboyStephen Williamson
A Nurse MaidFrances Patterson
Two ShoppersPearl C. McGowen, H. E. Phillips
Jennifer CarringtonPatricia Bolam
Tony CarringtonAlbert Outlaw, Jr.
A ManO. P. Johnson
A ForemanA. O. Williams
Two ChildrenLowell Carr, Samuel Carr
A BoyJohn Videll James
Molly BrightEdith Hinnant
Henry McCullochL. C. Prater
Mr. JarvisJ. H. Dotson
Mr. PidcockFaison Smith
Dr. William HoustonH. M. Wells
Mrs. Ann HoustonEffie Outlaw
Archibald HoustonE. Morton Sills
John PorterM. B. Holt
Mrs. PorterBessie Holt
Edward MachetHerman Outlaw
William LewisJohn D. Grady
Mr. MillerFranklin Quinn
Mrs. MillerCatherine Stokes
Mr. HillLarry Harper
Mrs. HillEthel Bell Trotter
Mr. OutlawR. D. Harper
Mrs. OutlawEva Harper
Miss BerringerEleanor Gay Herring
Edward SmithMelvin Williams
Clarence MillerJohnnie Williams
Charlie BaxterCorwin Rife
Colonel James KenanW. W. Hasty
A MessengerJimmy Livesay
Captain Thomas JamesGabriel Boney
An American FlagbearerOllie Cook
Major GriffenGerald Southerland
Lieutenant LaurensRobert Goldston
A PicketEnnis Ray Harrell
Major CraigHenry C. Merritt
Captain GordonJames F. Miller
2nd MessengerJ. R. King
Captain James KenanGerald Carr
Charlie PrinceHarding Powers
Mammy TilBessie W. Carr
Mrs. Owen KenanMargaret Fussell
LewisRomus Kornegay
An OrderlyRoscoe Jones
Lieutenant Thomas J. BosticRichard Bostic
Lieutenant Robert P. CarrAlbert C. Hall, Jr.
A Soldier on HorsebackMcDonald Carr
Two SoldiersClarence Malpass, Graham Beasley
A SoldierL. E. Pope
A FarmerL. G. Turner
Tom BosticGordon Wilson
Ben HallA. W. Croom
William BlalockDallas Jones, Jr.
A Foot SoldierN. T. Pickett
A Blind SoldierClifton Chestnutt
MarthaSarah McKinney
Bill BrinsonJack Carr
Frank SimmonsC. J. Guy
Alex ChambersA. Q. Smith
James BrownWendell Evans
Jere StricklandHerbert Lanier

LaFayette BrownHoward Chestnutt
A Young ConfederateWade Gaylor
Colonel Tom KenanL. H. Fussell
Hargett KornegayAllen Turner
Alex GuyJohnnie Pope
Major Owen KenanHerman Pippin
Annie KenanWillie Sprunt Newkirk
Jim HalsoAustin Baker
Tom DavisDarwin Evans
Jere PearsallJ. N. Horne
Jesse HorneLloyd Pope
Jack SmithMelvin Pope
Sally DortchGertrude Pope
Calvin RogersPearlie Lanier
Stephen GreshamAdolph Jones
Willie GreshamMarion S. Bratcher
Hiram ThomasWilliam G. Jones, Jr.
Henry MillerArnold E. Thomas
Dave Hugh WallaceGrady Mercer
Rodolph DuffyWillie F. Miller
J. J. BowdenClinton E. Campbell
James H. CarltonFrank Thomas
Graham G. BestRansom Mercer
C. M. MiddletonHerman M. Henderson
John A. Gavin, Jr.J. Roland Edwards
Charles VannWm. Robert Mathews
O. W. QuinnJames Miller
Calvin ThomasRoland Thomas
I. J. SandlinFoy W. Jones, Jr.
Marshall BishopJohn Miller
George CavenaughHosea Hunter
Lem BrownLemuel F. Brown
C. V. ThomasSidney Hunter
Lloyd ThomasLloyd H. Thomas, Jr.
A BoyBilly Bostic
Lon MiddletonJ. Macon Brown
Dr. G. W. KennedyHerman Miller
Mrs. J. E. L. WinecoffMattie Sadler
Rev. J. E. L. WinecoffLauren Sharpe
Miss Elsie GriffenKatherine Wallace
Miss Katherine BrownLouise K. Boney
Miss Susan Maxwell GeddieViolette Phillips
Miss Fannie Gray FarriorMary Anna Allen
Miss Mary Grace AlfordKate F. Quinn
Mrs. John Atkinson FerrellElery Guthrie
Miss Mary Moore SloanMary Lee Sykes
Eugene WinecoffEmory Sadler, Jr.
Liston MallardDavid Maxwell
Agnes Ashely CouncilPolly Rouse
Mary Catherine CouncilBetty Whitfield
Kate Connor JonesMary Summerlin
Elizabeth M. LoftinShirley Tyndall
Carrie Bryan SloanAngela Daughtry
Julia Elizabeth ThompsonTheo Hollingsworth
Rachel MaxwellMary Beth Southerland
Lloyd McGowenJames Edward Brinson
Blossom GavinNorma Mazo
Winnifred M. TurlingtonMary Sue Burch
David H. BridgersWilliam E. Hines, Jr.
Robert S. BrockA. Mitchell Britt
Mrs. Blanche WilsonMrs. Colene Bartlett
Walter P. BridgesW. James Middleton
Station AgentJ. J. Armstrong






Charles R. GavinJerry M. Newbold, Jr.
LeonaMiss Nell Bruchhaus
Chancy CarltonWoodrow Blackburn
Edwin Snyder WoodwardWilliam E. Bartlett
Susie FaisonMiss Jean Miller
The SergeantJames N. West
Ralph J. JonesWilliam Boyette
Edgar D. PollockLee E. Brown
James S. PriceWilliam Y. Vann
Adolph L. PrigdenSamuel E. Godwin
Thomas H. RhodesRichard Kerr
Gordon MiddletonJames F. Strickland
Levi MooreJohn N. Fonville
Paul OutlawN. A. Mitchell
John M. PierceFrancis F. Oakley
Dudley B. HillRivers D. Johnson, Jr.
Two Altar BoysJames H. Cottle, Jr.
Dan J. Fussell, Jr.
The MinisterC. T. Rogers

Tobacco Field Chorus: Isabelle McGowan, Willie N. McKoy, Annie McCann, Berta B. Kornegay, Edna W. Robinson, Maude S. Horton, Robert A. Merritt, Luther J. Sutton, Mildred J. Davis, Ozie M. B. Wilson, Cornelia Best, Adele Whitehead, Mary K Smith, Pearl M. Maye, Burneitha Armwood, Rachel Batts, M. A. Monk, F. M. James, B. L. Beaty, Edith Hinnant, W. E. Smith, T. A. Thompson, A. H. Brewington, Julia Galbreith, Beulah B. Larkin, Zettie Brinson, G. A. Maye, J. B. Dafford, Lillie B. Hall, Ethel Lee Ray, Daisy Batts, Martha Ryce, Hetty Kenan, Bobby Lee, Frank Frederick, Charles Coston, Johnny Williams, Jr.

Children at the Tobacco Barn: Grace Middleton, Katie Middleton, Gloria Cooper, Barbara Faison, Mary Hellen Middleton, Bettie Kenan, Margaret Faison, Janie Murphy, Bernice Carlton, Samuel Washington, Dorothy Merritt, Shirley Washington, Doretha Southerland, Delphine Miller, Joe T. Williams, Verona M. Kenan, Helen Cooper, Florene Miller, Genevieve Frederick, Rosetta Cooper.

Bargemen: Davelle Outlaw, Ross Sutton, Gaston F. Grady, Robert Smith, Bill Zack Williams.

Indian Men: James Vernon, Joe Garner, Nathan Kelly.

Indians: Kathleen Simmons, Virginia Ann Simmons, Alfred Wells, William Sutton, Ila Marie Kornegay, Jewel Ann Sheph