Expressions, Spring 2004, Issue 4


Magazine is East Carolina University's minority publication that strives to provide an
alternative voice to address the special concerns and problems of minority groups on
campus. The definition of "minority" is ANY group of students that feel outside the
norm or "mainstream The student's sense of neglect may be the result of belonging
to a specific ethnic or religious group (for example. Native American, Asian American,
Hispanic, or African American). The lack of being in the mainstream may also be due
to a student's special concerns that other publications are not adequately addressing
(for example, international students, non-traditional students, physically challenged
students, or veterans).
The responsibility of Expressions is to present the opinions and attitudes of vari-
ous minority voices, to inform, entertain, and affect social change and understanding.
Expressions is not a publication solely for minorities. We hope to cover issues of con-
cern to students belonging not only to ,1 minority group, but also those students that
other campus forums have left unfulfilled
Okl Cafeteria Complex
2nd Floor, Student Publications Bldg.
East Carolina University
WZMH Thursdays 7pm-8pm

Elections belong to the people. It is their decision. If they decide to turn their back on the fire and
burn their behinds, then they will just have to sit on their blisters -Abraham Lincoln
' g I
' �'
Table of Contents
04 StafT
05 Welcome: From the General Manager
06 ECU Intercultural Organizations
09 Poetry
14 Literacy of Patriotic Politics
16 The Non-Traditional Student
18 Public Policy and the Homosexual
19 Black Politics
20 Islam and Democracy
22 Justin Bua: A personal account
23 Revolving Current Events
24 Calender of Events

(Jencral Manager Michael Ashby
Managing Editor Gary R. Redding
Art Director Napoleon Wnght
Stall Writer Nyimah Boles
Stall Writer Knick Dixon
Stall Writer Anieena Mohyiiddm
Staff Illustrator Lionel Williams
Web Designer Marcus Jackson
Faculty Advisor Reginald Watson

Welcome to the newest issue of Expressions. As students and student
leaders, we are entering a new season of the 2004 political election.
We have reason to exercise our youthful magnanimity and intellectual
wit to read and study the issues that affect our daily lives, and to actively
participate in the election process. As young Americans we have a distinct
identity in language, personal creativity, and political value. Register to vote.
Be aware of registration deadlines in whatever state, county, or municipality
you are eligible to vote. Let's all be apart of a national dialogue on such
issues as cutting college tuition, affirmative action, "Leave No Child
Behind racism, freedom of speech and individual rights. �
We welcome your letters and comments. We look to your
contributions of articles, poetry, and art work. Let's enter this semester with
a sense of mission for the new political season, dedication to excellence,
and the discipline of good conduct and making our parents happy with good
Gary R. Redding
Managing Editor

If your organization is not represented on this list,
just call us at 328-6927. We will be sure to include
your organization in our next tahlokl edition.
For more information on
these organizations please
contact the Ledonia Wright Cultural
Center at 328-1680.
Alpha Kappa Alpha
Alpha Phi Alpha
Amnesty International
Anthropology GSO
BSW Student Association
Black Student Union
Buddhist Meditation and Study Group
Circle K
The Coalition
Delta Sigma Theta
ECU Gospel Choir
East Carolina Native American Organization
Epsilon Chi Nu
Expressions Magazine
Folk and Country Dancers
Iota Phi Theta
Independent Movement of Independent Thinkers
Intercultural Student Senate
Italian Club
Habitat for Humanity
Japan League
Ladies Elite
Minority Association of Pre-Health Students
Model United Nations Club
Muslim Student Association
NAACP, ECU Chapter
NC Rural Health Coalition
National Pan-Hellenic Council, Inc.
National Society of Minorities in Hospitality
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc.
Omniance Modeling
Omicron Delta Kappa
Phi Beta Sigma
Sigma Gamma Rho
Sigma Omicron Epsilon
Sisters in Transition & Revival
Student Association of Latino-Spanish Affairs
Student Government Association
Student Planning Association
Student Union Cultural Awareness Committee
Swing Dance Club
Thespians of Diversity
Visual Art Forum
Zeta Phi Beta

"A healthy family is sacred territory
� Unknown
Photo by Napoleon Wright


"We, as individuals, are fast losing our reputation for honest dealing. Our
nation is losing its character. The loss of a firm national character, or the degra-
dation of a nation's honour, is the inevitable prelude to her destruction
�William Wells Brown, Abolitionist author and playwright

"Cary, NC: Fourth Safest Place to Live in America
(Newspapers Report)
by Jennifer Clift
A shrill ring wakes Sue.
She rises, stepping over an American history book.
A haughty voice laughs
And advises her to retrieve her prize in her boutique
Sue numbly unveils:
hundreds of wedding dresses slit with razors,
stolen money.
masturbating stick figures on the furniture,
black swastikas on every wall,
saliva plastered on the front door-
dripping, oozing.
Uniforms sluggishly arrive:
"Sorry it took us so long
Flash bulbs pop.
Fingerprint samples
"They probably used gloves
The coffeemaker gurgles in the sewing room.
DNA from saliva?
"The State won't pay for the test
Smells waft in from the bakery next door.
Hate crime?
"Surely not here, across the street from the police
Papers are shuffled and notes arc taken.
Calling the press would only cause more trouble.
Insurance pays its duties then denies her.
Nausea solidifies to outrage.
Outrage liquefies to tears.
Tears trickle to sweat-
in an attempt to rebuild.
Sue's culpable sins:
Not owning an SUV.
Not being married.
Having a foreign accent.
Living as an American.
Worshipping as a Muslim.
Still praying for her family.
Remaining a native Iraqi.
Illustration by Jonathan Graham

I've Learned
by Tina Rodgers-James
To depend on me for the happiness
I desire within.
To praise myself no matter
If I lose or win.
To truly love who I am and
Not care who you desire me to be.
And just accept myself and be free.
I've learned not to look to another for their love
Or acceptance.
But, how to take what they do or say,
As obstacles being placed in my way.
i Ibstacles,
I'll just push my way through.
Because at the days end
I've learned to accept, love, and depend
On me and not you.

by Andre McDowell
I'm stuck between two rocks
and neither of them wants me
sounds of the Ivory Coast beckon
where the heart isor at least
should be
Absolutely ready for the Serengcti
Ready to ripen myself on Nile
to prepare for my trip through the
desert to the pyramids
but even though the land itself
screams my name
the sentiments of the people might
not be the same
it is though they hate me
because of my complacency
my ability to conform to a system
structured to hold me down
hate me because I won't REBEL!
I'm stuck between two rocks
and neither of them wants me
sounds of Jazz and a black renais-
sance beckon me
Where one can feel safeor at
least should be
Where the streets are paved with
Or is it milk and honey?
Whoevcr's heaven you've heard of
will suffice
Where ballpark hot dogs can be
the best meal in town
Where technology is at the fore-
front of every storefront
Where all men are created equal
So long as equal equals male,
Christian, heterosexual, republican,
wealthy and white
But if you're like me then you are
equal BUT different
And in that case will never quite
What the ones who are equal want
to see
Bottom line; they too hate me
Hate me because of my strive for
For my militant nature in the face
of fallacies
Hate me because I REBEL!
Pain in Full
by Akanimo Mike Ikpe
The midnight thirsts for cool
Knees are lead to nppled reflections
At the shore of continuity
Where Musa met George.
Gentle gazes into the deep waters;
Hyes mirrored reveal the image Of
One-tlic soul of many brothers Hoat
across the ripples under the Cool
moon; the acknowledgment Of
crimes committed against an African
commencement antonymoui And
synonymous, they drink from The
pool of ambivalence to atone For
syndication that bled a nation Aid
nppled its children across an ocean�
A confederate nation.
I am an African-American
An African HYPHEN American
Stuck m between Africa and
Wondering if I'll ever find a home.

HAS HOUR soo 52??
"Ji the wiwo V
"The media's the most powerful entity on earth. They have the power to
make the innocent guilty and to make the guilty innocent, and that's power.
Because they control the minds of the masses
-Malcolm X, Activist and Black Nationalist

The Literacy of
Patriotic Politics
Language is merely a tool for expressions of facts.
Wlxocver insists on language sacrifices the truth and
will be confused forever. For instance, if a rock is
thrown at a dog, the dog unit go after the rock; but if
a rock is thrown at a lion, the lion will go after the
person who threw it. Wlicn investigating the language
of Zen, you should be like the lion and not the dog.
-Zen Insight
LANGUAGf is a communicating in-
strument used to express and refer to
lite ami the web ting of passive and
active actions instigate reactions
Alejandro Portea, .1 Professor ol Sociology and
1 km i iln- I iepartmeni ol Sot iology ai fohns
Hopkins wrote how this affects cultures: "US
history does nni register .1 single case of 'negoti
ated' ethnicity I inguistically differentiated
ethiiu groups have therefore only emerged
through the two other alternatives conquest
and immigration" 'Si hmid). I anguage spreads
in foui different fashions through initial
i olzation ol an unoccupied region, diver
gem e, convergence, and language replai einenl
How then has the English spread throughout
Amen, 1
America's founding fathers believed the
English language was superior and the most at
curate way to express American lite. John Jay
wrote in the Federalist Paper, "Providence has
been pleased to give this one connected country
to one united people a people descended from
the same ancestors, speaking the same languagl
professing the same religion, attached to the
same prim iple- of government" 1S1 hmid). I he
pressure to assimilate and lo have English as the
nation's primary language is an unofficial re-
quirement to become aii American citizen.
Benjamin Franklin expressed a similai opin
ion the Pennsylvania colony by stating. "Why
should the Palatine boors be suffered to swann
in our Settlements, ami by herding together,
established their I anguage and Manners to the
exclusion ol ours? Whv should Pennsylvania,
founded by the English, become a Colony
oi Aliens, who will shortly he s, numerous
as to Germanize us instead of our anglifying
them" (Schnnd)? Franklin here is quoted in a
blatant xenophobic (fear of different cultures)
remark geared towards the assimilation of any
culture or language that was is not of Anglo
descent, franklin later realized the error in his
thinking and deleted this passage from his col-
lection of essays referring to language. It is im-
portant to understand when someone omits a
statement, the omission is often more important
then the statement itself
"From the onset. Europeans did what diey could
to eradicate Native American languages. The
.olomsts set out to civilize and Christianize
the Indians, toning them to assimilate to West
em . ivilization and to speak English explained
Carol Sclnnid, author of The Politics of lan-
guage. Ihe government even liquidated fifteen
thousand dollars per veal in order to bring the
Native Americans into the ways of An-
glo-American cultural identity. Since they were
considered to be uncivilized, the extermination
tit these barbaric people seemed necessary to in-
sure national security. In fact, tribal groups have
always been a problem for civilization because
they require an abundance of land and typically
do not SUCCumb to absolute authoritarian control
without conflict and resistance.
Ihe United States government passed null
tiple laws concerning the Indigenous people
in the Western Territories In 1830, Congress
voted for the Indian Removal act, which tin
derhandedly stole the land from the Indigenous
Native Americans west of the Mississippi River.
They were plated on land reservations with
barely enough sustenance to maintain the hunt
er-gatherer's existence In IXro, the Nw Perce
signed a treaty with the American government,
granting the Native Americans most of the tern

tory that was lost in the Indian Removal Act.
A couple of years later, the Gold Rush was
announced and thirty thousand Anglos hurried
into the Western territories. The government
soon came to the conclusion to reduce the Na-
tive American's territory once again. The
Government thought this reduction of territory
was in the Native American's best interest be-
cause of the United States inability to protect
them from incessant attacks by white settlers. These
Acts were the first steps, whether conscious
or unconscious, in the assimilation of the Na-
tive American's heritage. The early Americans
thought it was their destiny to civilize and con-
quer the New World. General Sherman, one of
the key members of The United States Military
said, "the sameness of language is produced
through the sameness of sentiment and thought,
customs and habits are molded and assimilated
in the same way, and thus in the process of
time these differences producing trouble would
have be gradually obliteratedIn the differ-
ence of language today lies two-thirds or our
trouble" (Schmid). The hegemonic ideals
imbedded within these words are the misconcep-
tion of Sherman's reality, diluted by supremacy
and the lack of humility.
Through the underlining political agenda
that has been seen throughout America's history
in relation to language and colonization, it is
not surprising that after the Mexican-American
war in 1848, large amounts of land was handed
over to America, including parts of Colorado,
New Mexico, California, Arizona and Texas.
As a result, all indigenous people within this
territory automatically became American citi-
zens. In 1849 at the Monterey Constitutional
Convention in California, a vote implemented
that all legal documents would be written
in Spanish and English. A year later, the Gold
Rush spread over the western part of the nation.
This, in effect, increased the white population to
become the majority in several states, including
California. In 18'J4, California inundated new-
laws announcing that only citizens who could
read and write the English I anguage would be
aloud to vote. Obviously America's view on
national identity in the 19th Century was based
on language and belief structures During this
time Spanish culture, newspapers, and bilingual
schools were flourishing, but California still was
not providing an equal disbarment of funds to
all United States citizens. The Anglo school
children would receive 51 dollars pure child,
were as the Mexican student would receive 35
dollars in state funding.
In 1884, the New Mexico public school
population was a mere 5 white and 69 His
p.iiiu . yet 26 of the students were bilingual.
By 1912 the Anglo population exceeded the
Mexican population Only then did New Mex-
ico become a state in the United States. Carol
Schmid highlighted this population fluctuation
in The Politics of Language. "Thc emphasis
on English-language instruction was part of the
broader struggle over land, which was develop-
ing between the English-speaking white settlers
and the Mexican Americans in New Mexico
With the loss of one's native tongue comes the
loss of particular words, the change in semantics,
and the eradication of a perception that is dis-
tinct from other cultures.
According to the original Spanish Education
laws in New Mexico, each voting district would
make the decision on which language would be
taught in the local school system - Spanish, Eng-
lish, or both. However, in 1910 the Enabling
act was passed, which required English to be
taught in public schools legal documents were
published in Spanish for another twenty years,
but like many other languages in America's his-
tory, Spanish ceased to be used in legal docu-
America has a long line of forced and
socially situated pressures that have helped in
conquering the Western territories. About
this tune students who spoke Spanish on school
grounds would receive detention and possibly
beaten. Between 1870 and 1920 the Native
Americans had similar experiences. Seventy-
seven boarding schools were established simply
for assimilating the indigenous cultures, their
languages, their clothes, their spiritual practices,
their sociological makeup, and their knowledge
of wisdom. Not only were they forced into
these schools, but they were also punished
for not cutting their hair, wearing their own
clothes, and using their own dialect. They were
hog-tied for hours, tied to stoves, made to stand
out in the blistering cold, and beaten with sticks
for any insubordination. The idea of having bi-
lingual studies accessible for Native Americans
was not at all considered because they were
seen as barbaric, uncivilized, savage people who
needed to be saved.
When Puerto Rico was acquired by the
United States after the Spanish American war, it
became the next in line to be assimilated into the
Anglo way of life. Some political leaders thought
it was for Puerto Rico's benefit to become part
of the United States. Explains Schmid, "There
was a conscious policy of 'Americanization
with the intent of convening the island's Span-
ish speakers into Anglophones. The principle
vehicle of this change was the public education
system" (Schmid). Most of the education during
1903 to 1949 was delivered in English. Even pa-
triotic exercises such as Mag raising, saluting, .mil
singing the national anthem became a common
spectacle on the Island of Puerto Rico. Dennis
Baron once said, "language in Puerto Rico
has always been more a issue than an
education one. tied up with issues of statehood
or independence, cultural pluralism and Ainen
Canization In the I950's political unrest started
to escalate as Puerto Rico began to crave a sense I
of nationality independent of the United States.
To this day, Puerto Rico is still an independent
The veil that covers the Eye of Horns
(Horns is the ancient Egyptian god that rep-
resents wisdom, health and prosperity and is
represented by a single eye, which is depicted
on the back of the dollar bill) illustrates the
multi-cultural perception, which is negated
in the justice and freedom inherendy present m
rational thought. We, as citizens, must critically
examine language and our attitudes towards
language. It is important to understand where
the facts are coming from, not just the facts
themselves. Failing to insist upon multiple
historical accounts and relying upon books and
politicians to produce answers leaves us open to
hegemonic perceptions of reality. It is the job of
United States citizens to see the inequality that is
hidden in-between the lines and draw our own
lines, if necessary. If we don not watch the hand
that writes the laws and watch the people who
write the books, this manifest destiny that covers
our eyes, mind, and soul will continue to pol-
lute the creativity of life.
Work Cited
Schmid, Carol L. The Politics of Language
New York; Oxford University Press. 2001.
Illustration by Lionel Williams

The Non-Traditional Student
By Gary R. Redding
Today in the United States, sm-
dents deemed nomraditional,
disadvantaged, and disabled are
often perceived as not having the
ability to intellectualize or am. ulate the world
around them. Many people have ami would
probably define my domestic upbringing as
"disadvantaged because my three sisters and I
grew up in a single parent home w nh no indooi
plumbing, electricity, or telephone. We were
all graduated from the Halifax County School
System, which is rated as one of the woist public
school systems in the si.ire and nation We were
stimulated from conception with my mom's
own great philosophy of womb adjudication:
meaning the sot io ideologic al grounding of
self education, self-reliance, and self-empower
nient. without the a use involvement ol 11 ithei
or the external features of a connecting support
system. As children, materialism and the eco-
nomic reality ol our community sas traded tor
the dynamics ol being together, self-discipline,
and reading aloud to each other tor 45 minutes
a day from such great masters as Will Du-
Bois, ham Panon, Imn Morrison, Aristotle,
and many more We enjoyed such communal
events as Sunday brunch on our small kin hen
table positioned on the edge ol the cotton held
liisi outside our back door, dressed scith a pretty
tablecloth and with our best china and silver
wire Even at a young age, this was the lime' set
aside to engage each other about local politics,
our latest reading initiatives, strategies lor sur-
vival, and the horizontal dimensions of church.
The money we saved to install a magnificent
bathroom was instead used to lake the family to
Sweden to witness Nelson Mandela receiving
the I'WO Nobel Peace Prize. I was nine years old
and what an experience.
When we finally got a telephone and a
television, our interpersonal relationship with
friends was delayed until after the evening news
hour Some of the consequences of our rich
educational and . ultura upbringing is that the
oldest sister is a court judge, we continue to
enjo) reading and eat b other's i ompany, and as
my Mom likes to add. "None of us have any
lhe average American has no idea about
the poverty experienced by many black, Native
American, and poor youth. Many gel through
high school not ever basing read a complete
book, having no conception of the relationship
ol llicn home aiea to the geography of the rest
ot the Unmd Stales, not having a positive rela-
tionship with a father or male figure in lhe film
ly or community, having no idea of the sacrifices
made on behalf of parents and the ancestors, and
n.n being able to list the names of the governor
and 01 out political representatives To sum up
the situation: Even though most students are ic
ally good people and know how to have a good
Photo by Nvimah Boles

tune, we are the generation of pain, contempt,
illusion, and a prolific mire of neglect, depres-
sion and other health problems.
The structural differentiation of education
lor whites and blacks, and other minorities in
tins country is sometimes appalling. I attended
school with hundreds of disenfranchised black
students who never had access to books other
than outdated textbooks, to a school library, or
to a proficient English teacher. Most of these
students were direct descendants of a local slave
heritage and of grandparents who were denied
the tight to read and write by Jim ("row" laws.
Many of the parents of these students struggled
also with economic despair and lack
power and awareness. The spirit of educa-
tion was also stagnated by a lack of welcoming
involvement in the school system and by the
authoritarian and inhibiting moral law of their
local church. Subjugated and colonized minds
often turn to group creative ways of expression
and new and sometimes unhealthy insights by
way ot hip-hop music, strange fashions in cloth
ing, and by becoming single teenage parents.
( rune, drugs, and an increasing appetite for un-
safe sex are also products of subjugated minds
I Respite the notion in some quarters that the
probability students succeeding
is little 01 none, the dominance of this country
in music and the creative arts would not be what
it is without then contributions I luce monu-
mental examples of people ssho have overcome
unhealthy and desolate circumstances include:
(I) Wilma Rudolph was born poor and with
polio, an acute infectious disease that attat ks the
spinal cord, often resulting in muscular paralysis.
Rudolph, a native ot Tennessee and Tennes-
see State University graduate, bravely learned to walk,
transforming herself into a young promising
track athlete. In the 10 Olympics, Rudolph
sprinted herself into the record books by be-
coming the first American woman runner to
win three gold medals. Before her untimely
death in 1994, Rudolph served as a track coach,
an athletic consultant, and assistant director tit
athletics for the Mayor's Youth Foundation
in ("Imago. (2) Stevie Wonder is an award
winning musical prodigy who was born blind.
Wonder's heightened awareness of sound devel-
oped into a comprehensive model ot" musical
genius and a political energy addressing serious
racial, social, and spiritual issnev Wonder's dis-
cography includes 4o albums, many written,
arranged, and produced by linn;Sherman
Alexie, a name of the Spokane Indian Reserva-
tion, m Wellpuut, Washington, and a gradu-
ate of Washington State University, was born
hydrocephalit with water on his brain Even
though doctors predicted that he would live
with severe mental retardation, Alexie learned
10 read by age three and has become a world
renowned novelist, poel. and movie producer.
To date, Alexie has published fourteen books,
produced two movies, and recorded five CD's.
All three of these great Americans of color
turned their physical challenges into creative
vehicles of magnetism, achievement, and a
monetizing system to not only take care of
themselves and their families, but to employ others
and bring joy and understanding to the world.
Whatever your physical, mental, or eco-
nomic and cultural challenge, we owe it to
ourselves and to the ancestors to make a better
world. The 2004 national political election is
approaching. If you are eighteen years old
or older, yon have the responsibility to register
to vote, and then be sure to vote The Hush
administration has cut billions of dollars from
programs and services for the mentally and
physically challenged and for non-traditional
Students Small communities, colleges and uni-
versities, and the society at large now face the
consequences of these monumental cuts
Every human person has indisputable value,
influence, and significance. This value is tied to
the responsibility of involving ourselves in new
strategies tor a better world and to each of us
dedicating ourselves lo being the best person
we can be.

Public Policy
and the
by Nyimah Boles
Ellen DeGeneres, Eleanor Roos-
evelt, James Dean and Richard
Chamberlain: A prominent co-
medienne, the political helpmate
to the former president Franklin Delano
Roosevelt, and two well known and re-
spected actors despite their backgrounds, each
had one thing in common: homosexuality.
The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Trans-
gender community lias been prevalent in the
United States for over 30 years but has seen
very little progress in legislation concern-
ing their "civil" rights and their well
being. This lack of legislative progress is
due to lnnumerous obstacles, a few being:
the widespread misconception held about
homosexuality being a mental illness, and
current public policy concerning sodomy
and marriage.
Prior to 1973, homosexuality was con-
sidered a diagnosable mental illness.
The misconception that homosexuality is
a mental illness has contributed to the
lack of legislative progress for the Lesbian,
Ciay, Bisexual and Transgender community.
This assertion has been linked to problems
like substance abuse, depression or an inability
to be a happy and fulfilled individual. It
wasn't until 30 years ago that the American
Psychiatric Association removed homo-
sexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders. However,
this misconception has had negative and
positive effects on public policy concerning
sodomy and marriage.
Generally, sodomy laws restrict or
prohibit sexual behaviors such as oral or
anal sex, even between consenting adults.
Public Policy, as of July 2002, states that
in 26 states and the District of Columbia,
sodomy laws had been repealed through
legislative action. In nine additional states
the courts had declared the laws uncon-
stitutional and unenforceable. Four states
Kansas, Missoun, Oklahoma, and Texas) have
sodomy laws that target only same-sex
behavior. Though rarely known, these
sodomy laws punish a category of sexual
behavior and in turn punish a particular
sexual orientation. The discrimination
based on sexual orientation is also seen in
current same-sex marriage policy. Housing
discrimination disputes are a consequence
of lack of legal recognition of same-sex
marriage. Though states set sodomy and
same-sex marriage at their own discretion,
the federal government hasn't made an
initiative in support of same-sex marriage
and the benefits of such a union. In fact,
President George Bush, Jr. was quoted as
saying that he "would support a bill that
would ban same-sex marriage if it had to
come to that The inability of homo-
sexuals to marry a person of the same sex
prohibits them from the benefits of a legal
union such as: the ability to file joint tax
returns. Social Security benefits, Veterans
benefits, access to Medicare, the right to
visit a spouse in the hospital and a host of
Though public policy is just one of
the attributes that continues to put a halt
on the progression of the Lesbian, Gay,
Bisexual and Transgender community, it
does hold a very large weight. Once public
policy begins to let go of the reins that are
binding the homosexual community, their
forward movement would possibly occur
more rapidly.

Photo by Tcnesha Sistrunk
Black Politics
By Knick Dixon
For the past couple of years I have
followed U.S presidential election
campaigns in utter misery and
disgust. I have been forced to sift
through publicity stunts by the President
select, and biased media outlets politicizing
human atrocities as acts of heroism. Yet I am
not positive if it's the theatrics associ-
ated with a candidate's campaign rally in
inner cities or my dedication to Dr. King's
teaching that keep me engaged in a political
world that seems to care nothing about the
Black man.
Blacks have been integral cogs in
American society, since they first arrived in
Jamestown in 1619. However, despite the
remarkable achievements Blacks have made
in this country, they arc considered insig-
nificant until Election year. As November
7 approaches presidential candidates are
stroked with an intuitive grasp of reality
that forces them to lobby for their only
chance of victory-the Black vote. My ex-
perience as a voter and as an intern with
Democracy South, a non-profit organiza-
tion that seeks to eliminate special interest
in elections, has led me to believe that the
Black vote is essential for a candidate's
victory but means nothing a day after the
This will be the second public elec-
tion that 1 will participate in, not because
I have faith in any of the candidates but
simply because it is a right my forefathers
died for. Again this year I will vote not
for the best candidate but for the man or
woman that will do my community the
least damage. You see I am a member ot a
segment of Black voters who suffer from
political paranoia exacerbated by memory;
we remember the "Great Communicator
Ronald Reagan, greatly eradicating years
of gains in Civil Rights. In 1982, President
Reagan planned to reinstate tax-exempt
status to private institutions that discrimi-
nated against African-Americans. His vice-
president and successor George H. Bush
and Dan Quayle's assertion that the L.A.
riots and poverty were
a result of loss of family values as opposed
to years of social inequality and misdirection
in the way of race relations by the last three
Republican administrations. Quaylc said "the
intergencrational poverty that troubles
us so much today is predoniinandy a poverty
of values Lest we forget President Clinton,
widely hailed as the "First Black President
because he played the saxophone, and displayed
coolness around minorities that had never
before been seen. However Clinton failed
to lessen the sentence disparity between
Black and White criminals and could not
ossify a commission on police brutality or
reparations. George W. (Who, What, When,
Where) Bush has totally neglected the "color
line" in favor of undermining at least three-
rights guaranteed in the Bill of Rights, (due
process, free speech, and search and seizure),
in the United and Strengthening America Act
also known as the Patriot Act. What is pa-
triotic about a document that infringes on civil
I could easily conjecture that the Ameri-
can government is a racially biased insti-
tution without regard for anyone but White
America. But to speak of the government as
the progenitor of one mind, body, and soul,
would demonstrate a shallowness of opinion.
Therefore, I will assume that the United States
of Amenca is ambivalent to the demands of Black
America. Our Black political and intellectual
leaders have not vigorously demanded any-
thing of this government since the 60's and
70's. This crisis in Black leadership and the
lack thereof in our churches, college institu-
tions, and community have led to a denigra-
tion in Black politics. With the exception of
one political rhyme artist and frizzy haired
activist, Black leaders have ceased to demand
anything from those who have a stranglehold
on politics. Most of our Black intellectuals
situated in academia spend more time decid-
ing which Ivy League institution to call home-
instead of feverishly demanding solutions "to
race" the problem we have in America. Until
Black leaders and "Blacks that lead concoct
a meaningful Black agenda we will forever be
swallowed up in the veil of inulticulturalism.
Thus the problem of the 21st century will re-
main the "color line
Maynard Jackson, the first Black
Mayor of Atlanta, suggested in a conversation
with Randall Robinson, founder and director
of TransAfnca, that a Black Race Card be cre-
ated that had a list of questions tailored to the
needs of Black people. The card would be dis-
tributed to all Black voters at the time of their
registration. Each time a candidate, White
or Black solicited the Black vote, someone
would whip out the card and inquire about
their stance on affirmative action,
record on civil rights legislation, police
brutality, domestic terrorism, AIDS,
sentence disparity between crack and
powder cocaine, economic stimulation
in Africa, trade with third world coun-
tries, educational resources (aside from
testing measures that only seek to cat-
egorize the student population with
minimal efforts to improve the qual-
ity of teaching), and REPARATIONS!
The card never came into fruition but
one can only guess how few candidates
would have been deemed worthy of
the Black vote.
To some, going against the po-
litical norm seems hopeless and will
turn the clock on the racial progress
we have made. In response to these
nay says, I commission you to study the
roots and personality of the American,
French, and Bolshevik Revolutions,
or the resistance movement in South
Africa. You will find that working
outside of the box has resulted in some
of the greatest social revolutions in his-
tory. So it is time for Blacks to follow
in the footsteps of the former "La Raza
Unida" and create a viable third political
party. La Raza Unida was a Mexican-
American faction bred out of the Chica-
no Civil Rights Movement that forced
the federal government to pass the first
Farm Labor Union Act in United States
History. Their success is encouraging to
those of us who are fighting small battles
in the inner city with hopes of landing
the ultimate victory of racial equal-
ity. I am convinced that until a grass mots
contender pushes forth the principles of
the Black agenda built on the founda-
tion of attaining racial equality and racial
healing, equality will remain an elusive
A political party centered
around, but not limited to Af-
rican-American issues is essential for all
Americans to understand the history of
plight of African-Americans. As Caesar
Chavez stated, "our ambitions must be
broad enough to include the aspirations
and needs of others-in the strugglc-for
their sake and for our own However,
too often Black Republicans and Dem-
ocrats are forced to compromise what
is considered a radical position on race.
A Black political party would be able
to promote dialogue among the races
without having to compromise the goals
of their agenda.

Islam and
A Theoretical Perspective
By Amtcna Mohyucklin
Is democracy the whims and desire! t
the tyrannical rulers or their cronies? Is
it a pine to jail and incarcerate its fighi
ers and a place to torture us proponents?
I Ins notion stretches across the oceans as world
leaders stray from the true meaning dcnioi
rai v Democracy's original meaning has been lost
and in tins day and age it has transformed into
something almost tyrannical As the world has
changed, governments have fallen and changed
and so has democracy. It has become entirely
difficult to bring about change without coups
and bloodshed.
Throughout history, the concept of Islamic
law (along with other cultures and societies) has
been argued and debated over ten the simple
purpose- ot understanding whether or not it can
be practiced under the structure ot democracy.
II the Islamic states adhere to democratic behav-
ior, would tins action benefit the states them-
selves, as well as the remainder ot the world,
or would tins action cause tot more violent out-
breaks ac tiw tiit- globe?
rhough we can understand that the princi
pies ot democracy have so far been successful in
most western nations such as the United States.
Canada, and Sweden (to name a few), we must
also recognize that democracy was formulated
at a tune when dictatorship was despised and
society was willing to go towards great lengths
to flee the authoritarian system. It is compre-
hensible that democracy has a possibility to
"rule the entire world including the Islamic
world and not just the western world; for the
further betterment of all mankind.
As democracy focuses on ruling
by the people, the reputation of Islamic states
infer that decisions are based on the decision
ol a few elites, and not by a majority rule.
However, the Muslim belief system agrees
that consultation is a must when it comes to
selecting a potential leader for a nation stale
The principles of a true democracy can be ap-
plicable to the constitutionality of Islamic law,
and theoretically speaking, could possible lead
to the benefit of the Islamic state, as well as the
remainder of the world.
Democracy has been known to be the
form of government that could possibly be the
cornerstone ol a stable society. Based on its
formal definition, a form of government m
which the supreme power is retained by the
people, but is indirectly exercised through a
system of representation anil delegated author-
ity periodically renewed ,the essence of the
meaning is truly what a modern society needs
in order for there to be a civil sense of freedom
and impartiality for all mankind. However,
once viewed through the lenses of diverse ways
of life, from religion to culture, can this demo-
cratic system of governance truly suffice to the
attitudes of all individuals from different parts of
the world, or is it fit for only certain divisions of
Democracy was first established as a system
of authority and ruling for the Greeks during a
time of anarchy and unstable society in the 6th
century, BC. Liberty, majority rule, and equal-
ity are all important aspects of democracy in
the sense that society needs these basic rights in
order to survive in a fair manner. The true es-
sence of democracy continued onward into the
Roman Empire, as well as toward the Middle Ages
(despite the outburst of Feudalism), and finally
in Europe, which paved the way to what we
know now as the modem democratic system of
governance. Rousseau claimed that all people
should have an input in how their government
should function.
There are a few essential characteristics of
a legitimate democracy, whether western-based
or not: it is the people who are chosen, not the
leaders, to freely make choices without govern-
ment intervention; when electing the leaders, it
is essential that every vote must represent in an
equal manner, hence, one vote for every person
(adult), for this equality to occur, all people
must be subject to the same laws, have equal
civil rights, and have the allowance to freely ex-
press their ideas. Minority rights are also crucial
in a legitimate democracy. No matter how un-
popular their views, all people should enjoy the
freedoms of speech, press and assembly. Public
policy should be made publicly, not secretly,
and regularly scheduled elections should be
held. Since "legitimacy" may be defined as "the
feeling or opinion the people have that govern-
ment is based upon morally defensible principles
and that they should therefore obey it then
there must necessarily be a connection between
what the people want and what the government
is doing it legitimacy is to occur.
Today, the United States recognizes
a system of representative democracy, which
embodies the three branches of government for
equal representation. As other nations use the
principles ot democracy to help manage their
government, it must be noted that not all sys-
tems are exactly alike. Some democratic Euro-
pean nations still exercise monarchies, however,
and use parliamentary procedure to assist people
in having more power to rule. Thus, democ-
racy is essentially universal, allowing room for
interpretation for all nations, cultures, and soci-
eties (i.e. the Islamic World).
I he principles of Islamic law are now

referred to as the Shari'ah consisting of rules de-
veloped by Muslim jurists through the process
of consensus and analogy. Of the Shari'ah beliefs
include the idea of changes in circumstance
and tune and how those changes may result in
further interpretation of Islamic Jurisprudence.
The idea of public interest also goes in accor-
dance with Islamic law, further approving the
idea that democratic principles can be applied
to the governance of an Islamic state. The pro-
cess of consultation (shura) must be applied to
the rulings of any Islamic state, regardless of the
structure taken. Muslims also believe in the fact
that God is the head of the state; however, His
followers are not necessarily His representatives.
As far as shura and democracy are con-
cerned, it can be understood that the process of
decision making is a requirement for an Islamic
government. The Quranic verse: and con-
sult them in important matters. Then, when
you have taken a decision, put your trust in God
and execute it, for God loves those who put
their trust (in him)" (3:159). Implying the ob-
ligation of consultation within an Islamic state.
In order for the success of the Islamic state, the
exercising of shura implements a compatibility
between Islam and democracy, which further
guarantees a civil society among the eastern and
western worlds The notion of consultation led
to a peaceful form of interaction between most
societies at the time; consequently, the process
of shura could possibly lead to the democratiza-
tion of the Muslim world. The shura itself as
open to interpretation because the word of God
has never been denied.
At the time of the Prophet Mohammad (peace
be upon Him), he was chosen as the leader for
the followers and from there after, several suc-
cessors were elected in a similar way. This idea
was adopted over generations of nilings, however,
historically speaking; there are no claims of rules
by divine right. The process of selecting leaders
is called bay'ah, which literally means "selling"
(al-Hibri 68). In a sense, this idea refers to the
process of declaring and accepting a ruler. Even
so, the process of consultation comes into place
as a group of individuals come to a consensus,
thereby nominating the individual most fit for
the position of a leader. Secondly, the general
public then gives their bay'ah to the selected
individual. This, therefore, infers that a majority
must accept the potential ruler after he makes
the declaration, thus further proving that Islamic
law is potentially able to function in a demo-
cratic fashion.
Tins was in no way, a form of authoritarian
rule, even though in the present day we see an
abundance of these authoritarian rulers across
the Middle East. Authoritarian rulers came
into existence basically through the process of
istikhaf. This literally means, "choosing
your own ruler (al-Hibri 69). This form of
authoritarian rule occupied some of the Muslim
world after the death of the Prophet (peace be
upon Him), as Muslim communities grew and
there was a necessity to develop new ways
of selecting the potential caliphs. Since the
Quran does not give a precise view of how
exactly to select a leader, interpretation was left
for the Muslims and therefore gives them the
authority to decide how to choose the caliph (as
long as consultation is exercised).
Caliphs have the responsibility of several
major world leaders today. The caliph must
acquire certain characteristics, such as charisma,
wisdom and faithfulness, which not many
individuals attain today. The Islamic ummah
(community) refers the Muslim citizens of the
world. For this reason, a caliph of the Mus-
lim ummah would not qualify as a democratic
principle, so the necessity to modify the role of
the caliph was adopted so that there could be a
caliph representing each nation-state as opposed
to the ummah as a whole (al-Hibri 70). This
further supports the notion of a democratically
structured Islamic, state, through the idea that a
leader does not make all decisions on his own,
as he also consults with cabinet members and the
Islam itself is a religion based on the peace-
ful submission to God. As the religion relays
peace, so does the governmental system,
democracy. With this simple statement in mind,
it may not be completely convincible that Islam
is obviously compatible with democracy. The
authentic Islam is friendly to human rights and
freedom of conscience, which in turn are com-
patible with democracy, and prone not to war
and violence but to the quest for justice and
peace (Sachedina).
Democracy, a form of government in which
freedom is thoroughly defined, cannot be any-
more definable than what shura is to Shari'ah.
This brings us to the major similarity between
Islamic law and democracy: the process of con-
sultation. Along with the other characteristics of
Islam that make it compatible with democracy,
including consensus and public interest, shura is
the single most important factor that implements
the principles of democracy into an Islamic form
of government.
Islam believes in the general, pure Quranic
teachings that are the basis of a mutually
understanding democratic relationship among
Muslims and non-Muslims. A society where all
people can reunite in a euphoric state of mind,
when civilians value each others dignity and
human rights is what democratic pluralism at-
tempts to thrive on (Sachedina).
With everything said, it can be noted that
Islam, a religion of peace with a belief system
in equal human rights, can apply its law to the
structure of a basic democracy with almost no
questions asked. As democracy implies rule by
the people, Islamic law entails consultation as
the first step in leading a society. Shari'ah con-
forms to the democratic system of governance
based on Islam's ability of interpretation of the
general guidelines given in the Quran and in
the Hadith into specific laws suitable for each
society's specific customs and needs.
Illustration by Lionel Williams
al-Hibri, Azizah. (1999). "Islamic Constitutionalism and the Concept of
Democracy Border Crossings: Toward a Comparative Political Theory.
Maryland: Lexington Books.
al-Khomeini, Imam Sayyid Ruhollah al-Musavi. Islamic Government (Hukumat-i
Islami). Available: (http:khomeini.hypermart.nethukumat
Ghannouchi Rachid. "The Participation of Islamists in a Non-Islamic
Government Available: http:www 1 jaring.mypasharakaha 19981012
Sachedina, Abdulaziz. (2001). The Islamic Roots of Democratic Pluralism.
New York: Oxford University Press.

A Personal Account
Never has there been a more influential art-
ist of this era other than Justin Bua. His ability
to distort everyday realism with urban themes
has made his artwork some of the most popular
today Not only have his paintings received
recognition all over the world, but lus art work
is among the best selling on college campuses.
Having been a professional breakdancer, it is no
surprise that some of the rhythms and move-
ments of this dynamic dance would be prevalent
in his art. For example, in the piece entitled The
DJ, his use of light and movement through the
DJ's arm into the turntables is extraordinary. It is
as if the DJ is becoming the record. "The influ-
ence is huge! The way I paint, 1 rarely sit when
I work. I get up, move around, kick a move
its huge
Politics is the theme of this issue of
Expressions, and we were granted an interview
with Bua before his scheduled visit to the ECU
campus, sponsored by the Ledonia Wright
Cultural Outer Bua commented that poli-
tics play a major role in creating his art. "I've
always been a political person says Bua, "I'm
working on a painting right now as a matter of
fact called The Artist It's about a Graff writer
looking back .it the public space claiming what
is his 1 Igging is frowned upon and isn't seen
as an art form M, art has always been in-
dicative of a culture whether it be jazz, b-boyin,
I Ming - I'm growing more political
Like any artist, in order to grow one must
i � Minimally take risks and try new things. Be-
coming great at one thing is not enough. Be-
ing able m make mistakes and learn from them
only makes you a stronger artist of life. Bua
explained, "I find myself evolving and getting
inure compositions Painting bigger � just bet-
tering myself" Hip-Hop music has also been .111
influence on Bua and Ins style of art. He shared
that, "Hip Hop isn't about the money, girls or
any other materialism thing. It is a universal
oneness It allows people to .nine together
from all walks of urban lite
Having gone from tagging the trains
in New York City, to attending the High
School of Performing Arts where he stud-
ied visual art to getting accepted into the Art
Center College of Design in Pasadena, CA,
to now being a prolific professor at the Uni-
versity of Southern California, the transition
was an event in itself. Bua admitted that, "It
was kind of weird because I'd like to say that
I look young and it's funny because the kids
are like Who's this guy? They look at
Graffiti as being weird as well, but I find that
I can relate to them
Bua has created a style of painting that is
all his own and he is constantly getting better
with every stroke of the brush. From Jazz scenes
to urban environments, Bua's prints appeal to
everyone from all walks of life. For more in-
formation on Justin Bua and his prints, visit his
website at

� � �


Calendar of
Ledonia Wright Cultural Center Spring 2004
February, Black History Month
1 Chinese New Year
2 Student Union Visual Arts: An Exhibit of Prints by Justin Bua, Menden-
hall Student Center, through February 27
3 Justin Bua Slideshow and Poster Signing, 7:00 p.m Hendrix Theatre
4 Summer Opportunities and Co-op Internship Fair, 10:30 a.m. 2:30 p.m
Bate Building
4 Slam Poetry Contest, Mendenhall Student Center
5 African American Movie Night, K:00 p.m Ledonia Wright Cultural
6 African Storyteller Shindana Cooper, 7:00 p.m Mendenhall Student
Center Great Rooms
7 The 5 Elements (A Hip-Hop festival) featuring a DJ, MC,
DROPHEAVY. and Oraffiti Art, 9:00 11:00 p.m Pirate Underground,
Mendenhall Student Center
8 Sexual Responsibility Week, through 14
9 Dialogue on Diversity; topic will be HIVAIDS, 6:00 p.m Ledonia
Wright Cultural Center
12 Industry and Technology Fair, 9.00 am - 1:00 p.m Willis Building
12 Poetic Expressions: Readings. Rhymes, and Rhythm featuring a guest
host from the Triangle-area, 7:30 p.m Ledonia Wright Cultural Center
13 Jazz at Night, X p.m Mendenhall Student Center, Great Rooms
13 Decision Science Career Fair, 9:00 a.m. - 12:00 p.m third floor. Bate
14 Contra Dance. 7:30 p.m. (lesson), 8:00 -10:30 p.m (dance), Willis
Building (tickets at the door)
15 National Brotherhood and Sisterhood Week, through 21
15 History of the Negro Spiritual featuring Dorthea Taylor and Dr. Louise
Toppin, 5 p.m , Sycamore Hill Missionary Baptist Church, Hooker Rd�
Greenville, NC
16 Emanue! Cleaver, 3:30 -5:00 p.m SZ-307 Science and Technology
17 Random Acts of Kindness Day
19 The Grapes of Wrath. 8:00 p.m. Messick Theatre, through 24
19 African American Reading Day, 2 - 4 p.m Ledonia Wright Cultural
19 Carnivale (Mardi Gras: Around the World). TBA. Mendenhall Student
Center (Sponsored by Partners in Campus Life)
19 Writers Reading Series, Theresa Williams, 3:00 p m Science and Tech-
nology Building, room 309 and at 7:00 p.m Sheppard Memorial Library
20 Salsa Dance, 7:30 p.m. (lesson) 8:30 - 11:00 p.m. (dance), Willis Building
(tickets at the door)
23 Orthodox Lent begins
24 Dat Phan and Ant (Comedy Series) 8:00 p.m. Hendrix Theatre
25 Ash Wednesday
25 Tango y Tango, Afro-Cuban dance group, 7:00 p.m Wright Auditorium
26 African-American Movie Night, 8:00 p.m Ledonia Wright Cultural
26 Town Hall Meeting: Community and Domestic Violence in the African-
American Community. 6:00 - 9:00 p.m Mendenhall Student Center
26 Education Career Day, 9:00 a.m. - 12:00 noon, Mendenhall Student Center
27 Day of Reflection- Culture and Consciousness: Gender and Ethnicity,
Sistah Dr Pamela K. Safisha Nzingha Hill, 7:00 p.m Mendenhall Student
29 Dances of Universal Peace, 4:00 p.m Mendenhall Student Center. 244
March, Women's History Month
1 National Women of Color Day
I Ladysmith Black Mambazo. 8:00 p.m Wright Auditorium
1 Eating Disorder Awareness Week
4 David Byre-Tyre, Art exhibit and reception, 1:00 - 5:00 p.m Ledonia
Wright Cultural Center
4 Swash Improve Group (comedy), 8:00 - 10 p.m Pirate Underground.
Mendenhall Student Center
5 Celebration of Ledonia Wright Cultural Center featuring Ms. Susan L.
Taylor, Editorial Director of Essence Magazine, 3:00-6 p.m Ledonia Wright
Cultural Center and Mendenhall Student Center
5 Jazz at Night, 8 p.m Mendenhall Great Rooms
6 Kellin Watson (Women's History Month Concert), 9:00 - 11:00 p.m Pirate
Underground, Mendenhall Student Center
8 International Women's day
8 Kris Betts, Universities at a Peek into the Crystal Ball, 3:30 - 5:00 p.m
SZ-307 Science and Technology Building
8 Russell Simmons Def Poetry on Broadway, 8 p.m Wright Auditorium
10 Harriet Tubman Day

10 Ledonia Wright Cultural Center Meet and Greet Social, 7:00 p.m.
Ledonia Wright Cultural Center
10 Women's History Movie Night, 8:00 p.m Ledonia Wright Cultural
11 Paragon Ragtime Orchestra, 8:00 p.m Wright Auditorium
13 Contra Dance, 7:30 p.m. (lesson), 8:00 - 10:30 p.m. (dance), Willis
Building (tickets at the door)
14 Spring Break, through 21
15 Second Annual Diversity Week, School of Medicine, 12:30 - 1:30p.m
Brody Building, through March 20
19 Salsa Dance, 7:30 p.m. (lesson), 8:30 - 11:00 p.m. (dance), Willis
Building (tickets at the door)
22 International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
22 Dialogue on Diversity, topic TBA, 6:00 p.m Ledonia Wright Cultural
26 Cinderella, Moscow Festival Ballet, 8:00 p.m Wright Auditorium
27 Pow Wow, bottom of College Hill, sponsored by the East Carolina
Native American Organization (call 328-1680 for details)
30 Writers Reading Series, Ethelbert Miller, 3:00 p.m Mendenhall Stu-
dent Center, Social Room and at 7:00 p.m Willis Building
2 Student Union Visual Arts: Illumina 2004, call for entries, 3:00 - 8:00
p.m Great Room Mendenhall Student Center
4 Daylight Saving Time begins
5 Student Union Visual Arts: Illumina 2004 Exhibit, Mendenhall Gallery,
Mendenhall Student Center, through April 22
6 Passover
6 Nonprofit and Volunteer Career Fair, 9:00 a.m. - 12:00 noon. Multipur-
pose Room Mendenhall Student Center
7 World Health Day
9 Good Friday
10 Contra Dance, 7:30 p.m. (lesson), 8:00 - 10:30 p.m. (dance), Willis
Building (tickets at the door)
11 Easter Sunday
12 Dialogue on Diversity, topic TBA, 6:00 p.m Ledonia Wright Cultural
14 Social Justice Institute 2: Brown vs. Board of Education: Fifty
Years Later, lecture by Juan Williams, journalist, 7:00 p.m Mendenhall
Student Center
16 Salsa Dance, 7:30 p.m. (lesson), 8:30 p.m. - 11:00 p.m. (dance),
Willis Building (tickets at the door)
17 Bolcom and Morris, 8:00 p.m Wright Auditorium
19 Ambassador Fredrick M. Bush, Scholars and Scholarship in a New
World, 3:30 - 5:00 p.m SZ-307 Science and Technology Building
21 Student Union Visual Arts: Illumina 2004 Awards Ceremony and
Closing Reception, 5:00 - 6:00 p.m Mendenhall Student Center
22 Earth Day
22 Clothesline Project at Barefoot on the Mall
25 Dances of Universal Peace, 4:00 p.m 244 Mendenhall Student
26 Classes end
27 Reading Day
29 Ledonia Wright Cultural Center Open House, 12:00 noon- 2:00 p.m.
1 National Day of Prayer
5 Cinco de Mayo
6 Baccalaureate Ceremony, 6:00 p.m Mendenhall Student Center
8 Commencement
9 Mother's Day
18 First Summer Session classes begin

"A viohrust had a violin, a painter his palette.
All I had was myself. was the instrument that
I must care for
�Josephine Baker
Singer and dancer
"One is responsible to life: It is the small
beacon in that terrifying darkness from which
we come and to which we shall return
�James Baldwin
"1 think it pisses God off if you walk by the
color purple in a field somewhere and don't
notice it
�Alice Walker
"Our creator is the same and never changes
despite the names given Hun by people here
and in all pans of the world. Even if we gave
Him no name at all, He would still be there,
within us, waiting to give us good on this
earth "
�George Washington Carver
Educator and innovator in the Agnc ultural
"Impossibilities are merely things of which we
have not learned, or which we do not wish to
�Charles W. Chesnutt
"Like snowtlakes, the human pattern is never
cast twice. We are uncommonly and marvel-
ously intricate in thought and action, our pro'u
lems arc most complex and, too often, silently
borne "
�Alice Childress
Actor, director, and playwright
"Pride, like humility, is destroyed by one's
insistence that he possess it
�Kenneth B. Clarke
Writer and psychologist
"When you educate a nun you educate an
individual, but when you educate a woman,
you educate a nation
�Johnetta B. Cole
First black female president of Spelman College
"Anger and humor are like the left and right
arm. They complement each other. Anger
empowers the poor to declare their uncompro-
mising opposition to oppression, and humor
prevents them from being consumed by their
�James Cone
"The cause of freedom is not the cause of a race or a
sect, a party or a class. It is the cause of human kind,
the very birthright of humanity
�Anna Julia Cooper
Educator and author
"Jails and prisons are designed to break human
beings, to convert the population into specimens in
a zoo - obedient to our keepers, but dangerous to
each other
�Angela Davis
Radical Black activist
"Those who profess to favor freedom, and yet
depreciate agitation, are men who want crops with-
out plowing up the ground. "
�Frederick Douglass
Orator, author, journalist, and antislavery leader of
the 19th century
"If the 1st Amendment means anything, it means
that the state has no business telling a man, sitting
alone in lus own house, what books he may read or
what films he may watch
�Thurgood Marshall
American civil rights lawyer, and first Black justice
on the Supreme Court of the United States
"It is a peculiar sensation, this double-conscious-
ness, this sense of always looking at one's self
through the eyes of others, of measuring one's soul
by the tape of a world that looks on in amused con-
tempt and pity
W.E. B Dubois
Author, educator, and activist
"The quality of strength lined with tenderness is
an unbeatable combination, as are intelligence and
necessity when unblunted by formal education
�Maya Angelou
Author, poet, and entertainer
"Racism systematically verifies itself anytime the
slave can only be free by mutating his master�
Jamil Abdullah Al-Amin
"Politically I beg to differ in the views of freedom.
We are victims of a capitalist system. As workers we
are exploited. As people we have no power over
our own lives. No self-determination and no ability
to reproduce the things we need for ourselves. So
we are dependent in people who historically have
beaten us, jailed us, lied to us etc. I don't see any
freedom in that
�Stic from Dead Prez
Rap lyncist

"I'm going to introduce legislation to have universal
military service to let everyone have an opportunity
to defend the free world against the threats coming
to usI'm talking about mandatory serviceWhen
you talk about a war, you're talking about ground
troops, you're talking about enlisted people, and
they don't come from the kids and members of
Congress think, if we went home and found out
that there were families concerned about their kids
going oft" to war, there would be more cautiousness
and a more willingness to work with the interna-
tional community than to say, 'Our way or the
�Rep. Charles Rangel, D-New York
Politician, Korean War Veteran
" In this time of war against Osama Bin laden and
the oppressive Taliban regime we are thankful that
OUR leader isn't the spoiled son of a powerful pol-
itician from a wealthy oil family who is supported
by religious fundamentalists, operates through clan-
destine organizations, has no respect for the demo-
cratic electoral process, bombs innocents and uses
war to deny people their civil liberties. Amen
�Aaron McGruder author of the "Boon-
docks" comic strip
"A wise person speaks carefully and with truth, for every word that
passes between one's teeth is meant for something
Molefi Kete Asante, writer and philosopher

I iemoi ra y's original meaning has been lost and in tin's day and age it
has transfonned into something almost tyrannical. Anieena Mohyuddin
Printed in Greenville, North Carolina by The Daily Reflector on 501b. newsprint.

Expressions, Spring 2004, Issue 4
Insert in The East Carolinian, East Carolina University's student newspaper. Expressions magazine seeks to provide a forum for minority students to explore societal themes which constitute the focus of each issue. Expressions contains essays, poetry, and artwork intended to spark discussions between self-identified minorities and the mainstream student body. It is managed by the Student Media Board.
Original Format
3cm x 2cm
Local Identifier
Location of Original
University Archives
This item has been made available for use in research, teaching, and private study. Researchers are responsible for using these materials in accordance with Title 17 of the United States Code and any other applicable statutes. If you are the creator or copyright holder of this item and would like it removed, please contact us at
Materials on this site may include offensive content, which does not reflect the opinions, values, or beliefs of Joyner Library. Public access is provided to these resources to preserve the historical record.

Contact Digital Collections

If you know something about this item or would like to request additional information, click here.

Comment on This Item

Complete the fields below to post a public comment about the material featured on this page. The email address you submit will not be displayed and would only be used to contact you with additional questions or comments.

Comment Policy