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This bedsheet (92" x 70") can be found on the tall-post bed in the King-Bazemore parlor. It was made in Massachussets during the first quarter of the 19th century by stitching together two widths of homespun linen. Many of the blankets, sheets, and clothes on the plantation were made by its enslaved workers. The accompanying video describes the object. Date approximated.
These ceramic teapots with the signature blue color feature scenes of nature and Chinese houses and could have either been made in southeastern China in the early 1800s or manufactured in England. They would have been used to serve tea. Tea in the 1700 and 1800 hundreds was not just something someone drank but involved an important set of social rituals which helped define feminine behavior. Tea was usually served in the evening, often at seven or eight o'clock. At tea, the hostess would pour tea for guests reinforcing social hierarchies and social expectations. Date approximated.
Children's tea set
Tea in the 1700 and 1800 hundreds was not just something someone drank but involved an important set of social rituals which helped define feminine behavior. Tea was usually served in the evening, often at seven or eight o'clock. At tea, the hostess would pour tea for guests reinforcing social hierarchies and social expectations. Because tea drinking was an important part of adult behavior, it was something that children played at and imitated. Even wealthy children like the Stones likely had very few toys. The accompanying video describes the ritual and social event in more detail. Date approximated.
In the late 1700s manufacturers in Bristol, England, discovered a formula for incorporating cobalt oxide into flint glass to give it a brilliant blue color. The collection at Hope Mansion includes glasses and rinsers which were used to wash out and cool glasses between courses of wine. These would have been reserved for formal dining occasions with guests. The accompanying video describes their use and plantation dining customs. Date approximated.
Cattle horn was used to store powder and keep it dry. It could also be used to make a horn you can blow through to make a signal. This would have been used by plantation owners who hunted deer, fox, turkey, or other animals for sport or food. The accompanying video describes its use in more detail. Date approximated.
Goffering iron and stand
On clothing, little pieces of lace or ribbon could be pressed or curled using this tool, known as a goffering iron. The iron with the handle was heated in the fire then inserted into the hollow tube fixed on an iron stand. An enslaved house servant would then grasp the moist starched fabric in both hands and press it over the tube to achieve the desired effect. The accompanying video describes the object and its use. Date approximated.
When clocks and watches were rarities, found in only the wealthiest homes, some people used glass vessels filled with sand to measure time. Morgan Dwyer, who married William King's wife, Elizabeth, in the 1780s, has an hourglass listed on his 1787 estate inventory for the King-Bazemore House. The accompanying video describes the item. Date approximated.
This fine looking glass from the early 1800s was designed to go over a mantelpiece and reflect light throughout a room. It includes the image of an eagle, has been gilded, and includes its original backing. The eagle was already a symbol of the new American nation, and many fine decorative arts from the 1790s on used it as a way to show pride in American independence. The piece is described in more detail in the video. Date approximated.
A ceramic pitcher with Freemasons imagery embossed upon it. It also includes the second verse from "The Entered Apprentices Song" by Mathew Birkhead. Date approximated.
The telescope in Hope's collection was made by the Dollond company of London, probably in the early 1800s. It is made of brass with an adjustable three-legged stand. Telescopes or spyglasses sometimes show up in estate inventories of the period alongside other scientific instruments or books. The accompanying video describes the telescope and other scienticifc items from Stone's estate.
All guns in the 1700s and early 1800s needed to be packed with powder to shoot. Cattle horn was a sturdy, waterproof material that could carry powder. A horn is also conveniently shaped to fit the small hole at the barrel of a gun. This horn has a carved decorative band and brass cap at the wide end. The accompanying video describes the object and its use. Date approximated.
The wooden base of this field microscope from the early 1800s also serves as a case. The parts can all be unscrewed and stowed safely in the stand. That way the microscope can be carried into the field to look at natural specimens. It may also have been used in medical examinations. The accompanying video describes its use. Date approximated.
All the main windows at Hope were equipped with a pair of tall shutters. These shutters could be latched from the inside to protect the house against the weather and possibly intruders. The purpose of the shutters, their construction, and hardware used to keep the shutters working is described in the video. Date approximated.
Correspondence between David Stone and James Sands concerning the construction of the mantelpiece helps date the construction of the mansion to around 1803. This mantelpiece is considered old-fashioned for the time period. The mantelpiece's charcoal gray paint indicates that it was intended for more public use. The accompanying video describes the construction of the mantelpiece, the history of the Hope mansion, and other fireplaces and mantelpieces in the mansion in more detail. Date approximated.
The rage for Chinese porcelain in the late 1700s was so great that European ceramic factories decorated plates and other items to look as if they came from China. This plate was made and decorated in England but painted with a Chinese-looking pagoda and landscape. The popularity and production of these plates are detailed in the video. Date approximated
The interior doors in the Hope mansion are almost all hung with raising hinges. These hinges swivel on an angle to raise doors as they open. They also use the door's weight to close automatically. The tops of all the doors are beveled or angled so that they don't get stuck in the door frame as they rise. David Stone would have had to special order all of these hinges from England when the house was built. The accompanying video demonstrates how the hinges worked and their history. Date approximated.
In the 1700s dining implements were more likely to be made of pewter than of ceramic. For one thing, as a metal, pewter in virtually unbreakable. It could be made cheaply in England and Europe and shipped over to the colonies. By the 1800s, pewter implements were out of favor as cheaper ceramic dishes could be easily acquired. At the time of his death, David Stone did not own any petwer dining implements. The accompanying video describes the use and history of the object in more detail. Date approximated.
Sugar was an item that had to be imported in the 1800s, in this case from slave plantations in the Caribbean. Sugar often came molded in dense cones or flat loaves. Sugar nippers had a pair of flat blades that could be squeezed together to pinch off just enough valuable sugar as was needed. The accompanying video describes the object. Date approximated.
Candles that were dipped, rather than molded, could be hung on this contraption to dry. An enslaved worker would dip the wick into hot wax over and over again. As the wax layers increased, the candles would grow thicker. They could then be tied on to a stand like this to dry. The accompanying video describes the candle dipping process. Date approximated.
Household items were often manufactured right on the plantation. Candles, for example, could be made from beeswax or from tallow. Tallow is rendered animal fat. Tallow candles were smellier and greasier than beeswax and therefore were not used in the best spaces in a house, such as the parlor or drawing room. Candles could be dipped or molded. Molded candles required hot wax to be poured into a tin candle mold where a wick was already set. This mold could make 54 candles at a time. The accompanying video describes the candlemaking process in more detail. Date approximated.
Candles came in many different forms in the 1800s. One was a long wax taper coil. The taper jack is a special stand to hold this type of candle. The coil wraps around the base of the stand. A clamp holds the lit end, and even has a basin to collect dripping wax. This wax can then be used to seal letters. This is why the taper jack is kept on the writing desk in David Stone's library. The item and the process of sealing letters with wax is described in the accompanying video. Date approximated.
Since houses in the 1800s had no bathrooms, bedchambers were often equipped with a washstand. This washstand would have held a bowl and a pitcher with water for watching, a shaving mug, a razor, and other toiletry items. An enslaved house servant would have poured hot water into the stand before the family washed and then cleaned the area after. The accompanying video describes the stand and the process of washing in more detail. Date approximated.
Imported coffee in the 18th century needed to be roasted. This coffee roaster would have been used by a slave who worked in the kitchens to roast coffee for the Stone family. After David Stone's death, his widow was granted a large sum of money to ensure that coffee and other staples were still provided for her and her family. The accompanying video describes the item and the importance of coffee in daily life in more detail. Date approximated.
Portable desks were commonly used by educated men and women. David Stone had one that he likely took with him on his travels as a politician and circuit judge. A circuit judge had to travel between several different courthouses to hear cases. In the 1800s travel between Windsor and Fayetteville, where Stone had court, took several days. The desk has a drawer which pulled out to hold paper, ink, and quills. The accompanying video describes the item. Date approximated.
When important papers needed to be transported, a document box like this leather-covered one could be a useful tool. The accompanying video describes how the box's construction kept valuable documents safe. Date approximated.
Writing with dip pens frequently left more ink on a sheet than the paper could absorb. Writers sprinkled fine sand on top of a page to absorb the extra ink without smearing it. The sand could then be swept off the paper and back into the sander to be used again. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes the object.
A simple porcelain dessert plate is one of the few items we know to be associated with David Stone's wife, Hannah. It was handed down to one of her great-grandchildren. Stone's plate would have had a pastoral scene with a shepherd herding sheep on it, but it has worn away. A plate of the same time period is presented next to Stone's plate to demonstrate what it would have looked like. The technique for printing the scene is discussed in the video and the item is described in detail. Date approximated.
Barometer manufactured by Beilby of Bristol in England around 1800. The barometer would have aided in the prediction of oncoming weather systems through changes in mercury in the instrument. This would have been valuable at a time when weather forecasts were unavailable.
Upperclass life in the 1800s involved a lot of writing since letters were the only way to communicate with faraway friends and family. Plantation records, contracts, and agreements were all handwritten. People sometimes kept track of day-to-day events in personal journals. The majority of this writing was still done with ink and quill pens. Inkwells held the liquid ink. This inkwell is rather fanciful and was likely expensive demonstrating the Stone's level of wealth. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes the writing culture in the late 17th and early 18th centuries and the objects.
Sheraton-style lady's secretary made in New England and owned by Hannah Stone. It features an adjustable writing surface with pigeon holes and drawers for storing papers. The cabinet above the desk would've held Stone's books. Wives of plantation owners often held the responsibility record keeping and participated in much of the administration of the plantation. With her husband, David Stone, being often away tending to political matters, much of the operation of the plantation likely fell to Stone. Date approximated. The accompanying video details the piece and Stone's role on the plantation in more detail.
There are two staircases in the Hope mansion between the first and second floors. The secondary staircase, or what's known as the winding stairs, has wedged shapes stairs to fashion turns. This allows the staircase to fit in a tight space and includes a small closet in the turn of the stairs so no space is wasted. This would have been the route Stone's slaves would have used to move from floor to floor. It would also have been likely used by members of the Stone family and business associates. The staircase and its construction are described in more detail in the accompanying video. Date approximated.
Drawing room cornice
The cornice is the molding that connects the wall and the ceiling. The drawing room cornice is the most elaborate of the house. It has dentals, small wooden blocks set closely in a row, and medillions, curved brackets that are scaled-down versions of the ones on the exterior of the house. This design followed classical models from Greece and Rome and allowed owner, David Stone, to demonstrate his taste and learning. The accompanying video describes the importance of the drawing room and details the object. Date approximated.
Flintlock shotgun owned by David Stone, the owner of Hope Plantation. This is one of two shotguns listed in Stone's inventory. The process for how the gun is fired and what distinguishes this shotgun from a rifle is discussed in the accompanying video. Date approximated.
David Stone's estate inventory, like many others of the time, includes a pair of pistols. These were made in London by John [Nubley?] These firearms had many ceremonial and functional uses, but they were also associated with dueling. Duels were ceremonial fights between men; they were typically carried out in response to a perceived public insult. Duels between John Stanley and Richard Dobbs Speight in New Bern and Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton are discussed in the accompanying video. Date approximated.
Chinese ceramic dishes
Ceramic dishes made in southeastern China in the early 1800s. These were often referred to as Cantonware at the time. The accompanying video describes the history of trade between China and the United States and the production of the signature blue china dishes. Date approximated.
Like the plate warmer, this tripod or "brass cat" used fireplace heat to keep things warm. Three bottom legs help it stand upright. Supposedly, it's called a brass cat because it always lands on its feet. The top extensions hold plates or a kettle close to the fire. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes the item in more detail.
This tin plate warmer would have been a luxury in the 1800s. The warmer would reflect the heat from a fireplace to warm dishes and plates for formal meals. The accompanying video describes its use and the custom of formal meals on plantations. Date approximated.
Broadwood and Sons piano
Music was an important part of education for upper-class Americans, especially young women. Women's boarding schools or seminaries emphasized music as one of the key social graces and educational achievements. This piano was made in London by Broadwood and Sons. Pianos were not commonly listed in estate inventories in the South at this time. More detail about the piano and its history are detailed in the accompanying video. Date approximated.
The Zograscope was an optical device invented in Europe in the 1700s. It was used to view prints which appeared to be three dimensional through the looking glass. The Zograscope would have been used as a type of parlor entertainment. The accompanying video describes the item, its use, and history in more detail. Date approximated.
Tall case clock
Tall case clock manufactured by Aaron Willard. The clock originally had carved wooden gears, but were replaced by metal ones sometime in the 1900s. A clock such as this was very valuable and it was the most expensive item sold at David Stone's estate sale. The accompanying video describes the clock and its history in more detail. Date approximated.
In 1818, David Stone owned the largest private library in North Carolina. To house all of his books, Stone had two bookcases built into the walls of the Hope mansion. The cases have cabinets below and cases above. 9-foot doors with glass panes protected the books. The shelves were well preserved when restoration work began in the 1960s and the original plaster behind the shelves still bears the handwriting of Stone who penciled in the titles which friends borrowed. The accompanying video describes the bookcases and Stone's library in more detail. Date approximated.
Before the wide use of plastics many dolls were made of wax, porcelain and cloth. The one pictured here is made of both porcelain and cloth. Her head, arms and legs are made of white porcelain. Her body is stuffed cloth. She is wearing a long white shift dress complete with petticoats. Her petticoats are adorned with lace on the bottom, which she reveals by holding up the left side of her dress. On her feet are painted black boots. To complete her outfit she is wearing a painted on red hat. Due to the fragility of porcelain this doll was probably not an everyday play doll but displayed instead. Date approximated.
Sniffy the mechanical dog
Pictured here in its original box is Sniffy the Nosey Puppy. Sniffy is a fuzzy mechanical dog with remote control. Sniffy was manufactured by Tomiyama Japan, a Japanese toy company known for its mechanical toys. The accompanying video describes the toy and how it works in more detail. Date approximated.
Sears Silvertone child's phonograph
Sears Silvertone child's phonograph. Around the sides of the phonograph's base are illustrations from well-known Mother Goose Nursery Rhymes. A phonograph was used to play records. The record playing on this one is Jimmy Clanton’s "Teenage Millionaire." Date approximated.
Pictured here is a doll trunk from the 1940s used to hold the most prized doll of a little girl’s collection. The trunk is red and covered with white stars. The inside lining is white with a geometric red pattern. Inside the trunk is a place for the doll to lie as well as two drawers to hold the dolls clothes and accessories. There is also two hangers for the dolls hanging clothes. Doll trunks made it convenient for little girls to take their prized possessions everywhere.
The forerunner to “viewfinders,” this stereoscope was a popular parlor item of the 19th century. The one pictured here is called a Holmes stereoscope. A stereoscope card is composed of two pictures next to each other. Each picture is taken from a slightly different viewpoint. The left picture represents what the left eye would see, and likewise for the right picture. The card is then inserted into the stereoscope and when viewed the image appears to be three dimensional. Date approximated.
This slender red cap gun from the late 1940s, early 1950s could not easily be mistaken for the real thing making it a popular choice. To work the gun a cap filled with powder was inserted into the top of the gun, and once the trigger was pulled a popping noise would sound indicating that the gun had fired. The accompanying video describes the object in more detail. Date approximated.
Nothing says comfort to a child more than a soft stuffed animal. The little lamb seen here is a typical example of an early to mid-20th century stuffed animal. Made of wool, the lamb was a safe and cuddly companion for any farm child. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes the object.
Lionel train set
One of the most popular forms of early transportation was the train. Lucky boys were often given train sets for Christmas. The set featured here was one of the most popular brands of the 1950s and is still around today. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes the item.
Wind-up toy bird
Wind-up tin toy bird, patented December 27, 1927. Wind-up toys are some of the most popular mechanical toys available today. They can be very complex with many different moving parts or simple like the one pictured here. Although very simple, this yellow metal bird could provide hours of entertainment for children on the farm. For the fun to begin all a child had to do was wind the crank on the side and place the bird on a hard flat surface and let go. The little bird would continue its waddle across the surface until its key stopped turning or it had tipped over. The accompanying video describes the object.
Unlike the Matchbox cars of the late 20th century, the car shown here is made of black cast iron and is typical of the style of cars driven during the early 1900s. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes the item.
During the years of Prohibition in the United States, the use of illegal stills to make homemade liquor was quite popular, especially in the South. Eastern North Carolina was no exception, and many small stills, like the one seen here, were found throughout the region. This still, made in Wilson, North Carolina in the 1970s, is composed of copper and would have boiled down ground corn, water, and sugar or rye into steam. The steam was then fed through the coil or “worm” and eventually condensed into a potent alcohol. The accompanying video describes the object.
Featured here is an early version of the modern-day gas pump. This pump is red with a glass globe on top, which was commonly used to advertise the brand of gas or station where the pump was housed. Much like today, drivers would pull up at a service station for gas. What is different is that instead of the driver pumping gas as one does today, in the past his gas would be pumped for him. In addition to his gas being pumped, a driver would also have his windows cleaned and his oil checked. This pump worked very differently then pumps of today. By pumping the handle on the side fuel would fill the clear cylinder. Once the cylinder was full, gravity would feed the fuel to your gas tank. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes the item and shows a historic photograph of the item in use.
B.F. Avery Model A tractor manual
Pictured here is a 1943 tractor manual for a Model A tractor. A farmer from Eastern Carolina used this manual and tractor on his farm. The manual features instructions for basic upkeep and use of the tractor. It also features illustrations of parts of the tractor. Manuals such as this were common instruction books for later models of tractors used on the farm. The accompanying video describes the object.
Ford and Allis-Chalmers tractors
Mechanical tractors and other large-scale farm equipment became more and more popular on Eastern North Carolina farms as technology progressed in the 1900s. Tractors that were cranked by hand using a small handle on the front of the machine and that used gasoline for fuel began to replace wooden hand-drawn and mule-drawn plows. The gray tractor is a hand-cranked Fordson built by the Ford Motor Company in 1918. The orange tractor, an Allis-Chalmers Model B, also utilized a crank but was built to be more comfortable for the rider. This tractor was produced between approximately 1937-1957. Both of these tractors were used during the transition period between the use of mule-drawn plows and the use of more modern day equipment. Dates approximated. The accompanying video describes the tractors.
Pictured here are two Hackney Wagons one large and one small. A young blacksmith and coffin maker, Willis Napoleon Hackney, started Hackney Wagon Company in Wilson, North Carolina in 1854. By 1885 Hackney Wagon Company was the second largest producer of wagons and buggies. Wagons, like the ones seen here, would most often be pulled by mules and were used to transport household and farm items. After the invention of the automobile sales began to decline and the Hackney Company was forced to produce other types of vehicles. The company was finally sold in 1996 to T.T.I. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes the items and the Hackney Company's history.
Wards Airline radio
Before the invention of televisions, radios were a main source of family entertainment. Farm families of the early 20th century would gather around the radio and listen to the news and to their favorite shows. This form of entertainment was not only a way to relax after a long day working in the fields, but it also provided time for everyone to gather as a family. The radio seen here belonged to Watson-Alford Hardware Store in Kenly, North Carolina. The model is a Wards Airline Radio Model 62-419 Series A. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes its use.
Standard Talking Machine phonograph
Phonographs provided entertainment to the farm family by playing music through records. This phonograph is a Standard Talking Machine Co. Standard Model A. The accompanying video describes how the phonograph works. Date approximated.
P.L. Woodard & Company credit coins
The credit coins pictured here are from P.L. Woodard & Company located in Wilson, North Carolina. Many stores during the early 1900s operated on a credit system in which they both bought and sold products to and from farmers. This system became very complex. Credit coins were used to replace paper credit vouchers. During the Great Depression many stores made their own coins to use as credit vouchers. These coins could be traded in at the issuing store for goods or traded with other farmers. The coins were not considered counterfeit since they could only be used at the issuing store. These coins were used much like today’s store credit would be used. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes the object.
Jack's Cookies container
Like today, many children and adults of the early 20th century enjoyed eating cookies and other treats. Most of the treats sold at the country store were sold out of bulk jars, like the one pictured here, until the appearance of individual packaging in the 1960s. The jar shown here was for Jack's Cookies produced in Charlotte, North Carolina. These cookies sold 2 for 1 penny. Today Jack's Cookie Company operates under the name of Mckee Foods most famous for their Little Debbie brand.
Hobart MFG Co. coffe grinder
This commercial coffee grinder was used in Bailey's grocery store in Kenly, North Carolina from the early 1940s until the late 1960s. Once a week fresh coffee beans were delivered to Baileys and customers would come in and use this machine to grind coffee for use at home. The accompanying video describes its use. The machine was made by Hobart MFG Co. in Troy, Ohio. The video describes the item.
R.J. Reynold's tobacco cutter
This model is a R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company cutter and was used to cut the brand Brown's Mule tobacco in 1 inch or 2 inch plugs. In the early 20th century, tobacco was packaged much differently then it is today. Country stores would receive a “cake” of tobacco. Most stores owned a commercial tobacco cutter that was used for cutting the “cake” into pieces of plug chewing tobacco. The “cake” would be cut in half and then those halves would be cut in half, and so on, until the desired amount was achieved. These smaller pieces would sell for five to ten cents in the country store.
Worley's soda bottles
Clear and brown glass bottles which contained Worley's soda. Little is known about Worley’s except that it was manufactured in Selma, North Carolina and specialized in rootbeer. These bottles exhibit the change in bottling and advertising logos over time. Date approximated.
Snow King no. 1 ice shaver
Before the advent of ice machines, ice was available in blocks. In order for blocks of ice to be used in glasses, it had to be shaved down into smaller pieces. An employee at Kenly Drug Store, where this shaver was used, would place a block of ice on the shaver using the large tongs. This machine was cranked by hand and was mounted on a base for easy use. After shaving, the ice would be placed in glasses used for fountain drinks. This particular model is C.C. Clawson's Snow King No. 1 Ice Shaver. Date approximated.
Country stores were not only a place to buy needed items, but they were also a place to relax and visit with family and friends. Storeowners encouraged these activities by providing seating at the front of their stores. In an effort to promote their products many companies began providing benches featuring their companies logo. This bench was used by the Royster Clark Fertilizer Company in Wilson and promoted Contentnea Guano Company. Of the twenty produced in 1964 this is the only known survivor.
Hanson Dairy produce scale
Produce sold in the country store or general store was sold by weight and this produce scale would have been used to weigh produce for purchase. The scale would have been attached to the ceiling by a chain and was seen throughout stores in the 20th century. This particular scale was a Hanson Dairy Scale manufactured in Chicago and whose capacity was 30 lbs. The accompanying video describes the scales use.
Today most goods bought at a grocery store come in individually wrapped packages. This was not always the case. Most country stores purchased their goods in bulk and then had to divide the goods themselves. The easiest way to do this was by weight. Most Country stores would have several types of scales to measure and “package” their goods. This large scale, which could weigh accurately up to 500 lbs, was used to weigh goods that were then packaged for sale to customers. Customers could also request a specified weight for purchase. Date approximated.
Cannon heater #18
Cannon Heater # 18 potbelly stove. Before the invention of central heating, potbelly stoves were used to heat large public spaces. With the invention of these stoves, country stores, as well as other venues, became centers of interaction between people. People could now go to stores, churches and other places and crowed around these stoves to keep warm. this potbelly stove is made of black cast iron and was used as a heater. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes the item and its use.
Table with attached chairs
Ice Cream parlors, soda fountains, and even country stores were once the place to be seen. This table with four connected swing out chairs was commonly found in all of these types of stores in Eastern North Carolina. This particular table was from Old Watson-Alford Hardware store in Kenly, North Carolina. It is made of black cast iron and has a glass square top. The four attached chairs swing outward for easy access and are made of wood. Often people would gather at these tables to play a friendly game of checkers or just to chat. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes its use.
Until the 1950s Coke was the drink of choice in America. No country store in Eastern North Carolina was complete without the requisite Coke Machine or cooler. The one featured here was very popular during its time. This machine was sought after because of its compact size and also because it was a “dry box”. Despite its small size this machine could hold up to 120 bottles. Embossed on all four sides with the phrase “Drink Coca-Cola”, it is made of galvanized steel and is run by electricity. The Westinghouse Company produced this machine from the late 1940s to late 1950s.
National Cash Register Company register
No country store would be complete without a cash register. The one seen here was used to ring up customers in Bailey's Grocery Store located in Kenly, North Carolina. It works much like a modern-day cash register. By pressing the keys on the front, a dollar amount would be rung up and the amount would show up in the top window on both the cashier’s side and the customer’s side. This type of register was common of its day and was manufactured by The National Cash Register Company located in Dayton Ohio. It was made in the early 1940s and was used at Bailey's until the late 1960s.
Ticket marker's board
A ticket marker’s board was used during the sale of tobacco to write down important sale information. Once the auction started, a man called the ticket marker walked with the auctioneer and the buyers up and down the rows of tobacco and watched every move that was made. When the word “sold” was heard, the tobacco ticket was taken from the top of the tobacco bundle and the ticket marker would use his board to briefly rest the ticket on as he wrote the buyers name and the amount of sale on the ticket. A bundle of tobacco could be sold in less than six seconds, so it was important for the ticket marker to keep up. The marker’s board contains a hole in the top where the marker’s thumb would hook in to hold the board, much like a painter’s pallet. The board seen here also contains a sheet on which the tobacco grades and rates appear in a code form. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes its purpose and displays some historical images or the tobacco market.
Upon completion of the sale of a farmer’s tobacco, the warehouse would issue the farmer a check like the ones seen here. These checks state the name of the warehouse giving the check, the date, to whom the check is issued, and how much is to be paid. Along with these pieces of information is the name of the bank that issued the check, the signature of a warehouse employee, and the check number. Little holes are punched out of the check and spell out the word “paid” along with the date, and another number. One of the checks is made out to Lester [Sigh?] and the other is made out to Charlie Ruffin. Both were given after the sale of tobacco at Banner Warehouse, Wilson, N.C.
Bills of Sale
Bills of sale written up by each auction warehouse were important paper documents recording not only how many pounds of tobacco a farmer sold per auction but also the price per pound that was obtained and the total amount of sales for that farmer for the day. These documents often not only stated the warehouses name and address but many also contained warehouse employees names, slogans, and pictures of the warehouse. Bills of sale are one type of the few written records that can tell the story of tobacco farming in Eastern North Carolina. These particular bills of sale come from farmers Warehouse in Smithfield, N.C. for farmer R.D. Davis and from Parham Warehouse of Kinston, N.C. for farmer W.B. Hurst.
Benches such as this one were seen at many tobacco auction warehouses. This bench came from one of the Ford warehouses in Louisburg, N.C. Not only did these benches serve as a respite for a tired and nervous farmer waiting to see how much money he would gain from his season of hard work, but they also served as advertisements for the warehouse. The more a warehouses name was seen and heard, the more likely a farmer was to remember the name and take his tobacco to be auctioned there. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes the object.
The metal trashcan seen here states a popular slogan that could be heard over and over again at the tobacco warehouse: “Keep Tobacco Clean”. This slogan was so important to all of those who worked in the tobacco business. In order for tobacco to sell at the highest price possible, it had to be kept neat and clean. This trashcan, and many others like it were placed in tobacco warehouses as a reminder that trash does not belong near the tobacco. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes the history of the slogan and object.
This hand truck was used to transport tobacco around the auction warehouse. By placing the tobacco on sheets and in baskets, the tobacco could be loaded onto these metal trucks. The hand truck worked as a low, shallow wheelbarrow, with handles on the front and wheels on the bottom for easy movement. The hand trucks were an easy way to transport tobacco carefully and effectively. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes its use.
When a farmer arrived at the warehouse with this truckload of tobacco, one of the first steps in getting it ready to auction off was to make sure that it was weighed accurately. Correct weighing of tobacco was important, especially during the quota system in which a farmer could only sell so many pounds of tobacco per year. Large scales like this one were used to make sure the weight of the tobacco was precise. Once the tobacco was on the scale, the weight could be read through a small window on the front. The weight was then recorded on the tobacco ticket, which was then stamped by the weightmaster to verify accuracy. Date approximated. The accompanying video provides a description of the item.
Rosvers' weighmasters seal
The weighmaster’s seal is a machine that was used to emboss a tobacco ticket with an official emblem. This press was made by Rosvers Desk Press. Much like a notary public, a weighmaster is certified by the state, and in the case of tobacco, signs off on the correct weight of the tobacco a farmer brings into the warehouse to be auctioned. The machine is pressed onto the tobacco ticket and a raised official stamp, or seal, is permanently marked on the ticket. The seal signifies that the weight of the tobacco is legally accurate. Date approximated.
The tobacco ticket was used to record important information about the product and its sale. The ticket recorded the lot number, its planter, the price which it was sold for, the buyer, the grade of tobacco, the amount in pounds of tobacco sold, the date, and a signature of the U.S.D.A. inspector. This particular ticket was issued at Banner tobacco warehouse in Wilson, N.C. and includes the initials of W.P.S. as the planter. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes the tickets purpose in more detail and provides an image of a tobacco warehouse with planters and buyers.
Marketing card reciept imprinter
Upon the sale of a farmer’s tobacco at the warehouse auction, his plastic marketing card would be placed in a tobacco marketing card imprinter, like this one, in order to obtain a paper copy of all of the farmer’s information plus the transaction that had just occurred. The pounds of tobacco sold at the auction were set using the small knobs on the bottom right of the machine. The marketing card would then be placed in the pre-formed metal slots along with another plastic card containing the warehouse code and a paper slip that the information was to be printed on. Once the top of the machine was closed, the roller slid over the cards and the paper slip by pulling the handle on the top bar. The sales information was now printed on the paper slip and the pounds that were just sold were then recorded on the back of the marketing card. One copy of the paper slip stayed at the warehouse and the other went to the USDA’s Farm Service Agency office. The accompanying video describes the machine and its use. Date approximated.
Paper marketing cards that were once used to keep track of a tobacco farmer, how much he harvested, how much he sold, and where he sold it, began to be replaced by plastic marketing cards. The purpose of these new cards reflected that of their predecessor, but was more in keeping with the technological advances of the later part of the 20th century. This particular card was owned by Pearl Lorick. This hard plastic card contained the farmer’s information embossed on the front, much like a modern-day credit card. The reverse side of the card stated, in pounds, how much tobacco that farmer could sell during the current year. The card would then be swiped to indicated the amount to be deducted at each auction. Date approximated.
A tobacco farmer’s marketing card was the most important piece of paper a farmer would carry. This card was a record of the entire years sale of tobacco for the farmer who carried it. Starting during the Great Depression, the tobacco quota system was in place. A farmer had to adhere to strict limitations on how much tobacco was grown and sold. Marketing cards were used to keep precise records of not only the farmer and how much land he harvested, but also at what warehouse the tobacco was sold and how much it was sold for each time the farmer went to market. This card belonged to farmer Ardrey B. Johnson. and the record indicates how many pounds of tobacco he sold, the date of sale, and the location of the sale. The accompanying video describes the importance of the cards.
Weather is an important factor in growing any kind of crop, but especially tobacco. Too much or too little water could ruin a tobacco farmer’s entire crop, and by doing so, ruin an entire season’s pay. Keeping track of how much it rained was important for a tobacco farmer, and these small gauges helped to remind him of that. Tobacco warehouses often gave out rain gauges like the one pictured to farmers, not only to aid in the growing process, but as a way of promoting the name of a warehouse. This warehouse was distributed by Works Tobacco Warehouses and Works Tobacco Seed located at 1441 S. Church Street, Rocky Mount, N.C. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes the item and its distribution.
Just as today people carry around PDAs, cellphones, and other devices to write down notes and keep up with appointments, the farmer used a low-tech way of keeping track of things. Small memo books, like the one seen here, were often used to write down notes and other bits of information that the farmer had to keep track of on the farm. It was not only useful for the farmer to write down small everyday things, but it was also useful for writing down the farms finances and needs. The nice thing about these memo books was that they were small enough for the farmer to keep it in his pocket. These books were often given out as free gifts by tobacco warehouses and had their warehouses name printed on the front. This memo book was handed out by Centre Brick Warehouse, Wilson, N.C. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes the book and its use.
Aprons were another type of item that was given away as a free gift to farm families. This marketing tool was not only printed with a warehouses name and address, but it was also something that was used often on the farm. When cooking in the kitchen, farmwomen often wore dresses and could not change into “old clothes” just for the purposes of cooking. These aprons provided a useful way to “cover-up” and not get good clothes dirty. It was also another good way for a tobacco warehouses name to be seen. This apron was handed out by New Planters Warehouse, No. 1 and No. 2, Wilson, N.C. The accompanying video describes its use and shows an old photograph of a farming family. Date approximated.
Potholders are a useful item in any kitchen, but to the farm family, they are especially useful. Many farm families in the first half of the 20th century cooked all of their meals from scratch. All of this cooking meant many hours in the kitchen over a hot stove and in an even hotter oven. Potholders were often given out by tobacco warehouses to farm families, not only because they were a much used item, but because it was another way to get the name of a warehouse out into public view. Warehouse names and logos were often imprinted on one side of a holder for marketing purposes. This potholder came from New Growers Warehouse, Linville Road, Winston-Salem, N.C. Date approximated.
Hand-held paper fans
Paper fan advertising the Centre Brick Warehouse once located at the corner of U.S. 301-A South and U.S. No. 264, Wilson, N.C. Paper fans, like the ones seen here, were, and still are, an important piece of culture in rural North Carolina. Small pieces of cardboard with thin wooden handles were used to cool off the congregation of Southern churches that had no means of electric cooling. During the hot summer days, these fans, often depicting religious scenes, were used to combat the southern heat. These fans were another type of free gift given to farmers, and often contained the name and location of a tobacco warehouse. The fans were then not only used in church, but anywhere the summer heat was found.
Sewing kit and needle threader
Sewing kits and threaders were another great free gift item given from the tobacco warehouses to local farmers as advertisements. The sewing kit was distributed by Carolina Star Warehouse located at 32nd Street and Shorefair Drive, Winston Salem, N.C. and the threader by Growers Cooperative Warehouse, Incorporated, Wilson, N.C. Since most clothing items on the farm were handmade, these small sewing kits were useful tools on the farm. Threaders were also important because they allowed for an easier way to get the thread into the eye of a needle without poking yourself so often. These small tokens were given to farmers and were imprinted with a warehouses name and logo. Date approximated.
Round pencil, that is green at tip, then silver, then yellow with round eraser round, than square. Removable bullet at top. These pencils were often produced by tobacco warehouses as a form of advertisement and given to tobacco farmers. This particular pencil was distributed by Smith Warehouses. The accompanying video provides additional description. Date approximated.
Chippendale-style walnut cellaret (HOA 41", WOA 18", DOA 13.5"). Blind-mitered dovetail box top has hinged lid and original brass handles and escutcheon plate. Interior divided into twelve sections. Box sits on stand with mixing slide and straight tapering and chamfered legs. Astragal molding at bottom of frame. Yellow pine secondary wood throughout. Reproduction brackets added in 2006 based on MESDA examples. Roanoke River Basin, NC, 1780-1800. This cellarette would have held, stored, and been used to move bottles of wine or liquor. The tray would have been used to hold glasses. The accompanying video provides a description of its uses and discusses its origin.
In many elite houses of the 1700s, cupboards were built into rooms. William King probably used his skills as a cooper, or barrel-maker, to build the two large cabinets in the hall of his home. Later, house carpenters and cabinetmakers made freestanding cupboards for already existing houses. This cupboard was built in Bertie County around the same time as Mr. King's house. It also has a rounded or "barrel" back. It used to be painted blue, probably to match the color of its original home. Date approximated.
Chest on frame
One of the oldest known pieces of furniture produced in North Carolina, this painted chest was made in Bertie County sometime between 1690 and 1720. The frame is a reproduction to show how the chest may have looked originally. At the time this piece was built, it would have been considered very special. Few colonists at the time owned much more furniture than a table, chair, or bedstead. The accompanying video includes a description of the chest. Date approximated.
This type of simple utility chest had many different uses. One was storage of bed linens, so such a piece of furniture was not out of place in a bedchamber. Even large houses like Hope mansion often did not have in-room closets. These chests offered extra storage for everyday things. The accompanying video provides a description of the item.
Pork was one of the most important parts of the southern diet in the 1800s. Before being hung up in a smokehouse, hog meat was dry salted in a trough. The original trough from Hope has four separate sections and is over 20 feet long. It would have been used to salt several tons of pork annually to meet the dietary needs of the Stone family and the enslaved workers on the plantation. When David Stone died in 1819 he had over 4700 lbs. of pork stored, plus more than 330 pigs in his livestock. The accompanying video provides a description of the item. Date approximated.
Members of the Tuscarora Nation reportedly presented this cap to David Stone when he was governor of North Carolina (1808-1810). Stone's Hope plantation adjoined the Tuscarora reservation in Bertie County. Because of war and white planters moving on to their land, most native Tuscarora in North Carolina moved to New York state between 1715 and 1800. Beadwork has a long tradition in Tuscarora culture.
Skill at needlework was something girls of wealthier families learned to do at a young age as part of their formal education. When they grew up, they used these skills to put a personal stamp on their surroundings. The first sampler, made in North Carolina in 1833, includes the birthday of Elizabeth Ann Moore and different flower designs. The creator is unknown. Sarah How Burn of Bertie County worked the second sampler in 1808, when she was twelve years old. It probably took her three months to complete this work. Sarah used six different styles of lettering plus several different designs. The accompanying video details the work of Burn's sampler.
Blue linsey-woolsey coverlet. Woven, possibly indigo-dyed and top decorated with a stitched pattern of diagonal lines and filfots. Reverse side woven out of gray linsey-woolsey. American or English. The accompanying video describes the object in more detail.
This walnut crib dates to the late 1700s and is located in the King-Bazemore parlor. In planter families, babies often stayed in the same room as the mother for several years. However, much of the work of caring for the baby was left to a slave nurse. By contrast, enslaved workers in the field were generally given no more than a month off of work to recover from childbirth. The accompanying video describes the history and context of the object.
The cut-out section of this brass bowls allows it to be placed under the chin to aid in shaving. It could also function in phlebotomy, or blood-letting, to collect blood from a sick patient. Many 18th- and 19th-century physicians recommended examining blood to help diagnose illness. The loop allows it to be hung up when not in use. The accompanying video describes its use.
Tall-post walnut bedstead (HOA 78", WOA 59", LOA 79"). Possibly the earliest known American tall-post bed (Bivins). This bed would have been displayed in the parlor, demonstrating to guests the family's wealth and prestige. Turned posts with mannerist turnings (vase & scotia, compressed balls). Tapered leg terminates in ball-turned foot. Posts have lost 8-12" from original height. Peaked headboard with ovolo moldings at outer corners separate from headrail. Footboard may be early addition (18th C.). Virginia or possibly North Carolina. Located in the King-Bazemore parlor. The accompanying video describes the bed in more detail.
The bed key is a wooden tool to tighten ropes on bedsteads. In the 1800s, whole families often shared beds, especially in the wintertime. This stretched out the ropes that supported the mattresses. Tightening ropes was a weekly task. The accompanying video demonstrates the process and describes the object.
Common glory music
Music from the outdoor drama The common glory by Paul Green. The drama is a retelling of key events in the American Revolution. Songs from the drama can be heard being sung by the cast, as well as the score being played by the orchestra. 5" reel. Date approximated.
The common glory radio advertisements
Radio advertisements for the outdoor drama The common glory performed in Williamsburg, Virginia by Paul Green. The drama tells the story of the American Revolution. Also included is a letter that was sent with the reel of advertisements requesting the advertisements be played on-air. 5" reel.
Canyon reel 2
Interview with M. and B. Moore the directors of the outdoor drama Texas by Paul Green performed in Palo Duro Canyon State Park, Texas. Also includes a general report on the drama Texas. 5" reel. Date approximated.
Beyond the sundown sound cues 30-37
Sound cues 30-37 for the outdoor drama Beyond the sundown. The drama was written by Kermit Hunter and the music was composed by Frank Lewin. 7" reel date. Date approximated.
Beyond the sundown sound cues 1-30
Sound cues 1-30 for the outdoor drama Beyond the sundown. The drama was written by Kermit Hunter and the music was composed by Frank Lewin. 7" reel date. Date approximated.
Beckley reel 1
Interview with Ewel Cornett, director of the outdoor drama Honey in the Rock by Kermit Hunter, conducted in Beckley, West Virginia. Also included is a commentary on Honey in the Rock. 5" reel. Date approximated.
Bardstown tape 1
Interviews with James Byrd, director of Stephen Foster Story, and Willis Becket, music director of Stephen Foster Story, with commentary on Stephen Foster Story. Interview with Byrd includes the major differences between indoor and outdoor staging, backstage crowding, and issues of college students who act in outdoor theatre. Interview with Becket includes acoustics, having to re-train actors to outdoor theatres, and lacking professional discipline in the young singers and performers. Commentator does not believe the play is an outdoor drama, but rather an indoor drama performed outside. 5" reel.
Ashland, Oregon Shakespeare festival interviews
Interviews with directors Richard Risso and Nagel Jackson from the Ashland, Oregon Shakespeare Festival. They discuss the production of outdoor theater and how it relates to directing a Shakespearean play. 5" reel.
Production report and interviews
Production report and interviews on outdoor drama. The production report is of Josef Meier's The Black Hills passion play produced in Spearfish, South Dakota and the report was made August 3, 1966. Also included on the reel are interviews with Hugh Evans, the director of the Ashland, Oregon Shakespeare Festival and Jerry Turner, the director of William Shakespeare drama Henry VI at the festival. Both interviews conducted August 5, 1966. The interviews deal primarily with the challenges of directing outdoor dramas. 5" reel.
Act 2 master reel
Act 2 master reel for an unknown outdoor drama set along the Illinois River in Illinois. Instrumentation and singing can be heard on the reel for the drama. 7" reel.
Act 1 master reel
Act 1 master reel for an unknown outdoor drama set along the Illinois River in Illinois. Instrumentation and singing can be heard on the reel for the drama. 7" reel.
Book of Job reviews
Theatrical production reviews of the outdoor drama The Book of Job written and directed by Orlin and Irene Corey and performed at Pine Mountain State Park in Pineville, Kentucky. The collected reviews are read aloud on the radio to advertise the drama. Slides mentioned in the audio recording are unavailable. 3" reel. Date approximated.
Notes on outdoor drama at Universal
Audio notes by August [Labeouf?] regarding a proposed production of a drama being performed at the Universal Tour site in California, soon to be an amusement park. The speaker discusses his intention for the subject of the drama, concerns about working with Universal, and the logistics of performing the drama. The comments are overwhelmingly negative and detail the many problems with installing a historical drama at the site. The speaker is, however, open to the prospect of installing a drama at the site and talks about the potential of outdoor drama to be performed at other amusement parks. The speaker can be heard asking for the opinion of some unknown individual named Mark. The proposed playwright for the play is Paul Green. The speaker also discusses his prospects for working with other productions. 3" reel.
Smoky Mountain passion play
Radio advertisements for outdoor drama Smoky Mountain passion play performed in Townsend, Tennessee. The Biblical drama reenacts the events in the last week of the life of Jesus. 3" reel.
Legend of Daniel Boone radio advertisements
Three radio advertisements for the outdoor drama The Legend of Daniel Boone by Jan Hartman performed at the Old Fort Harrod State Park in Harrodsburg, Kentucky. 3" reel date. Date approximated.
Eleanor Gamble James oral history interview, November 15, 1975
Eleanor Gamble James describes her life as the favorite niece of Secretary Stimson and as the wife of a Navy admiral. She relates personal experiences in visiting with and traveling with Stimson in New York, the Philippines, post WWI Europe, and Great Britain. As wife of Admiral James she relates experiences pertaining to their life in WWII Bermuda and Charleston, S.C.; post WWII Italy; and peacetime duty at Annapolis and Washington, D.C. Individuals discussed include Henry Stimson, Theodore Roosevelt, Felix Frankfurter, William Howard Taft, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Princess Yalanda of Naples, Italy.
Doctors in rural areas like Bertie County traveled widely to care for patients. These doctors rarely went to a medical college in the 1800s. Instead, they trained as apprentices with more experienced physicians. Doctor's fees were expensive too. Most people didn't call for a doctor unless a case was critical, during childbirth for example. Instead, they frequently relied on their own books and medicines, as well as folk remedies, when family members or slaves were sick. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes its use.
Breaks and sprains are not new to the 21st century. In the labor-intensive atmosphere of a plantation it is no surprise that crutches were necessary. Each of these crutches was formed from a single piece of wood split through the middle. Date approximated.
This wooden frame was used to hold fabric for embroidery work. Needle arts were an important part of education for elite girls, such as Governor David Stone's daughters. However, fine embroidery was practiced by women of all ages in plantation households. It was one way that women were able to put their personal expression on everyday items. A frame could hold the ground for a needlework picture, sampler, or a chair cover. The tapped ends on the frame make it adjustable. Date approximated.
Apothecary bottle with cover
This green, blown glass, bottle is believed to have been an apothecary bottle that once contained medicine. A leather cover that is smooth from wear fits tightly around bottle to protect the glass. Medicines in the 1800s were often mixed from natural ingredients, oftentimes with sugar or alcohol to form a syrup. Both cookbooks and specialized "dispensatory" guides gave recipes for medicines. Date approximated. Accompanying video describes the use of the object.
Mortar and pestle
Bronze mortar and pestle. The mortar has circulary, decorative, designs on the side of the bowl and a heavy footed base. The pestle has a ball-shaped top and decorative flares in the middle, flaring into a wide surface for grinding. English, 18th century. This tool would have been helpful for mixing medicinal compounds on the plantation. The accompanying video provides a demonstration of its use and a description of the item. Date approximated.
Planters stocked chests like this for the health needs of their families and enslaved workers. The lock and key indicates that the contents had to be monitored. This cabinet held bottles and packets of as many as sixty different ingredients used in making medicines--jalap, ipecac, magnesia, mercury, tinctures of peppermint and cinnamon, and others. The mahogany and fine finish show that this box was intended to be decorative as well as functional. An accompanying video describes its use. Date approximated.
Brass-encased lancet or bleeder (LOA 3 3/4"). Designed similar to a pocket knife. Three graduated steel blades hinged in a brass case. Each blade projects from the end of a steel arm. When encased, they fit into a cup on the side of the case. English, early 19th century. The lancet was used to draw blood from the body with the goal of removing toxins from the blood thus curing a sickness or ailment. The video describes its use and provides a simulated demonstration. .
Bed warmer (LOA 30", Diam. 10.5"). Circular copper pan for holding coals or hot ashes, attached to a long handle. A brass lid hinged to the pan is decorated with a hammered pattern. A brass ring attaches pan to turned wooden handle, decorated to simulate marble. American, late 18th century. A slave would likely have been the one to use the warmer to warm the beds for the plantation owners and their families. The accompanying video provides a demonstration of its use and the history of the object. Date approximated.
Woven sleeping mat
Woven sleeping mat placed between a matress and the rope frame. Sleeping on a rope bed could be uncomfortable, especially if the straw in a mattress or feathers in a bed were flat. This woven mat is designed to add some extra support between the rope and the bedding. This mat would have provided extra support and comfort and would have protected the mattress from pushing through the ropes. Date approximated.
Curtains for field bed
Curtains for the field bed in the Stone daughters' bedroom. The curtains on the bed match the curtains hanging over the windowsills. The curtains would have provided privacy and prevented drafts and bugs from reaching the sleeping girls. The history of the bedcurtains at the plantation is detailed in the video. Date approximated.
Four-poster 18th century-styled doll bed (HOA 23 1/4" WOA 16" LOA 21"). Has frame for canopy. Foot posts are turned except for square area where side rails fit. Reproduction hangings added. English, 19th century.
This trundle bed was made of pine and maple in 1800-1820. (Length: 56" Width: 41.875") A trundle bed sits low to the ground and can be stored under a larger bed during the daytime or when not in use. Many trundle beds have wheels so they can rolled with ease. The way the Stone daughters' bedchamber is set up, the two younger daughters would have slept on the trundle bed, while their older sisters shared the field bed. The accompanying video describes the bed and also how the bedroom would have been used by the Stone duaghters.
Sheraton-style rope field bed with turned birch posts (HOA 81", WOA 54" LOA 78 1/2"). Foot posts are reeded, and turned with rims and rings. Headboard is made of pine. All wood is stained to simulate mahogany. The ogee arched canopy is hinged at the top. Bed hangings are reproduction dimity (R98.02.01). New England, c. 1800. The video describes the history and use of the field bed.
This daybed in the Stone daughters' bedchamber shows where the daughters' nurse might have slept. The mattress on this bed is supported by wood slats instead of ropes. The enslaved woman who worked as the nurse at Hope would have had a great responsibility in minding and taking care of five girls. Female slaves often started training as a nurse or house servant as early as six years old. The accompanying video describes the bed's use. Date approximated.
The large wooden vat was used to scald the hair off of a dead hog before it was to be butchered. Date approximated. The video describes the process.
Yard broom. Made and used much in the same way the house broom is, the yard broom helps to keep the yard of the farmhouse free from debris. Made from thin branches of various trees (usually the sweet gum), the yard broom is stronger than the house broom in order to withstand heavy use outdoors. The branches of this broom drag across the dirt near the farmhouse to remove unwanted leaves and weeds. Early 20th century. The video includes a demonstration of its use.
House broom. To make a broom like the one seen here, a farmer gathers broom straw found in the field, removes any seedpods, and bundles the straw together with tobacco twine. Using broom straw creates soft bristles that do not scratch the surface being swept, but that does remove dirt from the inside of the farmhouse. Early 20th century. The accompanying video provides a demonstration of its use.
Just like today, the farm needed to be kept clean and tidy. Unfortunately, the farmer could not always run to the local supply store to get a broom or a mop, so he had to make one. By attaching a wooden handle to a wood board base with cutout holes, the basis for a mop is created. Corn shucks are placed in the empty holes and function as hard bristles. Hand-made mops like this are used to scrub the floors and walls of the farmhouse, and when the shucks in the bottom get too worn down and dirty, they are taken out and replaced with new shucks. Date approximated. The accompanying video demonstrates how the item was used.
Square, wooden butter mold. Since butter was made on the farm by the farm family and was not bought in the store, new butter did not appear in ready-made shapes. Freshly churned butter could be placed into a wooden mold and shaped to look tidier. The video includes a demonstration of the mold being used. Date approximated.
The milk shed was used to store dairy products on the farm and to keep them cool. This wooden milk shed stands not even six feet high with a raised tin roof to keep the structure sheltered and cool. Wrapping around the inside of the building are two shelves on which the milk pails and other dairy products are to be stored. Milk sheds were used on the farm before the days of indoor refrigeration. Early 20th century. The accompanying video describes the structure. Date approximated.
On the farm, milk was put into a tin milk pail for storage. The milk pail seen here has handles for easy pouring and even has mesh over the pour spout to use as a filter or strainer. Milk pails were made of tin for longevity and to keep the milk cool. Early 20th century. The video describes its use.
A wooden bowl like this one served as a container to mix and knead the dough in to make biscuits. Plain wood with small handles on the side for easy carrying, the dough bowl was a kitchen tool that saw use every day on the farm. Date approximated.
After milk had been rendered from the farm cow, cream would be skimmed off of the top, and that cream would be churned into butter and its bi-product, buttermilk. The more primitive form of churning butter is seen in the crock style hand plunger churn. A long wooden stick with a flat, wooden, round base is placed into a large ceramic container with a lid. Early 20th century. The accompanying video includes a demonstration and anecdotes from an unidentified woman who churned butter on her farm as a child.
The butter churn seen here is more modern (Patent 1910) than the hand plunger but it works on the same concept. Instead of someone having to move their whole hand up and down to incorporate air into the cream that is rendered from milk, the person would turn the handle on the wheel which made the plunger on the inside move up and down. The basic components of the churn are the same as its predecessor, a plunger with a handle and a ceramic container. The difference between the two churns lies in that this one is mechanized and thus will churn the butter a bit faster. The accompanying video describes its use. Date approximated.
Small, wooden-framed out building used to house lard stands and curing meats, especially hog meat. This house stands not much higher than six feet on the inside and contains handmade wooden hooks and metal hooks for hanging the meat. Date unknown. Accompanying video describes the use of the smokehouse.
Large wooden box that fresh hog meat would be placed in, along with salt, for 4 to 5 weeks for proper preservation. Date approximated. The accompanying video demonstrates the process of drying using salt.
Tin container where rendered clean lard was stored for cooking use during the year. The accompanying video describes the process and includes a demonstration of how the pail was used. Date approximated.
Meat saw used to cut up bones of hogs during the butchering process. The name Stanley is engraved upon the wooden handle. Date approximated.
Butcher knife used for butchering hogs. The accompanying video describes the process. The knife has the name Old Hickory engraved on the handle. Date approximated.
Butchering table made from wood and used to butcher a hog. An accompanying video describes how the table was used along with describing how a bone saw and butchering knife aided in the process. Date approximated.
Sausage stuffer used for taking ground pork and making it into sausage and for pressing oil and grease from cracklings. The accompanying video describes the process in more detail. Used in Big Dixie Warehouse in Wilson, N.C. Early 20th century.
Large tri-pod stand used to hang the hog for butchering. The accompanying video describes the process of butchering a hog and how the stand was used. Date approximated.
Gambrel, a thick, handmade piece of wood used in the butchering of a hog. The gambrel would have pierced the legs of the hog and been used to hang the hog vertically from the hog stand while the farmer butchered it. The accompanying video demonstrates how the gambrel was used and depicts a hog stand as well. Date approximated.
The clothes washer seen here is an example of one of the earliest mechanized washers in the country. Used in the interim period between washboards and the advent of the electric washing machine, this 1907 Iowa Washing Machine Company washing machine is made of wood and metal and uses a handle and foot peddle to agitate clothes that lie in water in the wash basin. The accompanying video includes a demonstration showing how the washer was used.
Vacuum clothes washer
Vacuum clothes washer or laundry agitator. Many clothes, such as undergarments, are too delicate to be washed vigorously with a washboard. In cases such as these, the farm family uses a vacuum clothes washer that acts as a plunger to clean their clothes. This clothes washer, a metal, cone-like head, with a wooden handle, acts like a plunger when moved up and down in a tub of water. A vacuum force is created that rids the clothes of dirt. This process is gentler than scrubbing on a board and allows for longer ware of delicates. Early 20th century. The accompanying video describes how the vacuum clothes washer is used.
Large wooden paddle. A paddle was used for multiple purposes such as lard rendering, cooking, making lye soap and even washing clothes. Date approximated.
Before the advent of modern-day spray bottle cleaners and detergents, anything that had to be cleaned on the farm was cleaned with a bar soap called lye. Lye soap is made using a combination of animal fat (usually hog), water and lye. The concoction cooks in a large cast iron pot over an open flame and is stirred using wooden paddles. The mixture is molded into cubes and let to harden until needed. Early 20th century. The accompanying video describes the uses for lye soap and how it was made.
Washboard manufactured by the Carolina Washboard Co. of Raleigh, N.C. Before the days of electric clothes washers and dryers, dirty clothes had to be cleaned by hand. A washboard with a wooden frame and a glass or galvanized tin board in the middle, is used to scrub dirt from the fabric. The glass or tin board is corrugated, or has ridges, that scrape against the fabric to lift the dirt. Early 20th century. The accompanying video demonstrates how the washboard is used and describes the process of washing clothes.
The use of galvanized tin is one of the many advances that has been seen on the farm over the years. Even though wood tubs are built to last, galvanized tin is more durable and better suited for everyday use. Galvanized tubs like these took over the role for wooden tubs in the daily chores of washing and cleaning. Early 20th century. A brief video demonstrates how these were used in washing laundry.
A wooden tub, like the one seen here, serves several purposes on the farm, but is mostly used for cleaning and washing. Made by coopers, or barrel makers, wooden tubs are made to withstand daily use. The biggest job of the wooden tub is to aid in the clothes washing process. Tubs hold the water used while scrubbing clothes clean, before they go into the cast iron pot. Once clean, another tub holds the water to rinse the clothes before they go on the line to dry. Early 20th century. The tubs uses are described in the accompanying video.
Cast iron pot
Heavy, cast iron pot. A pot such as this one had many purposes on the farm including washing clothes, making lye soap, and rendering lard after a hog killing. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes its use.
Metal pea planter
Wood and metal pea planter. Many farm tools became updated for ease of use and longevity and the pea planter was no exception. This updated version of the wooden hand-made planter works much in the same way; the biggest difference being it is made of metal, which was meant to last longer than wood. Early 20th Century. The accompanying video describes the planter's use.
Handmade pea planter made from wood and nails. Peas are often grown in between rows of corn, and once the corn is high enough to protect the seedlings, pea plants are planted. The pea seed is dropped into a hole that is made by a hoe or a stick, but this wooden pea planter makes it easier to get the job done. Date approximated. The accompanying video describes the planter's use.
The dried leaves seen here may look like forgotten leftovers from the growing season, but they actually serve an important purpose on the farm. Young green blades are taken off of the corn stalk and tied into bundles. The bundles are hung back on the corn stalk to dry, and upon completion, are stored in the barn. Children on the farm take two bundles per day from the barn and feed it to the farm mule. Without the fodder bundle and other farm staples, like corn, the farm mule would have a meager diet. Early 20th century. The accompanying video describes how the corn stalks were used.
Two-pronged pitchfork made by the blacksmith farmer. A pitchfork like this one had two metal tines that were secured to a long wooden stick, often with wire. The fork was used to pitch hay on the farm, and was also used in the corn shelling process to collect the corncobs. The accompanying video describes the function of the pitch fork. Date unknown.
In the corn shelling process a scoop, such as the one seen here, gathers up the corn kernels that fall into the bottom of the wooden box. Upon being gathered up, the scoop transports the kernels into other containers for later use. Once owned by Cecil Tyson, early 20th century. The accompanying video also describes the function of the scoop.
Metal corn sheller mounted on wooden box. Established to be at least 75 years old. The accompanying video provides a demonstration of the corn shelling process. Date approximated.
Warehouse basket used to hold tobacco at market. Once the tobacco "hands" or bundles were tied, the farmer pressed them flat to make it easier to stack and more presentable at market. A brief video details the function of the basket. Date approximated.
Tobacco press. Once the tobacco "hands" were tied, the farmer pressed them flat to make it easier to stack and more presentable at market. The video includes a demonstration of how the press was used and a description of how the pressed tobacco was taken to market. Date aprroximated.
Selling tobacco originally required farmers to separate their crop into various grades before taking it to market. The benches held the separated tobacco until there was enough to tie into a "hand." Federal standards in grading eventually eliminated this step for the farmer and created the tobacco inspectors profession at the warehouse. The video includes a former tobacco worker providing personal anecdotes about the grading process. Date unknown.
Curing barn made of logs with images of the rafters where the tobacco was hung to dry and the furnace used to dry the tobacco as part of the curing process. Curing was the most important process in tobacco farming as it could make or break an entire year's income. Barns originally were constructed of logs and then changed to frame types before being replaced by bulk barns. The first barns used wood-fired furnaces and farmers had to keep constant vigil over them day and night for 12 to 14 days for each curing cycle. Later barns used gas and oil burners to provide safer, more reliable and less laborious heat. The video provides a description of this particular barn was made and the curing process using heat. Date unknown.
These sticks were the same length as curing sticks but much thinner, very smooth, and marked with a series of notches that identified the grade of tobacco placed on them. The video includes a description of the types of sticks and their uses. Date approximated.
Cut tobacco curing stick
Cut tobacco curing stick. Cut tobacco sticks replaced hand split versions once they became cheap and easy to procure. Because the cut was against the grain, however, they had about half the strength of split sticks. The history of the use of cut tobacco curing stick is disscussed in the video. Date unknown.
Split tobacco curing stick
Split tobacco curing stick. The earliest tobacco curing sticks were hand split. This allowed them to retain the greatest amount of flexibility under the significant weight of green tobacco. The video describes the history of tobacco curing sticks. Date unknown.
Tobacco sled. Almost identical to a tobacco wagon, a sled used wooden skids instead of wheels. Farmers who owned fields that did not drain well often preferred sleds to wheeled carts since they bogged down less often. The video explains details this particular sled was made and used.
Tobacco wagon used to transport tobacco that had been harvested. Tobacco wagons were narrow and long so mules could pull them in between the rows of tobacco. Stakes and burlap sacks created the "walls" of the wagons to hold tobacco pulled from the plants. They also served as sleeping pads for farmers holding fire vigils at their barns overnight. A brief video describes how they were used. Date approximated.
Hand poisoner used by farmers to distribute fungicides and pesticides to plants, including tobacco. A description of the item and demonstration of how the item works is included in the video. Date approximated.
Mule-drawn tobacco transplanter
Mule-drawn tobacco transplanter. These large tools were the predecessor to modern-day transplanters and were drawn by mules. They allowed a farmer to sit and ride down the rows while transplanting seedlings. It also included a water barrel to soak the seedlings as it passed over the rows. The accompanying video describes the process of transplanting tobacco using the machine from the perspective of a former tobacco worker. Date approximated.
Tobacco hand transplanter
Tobacco hand transplanter. These tools made transplanting tobacco easier, faster, and used less manpower. It allowed two farmers working as a team to press a hole in the furrow, insert the seedling, and add fertilizer all with one step. The museum has several single transplanters and one example of a double transplanter. The video provides a demonstration of the process and anecdotes about planting tobacco. Date approximated.
Tobacco string was one of the most common items on a farm and used for more than stringing tobacco to curing sticks. The museum has several examples of linens, rugs, and even cloths made from this versatile commodity. The video describes how the string was used for stringing tobacco so that it could dry during the curing process. The video also relates how much tobacco was processed in an average day and what an average worker was paid. Date approximated.
Stringing house used in the tobacco curing process. Once farmers brought their tobacco from the field to the curing barn, they strung it onto tobacco sticks. Stringing horses held the sticks at a comfortable level for the farmers to work. The video shows a demonstration of a former farmer stringing tobacco using the stringing horse. Date approximated.
Tobacco peg used to press a hole in the furrow to accommodate a transplanted seedling. Other people would follow behind adding fertilizer and water. Farmers made tobacco pegs from the knots of pine and formed them to fit their palm. The accompanying video includes a demonstration of the process by a former farmer. Date approximated.
Tobacco plant bed stakes
These tobacco plant bed stakes (usually 1/4" in diameter and 12" long) held a sheet of tobacco gauze above the sprouting tobacco seedlings thus protecting them from the elements. The accompanying video describes the item. Date approximated.
Tobacco gauze used by farmers was used to cover their seedbeds to create a greenhouse effect that protected the seedlings during the early spring. The process for covering tobacco beds and other uses for the gauze are detailed in the video. The gauze also had other uses for the family around the farm. Date approximated.
Tobacco seeds in Coker's Pedigreed Seed Company container. Video describes how seeds are packaged and sold to tobacco farmers and how the seeds are planted from the early 20th century to the present. The museum has several ounce-sized seed containers that farmers purchased.
Methyl bromide opener
During the early twentieth century, farmers began using chemicals, including methyl bromide, to clear their seed beds. This opener used a simple clamping mechanism. Inside the aluminum ring is a sharpened tube that punctured the seal of a bromide canister. The tube seen on the outside hooked directly into a hand-held sprayer. The accompanying video describes the item. Date approximated.
Spanish two reales coin
Silver Spanish "cross" two reales coin. It was clipped from a whole eight reales coin also known as a piece of eight. Minted in Seville, Spain, 1735. One-quarter of the cross recovered from Hobson-Stone House cellar on the Hope site. The Hobson-Stone House was the original plantation house on Hope Plantation and was destroyed around 1800. Excavated in September 2003 by investigators from the University of Kentucky Program for Archeological Research. The video discusses the circumstances around the coins discovery and what it tells about the history of the time and place.
Hope Plantation kitchen building
Detached, single-story, frame kitchen building with brick-end gable wall in Flemish bond masonry. Gable roof has round-butt shingles of western red cedar. Exterior is clad in molded weatherboard to match the Hope Mansion. Two flush-panel doors with H-L hinges on the east and south facades. Nine-over-nine glazed sash on the north facade. Exposed brace framing on interior, with louvered vent on the west gable. Interior masonry includes broad hearth, with a base for a set-kettle to the left and bake oven above and wood box below to the right. Interior woodwork includes a built-in dresser with two shelves on north wall. Built on the footprint of the original Hope kitchen, 2001-2002.
Oxbow slant-top desk
Oxbow or reverse-serpentine slant-top desk (44 1/4" HOA 42" WOA 23" DOA). Mahogany with secondary white pine. Interior has two small drawers over four wider drawers to the right and left and two drawers in the center over six plainly finished pigeonholes. Below are four graduated drawers with original brass bail pulls. Ball and claw feet under molded base. Massachussetts, ca. 1765-1790. The desk was the first object in the Historic Hope Foundation Collection and originally came from a plantation on the James River in Virginia. A discussion of trade and how the desk may have ended up in the South are discussed in the video.
Chippendale-style close stool corner chair in walnut with secondary yellow pine (HOA 31 1/2" WOA 18 1/2"). Back has demilune crest rail atop two arm rails joined with a lap joint. These are supported by three turned columns. Openwork splats are secured with flat strips to allow seat to be removed easily. The chair features a deep scalloped apron to conceal a chamber pot. Chamber pot supports are missing, but ghostmarks remain. Made in Halifax County, N.C. sometime between 1750-1790. The accompanying video describes the item in detail.
Cary's terrestrial and celestial globes
Two globes (diam. ca. 12"). Plaster with engraved paper finished with varnish. The horizon is made of wood, 6 cm wide with a mounted zodiacal paper. The meridian circle is brass. Globe is mounted on a mahogany[?] stand with a turned pedestal and three ogee legs with pad feet. A compass is inset under the junction of the legs. Compass glass and needle intact. Made by John and William Cary, London, ca. 1800-1816. Circular wreath cartouche on the terrestial globe reads: "Cary's new terrestrial globe, delineated from the best authorities extant, exhibiting the different tracks of Captain Cook and the new discoveries made by him and other circumnavigators. London. Made & sold by J. & W. Carry, Strand, Jan. 1, 18[00?]." The other globe is a celestial globe and its cartouche reads: "Cary's new celestial globe : on which are correctly laid down upwards of 3500 stars, selected from the most accurate observations and calculated for the year 1800, with the extent of each constellation precisely defined by Mr. Gilpin of the Royal Society. Made & sold by J. & W. Cary, Strand London, Jan. 1, 1800." A brief history of globes is explained in the video along with a description of the contents of David Stones' library. Stones was the owner of the Historic Hope Plantation.
English fire screen from the late 18th or early 19th centuries. The practical use of fire screens, the screens' construction, the needlework, and the role of women in society are detailed in the video. Date approximated.
This wheel was used for spinning flax into thread. It is made of oak, used for strength, turned on a lathe to make decorative shapes in the legs and spokes. This machine uses the motion of the large wheel to twist flax fiber into thread that can then be used to weave or sew fabric.
Leather-covered trunk on stand (HOA 42" DOA 23"). Trunk is of nailed board construction and has a rear-hinged domed top and a pair of drawers at the base. It is covered with leather and decorated with three sizes of brass studs. The smallest sized studs trace a floral pattern. At the center of the lid is a large button medallion with four fleur-de-lis. There is also elaborate etched brasswork on the massive side handles and keyhole escutcheon plate, which features stylized bird heads. A later wood frame with cabriole legs and pad feet supports the trunk. The mortised and pegged apron has a small drop at the center front. Trunk, European, possibly English, late 17th century. Stand, English or American, possibly Virginia, 1720-30.
Walnut slant-frontdesk (HOA 42 3/4" LOA 37 1/2" DOA 21 1/2"). Step-down, tripartate interior. Applied molding between writing area and lower drawers. Interior and exterior drawers are banded with veneer. The center of the writing surface has a secret compartment with a sliding door. Three drawers in the case. Ball feet and bed molding are replaced. Locks and valances replaced. American, probably southeast Virginia, possibly Norfolk, from first quarter 18th century. The accompanying video describes the piece.
White cotton knitted coverlet (LOA 96" WOA 84"). Features a pattern of diamond-shaped squares alternating ribbed line squares with tufted rows of leaves. From Robinson Plantation, Warren County, NC and made during the first quarter of the 19th century. The history of the coverlet, contton's importance during the time period, and the presence of cotton as a crop at the Hope Plantation are all briefly discussed in the video.
Abacus in wood frame (HOA 8 3/4" WOA 7 3/4"). Ten horizontal wires in turned wood frame with round finials on top of side supports. Top wire has ten red beads strung on it. The next wire has nine red beads and one white one, the reds continue to decrease one by one. The white increases by one for each following wire, the bottom wire having nine white beads and one red one. English or American, from the first quarter of the 19th century. The accompanying video describes the object.
Collapsible oak ladder
Collapsible oak ladder (HOA 95") used in Hope Plantation's library to reach the highest shelves. Eight oak round rungs are pegged to the demi-lune shaped side rails that they swing into the hollow of the demi-lune and the rails can be pushed together to appear as a circular pole. Brass inset latch for holding together. English, late 18th century.
Walnut dressing table (HOA 30 3/4" WOA 35" DOA 22 1/4"). Molded-edge top sits on a case holding one long drawer over three short drawers. An apron extends below the case and has reproduction teardrop finials. Four cabriole legs with pad feet support the case. Massachussetts, ca. 1740. The importance of the dressing table to ladies of the time is detailed in the video.
Flint glass hurricane shade
Clear flint glass hurricane shade (HOA 22" Diam. 9 1/2"). A baluster-form shade cut with a foliage vine design spiraling around the body from an etched band at the base. English or Irish, early 19th century. Possibly an original furnishing of the Hope house. The accompanying video describes the item.
Blue kid-leather slippers
Blue ladies' slippers made from blue kid-leather mounted on linen in the Persian style. They are hand-sewn with leather soles and silk pompoms decorate the toes. A brief description of the slippers and fashion during the 18th century is included in the video. Date approximated.
Leather key basket
Oval-shaped leather key basket (HOA 8", WOA 7 1/8", DOA 3 1/2"). Sewn leather sides are tacked to a wooden bottom with a row of brass tacks around bottom edge. Replaced leather strap loop handle; ends are sewn to each long end of the basket. The basket would have been used to collect keys to doors throughout a plantation and other items requiring a key to secure them. Its importance to security on a plantation is described in the video.