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Reminiscences and memoirs of North Carolina and eminent North Carolinians

Date: 1966 | Identifier: F253 .W56 1966
Reminiscences and memoirs of North Carolina and eminent North Carolinians. Baltimore : Genealogical Pub. Co., 1966. 15, lxxiv, 478 p. 24 cm. Reprint of the 1884 ed. more...
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[Illustration:

JOHN H. WHEELER.
Born, Hertford Co., No. Ca. Aug. 2d. 1802. Died, Washington, D. C. Dec. 7th. 1882.
A. M. Univ. of No. Ca. 1826; State Treasurer, 1845. U. S. Envoy to Nicaragua, 1853.
Author Hist. of No. Ca. and of Reminiscences of Eminent North Carolinians.

]





REMINISCENCES AND MEMOIRS
OF
NORTH CAROLINA
AND
EMINENT NORTH CAROLINIANS,

BY JOHN H. WHEELER,

AUTHOR OF THE HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA, AND MEMBER OF THE HISTORICAL
SOCIETIES OF NORTH CAROLINA, VIRGINIA, GEORGIA,
AND PENNSYLVANIA.
“‘Tis well that a State should often be reminded of her great citizens.”COLUMBUS, OHIO:COLUMBUS PRINTING WORKS,1884.







TO

HON. KEMP P. BATTLE, LL. D.,

PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA,

AS SOME EVIDENCE OF

PERSONAL REGARD OF THE AUTHOR, AND DEVOTION TO THE FAME

AND HONOR OF THEIR NATIVE STATE,

THIS WORK IS DEDICATED.

It is well known to you that your venerated father encouraged the preparation and publication of this work. His letters to the author prove this. But he died before it was completed. Lest the same inevitable event should occur to the author now beyond the allotted period of human life, these Reminiscences and Memories, the labor and research of a life, are now given as a grateful legacy to his kind and generous countrymen, who will admire the generous traits exhibited, and imitate the noble examples of their forefathers.









PREFACE.

WASHINGTON CITY, No. 28, GRANT PLACE, JUNE 10, 1878.

To Hon. William H. Battle, L. L. D., Chapel Hill:

MY ESTEEMED SIR—Your recent letter as to “The Address on the Early Times and Men of Albemarle,” has been received. For the kind opinion, that “the people of the State and especially those of the Albemarle County, owe a debt of gratitude for this and other contributions to their history,” I sincerely thank you.

Your letter further adds, that you “have seen in the Raleigh Observer, a handsome tribute to the value and usefulness of my History of North Carolina, expressing a wish for an early publication of a second edition, uniting yourself in a similar request.

Like expressions have been received from many respectable sources.

Recently, The News of Raleigh, The Democrat of Charlotte, and other papers call for the publication of the “Reminiscences of Eminent North Carolinians,” and appeal to her sons for contributions “to the Grand Old History of North Carolina.”

It is hoped and believed this call will be heard and heeded.

While Virginia on one side and South Carolina on the other, have presented to the world the glowing record of the patriotism, valor and virtues of their sons, North Carolina equally rich or richer in such reminiscences; and with traits of virtue, and honor, and sacrifices to patriotism, deserving of record, allows this record to be obscured by time, and to

“Waste its fragrance on the desert air.”

It has been truly said that no State of our Republic, has, from the earliest period of its existence, shown a more determined spirit of independence, and a more constant and firm resistance “to every form of oppression of the rights of man” than North Carolina. This is evinced on every page of her history, and exhibited on the battle field, and in the exploits of individual prowess. This patriotic spirit has been accompanied by noble traits of individual character; as integrity of purpose, a straightforwardness of intention, and by simplicity and modesty in demeanor.

It was on the shores of North Carolina that the English first landed on this continent. It has been the refuge of the down-trodden, the oppressed and persecuted of every nation, and here they found that freedom denied to them in the old world—with gentle manners and resolute hearts, their whole history exhibits a firm devotion to liberty, a keen perception of right and a ready and determined resistance to wrong. For this and this only, was life desirable to them, and for this they were willing to die.

The gallant patron, who first sent a colony to





our shores was the victim of tyranny and oppression. Her first Governor was sacrificed in defence of popular rights. Such seed could but produce goodly fruits. The character of this people was graphically described by one of the early Colonial Governors, as “being insolent and rebellious * * * impatient of all tyranny and ready to resist oppression in every form.”

An early historian has recorded our people, as being “gentle in their manners, advocates of freedom; jealous of their rulers, impatients, restless, and turbulent when ruled by any other government than their own; and under that and that only were they satisfied.”

It was in the natural course of events and “the inexorable logic of circumstances” that the sturdy men of the age were ever ready to defend the cause of right; and in defense of liberty to pour out their life blood, as at Alamance; on the Cape Fear, to beard the minions of power, and cause their oppressor to leave the State and seek refuge elsewhere, and that the men of Mecklenburgh in advance of every other State, should thunder to the world the eternal principles of Independence and Liberty.

The acts and characteristics of these illustrious men, and of their descendants, we wish to preserve.

We enter upon this “labor of love” with earnestness and pleasure. “Let it not be thought” says a learned writer, on a similar subject, “that we are working for ourselves alone, nor for those now living. Let us remember that thousands yet unborn will respect and bless the patient and pious hands, that have rescued from oblivion these precious memorials.”

The Memories of the last fifty years or more, cover an interesting period of our history.

We shall leave the history of the earlier events to some faithful historian, and be it our task to take up the biographies of the leading men who have done “the State some service” with reminiscences of their times and give the biography and genealogy of each, as far as attainable. Biography presents a more minute and accurate view of the lights and shadows of character, than general history. One is general, and the individual is a mere accessory; the other is minute, and directed to a single object. We often have a clearer idea of any event, when the motives and the character of the chief actors are minutely described. We have in the “Life of Washington,” by Marshal, the best history of the American Revolution. As to our genealogy, this is the first attempt to present the record of families in our State.

This untried path involved much research and labor. It is hoped it will be acceptable, and prove useful. We are far behind the age, on this subject. In England, Burke's great work (The Genealogical and Heraldric Dictionary of the British Empire) is a hand-book in every well appointed library.

In New England, “Whitmore's American Genealogy” is valuable; the Genealogical Society of Massachusetts is in full vigor, sustaining a Quarterly Magazine. Every locality and family in that section have preserved and published such materials; these are commemorated by annual domestic gatherings; thus strengthening the ties of affection and refreshing the memories of the past. In many cases genealogy is valuable in preserving property to the true owners of estates, and the ties of kindred that otherwise would be forever buried, and broken.

Some, with phlegmatic indifference may ridicule this attempt; exhibiting a supreme contempt for such vanity, as they call it; but surely no one with a discreet mind and a sound heart can be insensible to the laudable feeling of having descended from an honest and virtuous ancestry, and having industrious and intelligent connections of unsullied reputation. Such a thought instils a hatred of lazines and vice, and stimulates activity and virtue.

Such is a grateful oblation to departed worth. Not only is this a duty discharged to the dead,





but a moral benefit may result to the living. It acts as an incentive to others, while they admire his services and brilliant career, to emulate his patriotic example.

  • “Oh, who shall lightly say that Fame
  • Is nothing but an empty name,
  • While in that name there is a charm
  • The nerves to brace, the heart to warm,
  • When, thinking on the mighty dead,
  • The youth shall rouse from slothful bed,
  • And vow with aplified hand and heart
  • Like him to act a noble part.”

Let us all cherish the recollection of talents, services, and virtues, of departed worth, and such faults as are inseparable from our nature, be buried in the grave with the relics of fallen humanity.

Some pains have been taken with the table of contents and the preparation of the Index.

Mr. Stevens, in his “Catalogue of his English Library,” says, correctly: “If you are troubled with a pride of accuracy, and would have it completely taken out of you, attempt to make an Index or Catalogue.”

Dr. Allibone prints in his valuable Dictionary of Authors (I., 85), extracts from a number of the Monthly Review, which is well worthy of quotation here: “The compilation of an index is one of those labors for which the public are rarely so forward to express their gratitude, as they ought to be. The value of a thing is best known by the want of it. We have often experienced great inconvenience for want of a good index to many books. There is far more scope for the exercise of judgment and ability in compiling an index than commonly supposed. Mr. Oldys expresses a similar sentiment in his Notes and Queries (XI., 309): “The labour and patience; the judgment and penetration, required to make a good index, is only known to those who have gone through the most painful and least praised part of a publication.

Lord Campbell proposed in the English Parliament (Wheatley on “What is an Index?” p.27) that any author who published a book without an Index, should be deprived of the benefits of the copyright act.” Mr. Binney of Philadelphia held the same views and Carlyle denounces the putting forth of books without a good Index, with great severity.

The History of Tennessee, by Dr. Ramsay, full of research and philosophy, fails in this respect. A book with no index is like a ship on the ocean without compass, or rudder.

In the following pages doubtless many worthy characters may have escaped notice—for the field is “so large and full of goodly prospects.” Nor would we if we could, exhaust this fair field; but like Boaz, leave some rich sheaves for other and more skillful reapers in this bountiful harvest.

To you, my dear sir, who have so kindly and repeatedly encouraged these labors, I respectfully commend them and subscribe myself

Very sincerely yours,

JNO. H. WHEELER,






[Illustration:


Publisher Emblem]





TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Dedication.—Preface.—North Carolina in the Colonial Period.—Memoir of the Author.

CHAPTER I.—ALAMANCE COUNTY.

Regulation Troubles. Oppressions and frauds of the officers of the Crown; causes and consequences. Sketch of Judge Ruffin, compared to Thomas Jefferson. Colonel Thomas M. Holt.

CHAPTER II.—ANSON COUNTY.

Sympathy with the Regulators, as to unlawful taxation—1768; copy of the oath taken; resolutions that the Sheriffs and Magistrates should be elected by the people, Letter to Governor Martin. Character of James Cotten, a tory. Sketch of Judge Spencer; his singular death. Sketch of Judge Thomas S. Ashe, now one of the Judges of the Supreme Court.

CHAPTER III.—BEAUFORT COUNTY.

Character of the nobleman for whom it is named; commissioned the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina. Freemasonry in North Carolina; it saves the life of an officer in battle. Jefferson's opinion of Washington. Sketch of the Blounts of Beaufort. Hon. C. C. Cambreling, long a Member of Congress from New York, a native of Beaufort. Sketch of J. J. Guthrie, drowned off Cape Hatteras. Hatteras described by Joseph W. Holden, and in the National Gazette of Philadelphia, in 1792. Sketch of Edward Stanley; a letter of Judge Badger, his relative, as to his course. Sketch of Richard S. Donnell; of Judge Rodman, who agrees with Hooker in his opinion of the law. James Cook, C. S N. Adventurous life of Charles F. Taylor, a native of this section; participates in the war in Nicaragua; its stirring events, facts never before published: the policy of Marcey an error; sad fate of Walker; tragic death of Herndon, with whom another North Carolinian (John V. Dobbin) was drowned. Central America described. The Minister of the United States is recieved. Revolution. Walker captures Virgin Bay, Grenada, and puts the Government to flight. Sketch of Walker and his adventurous life. Scenes at the Capital; the U. S. Minister in jeopardy. The General Commander-in-Chief and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs executed by the invading forces. Letters between the General-in-Chief and the American Minister; the last letter of Walker.





CHAPTER IV.—BERTIE COUNTY.

Sketch of Whitmil Hill, a Member of the Provincial and Continental Congresses; of David Stone, Judge of Superior Courts, Governor of the State and U. S. Senator. Genealogy of the family. Sketches of George Outlaw; of Willie Blount, Governor of Tennessee; of David Outlaw; of P. H. Winston; of James W. Clark. Genealogy of the Clark family.

CHAPTER V.—BLADEN COUNTY.

Battle of Elizabethtown, 1791; Cross Creek. Character and services of James and Denny Porterfield. Sketch of John Owen, Governor of the State; of James J. McKay; of Thomas D. McDonald.

CHAPTER VI.—BRUNSWICK COUNTY

Early history and character of its people, opposed to oppression, drove the Royal Governor, [Martin] from the Country, July 10, 1775, seized the Stamp Master and destroyed the stamps sent to him from England; copy of the pledge given by the Stamp Master [William Houston]. Indignation of the people, and letter of Ashe, Lloyd and Lillington, offering to protect the Governor's person Sketch of General Robert Howe, his character as described by Governor Martin, who denounced him in a royal proclamation; appointed Colonel of the 2d Regiment of North Carolina troops in the Continental establishment; marches to Virginia and drives the Royal Governor, Lord Dunmore, from that Province. Sketch of Cornelius Harnett, his life and services; his character described by Governor Burrington, the Royal Governor; denounced by Governor Martin for the destruction of Fort Johnston. General John A. Lillington's Revolutionary services. The Moore family of Brunswick, Maurice Moore, Roger Moore and Nathaniel Moore, the early settlers of the Cape Fear region. Sketch of Judge Maurice Moore; of General James Moore; of Judge Alfred Moore, his legal character described. Life and services of Benjamin Smith.

CHAPTER VII.—BUNCOMBE COUNTY.

Character and services of Colonel Edward Buncombe, after whom this County is named. Sketch of David L. Swain, his life, services and death; Sketches of Professors Mitchell and Phillips of the University of North Carolina; of Samuel F. Phillips. Sketch of Zebulon B. Vance; extracts from a work on the Vance family, printed at Cork, Ireland, showing the relationship of General Andrew Jackson to the Vances; letter to General Kilpatrick from Governor Z. B. Vance. Sketch of Robert B. Vance; of James L. Henry, late one of the Judges of the Superior Court; of Augustus S. Merrimon, late Judge and U. S. Senator; of Thomas L. Clingman, late U. S. Senator, his life and services; duel with William L. Yancey; of John L. Bailey, late Judge of the Superior Court; of Robert M. Furman; of Thomas D. Johnston.

CHAPTER VIII.—BURKE COUNTY.

Life, character and services of Waightstill Avery. Genealogy of the Averys. The McDowell family; its genealogy and services in the Revolution. The Carson family. Life and services of John Carson, the founder of the family. Sketches of Samuel P. Carson; of Israel Pickens; of David Newland; of Todd R. Caldwell; of James William Wilson.

CHAPTER IX.—CABARRUS, CALDWELL AND CAMDEN COUNTIES.

Life, character and services of Reverend John Robinson, D. D., and of Reverend Hezekiah J. Balch D.D.; copy of the tomb-stone of the latter. The Phifer family, and their genealogy. The Barringer





family, and their genealogy. Sketch of Nathaniel Alexander, a member of Congress and Governor of the State. Sketches of Dr. Charles Harris; Robert S. Young; of Daniel Coleman, of Cabarrus County; of Samuel F. Patterson; of James C. Harper; of Clinton A. Cilley and of George Nathaniel Folk of Caldwell County.

CHAPTER X.—CARTERET COUNTY.

First land sighted by the English, 1584; the lost Colony of Governor White. Indian wars with the Cores and Tuscaroras; John Lawson, the first historian, murdered by them. Fort Hyde. Battle at Beaufort. Sketch of the life and services of Captian Otway Burns.

CHAPTER XI.—CASWELL COUNTY.

Life, character and services of Richard Caswell, the first Governor of the State under the Constitution. Genealogy of the family. Sketches of Bartlett Yancey; of Romulus M. Saunders; of Robert and Marmaduke Williams; of Calvin Graves; of Bedford Brown; of Jacob Thompson, Secretary of Interior in 1857, and Member of Congress from Mississippi; all natives of Caswell County. John Kerr, his sufferings at the hands of political opponents, and his release. The mysterious murder of John W. Stevens; his character.

CHAPTER XII.—CHATHAM COUNTY.

The life and bloody career, in the Revolution, of David Fanning. Sketch of Charles Manly, Governor in 1848; of Abram Rencher; of John Manning.

CHAPTER XIII.—CHOWAN COUNTY.

Governor Eden, (for whom the County-town is named); sketch of him and his alleged intimacy with the noted pirate, Edward Teach commonly called “Black Beard”; the bloody deeds of this marauder; his wicked life and bloody end. The principles and character of the early inhabitants of Chowan. The proceedings of the Committee of Safety in 1775; the names of the members. The Vestry of St. Paul's Church, and the patriotic resolves of the ladies of Edenton. Life, services and character of Samuel Johnston; the opinion of the Royal Governor (Martin) of him, who removed him from the office of Deputy Naval Officer, and Mr. Johnston's reply to the Governor; member of the Provincial Congress in 1775, and of the Continental Congress in 1780; elected Governor in 1787; U. S. Senator in 1789; in 1800 Judge of the Superior Court. A devoted advocate of freemasonry. Genealogy of the Johnston family. The title of the Marquis of Annandale supposed to belong to them. Sketch of Joseph Hewes, signer of the Declaration of Independence; of Hugh Williamson, a member of the Colonial and Continental Congresses; and of the U. S.; author of a history of North Carolina; of Stephen Cabarrus, long Speaker of the House of Commons; of Charles Johnson; of Thomas Benbury. Of James Iredell, appointed Judge of Supreme Court of the U. S. by General Washington; of his son, James Iredell Jr., Speaker of the House in 1817; Judge of the Superior Court 1819; Governor of the State 1821; U. S. Senator in 1827, succeeding Mr. Macon. In the war of 1812, was Captain, with Gavin Hogg as one of his Lieutenants. Sketch of Gavin Hogg. Life and services of Agustus Moore, one of the Judges of the Superior Court; sketch of his son, William A. Moore; of Governor William Allen, of Ohio, member of Congress in 1833; Senator in 1837-49, and Governor of Ohio in 1874, a native of Edenton. An amusing incident connected with the names of General Scott, Dr. Warren, Major Gilliam and others.





CHAPTER XIV.—CRAVEN COUNTY.

Its early history; the Palatines; De Graaffenreidt; Governor Dobbs; Tryon's palace; his clock, John Hawks, architect. “The cause of Boston, the cause of all!” Committee of Safety in 1775 of Chowan County. Names of its members. Sketch of Francois Xavier Martin, a historian of the State; of the Blount family; of Abner Nash, his character as given by Governor Martin; a member of Congress, 1776; first Speaker of the Assembly; Governor in 1779; member of Congress 1781. Life, service and death of Richard Dobbs Spaight. Duels that have been fought in North Carolina. Sketch of John Stanley; of William Gaston; of John R. Donnel; of John Sitgreaves; of John N. Bryan; of Edward Graham; of Francis L. Hawks; of George E Badger; of Matthias E. Manley; of Charles R. Thomas; of Judge Sey mour; of William J. Clarke, and his talented wife, Mary Bayard Clarke, and his son William E. Clarke.

CHAPTER XV.—CUMBERLAND COUNTY.

The Scotch heroine, Flora MacDonald, once lived in this County. Sketch of her life and character; of Farquard Campbell, Governor Martin's opinion of him; of William Barry Grove; of John Louis Taylor, late Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina. Judicial System of the State as it existed from 1798 to 1804. Sketch of Henry Potter, Judge U. S. District Court; of John D. Toomer; of Louis D. Henery; of Robert Strange; of James C. Dobbin; of Warren Winslow; of Duncan K. MacRae; of Mrs. Miller; of Henry W. Hilliard of Georgia, a native of Cumberland; of W. C. Troy.

CHAPTER XVI.—CURRITUCK COUNTY.

Sketch of Henry M. Shaw; of Emerson Etheridge, of Tenn., native of Currituck; of Thomas J. Jarvis, Governor of North Carolina, 1882.

CHAPTER XVII.—DAVIDSON, DUPLIN, DAVIE, and EDGECOMBE COUNTIES.

Sketch of James M. Leach of Davidson; of James Gillaspie; of Thomas and O. Kenan; of Charles Hooks of Duplin Co. Sketch of Henry Irwin, a Revolutionary hero; of Jonas Johnston; of John Haywood; genealogy of the Haywood family. Sketch of Henry T. Clark, Governor of North Carolina. The Battle Family, and their genealogy, including Judge Wm. H. Battle, and his son, Kemp P. Battle. Sketch of Duncan L. Clark, of U. S. Army; of Wm. D. Pender; of R. R. Bridgers; of Charles Price of Davie; of John B. Hussey of Davie.

CHAPTER XVIII.—FORSYTHE COUNTY.

Sketch of Col, Benj. Forsythe; of Joseph Winston; of Israel G. Lash. The History of the Moravians.

CHAPTER XIX.—FRANKLIN COUNTY.

Lynch Law, origin of the term. Services and Sufferings of General Thomas Person; Sketch of Hon. J. J. Davis.

CHAPTER XX.—GASTON, GATES, AND GRANVILLE COUNTIES.

Sketch of Rev. Humphrey Hunter; Major Wm. Chronicle; of Rev. R. H. Morrison of Gaston County; of William Paul Roberts, of Gates; of John Penn of Granville, one of the Signers of the Declaration of





(11)The last name in Chatham County should be Moreing.
(12)Chapter XVII, read Duncan L. Clinch, not Clark.
(13)Chapter XXII, place a semicolon after the name “William Polk.”

(THE FOLLOWING ARE TO TAKE THE PLACE OF THE CHAPTERS MENTIONED.)

CHAPTERS XXXIII AND XXXIV.—HERTFORD AND HYDE COUNTIES.

The Murfree Family. Sketch of General Thomas Wynns; of the Cotten Family; of Rev. Matthias Brickle; of Dr. Goodwin C. Moore; of John Brown; Sketch of Kenneth Rayner; of William N. H. Smith; Tristram Capehart; of Cullen Capehart and of Dr. Wm. Anthony Armistead; of David A. Barnes; of Jesse J. Yeates; of Richard J. Gatling; Gen. Lafayette's visit to North Carolina; The Chowan Female Institute; Insurrection of Slaves; Sketch of David Miller Carter of Hyde County. The Wheeler Family referred to.

CHAPTERS XXXV & XXXVI.—IREDELL, JOHNSTON, JONES AND LENOIR COUNTIES.

Sketch of Hugh Lawson White; of Wm. Sharpe; of Dr. Charles Caldwell; of David F. Caldwell; of Hon. Joseph P. Caldwell; of Hon. Robert F. Armfield; of Hon. David M. Furches of Iredell. Revolutionary proceedings in Johnston County, in 1768. Sketch of Wm. A. Smith; of Hon. Nathan Bryan of Jones County; of Hardy B. Croom and of Hon. Wm. D. Mosely of Lenoir County.

CHAPTER XXXVII.—LINCOLN COUNTY.

Sketch of Gen. Joseph Graham.—Genealogy of the Grahams. Sketch of Gov. W. A. Graham. Genealogy of the Brevards. The Huguenots. Sketch of Gen. William Davidson; of Dr. Ephraim Brevard, author of the Declaration of May 20, 1775. The Forney Family; of Michael Hoke and his son Robert F. (Major Genl. C. S. A.); of John F. Hoke; of James Houston; of Dr. Wm. McLean; of Dr. C. L. Hunter; of Gen. Stephen D. Ramseur; of Gen. James P. Henderson; of Bartlett Shipp; Robert H. Burton; Hon. David Shenck.

Chapter XXXVIII and XXXIX., read McDowell, not McDonald.

Chapter XLI., write “Henry K. Burgwynn” at end of this paragraph.









Independence; of James and John Williams; of Robert Burton. The Henderson Family—their genealogy. Sketch of Robert B. Gilliam; of A. W. Venable; of M. Hunt, of Robert Potter.

CHAPTER XXI.—GREENE AND GUILFORD COUNTIES.

Sketch of Gen. Jesse Speight; of Joseph Dixon. Battle of Guilford Court House, March 15, 1781, between General Greene and Lord Cornwallis. Sketch of Cornwallis; of Col. Tarleton; of Col. Wilson Webster. Cornwallis's letter to his father as to the fall of Webster.

Sketch of Dr. David Caldwell; of Alexander Martin; of Newton Cannon, Governor of Tennessee, a native of Guilford; of Governor Moorehead; of George C. Mendenhall; of Judge John M. Dick, and his son, Judge Robt. P. Dick; of John A. Gilmer; of John H. Dilliard; of Rev. Calvin H. Wiley; of James J. Scales; of John H. Staples.

CHAPTER XXII.—HALIFAX COUNTY.

The Jones Family- its genealogy; John Paul Jones adopts this name. Sketch of Wm. R. Davie, a General of the Revolution; of Hutchins G. Burton; of Andrew Joyner; of John W. Eppes; of William Polk of the Cromwell Family; of John B. Ashe; of Willis Alston; of John Haywood; of John H. Eaton; of J. J. Daniel; of John R. J. Daniel; of Junius Daniel; of John Branch; of Lawrence O'B. Branch; of James Grant; of B. F. Moore.

CHAPTERS XXXIII AND XXXIV.—HERTFORD AND HYDE COUNTIES.

The Murfree Family. Sketch of General Thos. Wynns; of the Wheeler Family; of Rev. Matthias Brickle; of Kenneth Rayner; of Godwin C. Moore; of Solon Borland; of Wm. H. H. Smith; of Jesse J. Yeates; of Richard J. Gatlin. The Chowan Female Institute. Sketch of David Miller Carter; of Hugh Lawton White of Tenn.; of the Osborne Family—Adlai Osborne, Spruce McCoy Osborne, Edward Jay Osborne, and Judge James W. Osborne; of David F. Caldwell; of Joseph P. Caldwell; of Professor Caldwell; of D. M. Furches; of Robert F. Armfield.

CHAPTER XXXV AND XXXVI.—IREDELL, JOHNSTON, JONES AND LENOIR COUNTIES.

Revolutionary proceedings in Johnston County, 1768. Sketch of Wm. A. Smith; of Nathan Bryan of Jones County; of Hardy B. Croom; of Wm. D. Mosely.

CHAPTER XXXVII.—LINCOLN COUNTY.

Sketch of Gen. Joseph Graham; Family Genealogy of the Brevards. Huguenots; of General William Davidson; of the Forneys; of Michael, Robert F. and John T. Hoke; of James Graham; of Dr. Wm. McLean; of Dr. C. L. Hunter; of Gen. Stephen D. Ramseur; or Gen. Jas. P. Henderson; of Judge David W. Schenck; of Robert H. Burton.

CHAPTER XXXVIII AND XXXIX.—MACON AND MARTIN.

Sketch of James Lowrie Robinson (Speaker); of Silas McDonald of Macon; of Asa Biggs; of Jos. J. Martin.





CHAPTER XL.—MECKLENBURG COUNTY.

The Polk Family,—its genealogy; The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence; it is denounced by the Royal Governor, Josiah Martin. Sketches of the Members of the Convention; of Abram Alexander; of Hezekiah James Balch; of John Davidson—with genealogy; of Wm Graham; of Robert Irwin; of Wm. Kennon; of David Reese; of Adam Craighead; of Gen. Thomas Polk,—letter of Gen Greene to General Polk. “Devil Charley.” Sketch of Bishop Polk of Andrew Jackson. Bishops furnished by North Carolina to other States. Susan Spratt nee Barnett, a Revolutionary relic. Sketch of Mrs. Susan Hancock; of Judge Sam. Lowrie; of Joseph Wilson; of Wm. J. Alexander; of Greene W. Caldwell; of D. H. Hill; The Osborne family, and a graphic sketch of Judge James W. Osborne, from the pen of D. H. Hill; Judge R. P. Warring.

CHAPTER XLI.—MOORE AND NEW HANOVER COUNTIES.

Sketch of A. McNeil; of Archibald McBryde; of Governor Benjamin Williams; of Dr. George Glasscock, of Moore County. The Ashe Family,—its genealogy. John Baptista Ashe's controversy with the Royal Governor, and is imprisoned by him. Letter of Burrington, showing his own character and purety. Battle of Briar Creek. Sketch of the Hill family; of Wm. Hooper; of Timothy Bloodworth; of Edward Jones; of Johnson Blakely; of James Ennes; of the Davis family; of the Waddell family; of Owen Holmes; of John Cowan; of Gov. Dudley; of Bishop Atkinson; of Rev. Adam Empie; of Bishop Green; of Wm. B. Meares; of Wm. H. Marsteller; of General Abbot.

CHAPTER XLII.—NORTHAMPTON AND ORANGE COUNTIES.

Sketch of General Allan Jones; of General Matt. W. Ransom; of Edmund Fanning; of Governor Burke, seized by Tories and carried to Wilmington. The Mebanes. Sketch of General Francis Nash; of Judge Frederick Nash; of Judge Murphy; of Judge Norwood; of Dr. Wm. Montgomery; of Willie P. Mangum; of Thomas H. Benton; of Gen. Geo. B. Anderson; Memoirs of Chapel Hill; Sketch of Dr. Charles F. Deems; Hon. Paul C. Cameron; Prof. Hubbard; of Wm. Bingham; of John W. Graham.

CHAPTER XLIII.—PASQUOTANK, PERQUIMANS AND PERSON COUNTIES.

Sketch of John L. Bailey; of Wm B. Shepard; of George W. Brooks; of Gen. James G. Martin; of John Pool; of Pasquotank; of John Harvey; of J. W. Albertson; of William H. Bagley, of Perquimans; of Hustavus A. Williamson; of General Henry Atkinson, U. S. Army; of Richard Atkinson; of Judge E. G. Reade; of John W. Cunningham, of Person County.

CHAPTER XLIV—PITT AND RANDOLPH COUNTIES.

Sketch of Dr. Robert Williams; of General Bryan Grimes, of Pitt; of Jonathen Worth, of Pitt; Colonel Andrew Balfour, his gallant services and tragic end; Herman Husbands, a leader of the Regulators; Hon. John Long, Member of U. S. Congress.

CHAPTER XLV—RICHMOND AND ROCKINGHAM COUNTIES.

Sketch of A. Dockery; of A. H. Dockery; of Governor; Joseph R. Hawley; of Walter Leake Steele, of Richmond; of Thomas Settle Sen.—genealogy of the Settles,—of his son Thomas, now Judge in Florida; of David Settle Reid; of John H. Dilliard; of Hamilton Henderson Chalmers, a Judge of the Supreme Supreme Court of Mississippi.





CHAPTER XLVI.—ROWAN COUNTY.

Documents never before published as to early times in Rowan. Population in 1754; first settlers—their names; Committee of Safety, 1774-76. Sketch of Hugh Montgomery—his decendants. Heroic conduct of Mrs Steele. Sketch of General John Steele; of John V. Steele, Governor of New Hampshire; of Wm. Kennon; of Griffith Rutherford—his gallant services in the Indian and Revolutionary Wars. Sketch of the Locke family; of Spruce McCoy; of James Martin; of George Mumford; of the Pearsons; of Judge John Stokes; of Charles Fisher, and his son, Colonel Charles F. Fisher, killed at Manasses, Va., and his daughter, Miss C. Fisher, distinguished as an authoress; of Governor John W. Ellis; of Nath. Boyden; of Burton Craige; of Hamilton C. Jones; of of Francis E. Shober; of John L. Henderson.

CHAPTER XLVII.—RUTHERFORD, SAMPSON, STOKES AND SURRY COUNTIES.

Sketch of Judge John Paxton; of Felix Walker, author of the world-wide expression “talking for buncombe;” of Colonel Wm. Graham; of Gen. John G. Bynum, and his brother, Judge Wm. P. Bynum; of Judge John Baxter, of Rutherford; of Gov. Holmes; of Gen. Theo. H. Holmes; of Wm. R. King, Vice President of U.S.; of Col. Benj. Forsythe of Stokes County; of James Martin, his Military services in the Revolution, as deposed to, by himself; of John Martin, of Stokes; of Benjamin Cleaveland, of Surry; Names of the Committee of Safety, of Surry County; Sketch of William Lenoir; of the Williams family; of Jesse Franklin; of Meshach Franklin; of Judge Jesse Franklin Graves.

CHAPTER XLVIII.—TYRRELL AND WAKE COUNTIES.

Edward Buncombe, his Military services and heroic death. The Pettigrews, James and his son Ebenezer, and his gallant grandson J. Johnston Pettigrew; Sketch of Dr. Edward Ransom; of Joseph Gales, first Editor of the Raleigh Register; The Press of North Carolina. Sketch of Joseph Gales of Washington, D. C.; of Weston R. Gales, of Raleigh; of Seaton Gales; of Judge Sewall; of Judge Duncan Cameron; of Edmund B. Freeman; of Dr. Richard H. Lewis. Sketch of William Hill, Sec. of State; of Dr. William G. Hill; of Theophilus Hill; of Mrs. Zimmerman, Poetess; of Andrew Johnson, President of United States; of General Joseph Lane, and of the Lane family; of Governor W. W. Holden; of Bishop Ravenscroft; of Bishop Ives; of Rev. Dr. Richard S. Macon; of Bishop Beckwith; of Octavius Coke; of Randolph A. Shotwell; of Donald W. Bain.

CHAPTER XLIX.—WARREN COUNTY.

Military services of General Jethro Sumner in the Revolution. The Hawkins family, with its genealogy; Sketch of Dr. James G. Brehon; of Nathaniel Macon; of Gov. James Turner; of Daniel Turner; of Wharton J. Green; of Kemp Plummer; of Judge Hall; of Judge Edward Hall; of Judge Blake Baker; of Gov. William Miller; of Weldon N. Edwards; of the Bragg family; State Capitol burned, June, 1831.

CHAPTER XLIX.—WATAUGA, WAYNE, AND WILSON COUNTIES.

Sketch of Daniel Boone; of John Sevier. The State of Frankland, and its rise, progress, and fall. Sketch of Ezekiel Slocumb; of Col. Thomas Ruffin; of Gov. C. H. Brogden; of Gov. Montford Stokes, and his descendants; of Henry G. Williams, of Wilson; Isaac F. Dortch; of Richard W. Singletary.






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MEMOIR OF THE AUTHOR,
COLONEL JOHN HILL WHEELER,
Of Hertford County, North Carolina.
BORN AUGUST 2, 1806, DIED DECEMBER 7, 1882,
BY HON. JOSEPH S. FOWLER, EX-SENATOR FROM TENNESSER.

“Exegi monumentum are perennius, Regalique situ pyramidum altius; Quod non imber edax. non Aquilo impotens Poxxit dirucre, aut innumerabilis Annorum series, et fuga temporum.”

—HOR. UAR., XXX.

FROM Moore's “Historical Sketches of Hertford County,” we learn the following:

Among the early citizens of the village of Murfreesboro, in this county, was John Wheeler. He was of an ancient family, long seated around New York. In the latter end of the 17th century, under a grant of land from Charles II., Joseph Wheeler emigrated from England, and settled in Newark, New Jersey. Like William Penn, he was the son of a gallant naval officer. Sir Francis Wheeler, an English admiral, was his father, and the grant of land from the Crown was in reward for faithful services. He and his young wife had followed soon after the conquest of the New Netherlands by the Duke of York, son of Charles I., afterwards James II.

To them was born, in 1718, their son Ephraim Wheeler, to whom, and his wife Mary, the first American John Wheeler was born in the year 1744. John had bestowed upon him the best advantages of education—he was educated as a physician. When the Revolutionary war came on, he entered the army under General Moutgomery, and accompanied him in the perilous and ill-fated campaign to Quebee, and was in the battle (December 31, 1775,) in which that gallant officer fell. In Toner's “Reminiscences of the Medical Men of the Revolution” he is prominently mentioned. Aaron Burr served also in this campaign. Dr. Wheeler accompanied General Greene in his southern campaign, and was with him in the hard fought and glorious victory at Eutaw Springs, September 8, 1781, and until the close of the war. Pleased with the genial elimate of the South, he settled near Murfreesboro and brought his family with him. His wife Elizabeth Longworth, was the neice of Aaron Ogden, afterwards the Governor of New Jersey, and Senator in Congress. He lived near Murfreesboro for years, in the practice of his profession, in which he had great skill and much success.

His death occurred on October 14, 1814, and he lies buried in Northampton County, near





Murfreesboro. He left several works in manucript on medical science, which evinced the depth of his acquaintance and his devotion to his profession. His son John was born in 1771. In his early youth he was engaged with his cousin, David Longworth, in business as publishers and booksellers in New York. Here he attracted, by his attention to business, the notice of Zedekiah Stone, who was then in New York, and by whom he was induced to remove to Bertie County, North Carolina. He was there married to Elizabeth Jordan, January 6th, 1796, and after the death of his friend, Mr. Stone, Murfreesboro became his home. At this place he was engaged in mercantile and shipping affairs until the day of his death. From his enterprise, industry, sagacity, and integrity he attained great success, and his memory to this day, is cherished in that section as “the honest merchant.” He was a man of unspotted integrity, so strong that venality and indirection cowered before him. After a long life of industry, usefulness and piety (for he was a consistent member of the Baptist Church for more than forty years) he died, lamented and beloved, August 7th, 1832. His family surviving him, consisted of two sons by his first marriage, John H. Wheeler, late Public Treasurer of the State, and Dr. S. Jordan Wheeler, late of Bertie County. By a second wife (Miss Woods) he left one daughter, Julia, the peerless wife of Dr. Godwin C. Moore; and by a third wife, among others, Colonel Junius B. Wheeler, now Professor of Civil and Military Engineering and the Art of War in the United States Military Academy at West Point. He is the author of several military works on civil and military engineering, and on the art of war, which have been adopted as text books by the War Department. He has thus written his name in the useful literature of the nation and discharged “that debt,” which Lord Coke says, “every man owes to his profession.”

Professor Wheeler was born in 1830; educated in part at the University of North Carolina, and when only a boy volunteered as a private in Captain William J. Clarke's company in the Mexican war. He was in every battle from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico. At the fiercely contested affair at the Nacional Puente, one of the lieutenants was killed, and young as he was, he was appointed by the President as the successor, on the report of his commanding officer, now on file, that “he had seen young Wheeler under heavy fire, and he had proved to the command that he was made of the stuff of which heroes are made.” On his return from Mexico he could have remained as an officer in the army, but he declined on the ground of want of qualification, he therefore resigned his commission. The President determined to retain him in the service, and he appointed him a cadet at West Point, where he graduated among the first of his class. After serving for several years in the Corps of Engineers in Louisiana, Wisconsin and elsewhere, he was appointed to succeed the late Professor Mahan in the position he now occupies.

Dr. Samuel Jordan Wheeler, brother of the above, was born in 1810; was educated at the Hertford Academy, and graduated from Union College, Schenectady; he studied medicine with Dr. Nathan Chapman in Philadelphia, and practiced for years with success. He has been an earnest co-laborer in the cause of education and religion, as the Chowan Institute and the Church at Murfreesboro bear witness; he was professor in a college in Mississippi. He recently died in Bertie County, loved and respected for his purity of character. He married Lucinda, daughter of Lewis Bond.

JOHN HILL WHEELER.

The conspienous services rendered the State of North Carolina, and her eminent citizens, by this accomplished man, will forever preserve





his memory from oblivion. Born in the dawn of the present century, he has been the witness of the most remarkable events in the history of the republic. In the county of Hertford he first saw the light, August 6, 1806.

He was prepared for college at Hertford Academy by Dr. John Otis Freeman, an eminent divine. He was then placed at the Columbian University, Washington, D. C., and graduated in the class of 1826. In the year 1828 he took his degree of Master of Arts in the University of North Carolina. He studied his profession, the law, under the direction of Chief Justice Taylor, of North Carolina. He was elected to the Legislature before he was admitted to the bar, in the year 1827. Then State Legislatures were honored bodies, and secured some of the best talent in the States.

This Legislature contained many eminent and able men, among them were Judges Gaston, Nash and Bailey, George E. Spriuell, John M. Morehead, James Iredell, and many more. To win position in such a body was the promise of a fruitful manhood, in a youth just twenty-one years of age. For an earnest and aspiring mind, it proved a valuable school. Success was not to be hoped for without severe study and thorough preparation. To subside into reverential indifference was not the characteristic of his mind. Independent in his feelings, whilst respecting the ability of his colleagues, he claimed equal rights in the body. Conscientious in the execution of the creat trust committed to him by a generous and proud constituency, he could not see their dignity overshadowed. He summoned all his powers to the work, and won for himself a conspicuous and honorable position. So well did he perform the task assigned him, that his approving constituents returned him to the body. In his twenty-fifth year, they nominated him for Congress, but after a severely contested and gallant canvass, he was defeated by the Hon. William B. Shepard.

In the year 1831, he was appointed Secretary to the Board of Commissioners, under the treaty with France, to adjudicate the claims of American citizens for spoilations under the Berlin and Milan decrees.

In 1836, he was placed by General Jackson in the position of Superintendent of the Branch Mint at Charlotte, but in 1841 shared the political fortune of his friends and party.

In 1812, he was elected by the Legislature to be Treasurer of the State, in opposition to Major Charles L. Hinton. After his term had expired, he retired to his rural home on the banks of the Catawba, and, aided by the suggestion of his friend, Governor Swain, he began the patriotic labor of writing “Wheeler's History of North Carolina,” on which he was employed for about ten years. How well this duty was performed, will appear from an extract of a letter of General Swain, written not long before his death, now in our possession, in which he says:

“I have been much urged to write a completion of Hawks’ History of North Carolina. The only response I have ever made is that I am too old, and too poor to venture on such an undertaking. Were it otherwise, in my opinion another edition of Wheeler's History would be more useful and acceptable than any work I could write.”

In this work, Colonel Wheeler sought to collect the interesting facts that illustrated the history of the State and give them an enduring place. He proposed to preserve, for all time, a faithful record of the illustrious deeds of a noble and patriotic people, who have characterized their presence in the new world by an intense love of liberty and the most striking individuality. They were, from their presence in the wilderness, a self governing community.

No authority was sacred that did not eminate from themselves. Loyal to the will of the people, they resented indignantly the imposition





of any external authority. They rejected the magnificent plan of government provided by the Earl of Shaftesbury, though he summoned the brilliant talents of the illustrious philosopher, John Locke, for its preparation.

They adopted a plan drawn from their own experience and their wants, under the circumstances, which surrounded them. They were the first to repel the aggressions of the British parliament and crown. They well knew the rights of freeborn Englishmen and the principles of their constitution, and were determined that no invasion of them should be tolerated.

Colonel Wheeler gave his work to the public in the year 1851. It was a complete success, and is highly esteemed as a faithful record of a most interesting and remarkable people.

In the year 1844, he was warmly urged upon by his party as a candidate for governor, but did not receive the nomination.

In the year 1852, he was elected to the State Legislature, which was fiercely agitated by the contest for a United States Senator.

The Democratic caucus put forth their favorite man, the Honorable James C. Dobbin, than whom a purer, or nobler man never lived. Notwithstanding his great popularity with his party, and his admitted ability, the friends of the Honorable Romulus M. Saunders refused to support the caucus nominee, and voted for Honorable Burton Craige. The obstinate contest thus made deprived the state of its representation in the Senate for two years. In this contest Colonel Wheeler stood by his party and his warm personal friend, Mr. Dobbin, and did all in his power to secure his election.

In the year 1853, Colonel Wheeler was appointed, by President Pierce, Minister to Nicaragua, Central America. During his residence there the country was torn by opposing political factions, that sought their ends by the sword. During the revolution General William Walker made his appearance with a company of determined men, to join the liberals, and the position held by Colonel Wheeler became one of much peril and responsibility. It soon became manifest that neither party could be relied on for any permanent and salutary government. The following of Walker, though small, was brave, determined and intelligent; their leader very soon resolved, if he had not from the beginning, to give the country an Anglo-American government. He thus expected to make Central America the seat of a new and progressive civilization, which would convert its fertile soil and generous climate into the uses of the commercial world. For the interesting incidents of this daring and romantic adventure, the reader is referred to the sketches of the incidents and characters connected with the revolution. A thrilling episode of his sojourn in that distracted country, so characteristic of the man himself, is given at pages 22 to 30 of the following Reminiscences.

As soon as General Walker had established his authority, and his was the de facto government, the American minister promptly acknowledged it. This act was not approved by the Secretary of State, the Honorable William L. Marey, and he requested his recall. As Colonel Wheeler had a warm friend in the President, and as his earnest and long tried friend, the Hon. James C. Dobbin, was Secretary of the Navy, he was in no danger of being recalled without a hearing. His reply to Mr. Marey's strictures was triumphant, and the President refused to recall him.

Colonel Wheeler not only sympathized with the object of this movement, but admired the character of General Walker. He was a quiet, unassuming gentleman, educated under the best instructors of the United States and Europe. In person, he was below the average American, by no means imposing in his presence. A ready, eloquent, and graceful writer, he would have been one of the first journalists of his age. The blood of the Norsemen coursed





through his veins, and he was alive with an enthusiasm of the old Vikings for adventure. He neither estimated the dangers of the enemy, or the climate; his courage was of the purest steel. An ardent Anglo-American, he had only contempt for the Spaniards and those mongrel races, who occupied with indolence and semi-barbarism one of the finest and most productive regions on the continent. He conceived the purpose of planting there another race of men who would open the land to a refinement and civilization that would make it the pathway of nations to the eastern world. Colonel Wheeler readily saw in the advent of this cultivated and revolutionary mind, and his brave and daring followers, the promise of hope for the country so long cursed with degeneracy and mindless inaction. He became the invited guest and welcome friend of the United States minister, who knew the men and the situation far better than General Walker, Had he listened more earnestly to the wise counsel and cautious prudence of Colonel Wheeler, he would, in all probability, have realized the bright dreams of his ardent fancy. He had many of the qualities of a successful leader—sincerity, courage, self-denial and intellectual superiority. He was not a statesman, and failed in making provisions essential to the maintainance of armies. Taking no account of the strength of the foe, or the fatality of the climate, he wasted his forces without the possibility of a supply.

The United States minister, with far keener apprehension, saw the dangers that threatened and advised the means to insure the success of the promising enterprise. To him it was the introduction of a new civilization by a race whose destiny was to found new nations. His whole heart was with the movement, and his conduct was only limited by his duty to preserve the faith and honor of the republic which he represented. To a courage not less prompt than General Walker's, he added a sound judgment, a cautious foresight, a steady purpose, and a captivating manner. He knew how to husband his resources for the hour of trial. General Walker moved often under the influence of a whimsical impulse, careless of the demands of an insatiable to-morrow. He sought the enemy at too great a sacrifice of men who could not be restored; he took but little account of the profound causes which preserve and destroy armies. His high qualities and noble ambition will cause feelings of regret for his unhappy end, and the failure of his ambitious and magnificent purpose. Not the love of gain, nor the vulgar display, led this refined student to the unequal contest. It was the pride of his noble race and its capacity to rejoice a country blessed by nature with every bounty, and cursed only by an indolent, vicious, and monotonous race. Too soon for the demands of mankind, a more opportune period will, in time, complete the work in which he bravely fell, and vindicate his generous design.

To the honor of Colonel Wheeler be it recorded that he used his influence to promote a revolution so fraught with unnumbered blessings to civilized man. Nor did he compromise the great republic, that had confided her good faith to his care, though he cou'd not look with composure upon the contest, of an enlightened civilization with a stupid indifference to the demands of an intelligent and progressive age. That one entire continent, and a large portion of another, should be consigned to stolid repose without an heroic effort to unfold their almost boundless possibilities, was to him neither statesmanship nor humanity. He knew it was the destiny of his race to eradicate barbarism, and teach the inhabitants of the wilderness the arts of production, commerce, moral responsibility, social refinement, and intelligent freedom. Before its all-conquering enterprise nature had put off its savage habits for new creations of beauty and





utility. Profoundly versed in its history, he was moved with admiration for its all-creative energy. He did not doubt that its presence would endow, with a new life, that entire isthmus, which could not fail, in a few years, to meet the advance of the United States into Mexico. With prophetic vision he beheld its gloomy forests giving place to the peaceful abodes of cultivated men. Deprecating the erratic impulses of the young leader of this promising mission, he nevertheless hailed it as the harbinger of a glorious future for Central America and the commercial world. Not even the demands of a coldly selfish diplomacy could repress his generous approval, and he gare the benign presence of a creative enterprise his counsel, his sympathy, and his substantial support.

In the year 1857, Colonel Wheeler resigned his mission, and returned to his abode in Washington City. So long as he lived he claimed his legal residence to be in North Carolina. On his door plate was that name coupled with his own, and over the breast of his encoffined form was engraved that name so dear to him. In all his thoughts, and in all his journeyings, his heart yearned towards North Carolina, and within her borders he would have preferred interment. The amiable and charming English poet, Waller, in his old age, purchased a small property at his birthplace, saying he would like to die, like the stage, where he was roused. This poetic idea has immortality in the lines of Goldsmith:

“As the poor stag, whom hound and horns pursue,

Pants for the place where at first he flew,

I still had hoped my vexations past,

Here to return and die at home at last.”

By this time the long agony over the slavery question was culminating. Our republic was rapidly drifting towards a fierce and destructive war. Colonel Wheeler had ever been identified with the Democratic party, and had followed its faith and practices with earnestness through all its meanderings. The change from Pierce to Buchanan brought no change in the purposes or disposition of the party. Under the former, the repeal of the Missouri compromise, and the organization of the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, had dissolved the Whig party and introduced the Republican party into the field of action. The conflict between individuals had passed away with the magnificent personages that characterized that period. Principles laying at the foundation of free institutions, and deeply imbedded in the conscience, came into the field. The Republican party planted itself upon the doctrine of freedom for the territories. The Democratic party proclaimed the inviolability of slavery in the States and Territories. The former was a new and revolutionary force, the latter stood firmly by the ancient constitutional rights of slavery. The former was organized to break up and displace it, the latter resisted displacement. Trained in the school of Jackson, Colonel Wheeler's judgment was against war, and adhered to the Union; but this school had disappeared and a new Democracy had arisen, and guided by his sympathies he followed his party, drifting rapidly upon dangerous reefs and quicksands. One of his sons, C. Sully Wheeler, was in the Federal Navy; the other, Woodbury Wheeler, had joined the Confederate Army. Each remained faithful to the cause he had espoused, to the end. To those laboring under the weight of half a century that had seen the republic in the glory of its united power, it seemed now in the agony of inevitable death. The expiring hours of Democratic rule was spent shuddering before the fearful responsibility of the solemu oath “to support and defend the Constitution.” The incoming administration, though sustained by an unconquerable enthusiasm in its ranks, was slow to announce any policy. Many unionists in the south, believing all to be lost, hastened into the





ranks of the disunionists. All the companions of Colonel Wheeler's life, all that was dear to him from childhood were enveloped in the fortunes of the Confederacy. His long and strong political bias and the intensity of his friendship drew his sympathy and his hopes with them, and he came back to North Carolina to be with her in the struggle. Too far advanced in life to become an actor in the contest, in 1863, pursuant to a resolution of the General Assembly of the State, he went to Europe to collect material for a new edition of his history. Anxious to gather all that related to the subject which could render it a more perfect chronicle of his beloved people, he sought the treasures of the British Archives and buried himself in that wonderful collection, far from the desolating and sanguinary events of the war. He collected much valuable and interesting matter, which he incorporated in the new edition of his history which he left ready for the press.

Colonel Wheeler was a sincere believer in the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, of May 20th, 1775. His studies in the Archives left no doubt upon this interesting problem in his mind. The meeting and resolution of the same body of men of May 31st, 1775, are undisputed. They did not go to the point of declaring a separation from the British government, but they went far beyond the expressions of any other colony. The reader of Wheeler's History will mark with what delight he records the resistance of these forest-born republicans to the aggressions of the royal government. The gallant struggles and heroic sacrifices of his revolutionary ancestors are set forth with care and eloquence.

He was thoroughly versed in the opinions of democratic statesmen, and sincerely devoted to the Jefferson school. He maintained the sovereignty of the states in all local matters, whilst he held to the inviolability of the Federal authority in national affairs. Each was sacred in the realms assigned them by the Constitution. It is difficult to preserve the complicated adjustment of the relations of the states to the general government. In the South, he saw a strong tendency to magnify the powers of the states. In the North, the Federal authority was rapidly assuming new and alarming importance. The effect of the war was to give far greater importance to the nation, and to silence everywhere the principle of state sovereignty. Colonel Wheeler regarded the influence of the central power as dangerous to individual liberty, and constantly tending to imperialism. He beheld with regret the citizen disappearing in the grandeur and power of the nation. Reared among men proud of their honor and influence, he dreaded the decline of personal excellence. Its loss was the grave of liberty, and birth of imperial power.

The integrity of the state and nation depended upon the sanctity of the ballot, and this upon the responsibility and intelligence of the individual citizen. The presence of powerful monied corporations, and a grand central government, would destroy in time its responsibility. The voter, being entirely overshadowed, would soon begin to look as lightly upon his personal worth, as he did upon his influence in the republic. He relied chiefly on character to preserve the republic through the ballot. Neither education not wealth could be trusted with the liberties of the people, in the absence of inflexible purpose, and the habit of self government. The only safeguard for the encroachments of power was in the disposition and capacity of the citizen to resist them at the threshold. When the public ceases to be a severe censor of the conduct of officials, the end of our delicately adjusted republic will not be remote. His apprehensions of a gradual change, and a complete undermining of the nature of our institutions, was the result of close observation





for more than half a century, of the most eventful period of the history of the government, actuated by an intense solicitude for the safety of the republic of the fathers.

Colonel Wheeler was a sincere believer in the salutary influence of labor directed by method. Ardent labor, regulated by reason, is the price of excellence. He that would win the latter, can not dispense with the former.

Time was a sacred trust that no one could neglect without evil. Thoroughly realizing its demands, with earnest purpose and willing hands he consecrated all to the noblest ends of life. Knowing that the brightest genius, and the most brilliant powers, could avail but little if this trust was not executed with system, he introduced the most convenient order into all his labors, so that he could call up the gleanings of years in a moment.

A systematic and laborious scholar, he enriched his understanding from the treasures of many tongues. The English furnished him the richest stores, and he had drunk deeply at her purest fountains. Into his tenacious and fruitful memory, were joined the wealth of the prose and poetry of that wonderful people, whose intelligence, more than their arms, has filled the world. He was fimiliar with all the great dramatists. The great poems of Shakespeare, he could repeat with a power rarely equalled by the first actors of his time.

His friendships were ardent and sincere, and his devotion to his friends knew no bounds; influence, purse, life itself, if in the right, were at their service. Attachments so strong and pure, insured a loving and faithful husband, an indulgent and devoted father, and a kind and generous neighbor. In all the relations of life he filled the measure of a noble manhood; tender and charitable to the afflicted, cheerful and courteous to the prosperous, he ever sought to mitigate the asperities of life, those rude blasts that visit too often every home.

The social qualities of Colonel Wheeler were of the highest order. His warm heart, his classic wit, and mirth-creating humor, made him the favorite of all circles in which intelligence, refinement, and graceful address were desired. Living in that age of the republic which gave the noblest development of individual excellence, he had ample opportunity of mingling in its most delightful associations. Bountifully supplied with instructive and interesting anecdote, his conversation never lost its interest and inspiration. He drew from ancient and modern literature their richest gems, and with consummate taste he pleased and instructed his ever attentive auditors. The fountains of Greek, Roman, English and French history were open to his never fiagging memory. It was in the richer developments of American life that he enjoyed the greatest pleasure. Above all periods of human history, he esteemed the characters of our revolutionary era. It had furnished the grandest expression of freedom and integrity, as it had of civil and political institutions. With pious veneration he had collected and preserved every heroic act and noble utterance, unwilling to allow the corroding fingers of time to erase from coming generations the humblest name.

Not less fortunate in his political associations, he knew personally all the presidents and cabinet officers, from Jefferson to Arthur. He had been the confidential friend of Jackson, Pierce and Johnson, and was by them called to counsel and advice. He did not look to high official station, for the richest manifestation of intellectual and moral worth. He had too often seen the most commanding positions occupied by presuming inferiority, through the labors and merits of the modest and deserving. By the fruits of their lives, he esteemed the actors of the age in which they lived and worked. This volume of reminiscences discloses his estimation of characters





who figured in the moral and political life of the state and nation, far better than any sketch of his life. It also presents with equal force his moral, social and political preferences and appreciations.

He had been from his first political essay, trained in the Democratic party, and his active affinities drew from the ranks of that party his warmest associations. His democracy was founded upon the lofty plane of integrity and worth. There, all who could come were equals, and entitled to the rights and honors of the state. Neither accident of birth or wealth could push from their seats the true, the industrious, and the brave. Humble worth, bending beneath the weight of sorrows and privations, had an open highway to his respect. He rejoiced to see the virtuous youth, bursting the barriers of pride and cast, and appealing to the just judgment of society for the recognition of its worth. For misfortune he had all sympathy, for unostentutions merit, reverence; for courage, that presses forward in the achievement of great and useful measures, admiration.

Trained from childhood to industry and action, he knew the value of useful labor. No speculative theorist, he sought substantial results through methods approved of by experience. With reluctance he marked any departure from the way selected by the sages, and lined with countless blessings. The continuity of history described the march of human intelligence and could not be broken with any assurance of safety. Nor was he blindly bound to an irrational and monotinous past. He well knew that every day and every hour makes demands upon the exercise of reason and invention, that can only be appeased by advancement in time and space. A witness of all the greatest discoveries in the useful arts, he well understood their influence upon the refinement of the people. Society was undergoing perpetual change in all its varied aspects. The most venerable and sacred institutions, in time, give place to new ones, better adapted to represent its advancement, and perpetuate its usefulness.

In all the noble actions of the great and good of the republic, he had an inheritance of imperishable glory. With pious care he has garnared all, and has labored to transmit them to posterity, as an inspiration to emulate the heroic and worthy lives of an illustrious ancestry. The conduct of the great and good is the most valuable legacy that a nation can have. The memories and the glorious deeds of the eminent personages whom North Carolina has contributed to humanity, have been sacredly collected and eloquently described by this faithful historian. They have not been left to perish “unhonored and unsung.” The memory of the busy, patriotic and eloquent man, who has rescued from oblivion, so many illustrious names, will be recalled with grateful thanks, from the shores on which break the waves of the Atlantic, to the peaks of the Unaka mountains that mark the western limits of the state. Whenever the sons or daughters of the old commonwealth have escheloned into the west, his labors will be carried and read. They will be to all a reservoir of brilliant names, and a chronicle of illustrious deeds.

This worthy and learned man attained a ripe age, in the full enjoyment of his intellectual powers, laboring cheerfully to the end.

Though during his closing years he suffered much, his genial and sunny disposition did not desert him. He continued to receive his friends with that generous welcome, which will be fondly remembered after he has past the “sunless river's flow.”

He was married first to Mary, only daughter of Rev. Mr. O. B. Brown, of Washington City, one of the most accomplished and literary ladies of her day, by whom he had one daughter, married to George N. Beale, a





brother of General E. F. Beale, late United States Envoy to Austria, and, second, to Ellen, daughter of Thomas Sully, one of the most distinguished artists of Philadelphia, by whom he had two sons. Charles Sully and Woodbury, a successful lawyer in Washington City.

On Thursday, December 7th, 1882, at 12:30 o'clock, a. m., the long sufferings of Colonel Wheeler were ended; and at 2 p. m., on Sunday the 10th, he was buried in Oak Hill Cemetery, Georgetown, D. C.

Eminent citizens of North Carolina then in Washington, met in the National Capitol, and adopted the following resolutions:

“Resolved, That we, North Carolinians, present in Washington, have assembled to pay a tribute of respect to the memory of our departed friend, Mr. John H. Wheeler, whose private worth and public services have endeared him to our whole people.

“Resolved, That by his life-work, though to him a labor of love, as the historian of the state, and the collection of vast stores of historical material, he imposed a debt of gratitude upon every North Carolinian, and upon the republic of letters, which will be remembered for generations.”

Eulogiums, attesting the high place the deceased had won in the hearts of his people, were pronounced by the Hons. Z. B. Vance, Samuel F. Phillips, Jesse J. Yeates, A. M. Scales, M. W. Ransom, and T. L. Clingman.

The following letter of condolence was addressed to Major Woodbury Wheeler, son of the deceased:

“SENATE CHAMBER.

“MAJOR WOODBURY WHEELER.

“DEAR SIR: We have this moment heard with deep pain, of the death of your father. His death affects us with great sorrow; his loss will be mourned by all the people of the State, which he loved and served so well. Truly a good and great man has left us.

“We beg leave to express to you and his family our sincerest sympathy. In your sad bereavement you have the consolation arising from the memory of his illustratious life marked by conspicuous virtues.

“Yours sincerely,

“Z. B. VANCE.M. W. RANSOM.
“L. C. LATHAM.A. M. SCALES.
“ROB'T V. VANCE.R. F. ARMFIELD.
“W. R. COX.C. DOWD.”





ERRATA.

Page XII, 1st column, 11th line, read frontier, not fronting.

Ib. Ib., 13th line, read Lords, not Lord.

Ib., 2d column, 6th line, read east, not west.

Ib. Ib., 9th line, read feeble, not public.

Page XV, 1st column, 15th line, read writer's, not writers.

Page XVI, 1st column, 38th line, place comma after aggregate.

Page XVII, 1st column, 24th line, read antedates, not antidates.

Ib. Ib., 33d line, read churchman, not church man.

Page XVIII, 1st column, last line, omit “&c.”

Page XX, 1st column, 35th line, read the, not he.

Ib. Ib., 36th line, read what, not which.

Page XXI, Ib., 9th line, read experts, not exparts.

Ib. Ib., 12th line, read Sounds, not sound.

Page XXII, Ib., 36th and 37th lines, omit the interpolated sentence in brackets.

Page XXIII, Ib., 39th line, read of, not ef.

Page XXV, Ib., 21st line, read by, not viz.

Ib., 2d column, last line, omit comma after local.

Page XXVI, Ib., read Tryon, not Tyron.

Page XXVII, 1st column, 4th line, read for, not to.

Ib., 2d column, 4th and 5th lines, read in favor of the church, not to.

Page XXVIII, 1st column, 2d paragraph should have quotation marks to it.

Page XXIX, 1st column, 31st line, read imparted, not imported.

Ib. Ib., 32d line, omit comma after “tone.”

Page XXXI, 2d column, last line should follow third line of next column.

Ib. Ib., 21st line, place “Academy” in brackets.

Page XXXII, Ib., 22d line, read extract, not extracts.

Ib. Ib., 29th and 37th lines, read disbarring, not debarring.

Ib. Ib., 31st line, read it was ordered.

Page XXXIII, 1st column, 36th line, read detinue, not detinee.

Page XXXIV, 1st column, 22d line, read instigation, not investigation.

Page XXXVI, 2d column, 16th line, place a period after “complaint.” and next word begins with a capital letter.

The chapters from XXII., have been erroneously advanced 10 in number.

Page 115, 2d column, 17th line from bottom, the name “Mooring” should be Moreing.

Page 192, 2d column, 3d line, read Lizzie, not John M.

Ib. Ib., 4th line, read Corvina, not Louisa.

Ib. Ib., between lines 8 and 9 insert John L.

Page 196, 1st column, 32d line, read researches, not results.

Page 201, 1st column, 17th line, read Humphrey, not Hampton.

Page 202, 1st column, 1st line, read 1781, not 1871.

Page 204, 1st column, 38th line, read “Colonel Lillington.”

Page 216, 1st column, 17th line, read Amis, not Ams.

Ib. Ib., 22d line, read to, not at.

Ib. 2d column, 32d line, “but had no.”

Page 217, 1st column, 16th line, omit much of.

Ib., 2d column, 14th line, omit early in and.

Page 220, 1st column, 17th line, read the, not he.

Page 221, 2d column, 22d line, read Gatling, not Gatlin.

Page 226, 1st column, 3d line, read member.

Ib. Ib., 4th line, read “States”

Page 229, 1st column, 14th line from bottom, “McPelah” should be Machpelah.

Page 230, 2d column, 6th line, read “Carolina.”

Page 232, 2d column, 24th line, read incessant, not incessent.

Page 238, 1st column, 7th line, read Pierre, not Pierce.

Page 240, 1st column, 4th line, insert on before one.

Page 252, 2d column, 23d line, read Cæsar, not Casar.

Page 253, 1st column, 12th line, read 1776, not 1767.

Page 255, 1st column, 10th line, read Lieut. George, not Colonel Lock.

Page 228, 1st column, 32d line, same error.

Page 255, 1st column, 11th line, read Joseph, not George Graham.

Page 287, 2d column, 30th line, read those that, not these that.

Page 288, 1st column, 23d line, read correct, not court.

Page 289, 1st column, 9th line, read have, not here.

Page 297—301, inclusive—the running head “Mecklenburg county” should be Moore and New Hanover counties.

Page 300, 2d column, to the end of 18th line add servient court.

Page 301, 1st column, 2d line, read Gen. not Gov.









NORTH CAROLINA
IN THE COLONIAL PERIOD.
BY DANIEL R. GOODLOE.

An article by John Fisk, which appeared in the February (1883) number of Harper's Magazine, entitled “Maryland and the far South in the Colonial period,” contains statements in regard to North Carolina which have given grave offense to every citizen and native of the State. The writer assumes to portray the condition of the people and the character of their institutions, civilization and government, during the whole period of their colonial existence, while he has presented only an exaggerated and distorted picture of disorders which prevailed among the first handful of settlers on the Northeastern border, before there was a defined boundary, and when that portion of the territory, or a considerable part of it was claimed by Virginia.

The writer may, also, have had in view the resistance made by the people called Regulators, in the middle and upper counties, at a later period, to the robbery and extortion of the county officers. But the more charitable supposition is, that he has never read a history of the Province.

The original grant made by Charles II, to the Lords Proprietors, bears date March 20, 1663. This instrument conveyed to the noblemen and gentlemen, named all the territory lying between the parallels of thirty-one and thirty-six degrees of North latitude, and extending from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the South Sea. Wm. Byrd, Esq., the intelligent Virginia gentleman, who was one of the commissioners employed to run the boundary line between the two provinces, states, in his “Westover papers,” that “Sir William Berkeley, who was one of the grantees, and at that time Governor of Virginia, finding a territory of thirty-one miles in breadth between the inhabited part of Virginia and the above mentioned boundary of Carolina, (thirty-six degrees) advised Lord Clarendon of it, and his Lordship had influence enough with the King to obtain a second patent to include this territory, dated June 30, 1665.”

It appears from this statement of Mr. Byrd, that North Carolina owes this addition of half a degree to the width of her territory, to the treachery of the Governor of Virginia, to his trust. It was the duty of the Governor to secure, if practicable, the unclaimed territory for Virginia, but it was in the interest of Sir William Berkeley to have it added to the Carolina





Colony. However, the people of North Carolina have no reason to complain of Sir William on this account.

In reference to this acquisition Dr. Hawks, the historian of North Carolina, remarks: “But though this second charter defined the line that was to divide Virginia and Carolina, and stated on what part of the globe it was to be drawn, viz: 36° 30′ North latitude; yet astronomical observations had not fixed its precise locality, and consequently the people on the fronting of both provinces entered land and took out patents by guess, either from the King, or the Lord Proprietors. The grants of the latter, however, were more desirable, because, both as to terms of entry, and yearly taxes, they were less burdensome than the price and levies imposed by the laws of Virginia. This statement will explain the fact that some of the earliest grants of land, now confessedly in Carolina, but lying near the border are signed by Sir William Berkeley.”

This new boundary line of 36° 30′ remained undefined for two-thirds of a century—that is to say, until the year 1728; and in all that period there was a margin of territory several miles in width, in which no one knew, definitely, whether the inhabitants owed allegiance to Carolina or Virginia. The disputed territory lay within and on the southern border of the Dismal Swamp. Practically, for nearly fifty years, the territory west of the Swamp was not in dispute, as the settlements on the Carolina side lay to the east of the Chowan River. To the west of that great stream the Indians still held away. It was not until after the Massacre in 1711, when one hundred and thirty persons were murdered in their homes in one day, that these savages were made to give place to the advancing tide of civilization. The largest of the tribes, and the most war-like, the Tuscaroras, after that event, were required to vacate their territory, when they emigrated North and rejoined the Iroquois or Five Nations, from whom they were descended. The smaller and less criminal tribes were permitted to remain on reservations.

During the first sixty years of the colonial history, the population was chiefly confined to the territory north of Albemarle Sound, west of the Chowan River. The settlements between the two sounds, Albemarle and Pamlico, and that about New Berne, were still public, but were represented in the Albemarle Assembly. This body was composed of twenty-seven members, of whom the four counties north of the sound sent five, each. The three counties south of Albemarle had two members each, and New Berne town one. There was little intercourse with the Cape Fear Colony, which had a separate Assembly of its own, as well as a Governor. It was a short-lived enterprise. The colonists came from Barbadoes, in 1665, under the leadership of a gentleman named Yeaman. He was succeeded by a Mr. West, as Governor, who was also made Governor of the Charleston settlement, a few years later, and persuaded the Cape Fear people to follow him. During the year 1690, the last of these Cape Fear settlers abandoned their homes and went to Charleston. The writer, whose statements are complained of, assumes that these Barbadian colonists became a permanent part of the population of North Carolina.

In 1729 seven of the eight Lords Proprietors surrendered their rights in and authority over the colony, to the crown, for a valuable consideration, of course; Earl Granville retained his claim of right to the soil, and a large strip of country (about half the State) on the northern border was set off to him as his private property, while he surrendered his right to share in the Government of the people.

Francis Xavier Martin, one of the most judicious historians of the Province, estimated the white population at the date of this transfer of authority from the Lords Proprietors to the Crown (1729) at about 13,000. He gives no opinion as to the number of the blacks; but





there is reason to believe that they were fewer in proportion to the whites than were to be found in either Virginia or South Carolina.

A reference to the map will show the reader that the original boundary of 36° passes up the Albemarle Sound; and the acquisition made by the new patent of 1665 embraces, therefore, the whole territory north of the Sound. In other words, it embraced three-fourths of the population of North Carolina in 1729. This date of the purchase by the Crown from the Proprietors is, also, coeval with the separation of North from South Carolina, and the incorporation of the whole territory of the former under one Governor and Assembly.

Besides the small scattered settlements south of Albemarle Sound, the relative importance of which is indicated by their proportion of representation in the Assembly, as above stated, the population had begun to spread out beyond, that is to say, west of the Chowan River; and in the year 1722, the County or Precinct of Bertie was organized; but up to that date, if not later, the people on that side of the river voted as of Chowan Precinct.

The immigration of Swiss and Palatines under Baron De Graffenreidt and Mr. Mitchell came to North Carolina in the years 1709-10. No definite statements as to their numbers, have come down to us, but it is believed that the two classes of immigrants combined, did not exceed two thousand. Some loose guesses make them larger. They settled in the vicinity of New Berne, which town received its name from the Swiss. Some of these foreigners were murdered by the Indians the next year, after their arrival, when the great Massacre of the whites occurred. De Graffenreidt narrowly escaped being burned at the stake by the Indians, in company with Lawson, the Surveyor General, who had invaded their territory with his compass and chain. It is probable that the massacre was the main hindrance to further immigration from Switzerland and the Palatinate; but De Graffenreidt failed to give them titles to the lands he sold them, which must have greatly added to their discouragements.

The foregoing preliminary statement as to the nature and extent of the ground occupied by the early settlers of the Province has been thought necessary to a thorough understanding of the character of the aspersions of the writer referred to, and of the answers that will be made to them. But in the first place it will be proper to present them in the language of their author. They form a compact mass of misrepresentation. I understand the writer to be a Massachusetts man. “Prof. John Fisk” of Harvard. He says:

“At the time of the Revolution the population of North Carolina numbered about 200,000, of which somewhat more than one-fourth were negro slaves. The white population was mainly English, but the foreign element was larger than in the case of any other of the colonies which we have thus far considered. There were Huguenots from France, German Protestant from the Palatinate, Moravians, Swiss, and Scotch, and what we have to note especially is that this foreign population was, in the main, far more respectable and orderly than the English majority. The English settlers came mostly from Virginia, though in the south-eastern corner of the colony there was a considerrble settlement of Englishmen from Barbadoes.

“Now, the English settlers who thus came southward from Virginia were very different in character from the sober Puritans, who went northward into Maryland. North Carolina was to Virginia something like Rhode Island was to Massachusetts—a receptacle for all the factious and turbulent elements of Society; but in this case the general character of the emigration was immeasurably lower. The shiftless people who could not make a place for themselves in Virginia society, many of the “poor whites,” flocked in large numbers into North Carolina. They were, in the main, very lawless





in temper, holding it to be the chief end of man to resist all constituted authority, and above all things to pay no taxes. The history of North Carolina was accordingly much more riotous and disorderly than the history of any of the other colonies. “There were neither laws nor lawyers,” says Bancroft, with slight exaggeration. The courts, such as they were, sat often in taverns, where the Judge might sharpen his wits with bad whiskey, while their decisions were not recorded, but were simply shouted by the crier from the inn door, or at the nearest market place.

“There were a few amateur surgeons and apothecaries to be found in the villages, but no regular physicians. Nor does the soul appear to be better cared for than the body, for it was not until 1703 that the first clergyman was settled in the colony. The Church of England was established by Government, without the approval of the people, who were opposed on principle to church rates, as to all kinds of taxes whatsoever. Owing to this dislike of taxation, most of the people were Dissenters, but no Dissenting Churches flourished in the colony. There was complete toleration even for Quakers, because nobody cared a groat for theology, or for religion. The few ministers who contrived to support life in North Carolina, were listened to in a mood like that in which Mrs. Pardigle's discourses were received by the brickmakers, while the audience freely smoked their pipes within the walls of the sanctuary during divine service.

“Agriculture was conducted more wastefully and with less intelligence than in any of the other colonies. In the northern counties tobacco was almost exclusively cultivated, but it was of very inferior quality, compared with the tobacco of Virginia.

“All business or traffic about the coast was carried on under perilous conditions: for pirates were always hovering about, secure in the sympathy of the people, like the brigands of southern Italy in recent times. It was partly due to this, no doubt, as well as partly to the want of good harborage, that a very large part of the commerce of North Carolina was diverted northward to Norfolk, or southward to Charleston.

“The treatment of the slaves is said to have been usually mild, as in Virginia, but their lives were practically, at the mercy of their masters. The white servants fared better, and the general state of society was so low that when their time of service was ended, they had here a good chance of rising to a position of equality with their masters.

“The country swarmed with ruffians of all sorts, who fled thither from South Carolina and Virginia. Life and property were very insecure, and lynch law was not infrequently administered. The small planters led, for the most part, a lazy life, drinking hard, and amusing themselves with scrimmages, in which noses were broken with blows of the fist, and eyes gouged out by a dexterous use of the long thumb nails. The only other social amusement seems to have been gambling. But, except at elections and other meetings for political purposes, people saw very little of each other.

“There were no roads worthy of the name, and every family was almost entirely isolated from its neighbors. Until just before the war for Independence, there was not a single school, good or bad, in the whole colony. It need not be added that the people were densely ignorant.

“The colony was a century old before it could boast of a printing press; and if no newspapers were published, it was doubtless for the sufficient reason that there were very few who would have been able to read them. A mail from Virginia came some eight or ten times in a year, but it only reached a few towns on the coast, and down to the time of the Revolution the interior of the country had no mails at all. Under such circumstances it is not strange that North Carolina was in a great measure cut off from the currents of thought and feeling by which the





other colonies were swayed in the middle of the eighteenth century.

“In the War for Independence, North Carolina produced no great leaders. She was not represented at the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, and she was the last of the States, except Rhode Island, to adopt the Federal Constitution.”

The reader cannot have failed to note in these statements, supposing the writer to be well informed, a spirit in sympathy with the arbitrary rule of the Lords Proprietors and the Crown of England, and with their persistent efforts to compel an unwilling people to pay taxes for the support of the Church of which they were not members. The whole tenor of the writers criticism would justify this inference; and that his sympathies are also with the corrupt county officials whose illegal exactions provoked and justified the efforts of the Regulators to resist them. But it is charitable to assume that he has only a vague idea of these events, derived from second-hand sources. For he could not read the history of the Province, without being convinced that the causes and grounds of resistance to the constituted authorities were, in the first instance, the efforts of the Lords Proprietors to impose the absurd “Fundamental Constitutions” of Locke, upon the people, followed by the persistent, and never quite successful attempt to establish the Church, with a system of Church rates. Mr. Bancroft has brought out these facts with more distinctness than the historians of the State; and even Dr. Hawks has only paraphrased the lucid statement of the great historian.

The second great source of disturbance, the robbery of the people in the name of law, by the county officers, at a later period, is equally well attested, and no one acquainted with the history of those times, will venture to vindicate or palliate their conduct. These events will receive further notice in their order, as well as other arbitrary and unjust measures of the British rulers of the Province.

Another thing observable in this pretentious criticism is a proneness to jump to general conclusions from single instances. The writer has seen the statement that at an out-of-doors religious meeting, in the Albemarle region, in one of the first years of the last century, some rough fellow smoked his pipe while the services were going on; and this fact is sufficient to warrant the statement that such was the universal custom throughout the colonial period, in all parts of the Province. He has read that a noted pirate infested the Sounds before there was so much as a village upon their borders, and that the pirate obtained supplies of provisions from the first squatters on the coast whom he would have exterminated if they had refused compliance with his demands; and, without mentioning that the pirate was at length captured and put to death, the swift conclusion is drawn, that piracy was the order of the day, all along the coast, with the connivance of the people, for the century and more of colonial vassalage; and that the effect was to render legitimate commerce a hazardous and dangerous occupation. To this cause the writer would have the world believe is due the alleged fact that the people of the colony carried their produce to Norfolk through the Dismal Swamp; although there was neither road nor canal. Or else to Charleston through a wilderness two to three hundred miles in width, without roads or navigable waters; whereas, at the period when the pirates infested the coast, the commerce of the colony was chiefly in the hands of New Englanders, who came with their vessels through the Sounds.

A traveler has at some time witnessed a fight, somewhere in the Province, accompanied by the brutal practice of “gouging,” in which the lower class of whites sometimes engage, and this is sufficient to justify the critic in the sweeping statement that “scrimmages” of this sort constituted the favorite amusement of the small planters—“their only other entertainments being





drinking and gambling.” It would be as fair to charge the whole body of respectable people in a Northern city, at the present day, with participation in all the vice and crime which are daily and nightly enacted in the dens of infamy that are to be found in every street.

These are only specimens of the illogical inferences of this writer, with whom the rule seems to be, that every isolated fact warrants a generalization.

In view of reiterated charges against the people of lawlessness, idleness, “shiftlessness,” and general inability to make their way in the world, it is worth while to notice the first statement quoted from the writer, to the effect that at the period of the Revolution, North Carolina contained about 200,000 inhabitants; and if this statement were true, it would afford evidence of an extraordinarily rapid increase of population during the next fourteen years, and especially so, as seven of those years were spent in civil and foreign wars, accompanied by the expatriation of thousands of the conquered, and the escape of not a few of the servile class. The census of 1790, which was taken just fourteen years after the Declaration of Independence, or fifteen years after the commencement of hostilities, showed the population of the State to be 393,000, or nearly 100 per cent. more than the supposed number of 200,000. In consideration of the destructive war through which the people had passed during those eventful years, we are bound to conclude that the population at the beginning of the war was nearer three hundred than two hundred thousand. In 1729, it will be remembered, the total white population was estimated to be only 13,000; and if we add 7,000 for the black, the aggregate forty-six years before the beginning of the Revolutionary War, would be but 20,000. Here, then, is evidence of an extraordinary increase of these “idle,” “shiftless,” “outlaws” and “renegades” from Virginia.

We are told that “the foreign population was in the main far more respectable and orderly than the English majority.” By the foreign population, the writer means those of non-English origin. There can be no question about the moral worth and respectability of the Moravians and German Lutherans, of the Swiss and Palatine. They all made orderly, good citizens, but they were not more conspicuous for these virtues than were the Quakers, who, in early times, exercised a controlling influence in the Albemarle settlement. Nor were the “foreigners” more distinguished for sobriety and love of learning than the Presbyterians who came to the Colony from Pennsylvania and Virginia, or directly from Scotland and England. Neither is it true that any of these classes were more respectable than the native Virginians and other Americans, mostly of English ancestry, who came in from time to time, during the whole colonial period, and constituted a large majority of the population of the Province; and it is a baseless calumny to say otherwise. They constituted a majority, and a controlling majority of the people. They were part and parcel of the best element in Virginia society—embracing not many of the oldest, or more aristocratic families, but the solid, respectable, and well-to-do classes of planters and farmers—the classes that produced such men as Jefferson, Patrick Henry, Henry Clay, and others who became eminent for talents and virtue; and they imparted these characteristics to their children. Many of the poorer classes came with these planters and farmers. Some were, no doubt, vicious characters, who added nothing to the strength and respectability of the Province. But what country under the sun is free from such a class?

“North Carolina” we are again told, “was to Virginia something like Rhode Island was to Massachusetts—a receptacle for all the factious and turbulent elements of society.” There was, it must be owned, a resemblance in the two situations. Massachusetts expelled Roger Williams





and his Baptist followers, with Quakers and Presbyterians, as heretics; and most good people of the present day are apt to believe that when the exiles shook the dust from their feet, they left not their equals in moral worth behind them. And it was in like manner that Virginia intolerance drove many of her best inhabitants into the wilderness of Carolina, as will now be shown.

Durant's Neck in Perquimans county, was the first permanent settlement made in the Province, and it was made by Quakers who fled from Virginia and Massachusetts persecution. “The oldest land title that we know of in North Carolina,” says Dr. Hawks, “and that which we think was actually the first, is still on record. It is the grant made by Cistacanoe, king of the Yeopim Indians, in 1662, to Durant, for a neck of land at the mouth of Little and Perquimans rivers, which still bears the name of the grantee. In 1633, Berkeley confirmed this grant by a patent under his own signature.”

This patent by the Indian Chief to the Quaker, antidates the first patent given by the king to the Lords Proprietors. It became the nucleus of a large Quaker settlement, which remains to the present day. It is said that a company was formed some years previous to this purchase by Durant, for the purpose of taking up lands and making settlements in the unclaimed territory; and it is probable that the plan may, to some extent, have been carried into effect—or this purchase by the Quakers may have been a part of it. The cautious terms in which the Quakers gave in their adhesion to the “Fundamental Constitutions,” show that they were neither illiterate nor reckless vagabonds. Their signature and assent are qualified as follows:

“Francis Tomes, Christopher Nicholson, and William Wyatt did before me, this 31st July,” &c., &c., “and so far as any authority by the Lords constituted, is consonant to God's glory, and to the advancement of his blessed truth, with heart and hands we subscribe, to the best of our capacities and understandings.”

In regard to these earliest settlers of North Carolina, Mr. Bancroft states that the adjoining county in Virginia, Nansemond, had long abounded in non-conformists; and it is certain, he says, that the first settlements in Albemarle were the result of the spontaneous overflowing from this source. A few vagrant families, he thinks, may have been planted in Carolina before the Restoration. Such settlements would have been made voluntarily, as under Cromwell the Church would not have been permitted to persecute Dissenters. But on the restoration of Charles, men who were impatient of interference with their religion, “who dreaded the enforcement of religious conformity, and who distrusted the spirit of the new Government in Virginia, plunged more deeply into the forests. It is known that in 1662, the Chief of the Yeopim Indians granted to George Durant the neck of land which still bears his name; and, in the following year, George Cathmaid could claim from Sir Wm. Berkeley a large grant of land upon the Sound, as a reward for having established sixty-seven persons in Carolina. This may have been the oldest considerable settlement; there is reason to believe that volunteer emigrants preceded them.”

It has already been stated that Sir William Berkeley was Governor of Virginia and one of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina at this time. He was also a Church man, intolerant of dissent—in Virginia; but his pecuniary interests impelled him to be very liberal and tolerant of Quakers, Presbyterian, and other sectarians who would agree to remove to their territory. His proprietary colleagues cordially concurred with him in this left-handed spirit of toleration, by which they hoped to be enriched; and in conformity with it, the Carolina colonists were allowed to indulge in whatever eccentricities of faith and worship their tastes or their consciences might suggest.





Indeed, it was very plain to the common sense of the Proprietaries, that zeal for the Church north of 36° 30’, if enforced by rigorous persecution, was as conducive to the peopling their Carolina territory, as the liberty of conscience which was granted south of that line. These seemingly hostile principles, or moral forces were thus made to work harmoniously for the advantage of their Lordships, while narrowminded bigots, by enforcing conformity on both sides of the line, would have spoiled everything.

Howison, the historian of Virginia, describes Sir William, who was appointed Governor of Virginia in 1642, by Charles I, as an accomplished gentleman whose winning manners captivated all hearts, but, “His loyalty was so excessive that it blinded his eyes to the faults of a crowned head, and steeled his heart against the prayers of oppressed subjects. * * He loved the monarchical constitution of England with simple fervor; he venerated her customs, her Church, her Bishops, her Liturgy; every thing peculiar to her as a kingdom; and believing them to be worthy of all acceptation, he enforced conformity with uncompromising sternness. * * Had Sir William Berkeley descended to his grave at the time when Charles II gained the English throne, we might with safety have trusted to those historians who have drawn him as adorned with all that could grace and elevate his species. But he lived long enough to prove that loyalty when misguided, will make a tyrant; that religious zeal, when devoted to an established Church, will beget the most revolting bigotry: and that an ardent disposition, when driven on by desire for revenge, will give birth to the worst forms of cruelty and malice.”

Yet this excessive zeal for religion and “revolting bigotry,” had a practical side to them which the historian overlooked. For they tended rapidly to people Sir William's Carolina plantation with sober and industrious Quakers and Presbyterians &c., who bought land or paid rent at prices fixed by the Proprietaries. The Virginia Assembly, under such a champion of orthodoxy, passed laws of the most stringent character for the enforcement of uniformity. Tithes were imposed and exacted inexorably: the persons of the Clergy were invested with a sanctity savoring strongly of superstition: papists were excluded from the privilege of holding office, and their priests were banished the Province; the oath of supremacy to the king as head of the Church, was imposed, dissenting ministers were forbidden to preach; and the Governor and Council were empowered to compel “non-conformists to depart the colony with all convenience.” It is not surprising that the Carolina Colony, where toleration was established by the Proprietaries, flourished, when the Governor and Assembly of Virginia were so active in stimulating emigration. But it is obvious that these intolerant laws of Virginia, on the subject of religion, were not calculated nor intended to drive out the lawless and vicious classes. On the contrary, wherever Religion is established by law, whether the creed be Protestant or Catholic, the vicious and criminal classes are rarely arraigned for denying the authority of the Church, however much they may disregard its injunctions, and stand in need of its discipline. It is the sober, earnest men who suffer the pains and penalties of heresy, whether those penalties be the rack, the fagot or banishment.

But the persecuted Dissenters were not the only classes that preferred the free air of North Carolina to the intolerance of Berkeley. Thousands of Churchmen, real and nominal, joined them; and without being eminently religious, they soon became sufficiently numerous to form a strong party in favor of a Church establishment.

Mr. Bancroft thinks that the first Governor of the Albemarle Colony, Drummond, appointed by Berkeley, and hanged by him without a trial, for alleged participation in Bacon's Rebellion,





was a Presbyterian. If this opinion be correct, it serves to illustrate more fully how tolerant of heresy the bigoted Governor of Virginia could be, when it tended to advance his pecuniary interests.

Two or three of the Lords Proprietors were cabinet ministers of Charles II, and they could not only procure a grant of territory half as large as Europe, but they could stipulate the terms of the grant, and the sort of government its future inhabitants were to live under. For the reasons already explained, the Second Charter, dictated by themselves, authorized the establishment of the utmost toleration, without so much as naming the Church, and this liberty was confirmed to the people. They were granted “an Assembly,” says Mr. Bancroft, “and an easy tenure of lands, and he (Berkeley) left the infant people to take care of themselves; to enjoy liberty of conscience and conduct, in the entire freedom of innocent retirement; to forget the world till rent day drew near, and quitrents might be demanded. Such was the origin of fixed settlements in North Carolina. The child of ecclesiastical oppression was swathed in independence.”

It is appropriate in this place to notice the citation of Mr. Bancroft by the critic, as an authority for one of his aspersions. He says: “There were neither laws nor lawyers, says Bancroft, with but slight exaggeration,” and he represents the historian as applying this remark to North Carolina throughout its whole Colonial existence. The truth is, that Mr. Bancroft has nowhere made such a remark, for the two-fold reason that he is too well informed, and has too much regard for truth to make it. On the contrary, he has done more to vindicate the character of North Carolina than any of its special historians. And since he is a deservedly high authority throughout the nation and the world, it is worth while to show what he has said on the subject. The statement from which the above garbled quotations are made are but the conclusion of an elaborate account of the settlement of the Colony which every citizen and native of the State reads with pride and pleasure. After mentioning the arrival of emigrants from New England and from Bermuda, he says that the Colony lived contentedly with Stevens as Chief Magistrate, “under a very wise and simple form of government. A few words express its outlines: a Council of twelve, six named by the Proprietaries and six chosen by the Assembly; an Assembly, composed of the Governor, the Council and delegates from the freeholders of the incipient settlements, formed a government worthy of popular confidence. No interference from abroad was anticipated; for freedom of religion and security against taxation, except by the Colonial Legislature, were solemnly conceded. The Colonists were satisfied; the more so, as their lands were confirmed to them by a solemn grant on the terms which they themselves had proposed.”

Mr. Bancroft proceeds to state that the first Legislature, in 1669, enacted laws adapted to the wants of the people, “and which therefore endured,” he says, “long after the designs of Locke were abandoned.” Again he states that “the attempt to enforce the Fundamental Constitution of Locke, a year or two later, was impossible and did but favor anarchy by invalidating the existing system, which it could not replace. The Proprietaries, contrary to stipulations with the Colonists, superseded the existing government; and the Colonists resolutely rejected the substitute.”

The historian then gives a brief account of the visits of the celebrated Quaker preachers, William Edmundson and George Fox, to the settlements at Durant's Neck; of the favor with which they were received by the people, and by the Governor, and adds: “If the introduction of the Constitution of Locke had before been difficult, it was now become impossible.”

The death of Stevens, says Mr. Bancroft, left the Colony without a Governor; and by permission





of the Proprietaries, the Assembly elected Cartwright, their Speaker, to act as Governor. “But the difficulty of introducing the model (Locke's Constitution) did not diminish; and having failed to preserve order, Cartwright resolved to lay the state of the country before the Proprietaries, and embarked for England.” At the same time the Assembly sent Eastchurch, their new Speaker, to explain their grievances, Mr. Bancroft resumes:

“The suppression of a fierce insurrection of the people of Virginia had been followed by the vindictive fury of ruthless punishments and runaways, rogues and rebels, that is to say, fugitives from arbitrary tribunals, non-conformists, and friends of popular liberty, fled daily to Carolina as their common subterfuge and lurking place. Did letters from the government of Virginia demand the surrender of leaders in the rebellion, Carolina refused to betray the fugitives who sought shelter in her forests.”

Such is the account given by Mr. Bancroft of the refugees from Virginia oppression; and he rejects the idea of our historian Martin, that these fugitives were runaway negroes. Equally does he reject the Tory estimate placed upon them by the Virginia Governor, Smallwood, and other writers of that school, that they were lawless vagabonds and “runagates”—a phrase which our own Hawks applies to these non-conformist refugees from priestly tyranny. These and similar passages in Bancroft occur in his first and second volumes, which were published long before Hawks’ history of the State. The latter author, in some places rallies to he defence of the State and the South, against which he deems to be northern injustice; but in dealing with this subject of our early history, he would have done well to follow the lead of the great northern historian, instead of that of the English and Virginia Tories. But no careful reader of Dr. Hawks can fail to see that his patriotic feelings, as a North Carolinian were in this regard overborne by his reverence for the Church of England, and its then feeble off shoots in the Colonies. This feeling blinded him to the virtues of Quakers and other dissenters, who resisted the attempts to form an establishment, and compel the payment of tithes or Church rates. It is true that he has presented a mass of facts which should convince every wise and dispassionate son of the Church, that the attempt to establish it in the Colony, and by such agencies, in spite of the determined opposition of a majority of the people, did it lasting injury, as well as equal injury to the cause of religion. He has shown, as he could not fail to do, without grossly perverting history, that the Church suffered, as well from the unjust attitude which its friends assumed, of attempting to force it upon the people, as from the character of the clergymen who were sent over from England. Of the seven who came on this mission during the Proprietary government, three turned out to be disreputable in character—drunken, dissolute and knavish. The others were intelligent and good men, whose teaching and example, supported by the voluntary offerings of the Church at home, would have been eminently salutary. But as the representatives of an arbitrary plan of enforcing uniformity of worship, and with their good example off set by the bad conduct of their associates, their labor was almost in vain. It was unfortunate for the Church, also, that the jealousy of the British Government would not allow America to have a Bishop during the whole Colonial period, but turned a deaf ear to the appeals in this behalf, which were sent up by the Colonists. The consequence was, that there were few native Church clergymen in America, since it was necessary to send them to England, at great expense, to be ordained and properly educated. The clerical “carpet-baggers” sent to the Colonies, were, with honorable exceptions, of course, exact prototypes of the lay species which have visited the South in more recent years.

Mr. Bancroft has answered so many of the





misrepresentations of North Carolina, that the reader will excuse a few more brief references and citations. He denounces the meanness of the British Government in applying their navigation act, passed in 1672, to the Colonies, accompanied by a tax on their products. Its application to North Carolina was cruel. The population was barely four thousand. Its exparts consisted of a few fat cattle, a little corn and eight hundred hogsheads of tobacco. This trade was in the hands of New Englanders, whose small vessels came into the sound laden with such foreign articles as supplied the simple wants of the people, and exchanged them for the raw products. But the act referred to required that these products should first be sent to England, where a duty was imposed on them, before their re-exportation to the West Indies, or elsewhere. The tobacco was taxed a penny on the pound, which was equivalent to three cents at the present day. From this source these poor people were made to pay twelve thousand dollars per annum, and to receive only British goods, or foreign articles through British ports, in return. A revolt was the consequence of these oppressive measures, incited, Mr. Bancroft says, by the Virginia refugees, who came over after Bacon's rebellion, and by New Englanders who were trading in the Albemarle country. The Deputy Governor and Council were arrested and imprisoned; and Culpepper, an Englishman who had come over some years before, was made Governor. This rebellion, therefore, was on grounds identical with those which moved the American colonies to resistance a century later, and which resulted in their independence. The people of New England, also, resisted the enforcement of this Navigation Act. The motive assigned for this rebellion was, “that thereby the country may have a free Parliament, and may send home their grievances.” In connection with these facts Mr. Bancroft remarks:

“Are there any who doubt man's capacity for self government, let them study the history of North Carolina; its inhabitants were restless and turbulent in their imperfect submission to a government imposed on them from abroad; the administration of the colony was firm, humane and tranquil, when they were left to take care of themselves. Any government but one of their own institution was oppressive. * * The uneducated population of that day formed conclusions as just as those which a century later pervaded the country.”

The people rebelled again, a few years later against the misrule of Seth Sothel, one of the Proprietors who was sent over as Governor. This man, says Mr. Bancroft, found the country tranquil, on his arrival, under laws enacted by the people, and under a Governor of their own choice. “The counties were quiet and well regulated, because not subjected to foreign sway. The planters in peaceful independence, enjoyed the good will of the wilderness. Sothel arrived, and the scene was changed. * * Many colonial Governors displayed rapacity and extortion toward the people; Sothel cheated his Proprietary associates, as well as plundered the colonists.” He was deposed by the people, who appealed again to the Proprietaries; and the planters, says Bancroft, immediately became tranquil, when they escaped foreign misrule.

And here follows a remark of the historian made with reference to the four or five thousand people who constituted the whole population in 1668, but which the maligner of the Province misquotes, and makes applicable to them throughout the one hundred and thirteen years of colonial dependence. Under the marginal date, 1688, which the garbler could not fail to see, and just at the close of the account of the rebellion against Sothel, Mr. Bancroft says:

“Careless of religious sects, or colleges, or lawyers, or absolute laws, the early settlers enjoyed liberty of conscience, and personal independence; freedom of the forest and of the river.”





By “absolute laws,” he clearly refers to the “Fundamental Constitutions” prepared by Mr. Locke for the Lords Proprietors. He could mean nothing else; for he had just completed an elaborate culogy of the people for their practical wisdom in enacting laws adapted to their own circumstances. This remark about “absolute laws” follows what has been quoted above from his pages. He had also praised the virtue and devotion of the Quakers and non conformists, who sought refuge in the wilderness from the persecutions of the English church in Virginia. These men who had suffered together under the same tyrannical laws and government, and whose safety in their new common home depended on a cordial union with each other, would naturally subordinate their differences, and become less tenacious of mere names. The Quakers were an organized body of religionists, who, until they were able to build meeting houses, worshipped in the beautiful groves, or in their private dwellings. The other unorganized nonconformists would naturally attend these Quaker meetings; and we are assured, even by their enemies, that the Quakers made many converts to their Society from the others, not excepting the established Church.

But if it were literally true that in 1688, the refugees in the Albemarle settlement, from Virginia oppression, had neither laws nor lawyers, what must be thought of the candor or the intelligence of a writer who attempts to impose upon the world the statement that Mr. Bancroft applies the remark to North Carolina during her whole colonial history from 1663 to 1776. (I suggest to April, 1775).

The facts here brought out on the authority of Mr. Bancroft, refute at the same time another statement of the writer, which he couples with his comparison of the several sorts of people who made up the emigrations respectively to Rhode Island, and to North Carolina, from Massachusetts and Virginia.

In regard to the Virginia emigrants to Carolina, he says, “their general character was immeasurably lower,” than that of the Massachusetts emigrants to Rhode Island. There is no respectable authority for this statement. The victims of Massachusetts persecutions were excellent people, no doubt; but there is no reason to suppose that the Puritans of that colony were more select in regard to the characters of those whom they expelled from their borders, than were the Churchmen of Virginia. There has been nothing in the subsequent careers of the two classes of emigrants, or in their posterities, to warrant the invidious comparison; and there remains but one judgment to pronounce upon it, viz.: that whether proceeding from ignorance or malevolence, it is no less a wholesale calumny, and this calumny is repeated in other connections and forms, but the above answer must suffice for them all.

“They were, in the main, very lawless in temper,” we are told, “holding it to be the chief end of man to resist all constituted authority, and above all things, to pay no taxes.” Here again this ready writer shows his ignorance of the history of the Province. The absurdity of the statement becomes apparent if we compare it with other statements made by him. He tells us in one breath, and tells truly, that these Virginia and American-born emigrants constitute a large majority of the people; and in the next that they are lawless, riotous, indolent, “shiftless,” and utterly opposed to paying taxes. Who, then, made the colonial laws of which there are large volumes extant? Who imposed the taxes? Was it the handful of Swiss and Palatines, not above two thousand in number, and not one of whom, when they arrived, understood the language? Was it by the Gaelic-speaking Scotch Highlanders, who came to the Province after the middle of the eighteenth century—two or three thousands in number? Was it by the German Lutherans and Moravians who came still later—all of whom spoke a foreign language? These emigrants





were most valuable acquisitions; and many of their descendants have become distinguished citizens; but during the twenty or thirty years of their residence here prior to the Revolution, they knew too little of the English language to take a leading part in making the laws. The conclusion is a necessary one, then, that the colonial statutes, constituting a complete body of laws, adapted to the wants of the people, correctly and concisely written, in parliamentary style, were the product of the class which this writer would have the world believe, was composed, “in the main,” of worthless renagades and law breakers from Virginia. The character of these laws will be shown in another place.

“The Colony was a century old,” says our censor, “before it had a printing press; and if no newspaper were published, it was doubtless for the sufficient reason that there were very few who would have been able to read them.”

The first of these statements contains full eighty per cent of truth, which is so much above the average that it may be allowed to go uncontradicted. But at the same time it admits of extenuation. The Colony was planted in 1663, and the first printing press was brought into it in 1749, and was employed in printing the laws, and a few years afterward, a newspaper.

The further statement of the writer, that “A mail from Virginia came some eight or ten times a year, but it only reached a few towns on the coast, and down to the time of the Revolution the interior of the country had no mails at all,” is quite true; and it fully explains to any fair mind how newspapers could not flourish under such circumstances, and without assuming that the people could not read. Another obstacle to the success ef newspapers is presented in the fact that North Carolina was, and still is, more exclusively agricultural than any other part of America; and contained and still contains, in proportion to aggregate population, fewer people resident in towns.

In New England there was a far greater population, and at the beginning of the eighteenth century, Boston, according to Rev. Cotton Mather, and other authorities quoted in the “Memorial History” of that city, contained not far from ten thousand inhabitants. But there was the same deficiency of mail facilities, though not in equal degree, which existed in North Carolina. I find in a little work published by a Postoffice official, that so early as 1672, a monthly mail was established between Boston and New York; and that in 1711, Massachusetts established a weekly mail between Boston and her out-lying territory of Maine. And yet, with these relatively great advantages and facilities—a town of ten thousand inhabitants, and at least one weekly mail—no newspaper was established in Boston, nor in Massachusetts, until the year 1704. This was eighty four years after the founding of the Colony. It is true that there was a printing press introduced at an earier date, which was employed in the publication of pamphlets and books of theology, and the laws of the colony; but no newspaper until the settlement was eight-four years old. Isaiah Thomas a Massachusetts man, in his valuable history of printing, gives an interesting account of this first American journalistic enterprise. It was called the Boston News-Letter. The first number appeared in April, 1704. John Campbell, a Scotchman, and Postmaster of the town, was the proprietor, or “Undertaker,” as he styled himself. It was printed on a half-sheet of what was called ‘ “Pot” paper, once a week; but after the second number it appeared on a half-sheet of fools-cap. Whether this was an enlargement on Pot paper, or a reduction in size, is not stated; but the change in dimensions, whether in one way or the other, was no doubt inconsiderable. At any rate the News Letter continued to be printed for four years on a half-sheet of fools-cap, once a week. It rarely contained more than two advertisements, one of them by the proprietor, in which he enumerated





the articles he was ready to advertise, at reasonable rates, among them “runaway servants.” The ill omened style of undertaker, assumed by the proprietor, may in some sort, account for the unhealthy childhood and youth of Boston's first-born journal. At any rate, the undertaker, after fifteen years of sad experience, informed the public that he could not dispose of three hundred copies weekly; and that he was thirteen months behind time in the publication of the foreign news.

This was the case in 1719, when Boston must have had a population of nearly or quite 25,000, for in 1710, according to the high authority of the “Memorial History,” it was already 18,000.

Mr. Thomas states that the first press introduced into North Carolina (at New Berne) was in the year 1734 and Mr. Bancroft makes the same statement; but Martin, the intelligent historian of the Province, who resided about thirty years at New Berne, during all of which time he was engaged in printing—and most of the time, as a newspaper publisher, as well as public printer for the Colony, says that James Davis came, by invitation of the Assembly, with a printing press, in the year 1749. Davis began the publication of a newspaper in 1765. New Berne contained at that time, perhaps, five hundred white inhabitants; and the fact that his paper was sustained was wonderful, in view of Campbell's discouragements at Boston.

It would not be fair to assume that this inability to support, or indifference to the worth of a newspaper, on the part of the people of Massachusetts, was due to their ignorance or inability to read, for we know that such was not the case. It is more just to say that new inventions and new methods of doing particular things are slow in finding their way into common use. Fifty years hence people may wonder that their ancestors of this our day, did not, one and all, use the telegraph or telephone, instead of the slow process of sending letters by mail, by which days are consumed in doing the work of a few minutes.

“In the war for independence North Carolina produced no great leaders,” says the essayist. It would be easy to retaliate that other colonies or States, more favorably situated, failed to produce great leaders. New England furnished a majority of the rank and file, and probably, most of the material aid; and yet she failed to produce the great leader; nor did she produce but one great soldier, and he came from the despised little colony of Rhode Island, and from the persecuted class of Quakers, who were driven into exile by Massachusetts orthodoxy. There were many good officers produced by the war of the Revolution—men who were brave, sagacious, and enterprising—but history fails to point to more than two who were equal to the greatest emergencies, in which the disciplined and well armed soldiers of Britain were to be met and foiled by the comparatively raw and ill-appointed recruits of the provinces. Those two men were Washington and Greene. Perhaps there was one other thus endowed; but he turned traitor to the cause.

North Carolina produced in the Revolutionary era a number of good officers—Howe, Davidson, Davie, Caswell, Lillington, Moore, Nash, and many others—the equals in merit with those of the same rank, in other States. And during those eventful days, a North Carolina boy was trained by the discipline of adversity, to take the foremost place in the Nation's regard, as a great captain, hero, and statesman. A New England author of celebrity, Parton, has demonstrated that Andrew Jackson was born on North Carolina soil. His childhood was spent in South Carolina, though within two miles of his birthplace; which circumstance gave rise to the impression that he was a native of that State. While still a boy, he returned to North Carolina, where he spent his youth and early manhood. At length he emigrated to Tennessee, which was then only a western county of his





native State, and there he lived and died. For greatness of soul—for the possession of those qualities of intelligence, of courage, and firmness, which inspire respect and confidence, and constitute a nature “born to command,” Andrew Jackson has had, certainly, not more than one superior in this country.

“She was not represented at the Stamp Act Congress of 1765,” says Fisk, and the purpose of the statement is to convey the impression that the absence of North Carolina from that Congress was due to a want of sympathy in the common cause. If this was not his purpose, he could have had none. He failed to add that New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Georgia were also unrepresented in that Convention. If he had had any acquaintance with the history of North Carolina, he could not have been ignorant of the fact that her failure to be represented on the occasion was caused, in the language of Martin, viz: “the lower House not having had the opportunity of choosing members,” Martin suggests that a similar obstacle may have prevented the other three colonies from being represented. He states that, “In the Province of North Carolina, the people, at all their public meetings, manifested their high approbation of the proceedings of the inhabitants of the other Provinces; and Lieutenant Governor Tyron, judging from the temper of the people that it would be unsafe and dangerous to allow them the opportunity of expressing their feelings, by allowing a session of the Legislative body, in these days of ferment, on the 25th of October, issued his proclamation to prorogue the General Assembly, which was to have met on the 30th of November, till the 12th of March, assigning as a reason for the step, that there appeared to be no immediate necessity for their meeting at that time.”

In January, 1766, the British Sloop of War Diligence arrived in the Cape Fear, having on board the stamp paper. The Governor issued his proclamation calling on the stamp distributors to apply for it to the Commander of the Sloop. But Colonel John Ashe of New Hanover, and Colonel Waddell of Brunswick embodied the militia of the two counties, and marched at their head to Brunswick, where the Diligence was anchored, and notified the commander that they would resist the landing of the stamp paper. A party was left to watch the movements of the ship, while their comrades seized a boat belonging to the ship, and ascended the river to Wilmington, where the Governor resided, for the time. They placed the boat on a cart and marched with it through the streets, amid the plaudits of the people. The next day, Colonel Ashe, with a crowd of the people, called on the Governor, and demanded to see the Stamp Master, James Houston, who it seems, had taken refuge with His Excellency. The Governor at first declared his purpose to resist the demand, but was induced to yield by a threat that his house would be burned over his head. Houston then came out, and accompanied Colonel Ashe and the citizens to the market, where he took a solemn oath not to attempt the execution of his office. Whereupon the people gave him three cheers, and conducted him back to the Governor's quarters. This statement is condensed from Martin, who has given a fuller account of the resistance of the Colonies to the Stamp Act, than even Mr. Bancroft, and other historians of the United States.

The Whigs of North Carolina, owing to peculiar circumstances, had to confront formidable bodies of tories at home, where there was less glory, or at least, less reputation to be achieved, than in the struggle with the foreign foe. These internecine conflicts, though fierce and bloody, and calling forth physical courage and military conduct of a high order, were not of a character to place their leaders in the line of promotion in the Continental service.

The existence of Toryism in North Carolina called forth all the more courage and firmness on the part of her lovers of liberty. This local,





defection was the result of a combination of circumstances which have never been fully appreciated beyond the limits of the State.

The Scotch Highlanders who came to North Carolina about the middle of the eighteenth century, would, under other circumstances, have been an excellent class of immigrants. They were good people. But they had rebelled against George II, in favor of Charles Edward, a descendant of their ancient kings of the House of Stuart. These adherents of the Stuarts constituted or formed a part of the Tory party of Great Britain; and the Highlanders were, therefore, Tories by inheritance; that is to say, they belonged to the party which believed in the divine right of kings. They had been defeated at the battle of Culloden, and their last hope of a restoration of the Stuarts was gone. The leaders were hanged, and their followers were allowed to emigrate to America, after taking the oath of allegiance. While these North Carolina Highlanders, therefore cannot be supposed to have felt an ardent love for the British Government, they were still further removed in sentiment from that form of Whigism in America, which had armed itself for the establishment of a Republic. They were at the same time suffering the terrible consequences of an unsuccessful rebellion against an established government; and having renewed their allegiance to it, nothing was more natural than that they should shun, and even resist, a second rebellion. Under these circumstances the Royal Governor Martin, authorized Donald McDonald, their recognized head, to raise a brigade. He did so; but was soon defeated and made a prisoner, together with Allan McDonald, the husband of the celebrated Flora McIvor. The leaders were exchanged, and returned to Scotland.

The yeomanry of the upper countries had for years chafed under the illegal exactions of the county officers. The Clerks of Courts demanded two to six times the amount of the lawful fees for registering deeds and wills; for issuing marriage licences and all legal processes. The Sheriffs exacted double and treble the amount of the taxes. The people protested, but to no purpose. At length an indictment was found against the Clerk of the Orange County Circuit Court. He was convicted, and was fined by the Judges—a sixpence. This conduct of the Court in conniving at the fraudulent extortion of the Clerks, rendered the people desperate, and provoked them to take up arms in defence of their violated rights. No fair-minded man who reads the history of these events will hesitate to say that these people were subjected to greater injustice than was imposed by the Crown and Parliament on the American Colonies. They took the name of Regulators, and organized rude military companies, which were very poorly armed and equipped. They were poor, and for the most part ignorant; and without arms or military training, they were in no plight to cope with the forces under Governor Tyron. They were ingloriously defeated at Alamance, in May, 1771; and like the defeated Highlanders at Culloden, they were required — such as were not hanged — to take an oath of allegiance. Governor Tyron was a man of the world, unscrupulous, but polished in manners. His wife, and her sister Miss Esther Wake, were ladies of rare beauty and accomplishments. The gentry in all the eastern counties were completely led captive by the fascinations of the Provincial Court. In those days, the lawyers and wealthier classes exercised far more control over the people than they have done in later years. As illustrative of this statement it may be mentioned that Tryon, by these social influences, was able to carry through the Assembly a measure which was regarded at the time as one of startling extravagance. This was an appropriation of fifteen thousand pounds for the erection of a Governor's palace. The house was built at New Berne, and was, no doubt, one of the finest mansions in America, in its day. It added considerably to the burden of taxes, and to the irritation of the people.





It was in like manner, by social blandishments that Tryon was able to rally around him the gentry of the lowlands, when he marched into the up-country to the suppression of the revolt of the Regulators. These gentlemen, three and four years later, became the staunchest of Whigs, and were not a whit behind the Adamses and Hancock, of Massachusetts, or of Henry and Jefferson of Virginia, in their early and firm support of the rights of the Colonies. But the active part taken by these men in the suppression of the revolt of the Regulators, tended strongly to alienate the latter from the cause of the country in 1775, and the years following.

This antipathy of the Regulators to the leading Whigs; the suffering they had undergone, as a result of unsuccessful revolt, together with the oath they had so recently taken to be faithful to the Crown, made it an easy matter for Tryon's successor, Josiah Martin, to fix them in their allegiance. He visited their region of country, redressed their grievances, pardoned such as were still amenable to trial or punishment, and gave them his confidence by appointing their leading men to office. Martin, in all these respects showed great good sense and sagacity. But he led a forlorn hope; and was compelled in April, 1775, to abandon the seat of government at New Berne, and fly for safety to Fort Johnston, on the banks of the Cape Fear. In July, feeling insecure in the Fort, he took refuge on board the British Sloop of War, Cruiser, and from this safe retreat he fulminated his Proclamation, and issued his orders to his Tory adherents; but never again could he set foot on North Carolina soil, as Governor of the State.

The knavish conduct of the county officers in extorting illegal fees and taxes, which the Regulators resisted to the best of their ability, belongs to the class of occurrences in the history of the Province which half-informed scribblers have, for a century and more, harped upon as affording evidence of the lawless character of the people.

In Virginia, the old aristocratic families, who gave tone to public sentiment, were strongly biased, by the force of habit, education, and attachment to the Mother Country, to the Church of England. They were not a particularly religious class of people; nor were they deeply learned or interested in theological controversy. But the religion of the Church was that of the Monarch, and of the aristocracy, and therefore, they argued, it must be the true church. They had sufficient influence with the people to establish it, and maintain it at the public expense. But there was a large and growing element of dissent, which was destined under the lead of Jefferson, to overthrow the establishment and to place all denominations on an equality before the law. A large proportion of the wealthy and well-to-do classes who emigrated to North Carolina from Virginia, were attached to the Church; and, backed, at first, by the Lords Proprictors, and afterwards by the King's Government, they succeeded in establishing the Church as the Religion of the Province, accompanied by the imposition of a tax for its support. The Province was divided into Parishes, and glebe lands were set apart, out of the public domains, with the same end in view. At the same time all other forms of religion were tolerated without the slightest restraint. The provision of law for the support of the clergy, and for other church purposes, was wholly inadequate, and the payment of taxes for that purpose was evaded as much as possible. The odium which attached to the establishment from a sense of the injustice of compelling Dissenters to pay taxes for its support, was a fatal obstacle to its usefulness. The Proprietors might without offense to the people, have endowed the Church out of their more than princely domains, with lands, which, in the course of time, would have made it wealthy; but the imposition of taxes for the support of the clergy was a fatal mistake which deprived it of the love and veneration of the people, which its unrivaled





liturgy is so well calculated to inspire. At the outbreak of the Revolution there were not many clergymen in the Colony, and scarcely one of these remained with their flocks, to share in their fortunes, when the shock of revolution and war came.

The failure of the Church to take root in the Colony, owing to the persistent efforts that were made to force it upon the people, was sufficient reason, with British Tory writers of those times (and is sufficient reason still, with an American writer who wishes to calumniate the State) for the declaration. “Nor does the soul appear to be better cared for than the body, for it was not until 1703 that the first clergyman was settled in the Colony.

The Church of England was established by the Government, without the approval of the people, who were opposed on principle to Church rates, as to all kinds of taxes whatsoever. Owing to this dislike of taxation, most of the people were Dissenters. But no Dissenting Churches flourished in the Colony. There was complete toleration, even for Quakers, because nobody cared a groat for theology, or for religion.” This remark, like the others quoted from the writer, is made with reference to North Carolina, “in the Colonial Period”—that is to say, throughout that period. It has been shown on preceding pages, that the earliest settlements in the colony were made by people who fled from religious persecutions in Virginia. It is never the indifferent and careless, the vile and the vicious, who become the victims of religious persecution—they would rather bend the knee; than brave the storm. On the contrary it is only the sincere and earnest believers—those who are inspired by an unconquerable love of truth and duty—that prefer exile and martyrdom to a recantation or abandonment of their faith. And such, we have seen, was the character of the Quaker and Presbyterian emigrants from Virginia to the Albemarle settlements. They were, after a few years, followed by large numbers who were members or adherents of the Church. The proportion of sincere believers of this class was quite as large as the average in communities; while the Quakers and Presbyterians were eminently religious—else they would not have been exiled by presecution. The first necessity of all was to build cabins to shelter them from the elements, to clear the forests for cultivation, and to enclose them with fences. For they brought horses, cattle and other live stock, which roamed at large, and helped themselves to the bounties supplied by nature, and needed little attention from their owners. The colonists were not in a condition to build stately churches, nor to pay salaries to ministers; and it was, and is, a principle with Quakers, to pay no salaries to their preachers. This fact has been familiar to every man of ordinary intelligence for two centuries. They met at private houses for purposes of worship, or when the weather was favorable, in the stately groves. The Presbyterians whose circumstances were similar, imitated the Quakers in the simplicity of their religious exercises. They were often under the necessity of putting up, for the time, with the ministrations of laymen, or of a minister who had some secular occupation for his support.

The Baptists formed a congregation in Perquimans, as early as 1727. Paul Palmer was the minister. He began with thirty-two members, whose names are given. Joseph Parker succeeded him. A Baptist congregation was founded in Halifax, in 1742. “This, says Mr. Benedict, the historian, “is the Mother Church in all that part of the State, which still abounds with Baptists.” In 1752, the Baptists had sixteen congregations in the Province. In 1765, they had become numerous, and formed the Kehukee Association. “About this time,” says Mr. Benedict, “the separate Baptists had become very numerous, and were rapidly increasing in the upper regions of North Carolina.” This schism, however, was soon afterwards healed, and the two branches of the denomination were cordially united.





Mr. Moore an able historian of the State, mentions a Baptist congregation known as Shiloh, which was organized in Pasquotank County, as early as 1729, and refers to John Comer's Journal of that year, as his authority. Mr. Moore states, also, that “six years later, Joseph Parker, ordained by this church, had established, where Murfreesboro now stands, the church still known as Meherin; that in 1750 a congregation was formed at Sandy Run in Bertie; and about the same time, chapels were in existence at St. John's, and St. Luke's or Buckhorn, in Hertford.

In the year 1736 there was an immigration of Presbyterians into Virginia and North Carolina, from the North of Ireland. Henry E. McCullough, the agent of Lord Granville—himself a large land owner—induced a colony of these people to settle on his estate in Duplin county, in the southeastern part of the Province. From this time forward colonies of Presbyterians came and settled in the Province, from year to year, and became a powerful influence, from their superior education and strong characteristics. From the Virginia border to that of South Carolina, in all the Piedmont region, and as low down as the county of Granville, their settlements were numerous; and in conjunction with the Moravians in Surry, the Quakers in Guilford, and Lutherans, and German Reformed Churches in Rowan, they imported a high moral and religious tone, to society, in all that portion of the Province, accompanied by a love of learning and of liberty. The Presbyterians were strongly planted in Granville and Orange; and whereever they formed a settlement they built a church. These settlements date back to the year 1740.

To the Rev. Mr. Foote, who composed his valuable Sketches of North Carolina from the records of the Presbyteries and congregations, I am indebted for many valuable facts. The Rev. Mr. Caruthers, also, in his Life of the Rev. David Caldwell, and his sketches of the history of the Province and State, has contributed many valuable facts and incidents. Mr. Foote, in this connection, says:

“While the tide of emigration was setting fast and strong into the fertile regions between the Yadkin and Catawba, from the North of Ireland, through Pennsylvania and Virginia, another tide was flowing from the Highlands of Scotland, and landing colonies of Presbyterian people along the Cape Fear river. Authentic records declare that the Scotch had found the sandy plains of Carolina many years previous to the exile and emigration that succeeded the crushing of the hopes of the House of Stuart in the fatal battle of Cullodon in 1746. But in the year following that event, large companies of Highlanders seated themselves in Cumberland County; and in a few years the Gaelic language was heard familiarly in Moore, Anson, Richmond, Robeson, Bladen and Sampson. Among these people and their children, the warm hearted preacher and patriot, James Campbell labored more than a quarter of a century; and with them, that romantic character, Flora McDonald passed a portion of her days.” This lady worshipped at a little church among the sand-hills of Cumberland, called “Barbacue.” It is still a place of public worship, but whether in the same building or not, is not stated.

In the year 1750 the Moravians, or United Brethren purchased 100,000 acres of land from Lord Granville, in Surry County, in sight of the mountains. They began their settlements the next year. There were several of these settlements in the purchase, and each settlement immediately built a house of worship. Their descendants still inhabit that fine district of country, and give tone to society. Like the Quakers, they are an eminently religious people; and like the Quakers, too, they are conscienciously opposed to war and fighting. It is a fact highly honorable to the Province and State of North Carolina, that the scruples of these two classes of Religionists have always been respected; and





men whose consciences forbid the bearing of arms, have ever been excused by the payment of a moderate tax. The ill success of the Church of England has already been explained. But it was not wholly inefficient. Every Parish—and the Province was divided into Parishes—had its lay Reader, who, in the absence of a clergyman, read the services, and a sermon, selected generally from the works of some eminent Englishman, such as Tillotson, South or Barrow. And thus, every heart which remained loyal to the faith of our English ancestors, was nourished and instructed. But the desertion of their posts by the clergy, on account of inadequate salaries, and the open revolt of their parishioners, in 1775, prepared the way for the reception of Methodism, which, at that time, was only a new method of propagating the faith of the Church. Most families which were not distinctively of the Presbyterian, Baptist, Quaker or some other denomination, during and immediately after the Revolution, became attached to the Methodists. There was no interregnum of Religious worship and observance in the State.

There remain two more serious misrepresentations to be noticed, viz: the denial that there were schools or Courts of law in North Carolina, during the era of Provincial dependence. And first, as to schools, the writer says:

“Until just before the war for Independence there was not a single school, good or bad, in the whole Colony. It need not be added that the people were densely ignorant.”

If the people of North Carolina were as ignorant of letters as this historical critic has shown himself to be of his subject, their condition was pitiable indeed.

Dr. John Brickell, an intelligent naturalist, resided in and traveled throughout the settlements in the early part of the eighteenth century, and published, in Dublin, in the year 1737, “The Natural History of North Carolina; with an account of the trade, manners and customs of the Christian and Indian inhabitants.” This intelligent writer says:

“The Religion by law established is the Protestant, as it is professed in England; and though they seldom have orthodox clergyman, (he means those of the Church) among them, yet there are not only glebe lands laid out for that use, commodious to each town, but likewise for building churches. The want of these Protestant Clergy is generally supplied by some schoolmasters, who read the Liturgy, and then a sermon out of Dr. Tilotson, or some good practical divine every Sunday. These are the most numerous and are dispersed through the whole Province.” This gentleman traveled and made his observations in the Province between the years 1730 and 1737, as is shown by the imprint of the book; and it appears from his statement, that at that early day the “schoolmaster was abroad” “through the whole Province.” Next in numerical strength were the Quakers, the Presbyterians, the Baptists and the Catholics, and the author says that the latter, who were scattered over the Province, had a clergyman at Bath-town.

In 1704, Mr. Blair, a Church missionary, and a good man, came to the Colony, and ‘reported that the settlers had built small churches in three precincts, and appointed a lay Reader in each, who were supplied by him with sermons. These lay-Readers were schoolmasters, as appears from the specific statement of Dr. Brickell; and there is additional incidental evidence of the fact. The lay-Readers were to be supported, and to employ them as teachers of schools was the natural resource. But there is other positive evidence of the fact.

Dr. Hawks gives an account of some small subscriptions made by the wealthy clergy and nobility for the propogation and support of the Gospel in America, from which it would appear that those well-to-do Christians of the father-land had an idea that a very little money would diffuse a great deal of Gospel truth; or that a very little of the truth would be sufficient for the Colonies. But the King. (William III,) we are told, did better. “On the report of Dr. Bray,





a missionary, Bishop Compton went to the King, as he had done before, and obtained from him a bounty of £20 to every minister or schoolmaster, that would go over to America.”

The Rev. William Gordon, an intelligent English clergyman, who came as a missionary to North Carolina in the year 1708, and who was a man of character and piety, after returning home, wrote a long letter to the Secretary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, in regard to the Colony. It bears date May 13, 1709. In this letter he incidentally alludes to the fact that the Quakers in Pasquotank were sending their children to the school of a lay Reader of the Church, named Griffin. The same clergyman established a church at the head of Albemarle Sound, in the settlement which afterward became the town of Edenton, and introduced a schoolmaster, with school books. He states that there were no Quakers in that precinct; (Chowan) and that the people were extremely ignorant and poor. Yet Edenton, long before the Revolution, became the centre and the abode of the wealthy and refined. The reader of the life of Judge Iredell, of the United States Supreme Court, by McRee, is charmed by the picture presented of a polished society of well-bred and educated people in that secluded little nook of the Province of North Carolina.

At the session of the Assembly which met at Wilmington, November 20, 1759, says Martin:

“An aid was granted to the King for the subsistence of the troops and militia now in pay of the Province; it was directed to be paid out of the fund heretofore appropriated for the purchase of glebes and the establishment of schools, the King not having signified his pleasure on that appropriation.”

As a rule the Kings of England had to be bribed into acquiescence in any measure proposed in behalf of the Colonists, however essential to their welfare, by the grant of money to which was no doubt dropped out or omitted, as himself or his favorites. The foregoing is a specimen of this system of government. I fail to find in the Colonial statutes the Act referred to, it never became a law. But Martin published one or more editions of the laws, and there can be no question that the Assembly, about the middle of the last century, passed an Act for the support of Common schools—a measure of benificence, which was frustrated by the selfish stupidity of George II.

The subsequent Act of the Assembly for diverting the school fund from its original purpose, in order to defend the Colonies against the combined attacks of the French and Indians, was justifiable; but the withholding the royal assent, before the emergency arose, was simply in keeping with the heartless policy, with reference to the Colonies, which governed in the British Cabinet.

In 1764, “An Act was passed for the erection of a schoolhouse, the Academy in the town of New Berne, which,” says Martin, “is the first effectual Act for the encouragement of literature.” Why this was the first, we have already explained. In 1767, the Academy was incorporated, and about the same time a charter was given to the Edenton Academy. Careless writers have misunderstood these remarks of Martin, with reference to these Charters, as implying that they were the first schools ever established in the Province. The pretentious Harper's Magazine Critic belongs to this class of superficial readers and writers.

The condition of these Charters was, that the schools were to be taught by members of the established Church. And it was for lack of this restriction that the Royal authority was withheld from the Charter of Queen's Museum, at Charlotte, which was to be under the control of the Presbyterians. At the next session of the Assembly, 1771, the Charter was modified, in the hope of securing the Royal favor, but without success. But as there is no royal road to science, so also, the classics and sciences may be taught





in institutions from which the Royal assent is withheld—and there were many such in North Carolina, long before the Revolution.

The Rev. Mr. Foote, whose sketches of North Carolina have been quoted in preceding pages, says “Almost invariably, as soon as a neighborhood was settled (by Presbyterians,) preparations were made for the preaching of the Gospel by a regular stated pastor; and wherever a pastor was located, in that congregation was a classical school—as in Sugar Creek, Poplar Tent, Centre, Bethany, Buffalo, Thyatira, Grove, Wilmington and the churches occupied by Patillo in Orange and Granville.” The Presbyterian settlements commenced in 1738; and although each settlement did not, at first, have a minister, and a classical school, there can be no question that they had schools in which the children were taught to read and write.

The history of the Moravian settlements at Wachovia, or Salem, shows that they founded churches and schools immediately on their arrival; or as soon as they had provided humble dwellings for themselves and their children. On their hundred thousand acre purchase they formed several settlements, each of which had a place of worship. Salem is the centre; and now for nearly eighty years it has had one of the largest and finest female schools in America, in which, during that long period, thousands of young ladies have been educated, who have gone thither from every State of the South, and not a few from the North and West.

In the eastern and middle counties the common schools were taught, as has been shown, by the lay readers of the Church, and by others; while the most wealthy classes sent their sons to William and Mary in Virginia, to Princeton, to New England, and even to Old England, for higher education.

The libel which the writer attempts to attribute to Mr. Bancroft, has been exposed, and need not be repeated. He follows up that statement with another, however, which requires notice. He says:

“The Courts, such as they were, sat often in taverns, where the Judge might sharpen his wits with bad whiskey; while their decisions were not recorded, but were simply shouted by the crier from the Inn door, or at the nearest market place.”

Of all the statements of the writer, the above shows the greatest degree of ignorance; for it is incredible that a sane man who has read the history of the Colony, would deliberately make assertions which are contradicted on almost every page of our annals. A large portion of Martin's history of the Province is devoted to an exposition of the court systems. But to begin at the beginning.—Dr. Hawks, in his history of the early colonization of the Province, which he brings down to the year 1730, has a lengthy chapter entitled “The Law and its Administration.” He prefaces this chapter, as is his method, with his authorities; and these consist of extracts from the Records of the Courts. The first extracts from the Records of the “General Court,” refutes two of the statements above. It is dated 1695, and is an order of the Court to the Marshal to take into custody Stephen Manwaring, an attorney, “to answer for his contemptuous and insolent behavior before the Court.”

Then follows an order debarring him; and another, allowing him till the next term to answer; and finally, in 1697, was ordered “that the said Stephen Manwaring shall not, from henceforth, be permitted to plead as an Attorney in any Court of Record in this Government.”

The next extract bears date the same year, 1695, and is of the same character. Two gentlemen of the bar were debarred for contempt. One of them, Henderson Walker, Esq., afterward made a distinguished figure in the history of the Colony; and four years after this contempt of Court, he became its Governor.

In 1697 we have the record of a “Summary proceeding for a false accusation.” In 1714, the “Proceedings on an Information against a





militia-man;” and in 1722, an “Abatement of suit by reason of the plaintiff's outlawry.” Next follows the whole proceedings in the General Court, on a writ of error. This was in the year 1723. The introductory lines in this proceeding will show that the forms of law, brought from England, were substantially observed. It begins as follows:

“John Gray of Bertie precinct, gentleman, comes to prosecute his appeal from certain proceedings had against him, at the Precinct Court of Bertie, on Tuesday, the 14th day of May, Anno Domini, 1723, at the suit of John Cotton, Esq.

“And the said John Gray, by Edward Moseley, his attorney, brings into court here, a copy of the Record and proceedings of said Court, in these words,” &c.

This precinct or county of Bertie, was the youngest of the settlements, and it had just been given corporate authority. This may have been the first court—and it was certainly among the earliest. Yet we see that it was a Court of Record, and thus brands as a calumny the statement referred to in Harpers Magazine. It is a part of the Record that the Court was held at the house of James Howard at Akotsky. The date was Tuesday, May 14, 1723. Bertie is just across the Chowan river from Edenton, the principal town of the Province; and the writ of Error seems to have been sued out on the day the judgment was rendered.

Dr. Hawks gives the writ of arrest of John Gray, and his declaration, signed by John Henneman, his Attorney, “pro pl'ff.” The suit was an action of detimce for a patent, for “six hundred and forty acres of ground.” The Declaration is endorsed, “I do not detain the patent.—John Gray.” Next follows a formal summons for George Wynn as a witness; then the statement of the issues joined, the plea of non-detinet, the impannelling of the jury, and their verdict for the plaintiff. All this in the lowest court of the Province, held by three or more Justices of the Peace, in the youngest county in the Province, in the year 1723. Mr. Mosely, afterwards distinguished in the history of the Province, was the attorney for the plaintiff in error. He recites the foregoing facts, and excepts to them in the usual form and assigns four reasons why the court below manitestly erred.

The General Court reversed and annulled the verdict, and ordered that Cotton pay the costs. Dr. Hawks, who was a lawyer before he became a clergyman, remarks on these proceedings as follows:

“We have presented the whole Record of the General Court in this case, that the reader might see the forms of writ and subpoena in use as set forth in the Record from the Precinct Court. It furnishes, also, incidentally, evidence that the practice of the day seems to have been in the Precinct Court, to endorse the pleas on the declaration. It illustrates also, the formality with which the minutes of proceedings were kept in the General Court. There are numerous other cases to be found, more fully even, than this, and where the errors assigned involved some interesting and really doubtful points of law; but we selected this, as being one of the shortest, and yet sufficient for all purposes of illustration.”

Dr. Hawks fills sixteen pages with extracts from “the Records of the General Court of Oyer and Terminer,” beginning in 1697, and ending in 1726. Nothing could have been further from his purpose than to furnish proof that North Carolina had courts of record at that early day: for how could he imagine that any man would make such a display of his ignorance as to dispute the fact? How could he suppose that a pretentious Magazine would commit such a blunder, in an article of historical criticism—and that it would apply the stupid remark to the condition of the Province, during the whole time of colonial dependence? Yet that is the predicament in which Harper's Magazine has placed itself.





The first case copied by Dr. Hawks from the Records of the General Court of Oyer and Terminer, is erroneously placed under the date of 1697, when William III, was on the throne. For the writ runs in the name of “our Sovereign Lady, the Queen”—meaning, doubtless, Queen Anne.

It was on an indictment against Susannah Evans, for witchcraft, under an old English statute, as amended in the reign of James I. It was not a colonial statute; yet the courts were required to enforce it. But the result of the trial shows that our ancestors were not abreast with the civilization of that age, as illustrated further north, and it was lucky for Susanah that they were not. The indictment is as follows:

“The Jurors for our Sovereign Lady, the Queen, present upon their oaths, that Susanah Evans of the precinct of Currituck, in the County of Albemarle, in the aforesaid Province, not having the fear of God before her eyes, but being led by the investigation of the Devil, did, on or about the twenty-fifth day of July last past, the body of Deborah Bouthier, being then in the peace of our sovereign lady, the Queen, devilishly and maliciously bewitch, and by assistance of the devil, afflict, with mortal pains, the body of the said Deborah Bouthier, whereby the said Deborah departed this life. And also did diabolically and maliciously bewitch several other of her Majesty's liege subjects, against the peace of our sovereign lady, the Queen, and against the form of the statute in that case made and provided,” &c.

This indictment was laid before the Grand Jury, by the Attorney General; but that body failed to find a true bill, and Susanah was turned loose upon society to work her “devilish arts.” This seems to have been the only case in which a person was brought before the Courts of North Carolina, on a charge of witchcraft, and whether the fact was due to the isolation of the Province, by which it “was in a great measure cut off from the currents of thought and feeling by which the other colonies were swayed, or whether to a more enlightened sense of justice than prevailed in colonies which sent witches to the gallows “by the cart-load,” as Upham informs us, was the case in Massachusetts, the reader may determine.

But if North Carolina suffered from its seclusion, a loss of sympathy with the great movement for the suppression of witchcraft, it was from no lack of zeal for religion and good morals, as the Magazine critic would have the world believe. Among the numerous extracts from the Records of the General Court of Oyer and Terminer, made by Dr. Hawks, are the proceedings on the indictment of John Hassel, of Chowan Precinct, in the year 1720, on charge of profanity. Hassel was one of the “advanced thinkers” of that age, who declared publicly on Sunday, March 13, 1718. “That he was never beholden to God Almighty for anything; for that he never had anything from him, but what he worked for;” and much more of the same sort. He plead “not guilty,” but the jury convicted him. His counsel moved in arrest of judgement, that the indictment was not brought within six months after the words were spoken; nor was it prosecuted within ten days, “according to the form and effect of an act for observing the Lord's Day.” The court overruled the motion, and ordered that the culprit should receive “thirty-nine lashes on his bare back,” and give security “in the sum of fifty pounds for his good behavior for a year and a day.”

Here is incidental proof that these colonists, who are represented as devoid of law and religion, and of learning, had laws against profanity, and requiring the observance of the Lord's Day, as early as 1718; and that these laws were enforced against any “lawless and vile fellows” who might come into the Province, and offend against them. But our ancestors failed in the matter of hanging witches, and selling Quakers, and are voted ignorant and irreligious.

The proceedings on an indictment for “forcible





entry and trespass,” are given by Hawks, under date of 1729. And of the same date there is the written refusal of the Governor to sign a death warrant on account of informalities in the trial.

Numerous specimens are given of the sentences of the Court for theft, and similar offences, in which the lash was generally brought into requisition.

Some pages are devoted to the Records of the Chancery Court, during the early period of colonial history, prior to 1730; but the foregoing must suffice.

It is probable that the assailant of the good name of the State may have deduced many of his conclusions from the following remark of the elder Josiah Quincey, which he recorded in his Memoir. That gentleman passed through eastern North Carolina in the Spring of 1773, and was greatly pleased with the character and spirit of the people, all along his route. He was especially pleased with the gentlemen he met at Wilmington, where he spent some days. He mentions with honor several whose names have come down to us. Passing on further north, he states, under date of April 5th, that he “breakfasted with Colonel Buncombe[in Tyrrell County] who waited upon me to Edenton Sound, and gave me letters to his friends there. Spent this and the next day in crossing Albemarle Sound, and in dining and conversing in company with the most celebrated lawyers of Edenton.” [Among these lawyers were, doubtless, Samuel Johnston, who, a few years later was chosen to the office of President of the Continental Congress, which he declined; but became Governor of the State, and a United states Senator. Mr. Quincey more than likely met, also, James Iredell, who afterwards became a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.] Mr. Quincey continues: “From them I learned that Dr. Samuel Cooper of Boston, was generally (they said universally) esteemed the author of “Leonidas,” who, together with “Mucius Scaevola,” was burnt in effigy under the gallows, by the common hangman.” And here follows the misleading remark of Mr. Quincey, which a person, entirely ignorant of the history, and of most other things, might be excused for taking as conclusive proof that North Carolina, prior to the Revolution, never had any laws or courts, although she possessed “celebrated lawyers.” Mr. Quincey says: “There being no courts of any kind in this Province, and no laws in force by which any courts could be held, I found little inclination or incitement to stay long in Edenton, though a pleasant town.”

This statement was literally true at that day and date; but the circumstances which brought about the peculiar state of things, being well understood throughout the colonies, Mr. Quincey did not stop to explain them. They constituted one of the most serious grievances against which the people of the Province had long had reason to complain of the Crown and Government of Great Britain. The explanation is as follows: For more than twenty years a struggle had been going on between the Assembly on the one side and the Governor and Council, appointed by and impelled by the Sovereign, on the other, in regard to the constitution of the courts, Superior and Inferior.

The Crown insisted on the appointment and removal of the Judges, at pleasure, and to import them from Great Britain, while the Assembly was required to provide them fixed and liberal salaries.

The Assembly resisted this unjust pretension, and insisted that lawyers resident in the Colony should alone be appointed to Judgeships over them; that their tenure of office should be permanent, and that their salaries should depend upon the free offering of the Assembly from year to year.

This controversy dated back to the middle of the century. An act of the Assembly of 1754, for the regulation or reorganization of the courts had never received the royal sanction, and at





length, after it had been in force for several years, it was annulled, or vetoed. In 1760 a new court act was adopted, which provided, among other things, that no person should be appointed a Justice of the Superior Court, unless he had been regularly called to the degree of an outer barrister in some of the English Inns of Court; unless he were of five years standing, and had practiced law in the principle Courts of Judicature of the Province. The act also required that the commissions of the Judges should run during good behavior.

The Governor, Dobbs, held that the clause defining the qualifications of the Judges, was an unconstitutional restraint on the King's prerogative, almost precludeing the appointment of any one from England; and that the clause defining the tenure of the Judges was at variance with the principle of keeping all great colonial officers under a strict subordination to, and dependence on the Crown.

The Assembly plead earnestly with the Governor, alleging the necessity for courts of Justice and the sacredness of the right they contended for. They were, indeed, fighting over again the parliamentary battles of Hampden and Pym, for regulated liberty; and they fought them with a courage, an intelligence, and a dignity worthy of the cause. They were fighting just such battles as Massachusetts had fought throughout her whole history, and which constitute her chiefest glory.

As illustrative of the Crown officials in the Province, and as throwing further light upon the causes which provoked the Regulation movement, I will be excused for presenting more fuly, the nature of this controversy between the people and their imported rulers.

Of the new court system, which was introduced and passed in the Assembly which met at Wilmington, November 20, 1759, Martin says that it provided for the establishment of a court of king's bench and common pleas. It forbade the Chief Justice to receive any part of the fees of the clerks, which seems to have been an unauthorized practice of that eminent person—or rather, of one or more persons who had held the office. The Council, which was appointed by the Crown, would not consent to the passage of the bill until this prohibition was expunged, which that body held to be derogatory of the dignity of the Chief Justice. The Assembly replied that “the practice which had hitherto prevailed of the Chief Justice exacting from the Clerks a considerable proportion of their legal fees, had been one cause of their being guilty of great extortions, whereby the Superior Courts had become scenes of great oppression, and the conduct of the Chief Justice and Clerks, a subject of universal complaint, they admitted that the late Chief Justice, Peter Henly (whose death was lamented by all who wished to see the hand of Government strengthend, the laws duly executed and justice impartially administered) from a pious sense of the obligations of his oath, had conformed to the act of 1748, for regulating officers fees, but they thought themselves bound in duty to their constituents to provide against the pernicious effects of a contrary conduct.”

On this and other grounds of disagreements the two Houses did not come to terms, and the bill failed. At the next session the Assembly passed a court bill not materially different from that of 1759. It was sent up accompanied by an address, in which its importance to the welfare of the Province was urged.

But the Governor, who was very anxious to have an aid bill passed, in compliance with a demand by the Crown, for the prosecution of the war against the French and Indians, temperized while urging the paramount duty of passing that measure. The Assembly prepared an address or petition to the King, in which the grievances of the Colony were strongly set forth, and the great importance of the “court law” was urged.

In the same address, serious complaints were made against the Governor, Dobbs, who, it was





charged had appointed corrupt and incompetent men to office.

No agreement was reached and the Superior Court bill was rejected.

An act, however, was passed, for establishing county courts, accompanied by a provision for the support of the clergy; and this was sanctioned.

The Governor then prorogued the Assembly, from the 23d to the 26th of May; when he again called on that body to pass a Superior Court bill, and grant an aid to the King. These measures were accordingly adopted; and the Governor gave his sanction to the “Court law” on the condition that if the King did not confirm it within two years from the 10th of November following, it was to be null and void.

In December, 1761, the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, laid the Court laws, passed in May of the preceding year, before the King and Council, asking the royal disallowance and repeal; and accordingly the act was annulled. The Governor was severely censured for allowing it to go into operation before it received the royal sanction.

In 1762, a Superior Court law, temporary in its character, was agreed upon by the two Houses, and was permitted to go into operation. The Assembly still maintained its position of with-holding permanent salaries from the Judges. In 1764, the Act was renewed, or extended; and in 1767, a new Act was passed, and limited to five years duration. The County Court law was also renewed, and continued for the same period. These laws would therefore expire in 1772—probably at the close of that year; and hence it was that Mr. Quincey, in February, 1773, was correct in saying, that there were “no Courts of any kind in the Province, and no laws in force by which they could be held.” The people of all the Colonies were aware of this state of things and the reason for it, and hence he deemed it unnecessary to explain them. A man of ordinary intelligence, and especially one who assumes the office of historical critic—even at a distance of a century—should have, at least surmised as much.

The remark quoted from Mr. Bancroft, on a preceding page, that whoever doubts the capacity of man for self-government, should study the early history of North Carolina, was made with reference to the people of the Albemarle settlement during the Proprietary Government; but its truth receives additional, and even fuller, illustration, in the subsequent career of the Colonists, when they had spread over a territory as large as the Mother Country, and laid the foundations of a great State. No true man can read that history without admiring the courage, and the unconquerable firmness, exhibited under the most trying circumstances with which they vindicated their rights as men. The whole history of the Province, from 1663 to 1776, was a struggle of the people against arbitrary power and corrupt administrative officers; and people of the present day who imagine that Colonial dependence in the 17th and 18th centuries was an easy yoke to bear, only show their ignorance of the history of that period.






[Illustration:


vignette of Ben Franklin]





EARLY GERMAN SETTLERS IN EASTERN CABARRUS COUNTY.
An Address of Gen. Rufus Barringer, delivered at the Lutheran Commemoration in Concord,
N. C., November 10th, 1883.*

From a variety of causes, so far as I can learn, not a record exists exactly fixing the date of the first German settlement in this section of North Carolina, nor has a single pen told the story of the wanderings of our German fathers nor the part they bore in our early wars.

Less than five generations have passed away since these German fathers first struck the banks of the Cold Water and Dutch Buffalo Creeks. Yet who, in this large assembly can tell when, whence, why, and how these hardy pioneers came? If direct from Europe, what part? If from or through Pennsylvania, what County? What routes did they travel? When and where was the first settlement made? And especially what were their peculiar characteristics? Did they have any distinct religious creed? Any known political polity? How did they bear themselves in the numerous Indian and other early wars? Especially in the great revolutionary struggle for freedom and independence, what troops did they furnish? What sufferings and losses did they endure, and what sacrifices did they make for the cause? Who were Whigs and who Tories?

All interesting questions; the very doubt and confusion in which they are shrouded greatly embarrasses one. I shall, therefore, rather seek to excite interest and enquiry into the subject before us than undertake to decide or debate disputed issues. If I should chance to fall into errors of any kind, I will be only too glad to be fully and promptly corrected. My great aim is historic truth.

Before proceeding to the main enquiries, it is proper to disabuse the popular mind of certain prejudices in regard to the so-called Dutch or Germans, generally, of this country and more particularly as regards the religious faith and fighting, or rather non-resisting tenets, of certain Teutonie sects amongst us.

It is true that many of the earlier Dutch and German colonists were non-armbearing sectarians, such as the Mennonites in Pennsylvania, the Moravians here in North Carolina, and the Saltzbergers in Georgia. But there were none amongst our Germans. From the days of Braddock's defeat and the advent of Maj. George Washington, down to the last battle under Gen. Robert E. Lee, our Dutch have proved a most pugnacious set.

Then, again, the first German settlers are constantly confounded with Hessians, who fought against us, and numbers of whom, after the revolution, found an asylum in this country, and were not unwelcome.

[note]



The facts are these: The Hessian contingents of George III came from a region, and were raised at a time, when the bulk of the common people, the world over, were little better than beasts of burden for their rulers. The Swiss Guards were not the only mercenaries. They, too, came from the only Republic of Europe. But these Hessians happened to be mostly Protestants. The marvelous light of Luther's teachings had struck deep into even their dark minds. General Washington, with that tact and wisdom peculiarly his own, readily saw this, and ventured to turn it to account. He accordingly managed, when any of these Hessian soldiers were captured, to send them off into the interior of the country, and quarter them upon the soundest German settlements. In this way many of them were very naturally left in America. Or if exchanged, they had but to take the chances of war, to release them from their military oaths and obligations. This happened, notably, at the siege and surrender of Savannah, and under the articles of Peace 1782, when hundreds of these Protestant Hessians chose to remain in this land of liberty, and enjoy the untold blessings they were surprised to find here. They very sensibly sought their German countrymen, who knew the facts of their case, and who pitied their forlorn condition. As a well-known circumstance, they almost universally make good citizens—strikingly faithful to every trust and obligation. Hence they soon intermarried with other classes, and thus it happens that hundreds of those now before me, are the descendants of the once “Hated Hessians.”

But I have lately obtained information quite curious in regard to these Hessian contingents: At the very time that George III. was gathering up his foreign levies, to help to conquer us, Silas Deane, the American Commissioner in Germany, was offered large numbers of the same people to fight for us; and only an accident and a scarcity of money defeated the scheme.*

Another class of German immigrants who entered largely into our population of foreign descent, and who are commonly thought to have cast a stain on the name of freedom, were the so-called Redemptioners—a term now well high obsolete in popular speech—but once indicating a body of immigrants, who took an eventful part in the development of this New World. The term was first used in connection with white indentured apprentices. It was afterwards applied to a large class of very poor emigrants, who could not pay their passage-money to America in cash down; but who were willing to enter into contracts of limited service, on their arrival here, in order to re-imburse the funds advanced for that purpose.

Still again, it was an artful scheme often resorted to, by the down-trodden of Europe, to escape the thraldom of feudal bondage.

Some of our first German settlers no doubt belonged to all of these three different classes of redemptioners. A few of the most prominent pioneers certainly came in the way last indicated.

The story of the wrongs, the sufferings, the trials and troubles of these humble heroes, is so full of interest and instruction, nay of sublime courage and christian fortitude, that I pause to explain it. The facts, too, shed a reflected light on the mooted and somewhat mysterious question of where these first adventurous Germans came from, and of their national characteristics.

In one of the quiet out-lying districts of Würtemburg, the traveller now sees standing a plain stone pyramid, erected by the peasants of Germany in 1789, as a monument to Prince Charles Frederick of that Duchy, for his voluntary

[note]



abolition of serfdom in that year. And its simple history is this:

The thunder of Luther's fire struck deep and fast into the hearts of the peasantry class, as you have heard here to-day. This resulted in all sorts of insurrectionary outbreaks, which had to be put down by force. This stayed somewhat the progress of the reformation and grieved Luther. But the mighty work went on and soon the minds and consciences of men became comparatively free. And yet it was a long time before the light of political truth reached the prerogatives of power and property. At that time very few, if any, of the peasant class, as such, could hold real estate in Central Europe. On the contrary, they themselves were often bought and sold with the land they worked, and had to serve their landlords a certain number of days each week, the year round, and all through life. The Protestant peasants, naturally enough, became restive under such hard and cruel restraints and restrictions. And they ere long sought in every possible way to avoid and escape them. This was next to impossible to do, and still remain in the country. But to flee their homes was also extremely hazardous. The law of expatriation was not then fully recognized, and all sorts of treaty stipulations and alliances provided for their recapture, return to slavery, and, usually, a barbarous beating besides. But go they would, and their safest course was stealth, under this scheme of indentured apprenticeships. In this way, the young men could gradually remove themselves from one State or province to another, and little noticed, reach a seaport; and so escape to America or some other foreign country where life, liberty, limb and land were somewhat free. To us of this enlightened age and free republican government, it is simply incredible that such a state of things should have existed in any Christian country, especially in the English colonies, less than one hundred and fifty years ago. But so it was. White men not only indentured themselves as apprentices, but gladly sold their persons into long but limited slavery, for the blessed privilege, or chance of escaping feudal serfdom. But listen while I read this advertisement from an old Philadelphia newspaper, The American Mercury, of date November 28, 1728:

“Just arrived from London, in the ship Borden, William Harbert, commander, a parcel of young likely Men Servants, consisting of Husbandmen, Joyners, Shoemakers, Weavers, Smiths, Brickmakers, Bricklayers, Sawyers, Tailors, Staymakers, Butchers, Chairmakers, and several other trades, and are to be sold very reasonable, either for ready money, wheat, bread or flour, by Edward Horne, Philadelphia.”

Among the classes thus named were, no doubt, the ancestors of many now high in the Free Citizenship of this great country, and possibly the ancestors of some of those present here to-day.*

After the American revolution, the exedus from Europe under this process was enormous; so much so as almost to depopulate certain German States and countries, notably Würtemberg, where serfdom was so absolute and grinding. Then it was, in 1789, that the reigning Grand Duke, Prince Charles Frederick, rose to the supreme height of voluntarily abolishing all serfdom in his dominions, And

[note]



in return, a grateful Protestant peasantry cheerfully erected this simple monument to his memory. Würtemburg again prospered; population grew and she soon became a kingdom.

In all this may be noticed the marked characteristics of the German mind and temper. According to their light, the German Princes generally had a fatherly love for their people, and the latter, ever reverential and grateful, accepted the great boon conferred by Providence not in a spirit of fanatical pride and resentment, but as a gracious concession and blessing.

And what may seem strange to us, as touching this custom of voluntary slavery, no sense of degradation seems to have attached to it. It simply shows that parties resorting to it, were in dead earnest to reach the goal of freedom, and meant real work and business. As just and proper labor contracts, such indentures were almost invariably carried out in good faith by all parties concerned.

For one, therefore, I rather commend the patient fortitude, the unfaltering faith and courage, and the Christian fidelity, with which certain of the redemptioners worked their way to the fertile fields of the Cold Water and Buffalo Creeks. As the darkest shades often reflect the most beautiful tints; and as the purest gold is usually found in the roughest rock, so the finest characters are always evolved through the severest trials and tribulations. We are the more perfect through suffering. Our Redemptioner fore-fathers had realized in their own persons the inestimable privileges and blessings they had come so far, and at such fearful risks and sacrifices, to secure. The sequel will show that when the day of trial came, and they were called upon to right for their dear-bought benefits, they were equal to every emergency.

The first Germans known to have reached this immediate section, now called the Dutch Side, consisted of three young farmers—all foreigners and probably all three Redemptioners. One certainly was, and he the best known, a man in fact, of rare strength of will, and singular force of character. He was a native of Würtemburg; left there, with the consent of his father, in his 21st year; tarried a while in Hanover; finally sailed from Rotterdam in the ship Phœnix, and landed at Philadelphia Sept. 30th, 1743. He had some education but no money or friends. He left home and country, because he was not allowed to buy or hold real property. His term of service was three years; but he worked so well, and faithfully, that he managed, some way, to make favor with his master, and wiped the whole debt out in one short year. Whether he married his master's daughter, or some other good Pennsylvania girl, it is not certain; but she, too, was poor; and he often told, with much glee that he got with her “just one silver dollar.”

With this wife and two small children, and accompanied by his two countrymen and their little families, the youthful Redemptioner, now free, set out from Pennsylvania, for the rich region of the Yadkin and Catawba—then the aim and end of the adventurous immigrant.

When this trio of enterprising Germans* started on their perilous march, the buffalo, bear and the wolf still roamed our forests. The savage Indian and the frontier French often marked the camping grounds of the lonely immigrant with the blood of slaughtered innocents. They crossed the mountain ridges and the flooded streams by following the old buffalo trail, then known as the “Indian Trading Path.” At last they reached the end of their wanderings, and they safely forded the

[note]



broad and beautiful Yadkin at the “Trading Ford,” the sole memorial amongst us, of this once famous “Indian Trading Path.” But here a new difficulty beset these peaceful fugitives from the land of the “Broad-brimmed Quaker.” The free and tolerant principles of Penn had gathered into his Province, all the odds and ends of civil and religious persecution, the world over. Jarrings and conflicts naturally ensued; notably, among the Scotch-Irish and some of the quaint Mennonites of that State. When our German friends crossed the Yadkin, and began to cast their wistful eyes over the wide plains and spreading prairies of this lovely region, they were surprised to find the Scotch-Irish just ahead of them.

The latter had occasional squatters, here and there, on the choicest spots, especially on its western borders, up and down the Catawba. Our German Pilgrims had seen enough of strife and resolved to “avoid all such.” They accordingly abandoned the “Trading Path,” just east of the present site of Salisbury and turned square to the left and followed the right bank of the Yadkin, down towards the lighter slate soils of that broken region. They were however, not afraid of their Scotch-Irish allies, in the mighty struggle to subdue the wilderness and enter its broad acres. So they gradually turned their steps to the better lands above them, and finally located on the high ground between the present Cold Water and Buffalo creeks. The exact spot was the old Ovenshine place, near the Henry Propst homestead.

How long these people had resided in Pennsylvania does not appear—long enough, however, to have lost somewhat their native German, and picked up, in its stead, that strange but popular gibberish of all tongues, universally known as “Pennsylvania Dutch.” Our immigrants themselves were called Dutch. They recognized the term and proceeded to designate their surroundings accordingly. Their nomenclature, however, was quite limited, and they usually followed nature. Hence we have Big and Little Dutch Buffalo, Big and Little Bear Creek, Big and Little Cold Water, and Jenny Wolf Branch. Above and west of them, was the English or Irish Buffalo, and south was Johnson, now Rocky River.

This would seem to have been a long time ago. Ours was then Bladen, or probably Pee Dee County—a County never legally recognized. But after all, it was only about one hundred and forty years back—as near as I can fix it—1745-6. One hundred and forty years! Only the life-span of two or three of the stout old German fathers. And yet what marked and momentous changes have taken place amongst us, in that eventful period! How the panorama of history has crowded upon us, in one short century and a half! How slowly time has passed; and how utterly the footprints of these wandering fathers have fled from sight and memory! They numbered only three families, and their nearest neighbors, on one side, were sparse settlers, in the present limits of Popular Tent and Coddle Creek, and on the other, the Highland Scotch of the Pee Dee hills. But our wanderers were not long alone.

Soon the news of a goodly land flew back, first to Pennsylvania, and then on to the far off, struggling, toiling, teeming, millions of the war-racked and priest-ridden Fatherland. And now they poured in from all directions, mainly still from and through Pennsylvania, but often through Charleston and occasionally through Wilmington, following the routes along the high ridges dividing the principal rivers. And it was thus, that this particular section, embracing parts of the present Counties of Cabarrus, Rowan and Stanly, came to be so rapidly settled, and almost exclusively by Germans. By the time of the revolution, the





“Dutch side” of old Mecklenburg was its most densely peopled portion.

I here propose to correct a partial error, into which many have fallen (at one time myself,) in regard to the distinctive nationality of these first German settlers. They are often supposed to have come from the central and northern parts of Germany, and sometimes from the low countries of Europe. But I now have ample proof that they came from the upper or Castle Rhine regions—Würtemburg, Baden, Bavaria, and the ancient Palatinate—so mercilessly wasted by that grand ogre of France—miscalled Louis the Great. It was the fiercest and bloodiest of persecutions that then desolated all this part of Southern Germany, and scattered its honest, liberty loving, intelligent, industrious Protestants to every quarter of the globe. And I am able to state from positive knowledge, that the common German names of this section, so numerous amongst us to-day, are all now found in the upper Rhine region, referred to, notably in and around the skirts of the Black Forest and its borders.

Our familiar name of Blackwelder (German, Schwartzwalder) means not black wood, but a Black Forester. So the names of Barnhart, Barrier, Bost, Dry, Misenheimer, Propst, Sides, Bosheimer, Barringer, and hundreds of others are there to-day. No doubt the emigrants, and especially those escaping under the guise of apprenticeships or as indentured servants, often stopped over in the countries through which they passed, working their way along. And it may have served their purpose occasionally, to hail from the Continental dominions of the Georges of England. But this much is certain, very few of them were Dutch proper, or natives of the low countries, or even the level parts of Germany. Our first German settlers, nearly all built their houses on reaching here, on the high grounds, and often on the tops of the hills, after the castle times of their own rugged country. Their removal to the level lands and bottoms was afterwards. But be that as it may, they came; they came to stay; and that they did so, is fully proved by the immense numbers of their descendants here to-day, and the vast regions the “Dutch Side” has peopled elsewhere. They were a hardy, healthful, handy race, self-reliant, self-helpful, and they have made their mark wherever they have struck.

The intellectual and religious qualities of such a people were almost sure to be marked and enduring. Many of them had fought in the battles of Europe; others had left home and country for conscience sake; all had endured toil, suffering and sorrow for the freedom they came so far to find. They learned to live almost entirely within themselves. Their wants were few and simple. Only two things seemed absolute essentials: (1.) In all their wanderings—in shipwreck at sea, and in storm on land; in serfdom and in voluntary slavery; under the iron heel of Power in Europe, and in the boundless freedom of America—they clung to their Luther Bibles. Without any distinctive notions of formal creeds, and profoundly indifferent to the mere forms of religion, they grasped the fundamentals of the Bible as taught by Luther, and so they lived and died. (2.) They tolerated no idlers—no drones in either the Church, the State, or the family. In fact, however, the family was everything. With a proper start in the family, all government was simple and easy. There was an intense regard for all lawful authority. The husband and father felt his responsibility both to God and the powers that be. The wife and mother was, indeed a help-meet, and shared alike the joys and sorrows of the husband. The young all worked, and grew up trained and skilled in every ordinary labor and handicraft. Both sexes were strong and active—morally,





mentally, and physically. The men were manly, and the women matronly. When trials and troubles came, such people knew how to meet them. They had, at last found delightful homes, and tasted the sweet freedom they had so much longed for. And when, therefore, they were summoned to defend those homes and to vindicate the rights and privileges they had secured, no people ever responded more heroically.

I am able to show that these German settlers participated in almost every expedition against the Indians, and that they took a very active part in the forced march of General Rutherford against the Cherokees in 1776. A young German was one of the very few killed in action on that expedition.*

It is not generally known that the settlers of this section were ever disturbed by the French enemy on our distant frontiers. But I have here (holding it up,) a petition in 1756 to Governor Dobbs, from the Rowan and Anson settlers, complaining (among other things) of the dangers that threaten them from the “savage Indians in the interest of their French allies.” Also a curiously carved powder-horn that was worn by Archibald Woodsides of Coddle Creek, in one of the long and hazardous marches against Fort Duquesne. It has on it a good description of “Fort Pitt” and its picturesque surroundings. The history of this singular memorial of our early wars is, that the owner chanced to meet in one of his marches with German soldiers from this settlement, and they persuaded him to return with them.

But I come now and chiefly to speak of the revolutionary services of the German fathers. Here the evidence is full and complete. But, unfortunately, it is only in old musty army rolls, not accessible to the general public; and no one has been found to tell the story of their deeds. But this was then the most populous part of old Mecklenburg; and it was, from first, to last, true, indeed, entirely unanimous in its fidelity to the great cause of freedom and independence.

That the Germans do not figure prominently in the famous meetings at Charlotte, May 20, 1775, is not strange. Their settlement lay mainly in the extreme limits of the old County, with numerous intervening streams, and scarcely any roads. They spoke a different language and nearly all their trade and travel was in other directions—with Salisbury on the north, with Cross-creek (now Fayetteville) on the east, and Cheraw Hills and Camden, South Carolina, to the south—the three last thriving points at the head of navigation, on their respective rivers, then a matter of vast importance. But as a mere truth, the hopes of the German settlement, then centered in one leader, Lt.-Col. John Phifer. He was a Swiss by descent. But all his ties and associations were German. His mother was a Blackwelder and his wife a Barringer. He was an unusually bright and promising man and soldier. The meetings were held at the Phifer Red Hill, three miles west of Concord. He was their delegate to the immortal convention that declared Independence, and his name so appears. But he died early in the struggle, and in his youthful grave at the Red Hill seemed to perish the hopes of his people. But not so, Old and young continued to go forth to swell the ranks of both the regular and irregular forces. I have examined the Muster Rolls and have extracts from them, and they clearly show that in proportion to population the Germans were very largely represented. On the Pension Rolls for Cabarrus County in 1835, of 21 revolutionary soldiers still drawing pensions, 12 were Germans. And old men now present will remember that when the “heroes of 1776” used to parade together at the 20th

[note]



of May and 4th of July celebrations, the “Dutch Side” was always strong. At the last of these parades in 1839, 5 out of 8 of those present were of German blood. The Blackwelder family alone furnished eight tried soldiers to the cause.

The silence, therefore, of the Charlotte meetings, and the absence of co-temporaneous history, as to the Dutch Side, is nothing against it.

There is a story, too, which shows that the Dutch had some other reason for not attempting to make any display in the Queen City. It is, that on some military occasion, a Dutch captain took his company over there, and, giving his commands in most emphatic Pennsylvania Dutch, the Scotch-Irish laughed at him. His company vowed to stand by their Captain, and refused both collectively and individually ever to go back to Charlotte again. In confirmation of this story I have here an old Muster Roll, and sure enough “Martin Fifer” is the Captain! Certain it is, too, that at a very early day the Dutch demanded a new County, and at the first election, after Cabarrus was cut off, Caleb Phifer (the son of Martin) and John Paul Barringer were its highly honored Commoners. So, probably, the creation of this County is also due to the German element.

But there is another aspect of the Revolutionary struggle, decidedly complimentary to the Germans of old Mecklenburg, and adds a new laurel to her crown.

The Dutch Side, from their isolated and remote situation, might have easily stood aloof from the conflict, and so, possibly, have escaped the losses and sufferings I am about to describe. But they chose otherwise; and then, their very location and seclusion exposed them to the fiercest ravages of war.

Remember, then, the surroundings of this German settlement. On its east the Scotch Highlanders of the Cape Fear and Pee Dee country, nearly all Loyalists, enabled the British to extend the royal rule up to the Narrows of the Yadkin. On its south, at Cheraw and Camden, were British posts. North of it, across the Yadkin, Fanning and his infernal crew roamed almost unmolested. While in the Forks of the Yadkin, just above, the able Tory leader, Col. Samuel Bryan, held a well organized regiment of 800 men. And then, on several occasions the British army lay at Charlotte (twice) and at Salisbury (once). Now history shows just what might be expected in such a situation as this. While indeed, no great armies traversed this region, it was greatly exposed because of its remoteness and isolation, to the more frightful depredations of irregular and lawless bands of marauders and other desperadoes, passing to and fro. It is a historical fact, that Col. Bryan marched his whole Tory Regiment of 800 men through the eastern end of this settlement, to Cheraw, S. C., spreading fear and desolation in all directions. It is equally true, that when the British occupied Salisbury, several parties of Tories and Royalists, from the east of Yadkin, sought to join Cornwallis, but were driven back, mainly by Home Militia.

But the one expedition that still lives in the memory of the Dutch Side, and never fails to fire the German blood, even to this day, was that organized by the Fanning men east of the Yadkin; and crossing the river, swept this German settlement in its whole length, up and down the two Dutch Buffalos, and thence on to the British post at Camden. S. C. They robbed hundreds of Whigs, destroyed much property in purest wantonness, and seized and carried off to British prison, under most brutal circumstances, more than twenty leading citizens. In this number was Major James Smith, of the then County of Rowan, (now Davidson,) a regular officer at home, wounded, and Caleb Blackwelder and his son-in-law, Jno. Paul





Barringer, both old men—far past the military age. Smith and several others died in prison of small pox. Blackwelder and Barringer were promised their release provided some member of their families would come in person, and make certain pledges as to their conduct. No male of either family could risk the venture when old Mrs. Blackwelder mounted her horse and went herself to Camden, on the hopeless errand. She failed in her object, and in its stead, was the innocent means, through her clothing, of spreading the small pox all over the country she passed, and far and near among her friends at home. I need not tell this audience, that these terrible events drew the lines, once and for all, between Whig and Tory in the whole Dutch settlement. Up to that time, there had been no division whatever; no man who had ever taken protection, or given the enemy any sort of aid or comfort, could stay on the Dutch side and live. Now two individuals were charged with bad faith or infidelity. One of them, Rufus Johnson, who was no German, simply disappeared. The other, Jacob Agner, was run out of the country and his valuable property—the present House Mill— was confiscated. Of one or two others there were vague suspicions of disloyalty, or mean cringing in the hour of trial; and to this day, their names are mentioned with bated breath.

Such, my friends, is the proud record of our German ancestry.

I am glad of the occasion to pay this just tribute to their noble memory. Especially am I happy to do so, on this day commemorative of the immortal Luther. His fame belongs to all mankind. But in its simple strength and enduring might, it is strikingly reflected by the unpretending life, and elasticity of German character. And we here draw a most instructive and useful lesson. It marks the mysterious workings of an allwise Providence.

These people came here as poor, persecuted, wandering exiles. But in all their wanderings, they were an honest, sober, industrious, faithful, peaceful, law-abiding, God-fearing, God-serving and God-loving people. Against the early Protestant peasantry of Southern Germany scarcely aught has ever been said. Respecting just authority, and rendering proper obedience themselves, they have everywhere and under all circumstances, secured confidence and consideration. Here, in this distant land, and this secluded section, they are able to develope without contact with that effeminate degeneracies of the outside world, or the dangerous tendencies of modern civilization. You see the result in an enduring, expanding, wide-spreading, self-reliant, and ever advancing community. They had, too, their sports and amusements, their holidays and gala-days, their Easter fun and Kris-Kingle frolics; but under all, life had a serious, an intensely earnest aspect. Even their sports and amusements partook rather of skill and labor, than dissipation and debauchery, such as quiltings, spinning matches, corn-shucking, log-rolling, house-raisings and the like; all tending to manly vigor and modest woman-hood. In their outdoor hunts and games we discern the same harmless tendencies. In an old unprinted diary I have before me, kept by a sort of trader and traveller of the revolutionary era, I find the fox and deer skins came mainly from the English and Irish, while the Dutch are death on coons!

In the family, especially, each and all felt the responsibilities resting upon them. Old and young had their assigned spheres and duties Male and female learned some test of skill, art or handiwork. Life was not all one strain at display, nor one round of frivolity and frolic. There was in their family government a wonderful combination of duty, devotion, and discipline, with proper rest and recreation. In a





word, the family with them, combined the State, the Church, and the School. And the training was more in the family than in the school. Again, see the result. They bought but little, and sold much. They made no debts or contracts they did not expect to pay or execute. They scorned to live on the labor or favor of others. And as a consequence, they were a gallant, brave, and public-spirited community. They and their descendants have ever stood to the front in the time of trial and danger. In the war of 1812, in the Mexican war, and in the great Confederate conflict, they rallied to the bugle-blast, in hundreds and thousands. They have not only maintained their ground at home, but they almost peopled the regions round about them, and settled, in turn, whole sections in distant States and Territories. I honestly and firmly believe that much of this success and great prosperity, is eminently due to the sound, civil, religious, and family training of the early fathers; and that, under the providence of God, it has its power and strength in their deep devotion to to the simple Protestant faith, as taught by Luther.

But let it not be supposed, my friends, that I have lost faith in our modern civilization, and that I would live only in the past. On the contrary, I believe implicitly in the progress of human society. There is only one thing I dread: There is too much liberty—too much license and licentiousness. The home, the school, society, the State, and the Church—each and all—seem to me to pander too much—greatly too much—to the false sentimentalism of the day.

Life is all sensation and pretense. Religion, morality, and the simple virtues of truth and honesty are powerfully preached; but their practice is much more doubtful.

Nor would I, by any means, imply that the descendants of the early settlers of the “Dutch Side” have in any way, declined or deteriorated. On the contrary, while Germans are, usually, not pretentious, or ambitious of place or position, these people have always and everywhere held their ground. And as a striking fact, they have ever managed to get their full share of the best land in the country. And I am happy to learn from others, the evidence of your good faith, energy and industry. A distinguished judge, who has often ridden all over the State, pronounces the tillage and thrift of Mt. Pleasant region the best in North Carolina. And a prominent Gentile physician says the Dutch Side is still the best paying people we have. My prayer is, that you may go on in well-doing. Neither individuals or communities can hope to prosper without these virtues. And, withal, may you never cease to cherish the memory of the Fathers, and practice, as they did, the precepts of the pure and lowly Jesus, as preached by the mighty Luther, whose thunders are still shaking principalities, kingdoms and crowns, and subduing commonwealths and continents.





A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF DR. EDWARD WARREN (BEY).

The eminence in his profession attained by Dr. Edward Warren (Bey) and the prominence he has acquired in the two hemispheres, commends the following most interesting sketch to the readers of these Reminiscences of Eminent North Carolinians, we make the following extract from the Medical Journal of North Carolina; it has been enlarged and continued to date of this publication, and is eminently fit to be preserved in this form.

Dr. Edward Warren (Bey) was born in Tyrrell County, North Carolina, on the 22nd of January, 1828, of parents who emigrated from Virginia, and who belonged to two of the oldest and most distinguished families of that State. His father, Dr. Wm. C. Warren, was also a physician of eminence and a man of unusual intelligence and purity of character.

When the subject of this sketch was only four years of age, his father removed him with his family to Edenton, North Carolina, where the son was educated up to his sixteenth year, when he was sent to the Fairfax Institute, near Alexandria, Virginia; and two years afterwards to the University of Virginia. In the latter institution he greatly distinguished himself, having secured honors and diplomas in many of its Academic Schools, and having graduated after a single course in its Medical Department. In 1850 he delivered the valedictory oration before the Jefferson Society, which was then esteemed the honor of the College.

In 1851 he graduated in the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, and whilst pursuing his studies in that city, conceived the idea of injecting a solution of morphia under the skin for the relief of pain, using for the purpose a lancet-puncture, and Anel's syringe. In this mode of medication, he was therefore, four years in advance of the inventor of the hypodermic syringe.

This device was made the subject of a thesis prepared for presentation to the Faculty upon applying for his degree, but one of the Professors, to whom he had confided the idea, so forcibly expressed the opinion that it was both chimerical and dangerous, that the thesis was witheld and another substituted in its place.

Dr. Warren, however, soon after his graduation, found occasion to put his idea into practical operation.

During the years of 1854 and 1855 he studied medicine in Paris, where he formed an intimate friendship with some of the leading medical men of France, and occupied himself by corresponding with The American Journal of Medical Sciences, and other leading American Medical Journals.

Returning to America in the summer of 1855, he settled as a practitioner in Edenton, N. C., where he soon acquired an extended reputation, both as a physician and as a surgeon. In 1856 he delivered the annual address before the State Medical Society, which was most favorably received, and also obtained the “Fiske Fund Prize” for an essay on the “Effects of Pregnancy on the Development of Tuberculosis,” which was subsequently published in book form, and has ever since been regarded as a leading work on the subject.

In 1857 he was elected editor of the Medical Journal of North Carolina; made a member of the Gynæcological Society of Boston; and chosen a delegate from the American Medical Society of Paris to the American Medical Association.

On the 16th of November of the same year, he married Miss Elizabeth Cotten Johnstone, of Edenton, a lady of rare beauty and most lovely character. By referring to Wheeler's History of North Carolina, it will also be seen that the Johnstones are directly descended from





two Royal Governors of the Colony, Gabriel and Saml. Johnstone, who were cousins and the representatives of the Cadet branch of the family of Annandale in the Peerage of Scotland.

In 1860 he was elected Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics in the University of Maryland; first Vice-President of the Convention to revise the Pharmacopœa of the United States; and a member of the Committee on Literature of the American Medical Association. He at once acquired an enviable reputation in the city of Baltimore as a graceful, fluent and able lecturer.

In 1861 he joined his fortunes with those of the South, and was, successively, Chief Surgeon of the Navy of North Carolina: a member of the Board to examine candidates for admission into the Medical Staff of the Confederate Army; Medical Director of the Department of the Cape Fear; Chief Medical Inspector of the Department of Northern Virginia (Gen Lee's Army;) and Surgeon-General of the State of North Carolina.

Two of these positions were conferred upon him on the field of battle as rewards for personal courage and professional work. At the battle of New Berne, although at that time on medical board duty at Goldsborough, Dr. Warren volunteered his services and remained under fire with the wounded, under circumstances of peculiar difficulty and danger. For this he was made Medical Director of the Department of Cape Fear.

Upon the battle-field of Mechanicsville, in 1862, while again acting as volunteer surgeon, he was verbally appointed by Gen. Lee, Medical Director of the Army of Northern Virginia; but knowing that Surgeon Guild, who ranked him, was but a few rods distant, Dr. Warren called the General's attention to the fact, and Surgeon Guild was made Medical Director, and upon his immediate suggestion Dr Warren was retained as Medical Inspector.

By a special act of the Legislature of North Carolina his rank as chief medical officer of the State was raised from that of “Colonel” to that of “Brigadier-General;” for “devoted and efficient services rendered to the sick and wounded.” He was also chosen by the Legislature one of the Trustees of the University of North Carolina.

During the war he wrote a work entitled “Surgery for Field and Hospital,” which passed through two editions. Among many other valuable suggestions which this book contained, was that for the treatment of “retracting flaps and conical stump,” by means of extension with “adhesive strap, with cord and weight”-a procedure which is now very widely adopted, and the origination of which, after much discussion in the journals, both at home and abroad, has been finally conceded to Dr. Warren.

This method was put into practical operation in the hospital of the University of Virginia, as early as August, 1861, whereas Dr. Hodges, of St. Louis, who alone seriously disputed the priority, finally and very courteously acknowledged Dr. Warren's claim, stating that his own first use of the method was in 1863.

Subsequently, in a controversy conducted in the London Lancet, the claims were again settled in Dr. Warren's favor, by the publication of an extract upon the subject taken from the book which had been published during the war.

In the summer of 1865, Dr. Warren returned to Baltimore, ruined in fortune by the results of the war, and expecting to resume his Professorship in the University of Maryland. A refusal to return the chair to Dr. Warren furnished sufficient ground for legal proceedings by mandamus or quo warranto, but in view of the ruined fortunes of the contestants and of the financial and social influence of the Faculty, the suit promised to be a protracted one,





and as the practical benefits to be gained in the event of success were so small, it was concluded not to resort to the Courts but to leave the issue to public opinion, which it was thought fully sustained Dr. Warren.

Then came one of the most brilliant efforts in the life of the subject of our sketch. Under his direction the Washington University Medical School was revived, rising like a phœnix, putting itself at once on a plane with the old University, which in the effort to maintain its lead made fundamental changes in its management and in the personnel of its Faculty.

Dr. Warren filled the chair of Surgery in the Washington College with great brilliancy, and became the idol of the large number of students who resorted annually to the school.

When a law was passed creating a board for the examination and registration of the physicians of the State, he was made a member of it. He was also elected Vice-President of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of Maryland. In 1868 he established The Medical Bulletin—a journal which obtained an extensive circulation.

In 1872 he appeared as principal medical expert for the defense in the celebrated Wharton trial. The circumstances of this trial were full of absorbing interest, it being characterized by great divergence of professional opinion among the physicians and chemists engaged in it.

General Ketchum was an eccentric old bachelor who died in the house of his friend, Mrs. Wharton, a lady of wealth and high social position. He was attended during his short illness by a physician whose line of treatment was somewhat varied, but who, although he did not arrive at a positive diagnosis, for some cause requested that an autopsy should be permitted. A thorough examination was not made of the rachidean and cranial cavities, and some of the abdominal viscera was submitted to an antiquated chemist, who, after a very slovenly analysis, pronounced the presence of antimony, and upon this an indictment was found against Mrs. Wharton. Dr. Warren was then requested, “in the interest of truth and justice,” to examine the medical testimony taken by the grand jury, and he promptly declared that the symptoms described by the attending physicians and nurses were more typical of a certain form of cerebro-spinal meningitis than of antimonial poisoning. Resting upon this, and upon the evidence of the insufficiency of the chemical analysis, the defense went to trial, with the result of a prompt verdict in favor of the accused.

Dr. Warren acquitted himself with great distinction on the witness stand, receiving congratulations and moral support from a host of medical men both at home and abroad; and although he had opposed to him a number of gentlemen of recognized professional ability, it was conceded on all sides that he came off with the advantage, his testimony—which was brilliant in the opportunity for retorts afforded by the cross-examination—losing none of its force from the assaults of the experts for the prosecution. This is fully borne out by letters and telegrams spontaneously sent to Dr. Warren, after the trial, by Dr. Fordyce Barker, of New York, Dr. Stevenson, of London, and many other prominent medical men, and even by the Hon. A. K. Syester, Attorney-General for the State of Maryland, who personally conducted the prosecution of the case. Support, so unsolicited, and from such unbiassed sources, speaks volumes for the acumen and ability of Dr. Warren. Those from the medical men are all uniform in declaring that Gen. Ketchum's symptoms could not have been caused by tartar emetic, but more resembled those of cerebrospinal meningitis; and the letters received from chemists declare that the chemical evidence for the State utterly “broke down.





While the limits of this sketch do not permit the publication of these communications, it seems appropriate to reproduce the following extract from a letter from Professor Fordyee Barker, who is so favorably known for his high personal character and great professional learning and ability:

“In all my long experience I have never met with anything which displayed more thorough research and sounder logical reasoning than the testimony which you have just given in the Wharton-Ketchum case; and I am sure that intelligent, thinking men, both in and out of the profession, will agree with me in this opinion. When I read the evidence given by the medical attendants during the sickness of General Ketchum, I said that it was absurd to ascribe his death to poisoning from Tart: Antimonii. I came to the conclusion, some days before you gave your testimony, that he died of cerebro-spinal meningitis, and expressed that conviction whenever the case was the subject of conversation.”

One incident in this case attracted a good deal of attention and brought many compliments from the daily press: it was a rencountre between the Attorney-General, Mr. Syester, and the witness, and is given here as extracted from the phonographical reports in the New York newspapers:

Attorney-General.—“Where will this lead to, Dr. Warren?”

Doctor Warren.—“It is impossible to tell, as the hypothesis itself is absurd.”

Attorney-General.—“But you medical men ought to know all about these medical matters.”

Doctor Warren.—“We know, at least, as much about these medical matters as you lawyers.”

Attorney-General.—(Springing from his seat, and with great emphasis.) “But you doctors have the advantage of us; you bury your mistakes under the earth.”

Doctor Warren.—“Yes, but you lawyers hang your mistakes in the air.”

This reply “brought down the house” to such an extent that the judges had to adjourn Court for a quarter of an hour so as to give the officers an opportunity to restore order.

In attestation of the impression made upon the Attorney-General, the following letter was written by that gentleman to Dr. Warren upon the eve of his departure for Egypt, a short time after the trial:

From the Attorney-General of the State of Maryland.

State of Maryland,

Office of Attorney-General.

HAGERSTOWN, March 25, 1873.

MY DEAR DOCTOR:—I cannot describe the unfeigned regret I experience in your loss to us all, especially to me; for although I have not seen and been with you as much as I desired—I always looked forward with pleasure to sometime when our engagements would permit a closer acquaintance, and become warmed into a firmer and more fervid friendship. I dare not indulge the hope of hearing from you in your new position, but not many things would prove more agreeable to me. Present my compliments to your wife. That you and she may ever be contented and happy in life, that you may be as prosperous as your great talent and unequalled acquirements so richly deserve, is the earnest hope of

Your humble, but undeviating friend.

A. K. SYESTER.

In 1872, Dr. Warren was chosen Chairman of the Section of Surgery of the American Medical Association, and presented to that body a new “Splint for Fractures of the Clavical,” which attracted much attention, and really is an apparatus of great utility. Whilst it retains the fragments in opposition and gives no inconvenience to the patient, it permits all the normal movements of the forearm. Having retired from the faculty of the Washington University, he then devoted himself to the organization of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, which has finally absorbed the former, and attracts classes as large as those of any school in Baltimore. The institution has wisely retained Dr. Warren's name at the head of the list of Professors, as Emeritus Professor of Surgery.

Having become dissatisfied in Baltimore on account of a severe domestic affliction, he determined to remove elsewhere. His first idea was to procure a professorship in the University of a neighboring city, and with that end in view he presented to its Faculty, testimonials of recommendation from a number of the





most prominent physicians in the United States. Among the letters sent to the Doctor for use in this connection, there were several, which, from the distinguished reputation of their authors, and the enthusiastic manner in which they indorsed Dr. Warren, seem especially to deserve a reproduction here—space will, however, only permit the publication of the following:—

From Professor S. D. Gross.

PHILADELPHIA May 8th, 1872.

My Dear Dr. Warren:—It is difficult for me to say anything respecting one who is so well known throughout the country as a gentleman, a practitioner, and a teacher of medicine. Any medical school ought, I am sure, to be proud to give you a place in its Faculty. As a teacher of surgery—off-hand, ready, and even brilliant—there is no one in the country that surpasses you. As an operator and a general-practitioner, your ability has long been everywhere recognized. Your success as a popular lecturer has been remarkably great. As a journalist you have wielded a ready and graceful pen. Some of your operations reflect great credit upon your judgment and skill. Of your moral character, I have never heard anything but what was good and honorable.

I hope with all my heart you may obtain a position in one of the New York Schools. Your great popularity in the Southern States could not fail to be of service in drawing Southern Students. My only regret is that we have no place to offer you in Philadelphia.

Wishing you every possible success, I am, dear doctor, very truly your friend.

S. D. GROSS,

Professor of Surgery, Jefferson Medical College. Professor Edward Warren,

Baltimore, Md.

From Professor Hunter McGuire.

RICHMOND VA., May 10th, 1872.

Gentlemen:—I beg leave to state that Dr. Warren enjoys a most enviable reputation both as a physician and as a gentleman, and from all I know and have heard of him, I have no doubt he would prove a most valuable addition to any college. Dr. Warren held a prominent position in the Medical Department of the Confederate Army, and enjoyed the respect and confidence of all who associated with him. He has recently resigned the chair in one of the medical schools of Baltimore. He filled this chair with great ability and attracted to the school a large number of students, especially from his native State, North Carolina.

Very respectfully, etc.,

HUNTER McGUIRE, M. D.

Professor of Surgery. Medical College of Virginia. To the Trustees of the

University of New York.

From Hon. E. J. Henkle.

BALTIMORE May 15th, 1872.

Dear Sir:—I have been informed that my friend, Prof. Edward Warren, recently Professor of Surgery in the Washington University in this place, is an applicant for the same position in the University of New York.

I have known Dr. Warren for many years past; first, previous to the war, when Professor of Materia Medica in the University of Maryland, which position to my personal knowledge, he filled in a most acceptable manner to both faculty and students.

Since the war and the reorganization of the Washington University, he has resided in Baltimore and filled the Chair of Surgery. In the capacity of President of the Board of Trustees of that Institution, I have been thrown in frequent and intimate intercourse with him, and I take pleasure in testifying to his great zeal and ability, and to his success as a lecturer and teacher. Dr. Warren has always been regarded in Baltimore as a most popular and efficient lecturer, exceedingly popular with the students, and untiring in his efforts to promote the success of the institution with which he has been identified. I have no doubt that the University of New York would be most fortunate in securing his valuable services. Very truly yours,

E. J. HENKLE,

President of the Board of Trustees of Washington University, M. D.

Prof. Henry Draper, New York City.

From Professor W. H. McGuffey, of the University of Virginia.

U. OF VA., May 18th, 1872.

TO THE FACULTY OF THE UNIVERSITY MEDICAL COLLEGE OF NEW YORK.

Gentlemen:—It gives me great pleasure to recommend to your favorable consideration Dr. Edward Warren.

I have known Dr. Warren from his boyhood, and can testify to his excellent character, fine talents, indominitable perseverence in the pursuit of knowledge and the discharge of professional duty.

Dr. Warren's attainments are of a high order in genuine scholarship. He made unusual proficiency in Moral Philosophy, and gradnated also with distinction in other schools in the University, Va.

Of his professional attainments I am not competent to judge, but I know that he has been successful when competition was intense, and I learn from others, competent to judge, that he has every qualification to ensure success in the Chair of Surgery, and the place which I learn be seeks in your institution.

Very respectfully, & c.,

W. H. McGUFFEY,

Prof. Moral Philosophy, U. of Va.

Unfortunately no vacancy existed at the time, and his efforts in this regard proved abortive In 1873 he accepted a position in the service of the Khèdive and removed to Egypt, having been urgently recommended for it by General R. E. Lee, General Sherman, General G. W. Smith, General Hancock, Governor Z. B. Vance, Hon. M. C. Butler, General Gary, and other leading gentlemen in the United States.

As soon as the President of the American Medical Association heard of his intended departure,





he sent him a commission as a Delegate to all the Medical Societies of Europe; Drs. Gross, Pancoast and other prominent American physicians gave him kind and most flattering letters of introduction to the leading medical men in Europe; and on the evening before he left Baltimore, a number of its first citizens tendered him a public dinner at Barnums’ which was one of the most successful and brilliant affairs of its kind that ever came off in that city.

His career in Egypt, though rendered brief by an attack of opthalmia, wassignally brilliant.

Having been appointed Chief Surgeon of the General Staff, he soon had an opportunity of treating successfully the Minister of War for strangulated hernia, who immediately officially requested the Khédive to honor Dr. Warren with the Decoration of the Medjdié and the title of Bey—which, when conferred, as it was in this instance, by royal charter, ennobles its possessor and his family; and in less than a year from his arrival in the country, he succeeded in reaching the highest medical position known in the service of the Khédive, that of Surgeon in Chief of the Egyption Army.

The incident connected with his treatment of Kassim Pasha, who was the Minister of War, shows so well the moral force which enabled Dr. Warren to perform his duty in the face of discouraging circumstances, and serves to illustrate in such an interesting way, certain phases of his life in Egypt, that it is given in full as related by the doctor.

“Kassim Pasha was over 60 years old, and very fat, and had direct inguinal hernia, which the surgeons of Cairo failed to reduce after laboring over it three days. After he had been abandoned to die and the preparations for his funeral were progressing, I was permitted to see the case. Finding that stercoraceous vomiting had just begun, and persuaded that the profound depression which others mistook for the effects of the disease, was mainly due to the injections of an infusion of tobacco which they had employed to induce relaxation, I declared the case not a hopeless one and undertook to treat it. Having stimulated the Pasha freely with brandy and water—which the natives consider unholy treatment—I had the gratification of seeing some reaction established; and determined to administer chloroform, and either to reduce the tumor by taxis, or to perform herniotomy, if necessary. I found however, very great difficulty in getting any medical man to assist me. They all retired and said that they would have ‘nothing to do with the murder of the Pasha.’ The Harem, through its representative, the Chief Eunuch, declared that I should not proceed until the private physician of the Khèdive—a Frenchman—had given his consent. He was accordingly sent for and asked what he thought of the measure which I proposed He replied that he believed the Pasha would die inevitably, but he was in favor of permitting me to proceed, as every man was entitled to his chance. I then requested him to aid me to the extent of administering chloroform. This he agreed to do on condition that I would assume all the responsibility of the case, and give him time to dispatch a messenger to the Khédive, informing him upon what terms he had consented to aid me. In the presence of all the principal Pashas and Beys of the country, and the highest officials of the Court, the Minister was removed from his bed and placed upon a mattress in the middle of the room. None of the female portion of the household were present; but they were represented by the Chief Eunuch, who stood at the feet of the invalid shouting Allah! Allah!! Allah!!! whilst from the latticed Harem in the rear there came continually that peculiar wail which seems to form the principal feature in the mourning of the East. With the exception of the French physician, above referred to, all the surgeons had deserted the chamber, and stood in the little garden outside of the house, some praying that the sick man might be saved, but the majority cursing the stranger who had the temerity to undertake that which they had pronounced impossible.

“At this moment the Chief of the Staff took me aside and said: ‘Dr. Warren, consider well what you are undertaking; success means honor and fortune in this country, whilst failure means ruin to you and injury to those who are identified with you.’ I replied: ‘I thank you for your caution; but I was taught by my father to disregard all personal considerations in the practice of medicine and to think only of the interests of my patients. I shall therefore do what my professional duty requires for the sick man aud let the consequences take care of themselves.’ Having made all the preperations necessary to perform herniotomy, should that operation become necessary, I boldly administered chloroform, although the patient was still in a state of great depression. To my delight anæthesia was promptly developed, while the circulation improved with every inspiration—just as I have seen it improve in some cases of shock upon the battlefield. Confiding then the administration of the chloroform to the French physician, above referred to, I proceeded to examine the tumor and attempt its reduction. I found an immense hydrocele and by the side of it a hernia of no unusual dimensions—which by rather a forcible manipulation I completely reduced, after a few moments of effort. By this time the surgeons, unable to restrain their curiosity, had entered the room and crowded around me, anxiously awaiting the failure which they had so blatantly predicted. Turning to Mehemet-Ali-Bey—the Professor of Surgery in the Medical School of Cairo—I said to him: ‘The hernia is reduced, as you can see by pushing your finger into the external ring.’ ‘Excuse me,’ said he, in the most supercilious manner, ‘you have undertaken to cure Kassim Pasha and I can give you no help in the matter.’ My French friend immediately introduced his finger into the ring and said: ‘Gentlemen, he needs no help from anyone; the hernia is reduced and the Pasha is saved.’ The doctors slunk away utterly discomfitted; the Eunuchs, Pashas, Beys,





and officers uttered loud cries of ‘Hamdallah! Hamdallah!! Kismet! Kismet!! Kismet!!!’ (Thank God! Thank God!! It is fate! It it fate!!) and the Harem in the rear, catching the inspiration of the scene, sent up a shont of joy which sounded like the war-hoop of a whole tribe of Indians. In a moment I was seized by the Chief Eunuch, embraced in the most impressive manner and kissed upon either cheek—an example which was immediately followed by a number of those present;— and I found myself suddenly the most famous man in the country. The Pasha at once had a letter addressed to the Khédive narrating what I had done for him, and asking that I might be decorated and made a Bey. His Highness sent for me, thanked me warmly for having saved the life of his favorite Minister, and said he was happy to honor one who had done so well for him; the Harem of the patient presented me with a beautiful gold watch and chain; my house was thronged afterwards with the highest dignitaries of the country who came to thank and congratulate me; and I immediately secured an immense practice among the natives—including nearly every incurable case in Cairo.

The spectacle of a stranger in a strange land without support, undertaking duties which had deen declined by others, and boldly pushing forward, in spite of the jealous mutterings which fell upon his ears, has something of true sublimity in it, and should make us appreciate the benignant nature of that moral and ethical code under whose guidance the subject of our sketch acquired that devotion to duty which enabled him to dare and do. For, behold the alternative, which, surely, he must have recognised;-had he failed, and had the Pasha died, his audacity would have wrought his ruin, and he would have been driven from the land in disgrace.

As it was, however this signal triumph resulted in Dr. Warren being made the “Chief Surgeon of the Egyptian Army.” Colonel William McE. C. Dye-formely an officer in the United States Army and late a Colonel of the Egyptian Staff- in his interesting book entitled, “Moslem Egypt and Christian Abyssinia,” refers in the following terms to Dr. Warren's career in Egypt: “Dr. Edward Warren, Chief Surgeon of the Staff, by performing a surgical operation on the Minister of War for a complaint that had battled the skill and courage of the other Cairo surgeons, and by his energy in the erection of hospitals and his faithful discharge of other duties, established a reputation which soon lifted him into place as Surgeon-in-Chief of the Army;” and the London Lancet chronicled his success and advancement in these terms: “We understand that M. Edward Warren of Cairo has been promoted by his Highness the Khedive of Egypt to the position of Chief Surgeon of the Egyptian Army. Mr. Warren's promotion in the East has been exceptionally rapid.”

In 1875, having obtained a furlough for six months, he visited Paris for the purpose of securing proper treatment for his eyes, and, on being informed by the leading occulists that a longer residence in Egypt would involve the loss of his left eye, he obtained an honorable discharge from the service of the Khedive who, in view of the services which Dr. Warren had rendered in Egypt, treated him with great consideration and kindness.

Through the influence of his own well-established reputation, aided by the cordial endorsement of his friends, Drs. Charcot and Ricord, of Paris; Sir James Paget, Alfred, Swain Taylor, and Dr. Stevenson, of London; Drs. Fordyee Barker and J. J. Crane, of New York; Professors Gross and Pancoast, of Philadelphia, he was soon able to commence the practice of medicine in Paris as a Licentiate of the University of France, a very great compliment in itself, and one rarely paid to a foreigner.

Dr. Warren's success in Paris has been exceptionally rapid and brilliant. Practice and honors have flowed in an unbroken stream upon him. Foreigners of all nationlaities and of the highest titles have been as ready to avail themselves of his professional skill as have been his fellow-countrymen. The London Lancet promptly secured him as its “Special Correspondent.” The Ottoman Government confided to him the delicate task of selecting surgeons and raising contributions for





the wounded in the recent war with Russia. He received a special invitation to participate in the International Medical Congress which recently assembled in Philadelphia, being the only American residing abroad who was thus honored. The College of Physcians and Surgeons of Baltimore made him a Master of Surgery at a late commencement. The Governor of North Carolina made him a “Special Commissioner” to the Paris Exposition; while the Commissioner-General of the United States appointed him the Medical Officer of his Commission, and the French Government awarded him a “medal of merit” for the services which he rendered in these regards. The Spanish Government, in 1877, created him a Knight of the Order of Isabella the Catholic, as a reward for the professional skill displayed in the successful treatment of a Spaniard of high position. The French Government, in 1879, created him a Chevalier of the National Order of the Legion of Honor, as a special mark of distinction for his professional devotion and work in France. The Egyptian Government, in 1882, made him a “Commander of the Imperial Order of the Osmanlie,” for “valuable and important services rendered in Egypt and for great Medical skill displayed in Paris.” He has recently been made an Officer of the Order of the redemption of the Holy Sepulchre, an Officer of the Royal Order of the Samaritan of Geneva—all as rewards for professional services and successes. He was also selected by the American Medical Association as one of its delegates to the International Medical Congress which recently assembled in London and has been made a member of the Historical Society of Virginia and of the American Institute of Christian Philosophy, respectively, and the University of North Carolina at the last Commencement, conferred upon him the title of Doctor of Laws (LL. D.)

The following letter announces the accession of this honor.

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA,

CHAPEL HILL, N. C., June 20th 1884.

DR. EDWARD WARREN (BEY).

SIR:—In recognition of your distinguished ability and learning, and services to humanity, the Board of Trustees and the Faculty of the University of North Carolina have unanimously conferred on you the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. [LL. D.]

They hope that you will accept this evidence of the regard of the University of your native State.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant.

KEMP P. BATTLE, President

While space does not permit the publication in this connection of the multitudinous essays, reports, lectures, letters, addresses, etc., which have emanated from his prolitic pen and active brain, enough has been said of Dr. Warren to justify the statement with which a distinguished American surgeon (Professor S. D. Gross, of Philadelphia) concludes a letter in regard to him—viz.: “from these facts it is plain that he (Dr. Warren) has performed a great deal of work, that he is a man of indomitable energy; that he possesses great and varied talents; and that he has enjoyed a large share of professional and public confidence.” Surely, no North Carolinian has had a more brilliant and remarkable record, or one which the State has a greater right to regard with pride and admiration.

Dr. Warren's general culture and his great literary ability are widely known. His prose writings are lucid and chaste, though sufficiently ornate to be very attractive. His far-flights into the domain of poesy attest a rich imagination, and considerable knowledge of rhythm and versification.

In politics the Warren family were old line Whigs, and the Doctor's affiliation brought him into intimate relations with North Carolina's great war Governor, Zebulon B. Vance, which time has only served to ripen into an affectionate and enduring friendship.






[Illustration:

James Blount
]

Genealogy of the Blount Family.*

The late Gov. Henry T. Clark considered this the oldest of North Carolina families. No family, he believed, whose name is still extant as a family-name in North Carolina, came into the Province so early as James Blount, who settled in Chowan in 1669. This James Blount is said to have been a younger son of Sir Walter Blount, of Sodington, Worcestershire, England, and a Captain in Charles I's Life Guards. His Coat of Arms engraved on a copper plate, which he brought with him, was in the possession of his descendants until about the year 1840, when it was destroyed by its possessor, the late James B. Shepard of Raleigh. A cut of it is given above, taken from an impression of the original plate.

For convenience, the family may be divided into two branches; the descendants of James, the Chowan Blounts, and the descendants of his younger brother who settled about Choeowinity in Beaufort County, the Taw River Blounts. The latter is much the more numerous branch of the family, and has become too extensively spread throughout the Southern and South-Western States, to be fully traced here. This brief genealogy is complied chiefly from the family Bible of the Edenton family of Blounts, and from a Manuscript by the late Thomas H. Blount of Beaufort, and is as accurate as such accounts can ordinarily be made.

THE CHOWAN BLOUNTS.

James Blount, who settled in Chowan in 1669, on a tract of land which remained in the possession of his descendants until the death of Clement Hall Blount in 1842, was a man of some prominence in his day. He is spoken of in contemporary documents as a member of the Governor's Council, as one of the Burgesses of Chowan, and as a leading character in the infant and very disorderly Colony. He left one son, John.

This John Blount (I) born 1669: died 1725,

[note]



left ten children, six daughters and four sons. Three of the daughters married and left descendants in Hyde County and about Roanoke Island. They are the Worleys, Midgets and Manns. The sons were—

I. John (II) born 1706, married and left three sons and two daughters:

(a) James Blount, who married Ann Hall and and left three children: Clement Hall Blount (died unmarried in 1842); Sarah, left no issue; and Frederick Blount, his eldest son who married Rachel Bryan, (nee Herritage) and left among others, Frederick S. Blount, who moved to Alabama and became the father of a large family, Alexander Clement Blount, and Herritage Wistar Blount of Lenoir County.

(b) Wilson Blount.

(c) Fredrick Blount, whose daughter Mary (died 1856) married Wm. Shepard of New Berne and bore him Wm. B., Charles B., and James B. Shepard, Mrs. John H. Bryan, of Raleigh, Mrs. Ebenezer Pettigrew, and several others.

(d) Elizabeth, married J. B. Beasley.

(e) Mary married Rev. Charles Pettigrew 1st Bishop (elect) of N. C. and left two sons, one of whom, Ebenezer became a member of Congress; married Ann Shepard of New Berne, and left several children: the Rev. William S. Pettigrew, General James Johnston Pettigrew, Charles L. Pettigrew and two daughters.

II. Thomas born 1709, left one daughter Winifred, who married Hon. Whitmel Hill of Martin. Among their numerous descendants are Thomas Blount Hill Esq. of Hillsboro’ and the family of the late Whitmel J. Hill of Scotland Neck.

III. James, born 1710, left two daughters; (a) Nancy married Dempsey Connor (son of Dempsey Connor and Mary Pendleton, great-granddaughter of Governor Archdale) and left one daughter Frances Clark Pollock Connor, married 1st, Joseph Blount (III) and 2nd, Wm. Hill, late Secretary of State of North Carolina; and (b) Betsy who was married to Jeremiah Vail.

IV. Joseph (I) born 1715, died 1777, who married 1st, Sarah Durant, born 1718, died 1751, (a descendant of George Durant, the first known English settler in N. C.) and left only one child Sarah, (born 1747, died 1807,) who married in 1771, William Littlejohn, by whom she became the mother of a large family, well known in this and other Southern States. After the death of his first wife, Joseph Blount (I) married, (1752) Elizabeth Scarboro, by whom he had (besides one son, Lemuel Edwards, drowned at sea in 1778) one son:

Joseph Blount (II) born 1755, died 1794, who married 1st, (1775) Lydia Bonner, and left two children:

(a) John Bonner Blount, born 1777, married Mary Mutter: they were the parents of Thomas M. Blount, late of Washington city (whose son, Maj. Thomas M. Blount was killed at Malvern Hill), of Mrs. Thomas H. Blount, Mrs. Henry Hoyt and Mrs. James Treadwell of Washington N. C. and of Mrs. Henry M. Daniel, of Tenn. His sons Joseph and John died without issue.

(b) Mary born 1779, married William T. Muse, and had two sons, (I) William T. Muse, late of the U. S. and C. S. Navy, who married and left issue; (2) John B. Muse, died unmarried.

For a second wife Joseph Blount (II) in 1782, married Ann Gray (born 1757, died 1814,) daughter of Wm. Gray of Bertie, and left issue.

(c) Joseph Blount (III) born 1785, died 1822, who married (1808) Frances Clark Pollock Connor, and left one son Joseph Blount (IV) who died unmarried.

(d) Frances Lee married Henderson Standin, left one son, William H. Standin.





(e) Sarah Elizabeth married Thomas Morgan but left no issue.

(f) Elizabeth Ann. (born 1790, died 1869,) married in (1812) John Cheshire (born 1769, died 1830,) and left issue the Rev. Joseph Blount Cheshire, D. D., Mrs. E. D. Macnair, of Tawboro, and Mrs. James Webb of Hillsboro.

(g) Eleanor Gray, married John Cox, left one daughter, Ann B. P., married Willie J. Epps of Halifax.

THE TAW RIVER BLOUNTS

A younger brother of James Blount of Chowan, is thought to have settled on Taw or Pamplico River about 1673. He left six sons Thomas, John, James, Benjamin, Jacob and Esau, the last two being twins. The Tuscarora Chief, King Blount, a valuable ally of the whites in the Indian war of 1711, is said to have assumed that name from his attachment to one of these brothers. Nothing is known definitely of the descendants of any of the six, except the eldest, Thomas.

This Thomas Blount married Ann Reading and left four sons, Reading, James, John and Jacob. All of these left families, and from them are descended, no doubt, many persons of this name in Beaufort and the adjacent Counties; but we can trace the descendants of the last named only.

Jacob Blount (born 1726, died 1789) was an officer under Gov. Tryon in the battle of Alamance; a member of the Assembly frequently, and of the Halifax Congress of 1776; married 1st, (1748) Barbara Gray, of Bertie, sister to William Gray, mentioned in the genealogy of the Chowan Blounts; 2nd, Mrs. Hannah; Baker (nee Salter); 3rd, Mrs. Mary Adams. By his last wife he had no children; by his wife, Barbara Gray, he left among others—

I. William Blount, born 1749, died 1800.

II. John Gray Blount, born 1752, died 1833.

III. Reading Blount, born 1757, died 1807.

IV. Thomas Blount, born 1759, died 1812;

V. Jacob Blount, born 1760, died—. By his wife, Hannah Salter, he left:

VI. Willie Blount, born 1768, died 1835.

VII. Sharp Blount, born 1771, died 1810.

Of these William, John Gray, Reading, Thomas and Willie became prominent and distinguished men; among the most eminent in North Carolina and Tennessee for their high talents, public spirit, enterprise and wealth. Their marriages and descendants were as follows:

I. William Blount, (born 1749, died 1800,) a Member of Congress in 1782 and 1786; of the Constitutional Convention of 1787, was defeated for the U. S. Senate by Benjamin Hawkins, on the adoption of the Federal Constitution in 1789; appointed by Washington in 1790 Governor of the Territory south of the Ohio; removed to Tennessee and founded the city of Knoxville; was chosen one of the first Senators from Tennessee. In 1797, he was expelled by a vote of the Senate, and subsequently impeached by the House of Representatives, for alleged treasonable practices in endeavoring to incite the Indian-tribes on our Southwestern frontier to hostilities against Spain. The articles of impeachment were after argument quashed in the Senate. On his return to Knoxville the Speaker of the State Senate resigned, and William Blount was unanimously chosen by the people to succeed him in the Senate, and by that body to succeed him in the Chair, as an expression of popular confidence and affection. His death early in the year 1800, alone prevented him from being elected Governor of Tennessee. He married (1778) Mary Grainger, daughter of Col. Caleb Grainger, of Wilmington, and left issue:

I. Ann married 1st, Henry I. Toole (II) of Edgecombe, to whom she bore Henry I. Toole (III), and Mary Eliza, married Dr. Joseph Lawrence: she married 2nd, Weeks Hadley, of





Edgecombe, by whom she had several children.

2. Mary Louisa, married (1801) Pleasant M. Miller and left a large family; one of her daughters, Barbara, married Hon. Wm. H. Stephens, late of Memphis, now of Los Angelos, California.

3. William Grainger Blount, member of Congress from Tennessee; he died unmarried in 1827.

4. Richard Blackledge Blount, married and left children in Tennessee.

5. Barbara married Gen. E. P. Gaines, left one son, Edmund Gaines of Washington city, D. C.

6. Eliza married Dr. Edwin Wiatt and left two sons and one daughter.

II. John Gray Blount (I), born 1752, died 1833, in his youth a companion of Daniel Boone in the early explorations of Kentucky, but settled permanently in Washington, N. C. He was frequently a member of the Assembly, and though not ambitions of political office, probably the most influential man in his section of the State. He is said to have been the largest land-owner in North Carolina. He married (1778), Mary Harvey, daughter of Col. Miles Harvey of Perquimans, and left issue:

1. Thomas Harvey Blount, (born 1781, died 1850,) who married 1st: (1810) Ellen Brown, by whom he had no children, 2nd. (1827) Elizabeth M. daughter of Jno. Bonner Blount, of Edenton, and left issue, three sons and three daughters: Elizabeth M. (Geer), Polly Ann (Hatton), John Gray Blount (III), Mary Bonner (Willard), Thomas Harvey Blount and Dr. Wm. Augustus Blount.

2. John Gray Blount (II), born 1785, died 1828, married Sally Haywood but left no issue.

3. Polly Ann, (born 1787, died 1821,) married Wm. Rodman and left issue: William Blount Rodman, late a Judge of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, Mary Marcia Blount, and Mary Olivia Blount who married J. G. B. Myers.

4. William Augustus Blount, married 1st Nancy Haywood and 2nd Nancy Littlejohn: For him and his family see post, page 11, under Beaufort County.

5. Lucy Olivia (born 1799, died 1854,) married Bryan Grimes, and left, issue: Mary, Annie, Olivia, and John Gray Blount Grimes.

6 Patsy Baker, born 1802, still living unmarried.

III. Reading Blount, (born 1757, died 1807,) a Major in the Revolutionary War; married Lucy Harvey, daughter of Col. Miles Harvey, and left five children:

1. Polly who married John Myers and left a large family in Washington, N. C.

2. Louisa, married Jos. W. Worthington, of Maryland.

3. Willie Blount, married Delia Blakemore of Tennessee.

4. Caroline Jones, married Benjamin Runyan.

5. Reading Blount, married Polly Ann Clark, and left one son, Reading Blount.

IV. Thomas Blount (born 1759, died 1812), an officer of distinction in the Revolution, Major in Col. Buncombe's Regiment. Settled at Tawboro; was frequently a member of the Assembly from Edgecombe; a member of Congress for several sessions, and died in Washington City in 1812. He married 1st Patsy Baker; 2nd Jacky Sumner (afterwards known as Mrs. Mary Sumner Blount) daughter of Gen. Jethro Sumner of Warren. He had no children by either marriage.

V. Jacob Blount, (born 1760 died—,) married 1st (1789) Ann Collins, daughter of Josiah Collins of Edenton, by whom he had two daughters, (a) Ann; and (b) Elizabeth, who married Jno. W. Littlejohn, of Edenton. He afterwards married Mrs. Augustus Harvey;





but had no children by the second marriage.

VI. Willie Blount (born 1768: died 1835); went to Tennessee in 1790 as private Secretary to his eldest brother Gov. William Blount; was elected Judge of the Supreme Court in 1796; Governor from 1809 to 1815. He raised on his private credit the money with which to equip the three Tennessee regiments sent under Andrew Jackson to the defense of New Orleans during the war of 1812. In recognition of his eminent public services, the State of Tennessee in 1877 erected a monument to his memory in Clarksville, Tennessee. He married Lucinda Baker, and left two daughters, Mrs. Dabney and Mrs. Dortch, of Tennessee. For his second wife he married the widow of Judge Hugh Lawson White.

VII. Sharp Blount (born 1771; died 1810,) married Penelope Little, daughter of Col. George Little of Hertford, and left three sons: (a) William Little Blount, (b) Jacob Blount, (c) George Little Blount. The first two died without issue. George Little Blount married a Miss Cannon of Pitt, and resided at Blount Hall in Pitt County, the seat of his grandfather Jacob Blount.

It has been impossible to give more than a summary of the genealogy of this extensive family. It is hoped that the above is sufficient to enable any one to trace the connections of its principal branches.

It may be added that William and Willie Blount were both, in all probability, born at Blount Hall in Pitt County, and not in Bertie, as is sometimes stated, and as is inscribed on the monument erected by the State of Tennessee to the memory of the latter. There is no reason to suppose that their father, Jacob Blount, ever lived in Bertie. Also the story of the absurd inscription on the stone on Mrs. Mary Sumner Blount's grave in Tawboro, is entirely untrue.

Genealogy of the Barringer Family.

John Paul Barringer, born in Germany 1721, came to America 1743; settled in Pennsylvania, where he married (1) Ann Elizabeth Iseman called Ain lis; came to Mecklenburg Co. N. C. about 1746, and there married (2) Catherine Blackwelder. He died in 1807.

Issue: I. Catherine married 1st to John Phifer, one of the signers of (20th of May 1775) Declaration of Independence: Issue (a) Paul, who married Jane Alexander and had George, Martin, John N., Nelson and Caleb; (b) Margaret married to John Simianer; she (Catherine) married a second time to George Savage and had (a) Catherine, who married Noah Partee, and Mary, who married Richard Harris.

II. John (Mt. Pleasant family.)

III. Paul, born 1778, died 1844; married Eliz abeth Brandon, born 1783, died 1844; issue: (a) Daniel Moreau, born 1806, died 1873; in legislature 1829 to ’34; ’39, ’54; Member of Congress 1843 to 1849; U. S. Envoy to Spain, 1849; in Peace Congress of 1861; married Elizabeth Withered, of Baltimore, and had (1) Lewin, born 1850; University of Virginia; married Miss Miles; (2) Daniel M., born 1860; (b) Margaret, married 1st to John Boyd; 2nd to Andrew Grier; (c) Paul, married Carson; (d) Mary, married C. W. Harris; (e) Matthew; (f) William, married Alston, and had John, Paul, William, Charles, Victor and Ella; (g) Elizabeth,





married Edwin R. Harris; (h) Alfred; (i) Rufus, Brig. Gen. C. S. A., married 1st Eugenia Morrison, and had Anna and Paul; 2nd, Rosalie Chunn, and had Rufus; 3rd, Margaret Long, and had Osmond; (k) Catherine, married Gen. W. C. Means. Issue: Paul, Robert, James, William, Bettie, George and Victor; (1) Victor, legislature of 1860; Judge of International Court in Egypt; married Maria Massie.

IV. Matthias; V. Martin; VI. Elizabeth, married to 1st, George Pitts; 2nd, to John Boon, of Guilford; VII. Sarah, married to Jacob Brem, of Lincolnton; VIII. Esther, married to Thomas Clarke, of Tennessee; IX. Daniel L. Barringer, born 1788; died 1852; legislature 1813-’19-’23; in Congress 1826 to 1835; married Miss—White, granddaughter of Governor Caswell; removed to Tennessee, and was Speaker of the House; X. Jacob, married Mary Ury; XI. Leah, married 1st David Holton, 2nd Jacob Smith; XII. Mary, married to Wesley Harris, of Tennessee.

Genealogy of the Clark Family.

Christopher Clark, a sea-captain, and merchant in Edenton, came from North of England about 1760. After some years removed to Bertie County, near the mouth of Salmon Creek.

He married 1st, Elizabeth—, by whom he had Elizabeth, Mary and Sarah.

I. Elizabeth Clark married Judge Blake Baker, of Tarboro’, and left no issue.

II. Mary Clark married George West; born 1758, died 1810, and left issue: [a] Robert West, who married Ann Dortch, by whom he had Isaac D., Robert, George Clark, Martha, married W. B. Johnson; Mary, married Chas. Minor; Arabella, married Q. C. Atkinson; Ann; Laura, married Robert McClure; Elizabeth and Sarah.

[b] Mary West, married Judge P. W. Humphrey, and left Judge West H. Humphrey, married Pillow; Elizabeth, married Baylis; Georgianna, married Powell; Charles and Robert.

[c] George West married Ann Lytle, and left Robert, George, Ann, married Gillespie.

III. Sarah Clark married William Clements, and left:

[a] Sarah; [b] Arabella, married C. Baylis; [c] Mary, married R. Collier; [d] Dr. Christopher C.; [e] John H., and [f] Robert W.

After the death of his first wife, Christopher Clark married about 1778 or 1779, Hannah Turner, of Bertie, daughter of Thomas Turner, and left:

IV. James West Clark, born 1769, died 1845, who married Arabella E. Toole, born 1781, died 1860, daughter of Henry I. Toole, of Edgecombe, and left issue:

[a] Henry Toole Clark, born 1808, died 1874, University of North Carolina, 1826; North Carolina Senate, 1859-’60; Governor, 1861; he married, 1850, Mrs. Mary Weeks Hargrove [nee Parker] daughter of Theophilus Parker, of Tarboro’, and left the following children: Laura P., Haywood, Henry Irwin, Maria T. and Arabella T.

[b] Maria Toole, born 1813, died 1859; married, 1852, Matt. Waddell; left no issue.

[c] Laura Placidia, born 1816, died 1864; married, 1832, John W. Cotten, and left Margaret E., married J. A. Englehard; Arabella C., married Wm. D. Barnes; Florida, married Wm. L. Saunders, and John W., married Elizabeth Frick.

[d] Mary Summer, born 1817, married Dr. Wm. George Thomas, and have issue: George G., Arabella and Jordan T.





Genealogy of the Haywood Family

John Haywood, the founder of the family in North Carolina, was born in Christ Church Parish, near St. Michael's, in the Island of Barbadoes. He was the son of John Haywood, a younger brother of Sir Henry Haywood a Knight and magistrate in the old country and must have been a man of some note as Evelyn in his Memoirs speaks of having met him at court and was not favorably impressed with his arrogant manner. He settled in 1730 at the month of Conecanarie in Halifax, then a part of the great county of Edgecombe. He was Treasurer of the northern counties of the Province from 1762, until his death in 1758.

He married Mary Lovett, by whom he had six children.

I. Elizabeth married Jesse Hare, she died in 1774 and had issue: [a] Ann married Isaac Croom and his son Isaac married Sarah Pearson; [b] Mary married, first Richard Croom and second to—Hicks.

II. Mary Haywood married to the Rev. Thomas Burgess, 1761, whose son Lovett, married first Elizabeth Irwin, second Priscilla Monnie, third Mrs. Black; to the last named were born [a] Mary married to Alston, 1824, [b] Elizabth married, 1812, to Alston, of Bedford county, Virginia; [c] Melissa married to Gen. William Williams, whose daughter, Melissa, married to Col. Joseph John Long and their daughter, Ellen married to Gen. Junius Daniel, who was killed at Chancellorsville;—[d] John married Martha Alston and [e] Thomas, a distinguished lawyer in Halifax, who left no issue.

III. Deborah married to John Hardy but had no issue.

IV. Col. William Haywood, of Edgecombe, married Charity Hare; he died in 1779, and had ten children. [1] Jemima, married to John Whitfield of Lenoir, died 1837, with following issue; [a] William H. twice married and left seven children; [b] Constantine, left five children; [c] Sherwood, unmarried; [d] John Walter, left three children; [e] Jemima, left six children, married first to Middleton, second to Willams; [f] Mary Ruffin; [g] Kiziah Arabella, had three children; [h] Rachel Daniel, married John Jones and had five children; [i] George Washington, not married.

[2] John Haywood, State Treasurer for forty years; married 1st Sarah Leigh, and 2nd Eliza, daughter of John Pugh Williams and had issue; by last marriage [a] John, unmarried; [b] Geo. Washington, unmarried; [c] Thomas Burgess, unmarried, [d] Dr. Fabius Julius, married Martha Whitaker by whom he had issue; Fabius J., John Pugh, Joseph and Mary, married to Judge Daniel G. Fowle; [e] Eliza Eagles, unmarried, [f] Rebecca married to Albert G. Hall, of New Hanover County; [g] Frances, unmarried; [h] Edmund Burke, who married Lucy Williams, and had issue; E. Burke, Alfred, Dr. Hubert, Ernest, Edgar, John and Eliza Eagles, married to Preston Bridgers. [3] Ann, born 1760, died 1842; married to Dr. Robert





Williams, surgeon in the Continental Army, and had issue; [a] Eliza, married to Rev. John Singletary, issue; three sons: Col. George B. killed in battle, Col. Richard, and Col. Thomas. [b] Dr. Robert Williams jr., who left issue; [4] Charity married to Col. Lawrence of Alabama and had three children; [5] Mary married to Etheldred Ruffin, and had issue; [a] Sarah, married to Dr. Henry Haywood; [b] Henry J. G. Ruffin who married Miss Tart and was the father of Col. Sam, and also of Col. Thomas Ruffin, who fell at Hamilton Crossing, in Virginia.

[6] Sherwood, born 1762, died 1829; married Eleanor Hawkins, born in 1776, died in 1855, issue; [a] Ann, who married Wm. A Blount; their issue were Major Wm. A. Blount jr. of Raleigh and Ann, widow of Gen. L. O’ B. Branch, to the last named were born Susau O’ Bryan, married to Robert H. Jones; William A. B.; Ann married to Armistead Jones; Josephine married to Kerr Craige of Salisbury, [b] Sarah married first to John Gray Blount, and second to Gavin Hogg, she left no issue; [c] Delia, married first to Gen. William Williams, and second to Hon. George E. Badger, issue to the first marriage Col. Joseph John Williams of Tallahassee, Florida, and to the second marriage: [1] Mary married to P. M. Hale; [2] George, [3] Major Richard Cogdell, [4] Thomas, [5] Sherwood, [6] Edward Stanley [7] Ann, married first to Bryan, second to Col. Paul Faison; [d] Dr. Rufus Haywood, died unmarried; [e] Lucy, married to John S. Bryan and had issue: [1] Mrs. Basil Manly, [2] Mrs. Thomas Badger, [3] Mrs. Wm. H. Young, and [4] John S. Bryan of Salisbury.

[f] Francis P., married first Ann Farrall, second Mrs. Martha Austin, daughter of Col. Andrew Joyner of Halifax.

[g] Robert W. married Mary White and left one child, Mary;

[h] Maria T. unmarried.

[i] Dr. Richard B., married Julia Hicks, issue: [1] Sherwood, [2] Graham, [3] Effie, married to Col. Carl A. Woodruff, U. S. A., [4] Lavinia, [5] Howard, [6] Marshall, [7] Eleanor, [8] Marian.

[7] Elizabeth, born 1758, died 1832; married Henry Irwin Toole, [I] born 1750, died 1791, of Edgecombe, and left issue: Henry I. Toole [II] born 1778, died 1816; Arabella, born 1782, died 1860, and Mary, born 1787, died 1858.

Henry I. Toole [II] married Ann Blount, daughter of Gov. Wm. Blount, of Tenn.; and left issue: [a] Henry I. Toole [III] born 1810, died 1850; married Margaret Telfair; [b] Mary Eliza, born 1812, died ——; married Dr. Joseph J. Lawrence, of Tawboro’.

Arabella Toole, married to the Hon. James West Clark. For their descendants see the Clark Genealogy, page lxii.

Mary Toole, married Theophilus Parker, born 1775, died 1849, of Tawboro’, and had issue: [a] the Rev. John Haywood Parker, born 1813, died 1858; [b] Catharine C., born 1817, married 1st John Hargrave, 2nd Rev. Robert B. Drane, D. D.; [c] Elizabeth T., born 1820, married Rev. Joseph Blount Cheshire, D. D.; [d] Mary W., born 1822, married 1st Frank Hargrave, 2nd Gov. Henry T. Clark; [e] Col. Francis M. Parker, and [f] Arabella C. Parker.

[8] Wm. Henry, born 1770, died 1857, married Anne Shepherd, issue; [1] Hon. Wm. H. Haywood, born 1801; U. S. Senator, who married Jane Graham, had issue: Wm. H. killed at the Wilderness, Duncan Cameron, killed at ColdHarbor; Edward G.; Minerva, married to ——Baker; Jane, married to Hon. Sion H. Rogers; Ann married to Samuel Ruffia; Margaret married to Cameron; Gertrude married to George Trapier; Elizabeth unmarried. [2] Charity, daughter of Wm. Henry Haywood, married Governor Charles Manly, and left issue: Col. John H., married Caroline Henry; Langdon C.; Cora, married to Col. George B. Singletary;





Helen married to John Grimes; Julia, married to Col. McDowell, who was killed in battle; Sophia married to Harding; Ida married to Dr Jos. Baker of Tarboro, and Basil, commander of Manly's Battery, married Lucy Bryan.

[9] Stephen born 1772, died 1824, married, first Miss Lane 1798, by whom he had Dr. John Leigh Haywood and Benjaman Franklin Haywood; married second Delia Hawkins 1809, by whom he had Wm. Dallas, married Mary Cannon, Margaret Craven married to George Little, Lucinda, married to Sasser; and Sarah; and Philemon H. Haywood, U. S. Navy.

[10] Elizabeth, married to Governor Dudley, died 1840, and had issue: Edward B.; Wm. Henry, married Baker; Christopher; Eliza Ann, married to Purnell; Jane, married to Johnson, Margaret married Col. McIlhenny.

V. Sherwood [son of John Haywood of Conecanarie,] married Hannah Gray and had Adam John, who married his cousin, Sarah the daughter of Egbert, issue: one daughter Margaret, (died 1874,) who became the wife of Hon. Louis D. Henry, born 1788, died 1840, and had Virginia, married to Col. Duncan K. McRae; Caroline married to Col. John H. Manly; Augusta, wife of R. P. Waring; Margaret, married to Col. Ed. G. Haywood; Mary, married to Matt. P. Taylor; Malvina, to Douglas Bell, and Louis D., married Virginia Massenburg.

VI. Egbert, the sixth child of John Haywood, died 1801, married Sarah Ware and had issue: [a] Sarah, married Adam John Haywood, [b] John, a Judge in North Carolina and in Tennessee, the historian, died in 1826; [c] Dr. Henry, who married Sarah Ruffin, [d] Mary married Robert Bell, and had [1] Margaret, married to Duffy, [2] Dr. E. H. Bell. [3] Col W. H. Bell, [4] Admiral Henry H. Bell U. S. Navy, [e] Betsy married to William Shepperd and had issue: [1] Sarah married to Hon. Wm. B Grove of Fayetteville, a Member of Congress, 1791-1802; [4] Betsy married Col. Saml. Ashe, born 1763 died 1835, and to the last named were born Betsy, married to Owen Holmes; Mary Porter married to Dr. S. G. Moses of St. Louis; Hon. John B. Ashe, Member of Congress from Tennessee, married his cousin Eliza Hay, and moved to Texas; Hon. Wm. S., married Sarah Ann Green; Thomas married Rosa Hill; Richard Porter of San Francisco, married Lina Loyal; Susan married to her cousin David Grove; Sarah married Judge Samuel Hall of Georgia.

[3] Susan Shepperd married David Hay;

[4] Mary married Samuel P. Ashe of Halifax;

[5] Margaret married Dr. John Rogers;

[6] William, [7] Egbert and [8] Henry. [See ante page 326.]

VII. John, who died unmarried.

Since the aforesaid sketch of the Haywood family had been put in “forms,” a note from Dr. E. Burke Haywood, of Raleigh, was received, in which he corrects the sketch in these particulars: The children of John Haywood, the founder of the family in North Carolina, should be sketched in the following order:

I. William Haywood, of Edgecombe; II. Sherwood; III. Mary, wife of Rev. Thomas Burgess; IV. Elizabeth, wife of Jesse Hare; V. Deabora; VI. Egbert, and VII. John, who died unmarried.

The children of John Haywood, (State Treasurer for forty years, after whom Haywood County, and the town of Haywood were named,) the second child of William and Charity Hare, should be named in the following order:

[a] Eliza Eagles; [b] John Steele; [c] George Washington; [d] Fabius Julius; [e] Alfred Moore; [f] Thos. Burgess; [g] Rebecca; [h] William Davie; [i] Benjamin Rush; [k] Frances Ann; [l] Sarah Wool; [m] Edmund Burke.






[Illustration:


Phifer Family Crest]

Genealogy of the Phifer Family.

The name Pfeiffer is an old and honored one in Germany. Very many of the name have held high and honored positions in the management of the Civil and Military affairs of the Empire. A copy of the records of State, together with information sufficient to establish the identity of the American branch of the house has been elicited by a recent correspondence with branches of the family at Berne, Switzerland, and in Breslau, Germany.

The two brothers, John and Martin Pfeiffer who came to America, were descendants from the family of “Pfeiffers of Pfeiffersburgh.”

The records show the family to be “Pfeiffer of Pfeiffersburgh, knights of the order of Hereditary Austrian Knighthood; with armorial bearings as follows: Shield, lengthwise divided; the right in silver, with a black, crowned Eagle looking to the right; the left in blue, from lower part of quarter ascending a white rock, with five summits, over the center one an eight-pointed star pendant. (Schild der Lange getheilt; rechts in Silber ein rechtsselhender, gekrönter, Schwarz Adler und links in Blau ein auc dem Feldesfusse aufsteigender, Weisser Fels mit fünf Spitzen uber desen mittlerer ein achtstahliger, goldener Stern Schwebt.) They were desoended from Pfeiffer Von Heisselburgh. A diploma (patent,) of nobility was issued to Martin Caspar Pfeiffer and Mathias Pfeiffer in 1590, with armorial bearings of Knights of Heisselburg order of Nobility of the Empire. Johnn Baptist Pfeiffer Von Pfeiffersburg, Knight, with armorial bearings as above stated was descendant of Knights of Heisselburgh and hereditary heir of Pfeiffersburgh; Achenranian Mining and Smelting works; with exclusive privilege granted by the Crown, to trade in the “Brass of Achenrain and Copper of Schwatz. A diploma was issued to him May 10th, 1721. He received an increase of arms on the 4th of March 1785, (right field and second helmet.) The pedigree flourished, and a great-grandson of Johnn Baptist Pfeiffer, Knight of Pfeiffersburg; Leopold Maria, Knight of Pfeiffersburgh, born 1785, possessor of Hannsburg, county Hallein, was matriculated into the nobility of the Kingdom of Bavaria after the investment of the same.”

“Caspar Pfeiffer Von Pfeiffersburg, Knight, second brother to Johnn Baptist Pfeiffer. Knight of Pfeiffersburg, possessor of Trecherwitz, County Oels, Germany, lived in the year 1713 on his estates. In 1725 he permanently located in Berne, Switzerland, and had control





of the sale of brass and copper from the Achenranian mines. He had two sons to come to America in the spring of the year 1737. John Pfeiffer and Martin Pfeiffer.”

Martin Pfeiffer carried on quite an extensive correspondence with his relatives in Berne and in Germany. All these letters, together with an immense quantity of his son's (Martin Phifer Jr.) correspondence with the family in Berne and elsewhere; and all the records which Martin Phifer and all his sons placed so much value upon and which had been so carefully preserved by the first members of the family, seem to have fallen into disfavor with John Phifer (born 1779.) They were packed away in trunks and kept up in the garret at the “Black Jacks.”

All the members of the family had spoken German up to the time of John Phifer (1779.) He never spoke German to any of his children. It was with him the change in spelling the name to Phifer occurred.

The papers were consequently unknown to any of the various children who, when at play in the large old garret, saw them. These papers were all destroyed by the burning of George Locke Phifer's house.

An old gold watch set around with diamonds, and thought to bear the arms of the family, together with various old trinkets, were also destroyed.

The sketch of this family is written from knowledge communicated by different members of the family.

The will of Martin Pfeiffer, sr., was kept until the year 1865, when it was lost. Some of the Bibles of the family have also been lost. The present history however is accurate and can be relied upon in every respect. The information in regard to the family in Germany has been obtained by recent correspondence with a branch of the family in Berne, Switzerland and in Breslau, Germany. Great pains have been taken that every thing should be exact, and in many instances, the preparation of this paper has been delayed for months that a date should be correct. To the sketch of the life of John Phifer, the first son of Martin Pfeiffer, sr., a great deal of valuable aid was afforded by Mr. Victor C. Barringer.

The Phifer family has been for five generations the most wealthy and prominent in Cabarrus County. For many successive years they have been appointed to places of honor and responsibility by the people of the Counties of Cabarrus and Meeklenburg, some in each generation have occupied prominent positions in the legislative halls of the State. Their love for truth, honor and justice, their liberality of opinion and their sterling qualities of mind and of heart have necessarily made them leaders of the people for generations. They have exercised great influence in directing the political and social development of their county and State. Not one single instance can be found of a family quarrel, the contesting of a will or any bankrupt proceeding by which the name could suffer. The men have all been noble men, the women have all been good and pure, and have well sustained the good and ancient name.

Martin Pfeiffer was an educated man, and must have come to America rather well provided with money, as he immediately became possessed of large tracts of land; and became a prominent and influential man, a very short time after he settled in the State. The prominent place taken by his son John, as a leader, and as an orator in the early days also goes to show that his father must have been a man of unusual ability and distinction.

John Pfeiffer the younger of the two brothers who came to America in 1738, from Berne, settled in what is now known as Rowan County, N. C. Very little is known of his life. He died some years before his brother Martin Pfeiffer. He left his home in the upper





portion of Rowan county, to come down and visit his brother; after he had been gone for a week his family became alarmed about him and a messenger was sent to Martin Pfeiffer's. It was found that he had not reached that point. The neighborhood was aroused and search was made for him. His body was found a day or so afterwards near the main road in an advanced state of decomposition. He is supposed to have become ill, to have fallen from his horse and died, as no marks of violence were found on his person. He had it is supposed, only two children; a son Mathias and a daughter who married a Mr. Webb Mathias Pfeiffer jr. had one child, Paul, who was a Baptist preacher and had one daughter whose name is now unknown.

The above is all the information available as to this branch of the family. Their offspring does not seem to have been very numerous, and the two branches appear to have drifted apart.

Martin Pfeiffer, born October 18th, 1720, in Switzerland, died January 18th, 1791, at “Cold Water,” Cabarrns county, N. C. Reached America in 1738; in Legislature of 1777 from Mecklenburg county; married 1745, Margaret Blackwelder, who was born 1722, died 1803. Issue three sons: (I) John; (II) Caleb; (III) Martin

I.

John born at “Cold Water,” March 22nd, 1747; died at “Red Hill,” 1778; married 1768 Catherine, daughter of Paul Barringer, (who was born 1750, died 1829; after John Phifer's death she married Savage ef Rowan county,) as a member of the Charlotte convention, John Phifer signed the Declaration of May 20th, 1775; member of Provincial Assembly at Hillsboro, August 21st, 1775, and at Halifax April 4th, 1776, and of the Constitutional Convention of November 12th, 1776; commissioned Lieutenant Colonel, in Colonel Griffith Rutherford's Regiment December 21st, 1776; served in the campaign against the Cherokee Indians and the Scovelite Tories. Broken down by exposure and his own tireless energy, he fell an early sacrifice in the cause of freedom.

A man of distinguished character and superior attainments, and appears to have been one of the most conspicuous of the remarkable men, who figured in the foreground of the movement which resulted in the independence. His burning and fervid eloquence did much to ignite the flames of indignation against the usurpations of the mother country. He left the following issue: (A) Paul, born at Red Hill, Nov. 14th, 1770; died May 20th, 1801; educated at “Queen's Museum” afterwards “Liberty Hall” in Charlotte; married 1799 Jane Alexander, born 1750, who, after his death married Mr. Means of Mecklenburg.

Issue: (I) Martin jr., born 1792, died in childhood, (II) George Alexander, born 1794, died 1868; at the University; in 1835 moved to Bedford county, Tennessee, then to Union county, Arkansas, where he died. Four of his sons were killed in the battle of Shiloh. In 1820 he married Elizabeth Beard of Burke county, N. C. Issue: (a) George; (b) Margaret married to Mr. Pool; (c) Andrew Beard; (d) William; (e) Locke; (f) John; (g) Paul; (h) Mary Locke.

(III) John N., born March 19th 1795, died September 7th, 1856, married (June 10th 1822) Ann Phifer, the daughter of Caleb Phifer; moved to Tennessee, then to Coffeeville, Mississippi, where he died. Issue: (a) Paul, died in youth; (b) Caleb same; (c) Barbara Ann, who married Dr. Phillips of Alabama; (d) Sarah Jane; (e) Charles W., at the University; gradnated at West Point Military Academy; commissioned Lieutenant of Dragoons and sent to Texas. Entered C. S. Army as a Captain, promoted, for gallantry at Shiloh, to be Colonel;





in 1864 made Brigadier General; the youngest General officer of the Confederacy; (f) Josephine,

(IV) Nelson born December 1797.

[B] Margaret, born 1772, died 1806, second child of John Phifer; she married John Simianer, who for many years was Clerk of the Court, they had one child, Mary, who married Adolphus Erwin of Burke County and to them were born seven children; (1) Simianer, (2) Bulow married and had a family, (3) Matilda; (4) Alfred; (5) Mary Ann; (6) Harriet, married to Colonel J. B. Rankin and has a family; (7) Louisa, married James W. Wilson, and has a family.

II.

Caleb, born at Cold Water, April 8th, 1749; died July 3rd, 1811; in legislature 1778 to 1792 from Mecklenburg; Senator from Cabarrus 1793 to 1801 Colonel in the Revolutionary War, served with distinction, married Barbara Fulenweider, born 1754; died 1815. Issue; seven daughters and one son: (A) Esther, married April 10, 1793, to Nathaniel Alexander, issue ten children: (1) Margaret, married Robert Smith and had only one child, Sarah who married Wm. F. Phifer, and they had only one child, Sarah, who married John Morehead and had Annie, Margaret, William, Louisa and John. (2) Caleb, married Lunda Chisholm; moved to West Tennesse and there died. They had Charles and John, both now dead; (3) Jane, married 1st to Geo. F. Graham, and had one child, Ann Eliza, who married to Col. Wm. Johnson; 2nd to Dr. Stanhope Harris and had Sarah, who married Jno. Moss; Jane married to Dr. Bingham, and Henrietta married to Caldwell.

(4) Eliza married first, February 19th, 1821, to James A. Means and 2nd, to Dr. Elim Harris,

(5.) Sarah married (1825) to Francis Locke moved to Montgomery Co. N. C., issue to them: Caroline, married to Dr. Ingram; James killed in the civil war; Elizabeth married to Underwood and has a family.

(6) Mary, married to Dr. Elim Harris, removed to Missouri, and there both died.

(7) Nancy, born 1810, married 1833 to John Moss, of Montgomery County, N. C., issue: Esther, wife of Adolphus Gibson; Mary, wife of D. F. Cannon; Margaret, wife of James Erwin; Edward; John.

(8) Esther, married to Dr. James Gilmer.

(9) Charles, moved to Memphis, Tenn., and acquired great wealth, died unmarried.

(10) John moved to Tenn., but died in Cuba.

(B) Margaret, second child of Caleb, born Nov. 14, 1777, died Aug. 14, 1799; married in [1794] to Matthew Locke of Rowan Co., had one son, John, who married Miss Bouchelle, but left no issue.

[C.] Elizabeth, born 1781, married [1802,] to Dr. Wm. M. Moore, Salisbury; on his death moved to Bedford Co., Tenn., then to Marshall Co., Miss., there died in 1845. Issue [1] Abigail died in infancy; (2) Moses W., born Jan. 7, 1807, died 1851; married Rebecca McKenzie, [1840,] moved to Washington Co., Texas. Issue: William; Sarah, who married to Dr Ferrill, of Anderson, Texas; they had three children, Bertie; Elizabeth and Robert; [3] Margaret E., born at Salisbury, Feb. 14, 1809, married 1824, to Edward Cross, who was born at Chestnut Hill, Penn., 1804, died 1833; moved to LaFayette Co., Tenn. Issue; seven children: (a) Caroline V., born 1826, married 1849 to Wm. Sledge of Panola county, Mississippi, moved to Washington county, Texas in 1851, then to Memphis, Tennessee in 1872. They had Wm. M. born 1850: Margaret E., born 1853 and Edward C. born 1854.

(b) Elizabeth M., born at Salisbury, 1827; married (1843) Samuel P. Badhget, died in Texas in 1866; issue: Ophelia, died in infancy





(c) Daniel F., died in infancy, as did (d) Susannah.

(e) Edward born April 1st, 1833, lives in Austin, Texas:

(f) Mary An = born 1835 in Lafayetre county, Tennessee, married first, 1856, to Leonidas B. Lemay of Wake county, N.C.; in 1862 to Col. Allen Lewis of Maine, who was lost at sea in 1870. Issue: Ida, Elizabeth, Mary Ann who are dead; Leonidas B. Lemay, born January 21st, 1857 and Allen Lewis, who are living in Memphis, Tennessee.

(D.) Sarah, the fourth child of Caleb Phifer, married Dr. Wm. Honston of Mecklenburg, a successful practitioner of great wealth. They moved to Bedford County, Tennessee. Issue: Lydia married 1823 to Dr. Wm. Rhoan, they moved to Tennessee and reared a large family; Caleb married and has a family, lives at Shelbyville, Tennessee; Wm. married Miss Steele and has a family; Louisa married and has a family.

(E.) Barbara born 1770, died 1819; married (1809) Abram C. McRee of Cabarrus. Issue: (1) Cornelius, married Margaret Means and moved to Alabama, where they reared a family; (2) Mary Ann married to Dr. Robert Means, and had one child, Poindexter, they live in Alabama; (3) Margaret, and (4) Phifer who married Miss Burt of Alabama and has a family.

(F) Mary, married Dr. Robert McKenzie, an eminent physician of Charlotte; removed to Bedford county, Tennessee, then to Mississippi, Lousiana and finally settled in Grimes county, Texas, where they died and were buried on the same day. Issue: (1) Rebecca, wife of Dr. Moses W. Moore (see ante page lxix.) (2) Joseph, unmarried; (3) John, married and has three children; (4) Mary, died in infancy; (5) Lucy married Pinkston, living in Grimes county, Texas, has a family of four children.

(G) Ann, as has been stated became the wife of John N. Phifer.

(H.) John Fulenwider, born 1786, died 1826; educated at Dr. Robertson's school, at Poplar Tent; entered the University; married Louisa Morrison of Lancaster S. C. Issue: a son and a daughter, who died in infancy, and Caleb, born 1825, died 1844, distinguished for scholarship at school, and afterwards at Princeton; then read law with Judge Pearson. So young and full of high promises of usefulness, he died in his 19th year, and so the Caleb Phifer branch of the family became extinet, as he was the last male member of that branch

III.

Martin jr. born at “Cold Water,” March 25th, 1756, died at the “Blaek Jacks,” November 12th, 1837; married (1778) Elizabeth Locke, who was born 1758, died, 1791; he was Colonel of a Regiment of horse, on duty at Philadelphia, and was distinguished for gallantry in the field. And received high mention for his personal bravery in the papers of State. He was the largest land-owner in the State, and had a great number of slaves. Had issue: John, George, Mary, Margaret and Ann.

Issue: (A) John, born at Cold Water, September 1st, 1779; died October 18th, 1845; entered at Dr. McCorckle's school at Thytira church in Rowan county: at the University in the first year of that institution, graduated in 1799, with first honors; married August 27, 1805, Esther Fulenwider, a daughter of John Fulenwider of “High Shoals,” Lincoln county N. C., who was born 1784, died 1846. Member of the Legislature 1803 to 1806; in House of Commons 1810 to 1819; and in the Senate in 1824. Defeated by Forney for Congress by twenty-five majority. “He lived a blessing, and his name will ever remain an honor to his family, his county and his State.”

He was one of the most intellectual and highly cultivated men of his time. His speeches





in the House and Senate show remarkable ability. His public career, which promised to be one of unusual brillianey, was cut off by the failure of his eye-sight. He became almost totally blind in the latter part of his life. He was noted for his wonderful popularity, his great decision of character, and his eloquence as a speaker.

Had issue: Martin, John Fulenwider, Caleb, Elizabeth, Mary Simianer, George Locke, Sarah Ann, Margaret Locke, Esther Louisa, Mary Burton. (1) Martin, born December 30th, 1806, died September 11th, 1852; married Eliza, daughter of Jacob Ramseur, of Lincolnton, N. C.; had no issue. (2) John Fulenwider, born August 13, 1808, died January 10, 1850; educated by Dr. Wilson near Rocky River church; a merchant and planter, died unmarried. (3) Caleb, born June 16, 1810; died March 11, 1878; educated at Dr. Wilson's, most prominent in financial and manufacturing schemes; director of N. C. R. R. for years. Member of House of Commons in 1844; and of Constitutional Convention of 1861-62. He was a student all during his life, and was well posted in both the scientific and current literature of the day. He married [1838] Mary Adeline, third child of David Ramseur, of Lincolnton, who was born Aug. 5th, 1817, died Sept. 20th, 1881. Issue: [a] Esther, born December 23, 1840, died September 5th, 1857; [b] David Ramseur, born April 14th, 1839; a graduate of Davidson and of William and Mary in Virginia; served in the C. S. Army; became a merchant in Newberry; married Sarah Whitmire; had issue: Mary, Henry, Martin and Elizabeth.

[d] John Locke, born October 28th, 1842, died January 26th, 1880; was educated in Philadelphia; served in 20th, N. C. Vols.; became a most sucessful merchant; [e] Charles Henry, born September 28th 1847; served in the Confederate Artillery; then graduated at Davidson College (1866); a civil engineer by education. Now successful as a merchant; [f] Robert Fulenwider, born November 17th, 1849; graduate of Davidson [1866] successful as a planter and cotton buyer; [g] Martin, born June 26th, 1855, died March 10th 1881; [h] Sarah Wilfong, born February 26th, 1859, married [1883] to Marshall N. Williamson in Winston.

[4] Elizabeth, fourth child of John Phifer born April 20th, 1812, married Dr. Edmund R. Gibson at the “Black Jacks,” February 25th, 1835. Dr. Gibson was born July 6th, 1809, died May 28th, 1872, in Rowan County, an eminent physician, of large estate. Issue: [a] Esther Margaret, born 1836, died an infant; [b] William Henry born June 2nd, 1837, killed at Gettysburg, 1863; [c] John Phifer born January 5th, 1839; served as Lieutenant in the civil war; married Martha M. Kirkpatrick, [1864,] and had Mary Grace. Now a merchant of Concord; [d] James Cunningham, born November 10th, 1840, served in the Confederate Army, also Clerk of Court; married Elizabeth Puryear [1876] and has Elizabeth, William Henry, Richard Puryear and Jennie Marshall; [e] George Locke, born March 15th, 1844, died 1877; [f] Robert Erwin, born March 15th, 1844, married [1876] Emily Magruder of Winchester, Virginia, issue: Emily Magruder and Robert Magruder; successful merchant in Concord.

(5) Mary Simianer, fifth child of John Phifer, born December 7th, 1814, died an infant.

[6] George Locke, sixth child; born June 7th, 1817, died June 6th, 1879; entered the school of Robert I. McDowell, and then at Greensboro; a planter; married [1847] Rosa Allen Pennick, daughter of Rev. Daniel Pennick, of the Virginia Presbytery; Issue: [a] Agnes Tinsley born August 24th, 1850, married [1876] to Albert Heiling of Rowan, had George

[b] Esther Louisa born May 24th, 1852.

[c] Sarah Maria born July 25th, 1854.





[d] Annie Rosa born March 29th, 1857.

[e] Mary Elizabeth born July 11th, 1859, died August 25th, 1882 married [1881] Will-Ramseur of Newton.

[f] Daniel Pennick born December 14th, 1861.

[g] John Young, born June 5th, 1864.

[h] George Willis born February 1st, 1868.

[i] Emma Garland, born September 4th, 1869.

[7] Sarah Ann, born October 23rd, 1819; married May 31st, 1842, to Robert W. Allison of Cabarrus, who was born April 24th, 1806, a man of prominence, chairman of County Commissioners, in legislature of 1865-66; delegate to Convention of 1875.

Issue: [a] Esther Phifer, born November 27th 1843, married [1866] Samuel White of York county S. C., Capt. 7th N. C. Vols., C. S. A. issue: four children, Grace Allison, the only one living.

[b] Joseph Young, born July 16th, 1846, educated at the University of Virginia; read law with Chief Justice Pearson, became a presbyterian elergyman, married [1876] Sarah Cave Durant.

[c] John Phifer, born August 22d, 1848; a merchant in Concord; married [1880] Annie Erwin, daughter of Hon. Burton Craige.

[d] Mary Louisa, born March 27th, 1850, died 1878.

[e] Elizabeth Adeline, born March 26th, 1852, married [1875] to John M White of Fort Mills, S. C.; he was Colonel 6th S. C. Vols. C. S. A., and died 1877. She lives near Fort Mills.

[f] William Henry, born February 26th, 1854, died in infaney as did the three following.

[g] Caroline Jane, born October 23d, 1855.

[h] Annie Susan, born December 16th 1857. [i] Robert Washington born March 15th 1862.

[8] Margaret Locke, eighth child of John Phifer, born December 7th, 1821, died in infancy.

[9] Esther Louisa, born May 31st, 1824; married to Robert Young of Cabarrus, Capt. C. S. A.; killed July 1864; she died July 9th, 1865; had John Young, Capt C. S. A., killed at Chancellorsville, May 3d. 1863,

[10] Mary Burton, tenth child of John Phifer, born November 10th, 1826; educated in Philadelphia, married [1850] John A. Bradshaw of Rowan, now lives in New York. Issue: Harriet Ellis, Mary Grace, Annie, Elizabeth, John who died 1866.

[B] George, second child of Martin Phifer, jr., was born February 24th, 1782, died January 23d, 1819; merchant and planter; Clerk of the Court; married [1808] Sarah, daughter of John Fulenwider of High Shoals, Lincoln county, N. C. She was born 1786, and and after the death of George Phifer married Joseph Young, whom she survived, and died January 24th, 1868, at Hon. J. H. Wilson's house in Charlotte.

Issue to George and Sarah Phifer: [a] William Fulenwider, born February 13th, 1809; graduate of Hampden-Sidney College; merchant at Concord; married [1833] Sarah Smith, and had Sarah, wife of John Morehead; who had Annie, Margaret, William, Louisa and John. On the death of his wife, William [a] removed to Lownds County, Alabama; cotton planter there; returned to North Carolina and married [1849] Martha White, issue; [1] William; [2] Robert Smith, educated in Germany; remarkable musical talent, he married Bella Mc. Ghee of Caswell county, and has Wilhelmine, Thomas Mc. Ghee and Robert; [3] George; [4] Mary married [1882] to M. C. Quinn; [5] Cordelia; [6] Josephine married [1880] William G. Durant of Fort Mills, S. C., they have Mary and William Gilmore; [7] Edward.





[b] John Fulenwider, born May 1st, 1810, married [1839] Elizabeth Caroline, a daughter of David Ramseur, she was born 1819; removed to Lownds county, Alabama; returned to Lincolnton. Issue: [1] George, born February 10th, 1841; educated at Davidson; served with distinction as Captain in the line, [C. S Army,] and afterwards on General R. F. Hoke's staff; married [1879] Martha Avery of Burke county; issue: John; Moulton; George; Edward; Isaac; Walton; Maud; Waightstill. He is a cotton manufacturer at Lincolnton; [2] William Locke, born February 17th, 1843, killed at Chickamauga, Tennessee, September 20th, 1863; [3] Edward born May 8th 1844; Captain C. S. Vols. He died from wounds received before Petersburg, June 18th, 1864; [4] Mary Wilfong born December 25th, 1856, married [1881] to Stephen Smith of Livingston, Alabama, has one child Stephen.

[c] Mary Louisa, born December 3d, 1814; married [1846] to Hon. Joseph Harvey Wilson*; issue: [1] George married Bessie Witherspoon of Sumter, S. C., who have Mary Louise, Hamilton, and Annie Witherspoon. He graduated at Davidson and at the University of Virginia; [2] Mary married Charles E. Johnston, who have Mary Wilson and Charles.

[d] Elizabeth Ann, the twin sister of Mary Louisa; educated at Hillsboro; married [1837] to E. Jones Erwin of Burke, who died in 1871. Issue: Phifer married [1875] Corrinna Morehead Avery; and have Annie Phifer; Corrinna Morehead and Addie Avery; [2] Mary Jones married (1874) to Mitchell Rogers and have one child Francis; [3] Sallie married [1882] to Dr. Moran and have one child, Annie Rankin.

[e] Martin Locke born January 25th, 1818, died March 9th, 1853; educated at Bingham's school; removed to Lownds county, Alabama; a planter. Returned to N. C. [1848] married Sarah C. Hoyle of Gaston county. Left no issue

[C] Mary Phifer, third child of Martin Phifer, jr., born December 1st, 1774; died 1860,

[note]



and is buried at Tuscaloosa, Ala. Married [1803] to William Crawford, of Lancaster, S. C. Issue: Elizabeth and William. After Mr. Crawford's death she married James Childers, of N. C., and moved to Tuscaloosa. Issue:

[a] Elizabeth Crawford married John Doby, and had [1] Joseph, who married Margaret Harris and has a family; [2] Martin married Sallie Grier, and had one child; on her death he married Sallie Sadler; [3] James married Mary Walker and has a family; [4] William married Altonia Grier, and had children.

[b] William Crawford married Lucretia Mull. and had [1] Thomas, married 1st Mary Price, 2nd Mrs. Klutz, and has a family; [2] William married Miss Smith, and has a family; [3] James married Sallie Heilig, and have children; [4] Robert married Miss Crawford, and they have children; [5] Lee married Miss Peeden, and has children.

(c) Ann Childers married to — Walker; issue: (1) Mary; (2)—; (3) Martin; (4)—.

(d) Susan Childers married Reed, but has no issue.

(e) Jas Childers, married, and has a family.

(D) Margaret, fourth child of Martin Phifer, jr., born December 7th, 1786; married [January 7th, 1808,] James Erwin of Burke, Co., N. C. Issue, seven children: [1] William, married Matilda Walton, and they had five children; merchant in Morganton; his second wife was Mrs. Gaston, but had no issue; after her death he married Kate Happoldt, and to them were born two children. His children are [a] Clara, married to McIntyre, and has a family, the oldest named Matilda; [b] Anna, married Robert McConnehey, and they have children; [c] Laura, married to M. Jones, but had no issue; [d] Henrietta, married to Gray Bynum; [e] Ella married George Greene, and they have three children. By his third wife he had [f] Margaret and (g. Evelyn.

(2) Joseph Erwin, married Elvira Holt. He has been in the Legislature several terms, and once served as clerk of the court. Issue: Mary L.; Matilda; Margaret, married to Lawrence Holt, of Company Shops, and have five children; Cora, married John Grant, of Alamance Co. [3] Martin, married Jane Huie, of Salisbury, issue: five children; then to Miss Blackmann; issue: three children; moved to Maury Co., Tenn., and there died. (4] George, married Margaret Hinson, of Burke Co., moved to Tenn.; they have nine children.

(5) Elizabeth, married Hon. Burton Craige, of Salisbury; issue: [a] James; [b] Kerr, a prominent lawyer, in Legislature from Rowan, declined nomination for Congress; married Josephine, daughter of Gen. L. O'B. Branch, and their children are Nannie, Burton, Branch, Josephine, Bessie and Kerr; [c] Frank, married [1877] Fannie Williams, of Williamsport, Tenn., have three children; [d] Mary Elizabeth, married Alfred Young, of Cabarrus, and have Lizzie, Fannie, Annie and Mary; [e] Annie, married to John P. Allison, of Concord.

(7) Alexander.

(6) Sarah, married John McDowell, of Burke; they have seven children, none of whom are married; James E, Margaret, John, William, Frank Elizabeth and Kate.

[E] Ann, the fifth and last child of Martin Phifer, jr., born March 8th, 1788, died at Lancaster, S. C., July 1st, 1855; married John Crawford, of Lancaster, brother of William, who married her sister Mary.

Issue: [1] Martin married Alice Harris, they had four children: Charles Harris, married Sadie Baskins; Anne, James and John.

[2] Elizabeth, married George Witherspoon, a lawyer of Lancaster, S. C., where they live, they have four children: John, who married Addie White, of Rock Hill, S. C.; James, Annie and George.

[3] Robert, married Malivia Massey, and have three children: Martin, Robert and Ella. They live in Lancaster, S. C.





CHAPTER I.
ALAMANCE COUNTY.

THIS COUNTY preserves the memories of the first conflict of arms between the Royal Troops of England, [16th May, 1771,] and the people of the Colonies. Then and there was the first blood of the Colonists spilled in the United States, in resistance to the oppressions of the English Government and the exactions of its unscrupulons agents. Tryon, the Royal Governor of the Province of North Carolina, exhibited in his administration the bloodthirsty temper of “the great wolf,” as he was so appropriately termed by the Indians of the State.

The officers of the Government, by exactions in the shape of fees and taxes, grieviously oppressed an industrious and needy people. The people bore these exactions with patience; remonstrating in their public meetings, in respectful but decided terms. This simple-minded people, without aid from much learning or books, knew and laid down the great fundamental principles of good government, “that taxation and representation should go together, that the people had the right to resist taxation when not imposed by their legal representatives, and also the right to know for what purpose taxes were imposed, and how appropriated.” These principles were derided by the imperious Tryon, and terminated in open conflict of arms. The Regulators were vanquished by superior force and discipline, but the great germs of right and liberty were firmly planted in their minds, and a few years later bore the fruits of victory and independence. Had this battle terminated differently, (and under skilful leaders, and at a later period, this would have been the case,) the banks of the Alamance would have rivaled Bunker Hill and Lexington; and the name of Husbands, Merrill and Caldwell would have ranked with the Warrens and Putnams of a later day.

A writer on North Carolina History, as to this revolt, states that “the cause of the Regulators has been the subject of much unmerited obloquy, clouded as it has been by the heavy pages of Williamson and Martin, and the ignorant disquisitions of untutored scribblers. Although on the occasion they were overthrown, their principles were intimately connected with the chain of events that directly led to the Revolution, and struck out that spark of independence which soon blazed from Massachusetts to Georgia.” (Jos. Seawell Jones’ Defence of North Carolina.)





  • For Time at last sets all things even,
  • And if we do but watch the hour,
  • There never yet was human power,
  • That could evade if unforgiven,
  • The patient search, the vigil long,
  • Of him who treasures up a wrong.

I copied from the Rolls Office when in England, a dispatch from the Royal Governor of North Carolina, (Martin) dated Hillsboro, 30th August, 1772, never before published. The Governor describes his journey to the western part of North Carolina, through the Moravian settlements, which he pronounces “models of industry,” to Salisbury. He passed through the region of the late disturbances. He records: “My eyes have been opened in regard to these commotions. These people have been provoked by the insolence and cruel advantages taken of their ignorance by mercenary, tricking attorneys, clerks, and other little officers, who have practiced upon them every sort of rapine and extortion. The resentment of the Government was craftily worked up against the oppressed; protection denied to them, when they expected to find it, and drove them to desperation, which ended in bloodshed. My indignation is not only disarmed, but converted into pity.”

Thus by the highest cotemporaneous authority are the acts and principles of the Regulators fully justified. These acts were but connecting links in the chain of events which led to the Revolution. Soon followed the events on the Cape Fear in 1772-’73 and ’74, then the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence of 20th May, 1775, then the actual conflict of arms at Moore's Creek in February, 1776. All acts done in North Carolina, with few exceptions, before any similar events had occurred elsewhere in this country. How bright are such glorious records and how proud are we of the memories of the people who present them to coming posterity!

  • —. They never fail who die
  • In a great cause: —
  • — Though years
  • Elapse, and others share as dark a doom,
  • They but augment the deep and sweeping thoughts
  • Which overpower all others, and conduct
  • The world at last to freedom.”—
  • [BYRON.]

This county was long the residence of Thomas Ruffin. [Born 1787—Died 1870.]

On entering the Supreme Court room of North Carolina, now more than fifty years ago, we observed on the bench of this exalted tribunal the commanding person of Thomas Ruffin, for twenty years one of the Justices of that Court, and for many years its Chief Justice. During this long period he was called upon to decide questions involving the life and interest of individuals, and complicated and intricate points of constitutional, common and statute law. The able opinions delivered by him have established his reputation as one of the first jurists of his age in this or any other country. His opinions are models of learning and logic, and are quoted as authority not only in our own courts but in those of other countries. Recently one of the Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, on reading one of Judge Ruffin's opinions, pronounced him “one of the ablest common law-jurists in America.”

In his ministration of the law he was by some considered stringent and at times severe, but he was always conscientious and inflexibly just.

He was not demonstrative in his feelings, but was cautious in his words and acts, select and sincere in his friendships, and steadfast in his attachments.

In his finances he was prudent even to rigid economy. This he adopted as a principle, not believing in wastefulness or extravagance. His house was open to his friends and was well known as the abode of unstinted hospitality. He was exact and precise in his engagements, and punctual in performance.

In person he was spare, uniform and neat in





his dress, of a presence at once striking, commanding and venerable. To many who knew them both, he resembled, not only in mental qualifications but in person, Thomas Jefferson; both highly educated; both of the same profession; both of the same political faith; both, in all the domestic relations of life, devoted and affectionate, and both natives of the same State; and in person about same height, same colored hair, and the same expression of countenance, indicating great energy, resolution and decision of character.

Not only as a jurist was Judge Ruffin distinguished, but as an able financier, and skilful and successful as an agriculturist.

He was born in King and Queen county, Virginia, 17th November, 1787, the eldest son of Sterling and Alice Ruffin. He graduated at Princeton, 1805. Read law with David Robinson, an eminent lawyer in Petersburg, in same office at the same time with Winfield Scott. He came to North Carolina in 1807 with his father and settled at Hillsboro, where he married on 7th December, 1809, Ann, eldest daughter of William Kirkland, by whom he had a large family of thirteen children, among them was William Kirkland, (recently deceased;) Sterling; Peter Brown; Thomas; John, doctor; Mrs. Roulhae; Ann, who married Paul C. Cameron; Alice died unmarried; Mrs. Brodnax; Mrs. Edmund Ruffin; Patty, (unmarried;) Sally married Upton B. Gynn, Jr.

He was elected to the Legislature from Hillsboro in 1813, 1815 and 1816; the latter year he was chosen Speaker; and the same year elected Judge of the Superior Court, which after two years’ service he resigned. In 1825 he was again elected Judge, and in 1829 was elected one of the Justices of the Supreme Court, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Judge Taylor, which in 1852 he resigned. He was again elected in 1856, and again resigned in 1858. For several years after his retiring from the bench of the Supreme Court the served his fellow citizens as presiding Judge of the county court. In the Spring of 1861, he attended that barren convention at Washington, “The Peace Congress,” with John M. Morehead, David S. Reid, Daniel M. Barringer, and George Davis as colleagues.

“The judicial ermine so long and so worthily worn,” says Mrs. Spencer, “not only shielded him, but absolutely forbade all active participation in party politics.” But he was no idle or uninterested spectator of the current of events. He was opposed to nullification in 1832, and did not believe in the rights of secession in 1860. In private circles he combatted both heresies with all that “inexorable logic” which the London Times declared to be characteristic of his judicial opinions. He declared “the sacred right of revolution” as the remedy for the redress of our grievances.

But the cloud in the political horizon grew thicker and heavier. When the State took the final step of secession, he felt it to be a duty to follow her fortunes.

He was elected to the State Convention at Raleigh, and voted for the Ordinance of Secession. Then was his last public service.

He was a communicant of the Episcopal Church, and warmly attached to that mode and form of worship; but liberal and tolerant to the worth and virtues of other denominations, and in the consolations of Christian faith and hopes of its promises, in the full possession of his mental faculties, in charity and peace with all, he died on 15th January, 1870, at Hillsboro, loved and lamented by all who knew him.

  • —Sure the end of the good man is peace,
  • How calm his exit! Night dews
  • Fall not more gently to the ground
  • Nor weary, worn out winds expire more soft.

Rufus Yaney McAden represented Alamance County in 1865, and was elected Speaker of the House.

He graduated at Wake Forest College, studied law and achieved prominence and position





at the bar; but his fame rests chiefly on his reputation as a skilful financier. He is the grandson of the distinguished statesman and orator, Bartlet Yancy, and inherits much of the ability of his distinguished ancestor.

Thomas Michael Holt was born in Orange County, now Alamance County, on 17th October, 1855; is by occupation a farmer and a manufacturer.

He is the President of the State Agricultural Society since 1872. He is the principal owner of the “Haw River Mills,” which has done much to encourage the cotton manufactories in the South. They are an ornament to the State. He was elected President of the North Carolina Railroad in 1874; and senator from Alamance and Orange in November, 1876. He is by all acknowledged to be a farmer of unequalled success; a manufacturer of great skill, and a friend and patron of internal improvement, believing with the poet that—

  • Art, commerce and fair science, three,
  • And sisters linked in love,
  • They traverse sky, land and sea,
  • Protected from above.

CHAPTER II.
ANSON COUNTY.

ANSON at one time [1749] comprehended the whole western part of the State. Its early history is full of incident, of the sturdy opposition of her sons to oppression, and sympathy with the Regulators of Orange County against the unrighteous exactions of the administration of the Government officers, which rose to such a height that the people in 1768 entered the court house and by force violently expelled the officers of the court, and each took an oath of self-defence and mutual protection.

I copied from the Rolls Office in England the oath prescribed, transmitted to the Earl of Hillsboro by Gov. Tryon, in a dispatch dated

“BRUNSWICK, 24th Dec., 1768.

“I do solemnly swear that if any officer or any other person do make distress of any goods or any other estate of any person sworne herein, being a subscriber, for non-payment of taxes, that I will, with sufficient assistance, go and take, if in my power, the goods or other property thus distressed, and restore the same to the party from whom the same was taken. And in case anyone concerned herein should be imprisoned, or under arrest, I will immediately do my best endeavours to raise as many of the said subscribers as will be a force sufficient to set said person and his estate at liberty. If any of our company for such acts be put to any expense or confinement, I will bear an equal share to make up the losses to the sufferer.

“All these I do promise, and subscribe my name.”

This paper has never before been published.

In a memorial of the people of Anson County to Gov. Tryon, they complain of the conduct of “Col.” Samuel Spencer, the clerk and member of the county, who purchased his office of Col. Frohawk, and gave £150 for it, and they allege that the people should not be taxed but by consent of themselves or their delegates,





and they recommend that the magistrates, clerk, and sheriff should be elected by the people.*

What an early and rapid stride did these patriotic men take, at this early day, in the right of the people to govern themselves, and declare a principle that fifty years after became the law of the land!

I find among the early records the name James Cotten, and from curiosity more than a hope that the memory of such a man may be useful, we present his infamous conduct. We could wish in describing the men of our State, to present only the patriotic, the virtuous, and the good; and, like the motto of the Roman sun-dial—

“Non numero horas, nisi serenas.”

But truth demands that we should present facts. Such men as Cotten, in these perilous times, were only

“Vermin gendered on the Lion's mane—”

whose acts consign them to contempt.

Among the Colonial records in London, I find the following letter:

“CRUISER SLOOP OF WAR,

“21 July, 1775.

“I have received your letter of the 15th inst., by Mr. Cunningham, and highly approve of your proper and spirited conduct, while I cannot sufficiently express my indignation and contempt of the proceedings of Captain-General Spencer and his unworthy confederates. You and other friends of the Government have only to stand your ground firmly!

“Major Snead may be assured of my attentions to all his wishes.

“I beg my compliments may be presented to Colonel MacDonald.

“I am, Sir,

“Your humble servant,.

“JO. MARTIN.

“To Lt. Col. James Cotten,

“Anson Co., N. C.”

I found, also, among the Colonial records in London, the deposition of James Cotten, taken 14th Aug., 1775, on board of His Majesty's sloop of war, the “Cruiser,” where he had been for succor and for safety. Anson County had become rather too hot for him, which proves the determined spirits of the patriots, and whose names should be cherished in history. This deposition states—

“I was called before the committee for Anson County; and Samuel Spencer, the chairman, stated that they had sent for me as one of the burgesses of the county, to know if I would sign and approve of the resolves of the Continental Congress, which were read to me by Mr. Thomas Wade. I refused. They said that they should proceed against me, and gave me two weeks to consider.

“On the Tuesday following, David Love, accompanied by William Love, Samuel Curtis, William Covington, and another, all armed, came to my house and took me, nolens volens, towards Mask's Ferry, on the Pedee.

“I escaped from them, traveling as secretly as possible, sleeping in the woods at night, and reached this vessel on Sunday night last.”

Deposition of Samuel Williams, who escaped with Colonel Cotten, taken at the same time and place:

From dispatch of Gov. Martin, dated—

“NEW YORK, 15th Sept., 1777.

“Two vessels have arrived here from North Carolina, bringing refugees.—

“A Mr. James Cotten, of No. Ca., who went hence some time ago, will probably have waited on your Lordship.

“He is a man of vulgar life and character, and is a native of New England, and I do not estimate him very highly.”

We now will bid “Good-bye to James.”

Allusion has been made to Samuel Spencer.

He was a member of the Colonial Assembly at an early day, and in 1774 elected to the Provincial Congress at New Berne, which was the first organized movement of the people in a legislative capacity in open opposition, and independent of the Royal Government. This body sent delegates to the Continental Congress at Philadelphia.

[note]



It may be interesting for reference, to note the Provincial Congresses, the place and time from the first to the last, which formed the Constitution.

1st met on 25th August, 1774, New Berne; 2d met on 4th April, 1775, New Berne; 3d met on 21st August, 1775, Hillsboro; 4th met on 12th April, 1776, Halifax; 5th met on 12th November, 1776, Halifax; which latter body formed the Constitution on 18th December, 1776.

He was repeatedly elected to the State Congresses, and in 1777 was chosen one of the three judges of the Superior Courts, first elected under the State Constitution, which elevated position he held until his death.

He was a member of the convention at Hillsboro, in July, 1788, to deliberate upon the Federal Constitution, its able and active opponent, and contributed greatly to its rejection.

Of his character and career as a judge (since of this early day there do not exist any reports of the decisions of the courts) we know but little; but from his long exercise of this high office with the approbation and respect of his associates, he was esteemed a faithful and able jurist. He died in 1794. The account of the singular cause of his death, as stated in my History of North Carolina, having been doubted, we extract from the Fayetteville Gazette of 1794 the following:

“DIED.—At his seat in Anson County on the 20th ulto., the Honorable Samuel Spencer, L. L. D., and one of the Judges of the Superior Courts of this State. His Honor's health had been declining for about two years, but he performed the last circuit three months since, and we understand intended to have left home in a few days for this town, where the Superior Court is now sitting, had it not been for the following accident which it is thought hastened his death.

“He was sitting on the piazza with a red cap on his head, when he attracted the attention of a large turkey gobbler. The judge being sleepy began to nod; the turkey mistaking the nodding and the red cap for a challenge to battle, made so violent and unexpected an attack on his Honor, that he was thrown out of his chair on the floor, and before he could get any assistance, so beat and bruised him that he died in a few days.”

A Philadelphia paper, at the time, as to this occurence, makes the following jeu d'esprit.

  • In this degenerate age,
  • What hosts of knaves engage,
  • And do all they can
  • To fetter braver men;
  • Dreading they should be free,
  • Leagued with the scoundrel pack,
  • Even turkey cocks attack
  • The red cap of Liberty.

In this county resides Thomas Samuel Ashe, one of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of North Carolina.

The maxim is correct in history as in other matters, “Viventes non licet nemium laudare.” But our Reminiscences of the State would he incomplete without a sketch of this worthy citizen. In doing so, however, the advice of Othello will be observed:

—Speak of me as I am;

Nothing extenuate, or set down aught in malice.

There is no name more familiar to the people of North Carolina, or more highly appreciated by them, than that of Ashe. In every contest for liberty, from the earliest period of our history, whether on the field of actual battle or in the conflicts of politics, there is no period when persons of this name have not been first and foremost in the defence of our country's rights and liberty, and in the prompt resistance to oppression. In grateful appreciation, the State has preserved the name of Ashe, by inseribing it on one of her counties and on two of her most flourishing towns.* Surely, then, none of us of the present age, who have inherited the rich legacy won by their efforts and their blood, can refuse the respect and honor due to their sacrifices and their valor.

[note]



The ancestor of this name, John Baptista Ashe, a century and a half ago, [1730,] opposed the abuses and usurpations of the Royal Governor Burrington, by whom he was oppressed and imprisoned. His eldest son, in the earliest dawn of our Revolution, was the decided advocate and defender of popular rights, and the resolute and unyielding opponent of tyranny and official abuse. He was the daring patriot that “bearded the Douglas in his castle,” and defied “the wolf of the State,” Gov. Tryon, to execute the infamous Stamp Act of his master. He seized, in his very presence, the stamp master, and compelled him to pledge himself not to execute the odious enactment. It was he that drove the last of the Royal Governors from his palace, destroyed his fort, and compelled him to seek refuge on board of the English man-of-war in the Cape Fear River. For these acts he was denounced by the Government in a Royal proclamation. In the cause of popular rights he was willing “to spend and be spent,” and did spend his substance, and was ready to lay down his life in the cause of the people. His course and conduct received, as it deserved, the support of the people. “They loved him because he first loved them.” “None feared to follow where an Ashe led.” So far from heeding or fearing the fulminations of power, he resigned the commission he had held in the Royal service, and by pledging his estate he soon raised a regiment, which he was unanimously called to command, and rendered important services in the Revolutionary War to the day of his death.

“This family,” says Mr. Davis, in his address at the University, [1855,] “contributed largely to the cause of the country in the Revolution—every grown male of the family.” Deep, then, should be our gratitude. They and their descendants have since pervaded our country, from the Cape Fear to the mountains; to Tennessee, California, Missouri, and elsewhere. Wherever they have gone they are respected for their virtues, and esteemed for their abilities. They have occupied, in their adopted homes, positions of honor, trust, and profit, illustrated and elevated such positions, as Jones, in his Defence, has expressed it, “by genius, talent, and accomplishments.”

Another son of John Baptista Ashe, and whose patronomic the subject of our sketch bears, was his direct ancestor.

Judge Ashe was born in June, 1812, at Hawfields, then Orange County, now Alamance. He received his education from William Bingham, the elder, and at the University of the State, where he graduated with high honors in 1832, in the same class with Thomas L. Clingman, James C. Dobbin, John H. Haughton, Cadwallader Jones, and others. Those who know these names, and their splendid endowments, and their brilliant career in life, will appreciate the honor attained in such competition. He read law with Judge Ruflin, with whom he always was a special favorite. After being licensed to practice law, by the Supreme Court, he settled at Wadesboro, where he now resides. He was elected a member of the House of Commons in 1812, and a member of the Senate in 1854.

In the troubled times of the civil war, he was elected a member of the Confederate Congress, and in 1864, a member of the Confederate Senate, but never took his seat.

In 1868, he was nominated to lead a forlorn hope, as the Democratic candidate for Governor, in opposition to Governor Holden, and made a gallant, but unsuccessful, campaign. In 1872, he received the unexpected and unsolicited nomination for the Congress of the United States; and again in 1874. He was triumphantly elected, and served faithfully and usefully. No member of either party stood higher in Congress for integrity, intelligence, and fidelity to the Constitution. A member of





one of the most important committees (the Judiciary), he commanded the confidence and respect of his associates, and many of their most important reports were the results of his acumen and patient investigation. He was most attentive to these onerous duties; always punctual in his attendance, and rendered essential service in their deliberations.

After four years’ service in Congress, to the universal and profound regret of his associates, he was retired from Congress by the nominating convention of his district, and he returned to his profession, which was far more germane to his tastes and his talents than the bustle and excitement of political strife. It is well remembered by the writer of this sketch, how universal and sincere, in Congress and out of it, were the expressions of regret at his retirement. The prediction was then made which soon became prophecy, that “North Carolina was too proud of such a son to allow him to remain long in retirement; that soon he would be called on to occupy other and more elevated positions.” This prediction has been verified; for, without any intimation or exertion on his part, in June, 1878, he was nominated by the State Convention, on the first ballot, as one of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court, in preference to a score of the ablest lawyers of the State.

He was triumphantly elected, at the head of the ticket, by the people at the polls, and we predict, again, that the ermine worn so long and so gracefully by our Hall, Henderson, Taylor, Ruflin, Daniel, Gaston and others will suffer no detriment from Judge Ashe.

Judge Ashe is now in the meridian of life, and there are years of strength and usefulness yet to be employed by him in the interest of the people of a State that love and honor him. He married a daughter of the late George Burgwin, and has a large and interesting family. He is a member of the Episcopal Church, and a consistent and sincere follower of its sacred tenets.

We conclude our feeble sketch in the words of Cardinal Wolsey of Sir Thomas More:

—He is a learned man!

May he continue long in the people's favor,

And do justice for truth's sake and his conscience;

That his bones, when he has done his course and sleeps in blessings,

May have a tomb of orphans’ tears wept over them.

[See Appendix, Genealogy of the Ashe Family.]

Richard Tyler Bennett was born near Wadesboro. He was prepared for college by the Anson Institute, under the superintendence of Professor McIver, and was for a time a student at the University. He read law under Chief Justice Pearson, and finished his legal studies at Lebanon College, Tennessee.

He ardently entered the Confederate service in the Civil War as a private, refusing the position of an officer; but afterwards, from his gallantry and usefulness, was promoted to a coloneley. He was engaged in several battles, severely wounded, and finally taken prisoner, and confined in Fort Delaware until the close of the war.

Since the war he has continually resided at Wadesboro, and for some years was the partner of Hon. Thomas S. Ashe.

He was a member of the Convention of 1875, and of the House in 1873-’74. He was selected as elector for this [7th] district on the Hancock ticket, and was doing yeoman's service in this position when he was nominated as Superior Court Judge, in place of Judge Buxton, resigned, in August, 1880.

“He is,” says the Charlotte Democrat, “a gifted advocate, and highly esteemed by the profession.”





CHAPTER III.
BEAUFORT COUNTY.

BEAUFORT COUNTY preserves the name Henry Somerset, Duke of Beanfort, and although it is not within our proposed project, yet we cannot refrain from recording, in a short note, the worth and character of this illustrious statesman.

We copy from the “Gentleman's Magazine,” (London, 1803, vol. 73, 994,) as a beautiful description of a model gentleman:

“DIED.—At his seat Radmenton, County of Gloucester, on 11 Oct., 1803, in his 59th year, the most noble, Henry Sommerset, Duke of Beaufort.

“His Grace will be much lamented by his family, friends, and his numerous tenantry. He maintained the dignity of his station rather by the noble simplicity of his manners, and his proverbial hospitality, than by any attention to exterior splendor or display of fashion. It was not his taste to solicit notice by any of those attractions at which the public gaze with temporary admiration.

“In politics, he supported a trauquil, dignified independence, and the support he generally gave to His Majestics’ Ministers, could never be attributed to any motives but such as were perfectly consistent with the integrity which distinguished his life.”

He was a distinguished Free Mason; was Grand Master of England, and as such commissioned Grand Master Montford, of North Carolina, in 1771, to establish lodges in America, and from whom the Grand Lodge of North Carolina holds its charter. He became, by purchase of the Duke of Albemarle, possessed of the right as one of the Lord's Proprietors of the Province, which in 1729, revested in the crown. Worthy is the name preserved in our State.

The capital of Beaufort preserves the name (clarum et venerable) of the immortal Washington.

This name has been so frequently the subject of enlogy and admiration, that any attempt to enlarge on his character and services would be ridiculous excess. But we cannot refrain from printing and preserving the exquisite and truthful extract from Mr. Jefferson's works:

Jefferson's Character of Washington.*

Letter from Jefferson to Dr. Walter Jones, 2d Jan., 1814:

“I think I knew General Washington intimately and thoroughly. His mind was great and powerful without being of the very first order; his penetration strong, though not so acute as that of a Newton, Bacon, or Locke, and as far as he saw, no judgment was ever sounder; it was slow in operation, being little aided by invention or imagination, but sure in conclusion, hence the common remark of his officers of the advantage he derived from councils of war, where, hearing all suggestions, he selected whatever was best, and certainly no General ever planned his battles more judiciously. But if deranged during the course of action, if any member of his plan was dislocated by sudden circumstances, he was slow in a readjustment. The consequence was that he often failed in the field, as at Monmouth, but rarely against an enemy in station, as at Boston and York. He was incapable of fear, meeting personal danger with the calmest unconcern. Perhaps the strongest feature in his character was prudence; never acting until every circumstance, every consideration, was maturely weighed, refraining if he saw a doubt; but, when once decided, going through with his purpose whatever obstacles opposed. His integrity was most pure; his justice most inflexible I have never known; no motives of interest, or consanguinity of friendship or hatred, being able to bias his decision. He was, indeed, in every sense of the word, a wise, a good, and a great man. His temper was naturally irritable and high-toned; but reflection and resolution had obtained a firm and habitual ascendency over it; if ever, however, it broke its bounds, he was most

[note]



tremendous in his wrath. In his expenses he was honorable, but exact; liberal in contribution to whatever promised utility, but frowning and unyielding on all visionary projects, and all unworthy calls on his charity. His heart was not warm in its affections; but he exactly calculated every man's value and gave him solid esteem proportioned to it. His presence, you know, was fine; his stature exactly what one could wish. His deportment was easy, erect, and noble; the best horseman of his age, and the most graceful figure that could be seen on horseback.

“Although in the circle of his friends, where he might be unreserved in safety, he took a free share in conversation, his colloquial talents were not above mediocrity, possessing neither copiousness of ideas nor fluency of words. In public, when called on for a sudden opinion, he was unready, short, and embarrassed; yet he wrote readily, rather diffusely, in an easy, correct style. This he had acquired by conversation with the world, for his education was merely reading, writing, and common arithmetic, to which he added surveying at a later day.

“His time was employed in action chiefly, reading little, and that only in agriculture and English history. His correspondence became necessarily extensive, and with journalizing his agricultural proceedings, occupied most of his leisure hours within doors.

“On the whole, his character was, in its mass, perfect; in nothing bad; in a few points indifferent, and it may truly be said, that never did nature and fortune combine more perfectly to make a man great, and to place in the same constellation with whatever worthies have merited from man an everlasting remembrance, for his was the singular destiny and merit of leading the armies of his country successfully through an arduous war to the establishment of its independence; of conducting its councils through the birth of a Government, new in its forms and principles, until it settled down into a quiet and orderly train, and of scrupulously obeying the laws through the whole of his career, civil and military of which the history of the world furnishes no other example.

“He has often declared to me that he considered our new Constitution as an experiment on the practicability of republican government, and with what does of liberty man could be trusted with for his own good; that he was determined the experiment should have a fair trial, and would lose the last drop of his blood in support of it.”

To a friend, on one occasion, Mr. Jefferson exclaimed, in a burst of enthusiasm, “Washington's fame will go on increasing until the brightest constellation in yonder heavens shall be called by his name.”

  • His memory sparkles o'er the fountain.’
  • His name's inscribed on loftiest mountain—
  • The gentle rill, the mightiest river,
  • Rolls mingled with his name forever!

Washington, like the great patromia of Beaufort, was an enthusiastic Mason.

In the language of Mr. Knapp, in his admirable sketch of Judge Gridley, Grand Master of Massachusetts—

“It was fortunate for the Masonic fraternity that a man of such fine elements should become engaged at this early period in the cause of the craft; his weight of character, his zeal and his ability to defend and support its cause, was important, and did much to diffuse Masonic light and knowledge. This order of benevolence had just been established in this new world when he was appointed its Grand Master, and he wore its honors unsullied to the last hour of his life. His coadjutor in planting and cultivating this exuberant vine of charity, with whose fruit all nations have been blessed, was the sage and patriotic Franklin, under whose hands, by the smiles of Providence, its roots have struck deeper and deeper, and its branches spread higher and wider; while the fondest hopes of philanthropy have been more than realized in the permanency and the prosperity of our country and our craft. If their spirits could revisit the earth and take note of what is doing here, with what joy would they witness the extension and progress of every branch of knowledge among their descendants; and with what pleasure would they count the number of charitable institutions which, like the dews of Heaven, so gently spread their blissful influences and shed their healing balsams upon the wounds of life.

“The history of benevolent and useful intitutions are as valuable to the community as are the lives of eminent men. These institutions are like rivers which spring from remote and hidden fountains, and are in their course





enlarged by a thousand tributary streams, which all unite in one grand current, to swell the amount of human happiness and lesson the ills which flesh is heir to.”

This truthful eulogium may well be applied to North Carolina. for the men who fought for and framed her Constitution were earliest and devoted friends to the cause of Free Masonry. Among her Grand Masters were Samuel Johnston, [1788,] Richard Caswell, [from 1789 to ’92,] Wm. R. Davie, [’92 to 1799,] William Polk, [1800 to 1802,] John Louis Taylor, [1803,] John Hall, [1804,] Robert Strange, [1824,] Edwin G. Reade, [1865,] Robert B. Vance, [1866.]

These distinguished men were proud to lay aside for a time the sword of the soldier, the ermine of the judge, and the laurels of the statesman, to labor as fellow-crafts in the cause of “Free and Accepted Masons.”

The craft is in a flourishing condition in North Carolina. There are now about 400 Lodges and about 12,000 members, sustaining in asylums at Oxford and Mars Hill 134 orphans, and advocated by the Orphans’ Friend, a periodical.

An incident worthy of record as to the humanizing influence of Masonry, even in the face of “grim-visaged war,” occurred at the battle of Manassas. A gallant Georgia officer was shot down as he was forming his company in line of battle. He refused to be taken from the field. His regiment, under an overwhelming charge of the enemy, was compelled to fall back, and the poor fellow, unable to move, was made prisoner. He was about to be bayoneted, when he gave the Masonic sign of distress. The uplifted weapon fell harmless, and he was taken up by brotherly hands, his wounds attended to, and his sufferings alleviated. This was Orderly Sergeant O. B. Eve, of the Miller Rifles, of Rome, Georgia.

Many such incidents occurred at other times and places, proving the influence and value of Masonry.

THE BLOUNTS OF BEAUFORT.*

As early as 1782, General John Gray Blount represented the county of Beaufort in the Legislature. He was enterprising and successful in business, and a large land owner. His father was Jacob Blount, who was an officer at the battle of Alamance and in the Revolutionary War. Jacob was also the father of Governor William Blount, (for sketch of whom see Craven,) who was Governor of Tennessee, and of Thomas, who was a volunteer in the Revolutionary army at the age of sixteen, and commanded as major at the battle of Eutaw; was a member of Congress in 1793-’99 and 1805-’09, and died at Washington City 1812. Jacob was also the father of Willie Blount, Governor of Tennessee from 1809 to ’15.

General William A. Blount, born 1794, died 1867, was the son of General John Gray Blount, and was well known in North Carolina, and much esteemed for his genial qualities, his extended and varied abilities, and his public services. At the early age of eighteen he entered the army of the United States as a subaltern, in the war of 1812, and continued in the army until the war was over. Such were his faithful services that he was promoted to the rank of captain.

On his return from the army he was elected major-general of the third division of North Carolina militia, a position at that time, in the unsettled condition of our affairs, of much distinction and responsibility. His next public service was as a member of the Legislature from Beaufort County, in 1825, and such was the acceptability of his course that he was reelected in 1826 and ’27.

When in the public councils, he advocated the most liberal system of public improvements,

[note]



and was for years a member of the Board of Internal Improvements. He was the devoted friend of public schools, and for a long time a member of the Board of Trustees [appointed 1825] of the University; its steady, active, and consistent friend.

He was intensely southern in his whole course of life; the active opponent of all protection and class legislation; the devoted advocate of free trade and the rights of the States. His course in the Free Trade Convention at Philadelphia, one of the ablest bodies that ever assembled in this country, proves his ardent devotion to principle.

But it was at home, in the exercise of the kindly charities of life, the affectionate parent, the obliging and symphathizing neighbor, the sincere and uncalculating friend, his openhanded charity—

  • Charity that feels for another's woes.
  • And hides the faults that we see;-

that specially marked the life and character of General William A. Blount.

None that knew him (and the writer knew him long and well) can ever cease to remember his genial manner, his commanding presence, and his knightly bearing.

His conversational powers were unrivaled; though often incisive, pointed and witty, they were never coarse or offensive. These qualities made him always a welcome guest, and “the flashes of his wit often set the table in a roar.”

Of him may be truly said as Anthony of the noble Brutus—

  • — His life was gentle; and the elements
  • So mixed in him, that nature might stand up
  • And say to all the world, this was a Man.
  • [Julius Cæsar, V, 5.]

He was twice married; first to Nancy Haywood, and second to Miss Littlejohn. By the first he left a son, Major Wm. A. Blount, and a daughter, Nancy, who still resides at Raleigh, and who married the lamented Gen. L. O'B. Branch.

“Being thus fathered and thus husbanded” is the peerless rival of the Portias of ancient Rome.

Mr. Cambreling, of New York, born 1786, died 1862.

Although the public services of Churchill Caldom Cambreling have redounded to the fame of another State, yet he is a native son of North Carolina; and we believe in the divine injunction, to “give unto Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's.” We intend to claim the merits, character, and services of every son of North Carolina, wherever we can find them.

The following is a partial list of the native sons of North Carolina who have distinguished themselves as citizens of other States:

Allen, William, (Ohio,) born in Chowan County.

Ashe, John B., (of Tenn.,) New Hanover.

Bynum, Jesse, (La.,) Halifax.

Benton, Thos. H., (of Mo.,) Orange.

Bragg, John, (Ala.,) Warren.

Blounts, William, (Tenn.,) Craven.

Willie, (Tenn.,) Bertie.

Cannon, Newton, (Tenn.,) Guilford.

Daniel, J. R. J., (La.,) Halifax.

Dargan, (Ala.,) Anson.

Darby, (Miss.)

Dixon, Archibald, (Ky.,) Caswell.

Eaton, John H., (Tenn.,) Halifax.

Etheridge, (of Tenn.,) Currituck.

Forney, W. H., (Ala.,) Lincoln.

Gentry, Meredith P., Tennessee.

Gause, (of Ark.,) Brunswick.

Grant, James, (Iowa,) Halifax.

Hawley, J. R., (Conn.,) Richmond.

Hawks, F. L., (N. Y.,) Craven.

Bishop, (Mo.,) Craven.

Jackson, Andrew, (Tenn.,) Union.

Johnson, Andrew, (Tenn.,) Wake.

King, Wm. R., (Ala.,) Sampson.

Moore, Gabriel, (Ala.)

Mosely, W. D., (Fla.,) Lenoir.

Pickens, Israel, (Ala.,) Mecklenburg.

Polk, Jas. K., (Tenn.,) Mecklenburg.





Raburn, Wm., (of Georgia,) Halifax.

Steele, J. H., (N. H.,) Rowan.

Stokes, Montford, (Ark.,)

Wm. B., (Tenn.,)

White, Hugh L., (Tenn.,) Iredell.

Williams, Thomas, (Miss.,) Surry.

Benjamin, (Ala.,) Surry.

Marmaduke, (Ala.,) Surry.

Wiley, J. Caleb, born in Cabarrus County; member of Congress from Alabama.

In every portion of our nation may be found some native sons of the State, who, although separated, have never ceased to love their dear old mother; and who cherished to the last an abiding affection for her—a love unsurpassing the love of woman.

We can say with Æneas to his fidus Achates—

—Quis jam locus?

Quæ regis in terris nostri, non plena laboris.*

Nor has North Carolina been selfish or churlish to those of other States who have settled and made her borders their home.

Of the members of the Continental Congress Burke was from Ireland; Caswell from Maryland; Hooper from Massachusetts; Penn from Virginia; Williamson from Pennsylvania.

Neither of the signers of the Declaration of Independence for North Carolina was a native of the State. Hewes was a native of New Jersey; Hooper, of Massachusetts; Penn, of Virginia.

Penn, of Virginia, also signed the Constitution as a Delegate from North Carolina.

Of the 1st Congress, [1789 to 1791,] Samuel Johnston was a native of Scotland; Hugh Williamson, of Pennsylvania.

Of the 6th Congress, [1799-1801,] William H. Hill was a native of Massachusetts.

Of the 10th Congress, James Turner was a native of Virginia.

Felix Walker of Virginia was a member of the 15th, [1817-’19,] 16th, [’19-’21,] and 17th, [’21-’23] Congresses.

Henry W. Connor, of Virginia, was a member of the 19th, 20th, 21st, 22d, 23d, 24th, 25th, and 26th Congresses.

Abram W. Venable, of Virginia, was a member of the 30th, [1847-’49,] 31st, and 32d, Congresses.

Richard C. Paryear, of Virginia, was a member of the 33d [1853-’55] Congress.

H. M. Shaw, of Rhode Island, was a member of the 35th Congress.

Nathaniel Boyden, of Massachusetts, David Heaton, of Ohio; John T. Deweese, of Arkansas, and John R. French, of New Hampshire, were members of the 40th [1867-’69] Congress.

James C. Harper, of Pennsylvania was a member of the 41st [1871-73] Congress.

And these are distinguished wherever they roam by their intriusic worth, their unobtrusive demeanor, their abhorence of vice and love of virtue, their fidelity to their promises and contracts, their obedience and respect to law. And when elevated by an appreciative people, have been always equal to and never above or below the position they occupied, but discharged every duty with integrity, intelligence, to the satisfaction and approbation of their constitutents, and honor to the country.

To return to our subject: Mr. Cambreling was a member of Congress from New York City from 1821 to 1839; chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means at one time, and of Foreign Affairs, which important posts were evidence of the high appreciation of his transcendent ability as a statesman. In 1840 he was appointed Minister to Russia.

His name was derived from his great-grandfather, Churchill Caldom, whose father came from Scotland and settled on Pamlico River. On the maternal line he was the

[note]



grandson of John Patton, a gallant officer of the Revolution, major of 2d Regiment of the N. C. Line in the Continental Army, and was engaged in the battles of Brandywine, Germantown and Monmonth. He was born in Washington, Beaufort County, N. C., and educated in New Berne. From the situation of his family, for he was early an orphan, he left school before his education was complete, and went into a store as a clerk. He moved in 1802 to New York, and engaged in mercantile pursuits with John Jacob Astor, and as his confidential clerk traveled extensively over the world. His reports in Congress, especially on commerce and navigation, were models of research and logic, and were republished in England. He died at West Neck, New York, on 30th April, 1862. (See “Demo. Review,” VII, No. 14—“Lanman's Biographical Annals.”)

George E. B. Singletary.—On the 5th June, 1862, in a skirmish which ensued across Tranter's Creek, near Washington, in this county, between the 44th North Carolina and a heavy force of Union troops, fell the gallant commander of the North Carolina troops, Colonel Singletary.

Colonel Singletary was an experienced and gallant officer, and had seen some service in the war with Mexico.

Colonel S. was the oldest son of an Episcopal elergyman, and much esteemed for his legal acquirements and his genial social temper.

He had married Cora, eldest daughter of Governor Manly.

He was succeeded by his younger brother in command of the regiment.

Captain John Julius Guthrie who was drowned near Nag's Head in November, 1877, while endeavoring to succor the passengers and crew of the U. S. Steamship “Huron,” was a native of the town of Washington, the son of Dr. John W. Guthrie and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Captain William McDaniel.

Captain Guthrie was no ordinary man, and well deserves remembrance for his virtues in private life, and his heoric gallantry. His education was conducted by Rev. Dr. Wm. McPheeters at Raleigh, and in 1833 he was appointed a cadet at West Point; but prefering the adventurous life of a sailor, after one year's probation at West Point, his friends procured in 1834 a midshipman's warrant in the Navy. He served with great acceptability at home and abroad, especially in the war with Mexico, and in the Anglo-French war in China; when our flag was insulted, displayed great gallantry and captured Barrier Forts, hauling down the China flag, which trophy he presented to the State, and for which he received the thanks of the Legislature.

The following is a copy of the letter of the Governor, and of the resolutions of the Legislature:

TESTIMONY TO GALLANTRY.

[Communicated to the National Intelligencer.]

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT,

Raleigh, Aug. 23, 1859.

SIR: I have this day received from Capt. A. J. Lawrence a Chinese flag, taken by you in an assault upon the barrier forts in the Canton river in November, 1856, by the forces of the United States ships “San Jacinto,” “Portsmouth,” and “Levant,” as a present in your name to the State of North Carolina.

Having been apprised of your desire to make this disposition of the flag, the last General Assembly, by resolutions, authorized me to receive it from you in behalf of the State, and at the same time to express to you the high appreciation of that body of your gallantry on the occasion referred to, and of this evidence of your veneration for the State of your birth.

Believing that I cannot discharge this pleasing duty in a more acceptable manner than by transmitting these highly complimentary resolutions, I herewith enclose a copy of them as transcribed from the statute book.

These resolutions, I am well assured, are





none the less expressive of the sentiments of the people of the State than of their representatives who enacted them; for they have ever manifested a lively pleasure at the honorable distinctions achieved by the sons of North Carolina in every department of the public service. Every distinguished action of the citizens proves useful to the State in the example it affords to the youths of the country, who are thus apprised of the gratifying rewards that ever await a faithful discharge of duty.

This flag, so gallantly taken by you in the maintainance of the rights and protection of the persons of American citizens in a distant land, will be placed among the valued treasures of the State, and will be looked upon by posterity, impressing all who may see it with the sentiments of esteem in which are held the brave conduct of the faithful soldier in the service of his country; and to our youths, to whom from time to time the story of its capture may be narrated, will be told that it is a trophy for which the State is indebted to one of her courageous sons who entered the service of the country when a mere boy, and who, without the aid of fortune or the influence of powerful friends, won his way to honorable distinction by his own upright department and gallant spirit. Thus, sir, will a valuable lesson be taught them, exciting in their bosoms a laudable ambition to emulate like honorable actions.

Trusting that your career will prove one of continued usefulness to the country and distinction to yourself, I have the honor to be, very respectfully, yours, &c.,

JOHN W. ELLIS.

Lieut. JOHN JULIUS GUTHRIE, U. S. Navy.

RESOLUTIONS authorizing the Governor of the State to receive a flag tendered to the State of North Carolina by Lieut. Guthrie, of the U. S. Navy.

Whereas John Julius Guthrie, a lieutenant in the United States Navy and a native of the State of North Carolina, now on official duty at the National Observatory, Washington, D. C., did, on the 20th day of November, 1856, capture and carry off as a trophy of war a Chinese flag from the first of four barrier forts captured in a combined engagement by the “San Jacinto,” “Portsmouth,” and “Levant,” on the part of the American naval force, and other vessels under the command of Rear Admiral Seymore, on the part of the English, in the Canton River:

And whereas the chastisement inflicted on that occasion was in defence of American and English citizens residing in that locality, and had the happy effect of securing to them immunity from violence and insult to their persons and property:

And whereas said Lieut. Guthrie has been induced by his friends in the city of Raleigh and elsewhere to express a willingness to tender this flag to his native State, with a desire that she would accept it as an humble evidence of filial sentiments and affectionate recollection: Therefore—

Resolved: That the Governor of the State be authorized and requested to accept the flag thus tendered by Lieut. Guthrie at such time and place and in such way and manner as may appear suitable and proper.

Resolved farther: That he be requested, in behalf of this General Assembly, to express to Lieut. Guthrie its high appreciation of his gallantry on that occasion and this evidence of his veneration for the State of his birth.

Resolved thirdly: That the Governor be further requested to make such disposition of the flag, when received, as he may think this trophy of her son deserves.

Ratified February 15, 1859.

True copy from the original.

GRAHAM DAVES,

Private Secretary.

Raleigh, August 22, 1859.

After service of nearly thirty years, when the civil war broke out, he was under the necessity of resigning, and entered into the Confederate service, where he did efficient and active duty at New Orleans and elsewhere. He was at one time in command of the “Advance,” running the blockade between Wilmington and the Bermudas. After the war was over, he removed with his family to Portsmouth, Va., and in the Fall of 1865 was pardoned by the President, (Johnson,) being the first officer of the regular service who had received Executive clemency. His disabilities being removed by a unanimous recommendation from the members of Congress, he was appointed by General Grant to the “Superintendency of the Life-Saving Stations from Cape Henry to Cape Hatteras,” in the discharge of the duties of which he lost his life.





He left a wife (Louisa, daughter of Benjamin Spratly,) and children to mourn his loss. It was near the dreaded Cape Hatteras so often before and since the death-place of the brave, did the gallant Guthrie meet his death.

This fearful spot has been beautifully and fearfully depicted in poetry by another son of North Carolina, now, too, no more:

HATTERAS.
  • The Wind King from the North came down,
  • Nor stopped by river, mount, or town;
  • But like a boisterous god at play,
  • Resistless, bounding on his way,
  • He shook the lake and tore the wood,
  • And flapped his wings in merry mood,
  • Nor furied them, till he spied afar,
  • The white caps flash on Hatteras Bar,
  • Where fierce Atlantic landward bowls,
  • O'er treacherous sands and hidden sheals.
  • He paused, then wreathed his horn of cloud.
  • And blew defiance long and loud;
  • “Come up! Come up, thou torrid god,
  • That rul'st the Southern Sea!
  • Ho! lightning-eyed and thunder-shod,
  • Come wrestle here with me!
  • As tosset thou the tangled cane
  • I'll hurl thee o'er the boiling main.”
  • The angry heavens hung dark and still,
  • Like Arctic night on Hecla's hill;
  • The mermaids sporting on the waves,
  • Affrighted, fled to coral caves;
  • The billow checked its curling crest,
  • And, trembling, sank to sudden rest;
  • All ocean stilled its heaving breast,
  • Reflected darkness, weird and dread,
  • An inky plain the waters spread—
  • So motionless, since life was fled!
  • Amid this elemental lull,
  • When nature died, and death lay dull,
  • As though itself were sleeping there—
  • Becalmed upon that dismal flood,
  • Ten fated vessels idly stood,
  • And not a timber creaked!
  • “Come up! Come up, thou torrid god,
  • Thou lightning-eyed and thunder-shod,
  • And wrestle here with me!”
  • ‘Twas heard and answered: “Lo! I come
  • From azure Carribee,
  • To drive thee, cowering, to thy home,
  • And melt its walls of frozen foam.
  • From every isle and mountain dell,
  • From plains of pathless chaparral,
  • From tide built bars, where sea-birds dwell,
  • He drew his lurid legions forth—
  • And sprang to meet the white-plumed North
  • Can mortal tongue in song convey
  • The fury of that fearful fray?
  • How ships were splintered at a blow—
  • Sails shivered into shreds of snow—
  • And seamen hurled to death below!
  • Two gods commingling, bolt and blast,
  • The huge waves on each other cast,
  • And bellowed o'er the raging waste;
  • Then sped, like barnessed steeds, afar,
  • That drag a shattered battle-car
  • Amid the midnight din of war!
  • Smile on, smile on, thou watery hell,
  • And toss those skulls upon thy shore;
  • The sailor's widow knows thee well;
  • His children beg from door to door,
  • And shiver, while they strive to tell
  • How thou hast robbed the wretched poor!
  • [Jos. W. HOLDEN.].

This theme has also inspired the pen of an earlier poet:

* THE PILOT OF HATTERAS.

[From the National Gazette, Philadelphia, Monday, January 16, 1792.]

  • In fathoms five, the anchor gone,
  • While here we furl the sail,
  • No longer vainly laboring on
  • Against the western gale;
  • While here thy lure and barren cliffs,
  • O Hatteras, I survey,
  • And shallow grounds and broken reefs;
  • What shall amuse my stay?
  • The Pilot comes. From yonder sands
  • He shoves his barque so frail,
  • And hurrying on, with busy hands,
  • Employs both oar and sail,
  • Beneath this rude, unsettled sky
  • Condemn'd to pass his years;
  • No other shores delight his eye,
  • No foe alarms his fears.
  • In depths of woods his hut he builds,
  • Where ocean round him flows,
  • And blooming in the barren wilds
  • His simple garden grows,
  • His wedded nymph, of sallow hue,
  • No mingled colors grace,
  • For her he toils, to her is true,
  • The captive of her face.
  • Kind nature here, to make him blest,
  • No quiet harbor plann'd,
  • And poverty, his constant guest,
  • Restrains the pirate band.
  • His hopes are all in yonder flock
  • Or some few hives of bees,
  • Except, when bound for Ocracock.†
  • Some gliding barque he sees;
  • His Marian then he quits with grief,
  • And spreads his tottering sails,
  • While, waving high her handkerchief,
  • Her commodore she hails.
  • She grieves, and fears to see no more
  • The sail that now forsakes,
  • From Hatteras’ sands to banks of Core,
  • Such tedious journeys takes.
  • Fond nymph! your sighs are breath'd in vain,
  • Restrain those idle fears,
  • Can you, that should relieve his pain,
  • Thus kill him with your tears?
  • Can absence thus beget regard,
  • Or does it only seem?
  • He comes to meet a wandering band
  • That seeks fair Ashley's stream.





  • Tho’ disappointed in his views,
  • Not joyless will we part;
  • Nor shall the god of mirth refuse
  • The balsam of the heart.
  • No niggard key shall lock up joy;
  • I'll give him half my store,
  • Will he but half his skill employ
  • To guard us from your shore.
  • Where western gales once more awake
  • What dangers will be near,
  • Alas! I see the billows break,
  • Alas! why came I here?
  • With quarts of rum and pints of gin,
  • Go, pilot, seek the land,
  • And drink till you and all your kin
  • Can neither sit nor stand.
  • SINBAD.

Edward Stanley represented Beaufort County in 1844-’46 and ’48, and was often Speaker of the House.

He was elected Attorney-General in 1847, and a member of Congress from 1837 to 1843 and from 1849 to 1853. He removed then [1853] to California, to practice his profession.

In 1857 he was the Republican candidate for Governor, and was defeated, receiving 21,040 votes to 53,122 for the Democratic candidate, Weller.

After the capture of New Berne [14th March, 1862.] he was appointed by Mr. Lincoln Military Governor of North Carolina, which, after a few months, he resigned, and returned to San Francisco, where he died, on the 12th July, 1872.

We would fain tread lightly on the ashes of the dead, but faithful history demands, like Cromwell of his artist, “Paint me as I am, warts and all.”

Mr. Stanley was considered as a decided party leader in Congress, and acquired an unhappy reputation for an over-indulgence in vindictive feelings and ultra denunciation of his political opponents. This unhappy trait of character, as was to be expected, involved him in frequent difficulties, political and personal. Perhaps it was constitutional, and a fatal inheritance; for his father had, in a political quarrel, killed Governor Spaight, and was considered aggressive and violent in his political conduct. Inheriting this trait, Mr. Stanley had, in Congress, involved himself in a violent personal altereation with his colleague, Hon. Thomas L. Clingman; another with Hon. Mr. Inge, of Alabama, which terminated in a duel, and with Governor Wise, of Virginia, who applied a riding-whip to his shoulders.

His career as Military Governor of North Carolina was a failure, not meeting the approbation of those who sent him, and destroying his reputation with those with whom he was reared, and by whom he had been honored. The most notable achievement of his mission was his letter to General D. H. Hill, of 24th March, 1862, abounding in bitterness, in which he declared that he “preferred serving in a brigade of negroes” than to belong to the troops commanded by General Hill, who then was defending Mr. Stanley's native land.

Whatever motives influenced Mr. Stanley to undertake so hopeless a mission, all his attempts to compromise the difficulties were idle and abortive. The bloody chasm had

Opened its ponderous jaws,

and any endeavor to heal the dissensions between the excited belligerents only tended to bring suspicion from one side, and hatred from the other.

The following letter, from one of the first men in point of ability in North Carolina, and a near kinsman of Mr. Stanley, shows public opinion as to Mr. S.’s course, and the state of public affairs at the unhappy period, and deserves to be preserved. It was written to Hon. Alfred Ely, who was a member of Congress from New York, and was at the battle

[note][note]



of Bull Run as a spectator. He was taken prisoner, and at the date of this letter was an inmate of the Libby Prison in Richmond:

“Mr. ELY:—Your letter to Mr. Stanley, proposing to him to cherish the feeling of “Unionism” in North Carolina, came to my hands in an unsealed envelope, directed to my wife. I take the liberty of setting you right upon a fact, and showing you what a hopeless task you have proposed to Mr. Stanley.

“There is no Union feeling in North Carolina, as you suppose, and is probably supposed by the generality of Northern men.

“There was in this State a very strong Union feeling—a strong love for the Union as established by our forefathers—but as soon as Mr. Lincoln's proclamation of April, 1861, appeared, offering us the alternative of joining an armed invasion of our Southern Sister States, for their subjugation, or resisting the authorities of the United States, our position was taken without a moment's hesitation. A Convention was promptly called, and instantly, without a dissenting voice, that Convention resolved to take our sides with the already seceded States, and share their fate for good or evil. From that moment, however we may have differed in other things, there has not been, and there is not, any difference; hence our people with one heart sprung to arms. Our people have now nearly sixty regiments in the field, (not skeletons, but full regiments,) and among them not a single conscript or drafted man. Hence we have taxed ourselves freely; have used our credit freely in making loans to support the war. The spirit which has produced this has never flagged; but is now as high and active as at first.

“Mr. Ely, think a moment! We have been invaded by an enemy as unrelenting and ferocious as the hordes under Attilla and Alaric, who overrun the Roman Empire; he comes to rob us; to murder our people; to insult our women; to emancipate our slaves, and is now preparing to add a new element to this most atrocious aggression, and involve us in the direful horrors of a civil war. He proposes nothing else than our entire destruction; the desolation of our country; uniersal emancipation—not from a love of the slaves, but from hatred to us. ‘To crush us;’ ‘to wipe out the South;’ to involve us in irremediable misery and hopeless ruin.

“Now, Mr. Ely, if your own State of New York was so threatened, what would be your feelings and purposes? From these, you may judge of ours.

“We look with horror at the thought of being again united in any political connection with the North. We would rather, far, that our State should be a Colony of England, or France, or Sardinia.

“The North may be able (though we do not believe it) to conquer us, and even to keep us conquered, and if it should be the wise and good purpose of the Almighty that this should happen, we shall endeavor to suffer with patience whatever ills may befall us; but a voluntary return to any union with the North, we cannot, will not, accept on any terms—a revival of any Union sentiments is an impossibility.

“I think, therefore, Mr. Ely, you would do well to advise Mr. Stauley to abandon his enterprise.

“He a Governor of North Carolina! a Governor deriving his authority from a commission of Mr. Lincoln!

“The very title is an insult to us. The very appointment is the assumption of the rights of a conqueror. But we are not yet conquered. And do you think Mr. Stanley's coming here, in such a character, supported by Northern bay onets, serves to commend him to our favor; to breathe in us the gentle sentiments of amity and peace toward himself or those who sent him here? Mr. Ely, as you have opened a correspondence with Mr. Stanley, you had better write to him yourself, and say this to him:

“If he wishes the honored name of Stanley to become a bye-word and a reproach, and to be spoken with scorn and hatred by all North Carolinians henceforth and forever, let him prosecute his present mission. If he does not wish this, let him return whence he came, and leave us to fight out the contest as best we may, without his interference.

“GEORGE E. BADGER.”

Whether Mr. Stanley ever received this letter or read it we are not advised; but, as already stated, he soon resigned his post, went to California, from whence he never returned. But as to Judge Badger, when the finale of the unhappy contest was settled, and all the hopes, as expressed in the foregoing graphic letter, were destroyed, his majestic mind sunk under the blow. Like some gallant ship in her





proud career is suddenly thrown on hidden and perilous rocks, quivers under the disaster, and finally sinks under the overwhelming waves to darkness and to death. He died soon after the war, [1866,] paralyzed in body and enfeebled in intellect.

  • The ruins of the noblest man
  • That ever lived in tide of times.

Richard Spaight Donnell, born 1820, died 1865, represented this county in the Senate in 1858, and in the Commons in 1860, ’62 and ’64; and in the latter two sessions he was elected Speaker. In 1847 he was elected a member of the 30th Congress, at the early age of twenty-seven.

He was educated partly at Yale, and graduated at the University of North Carolina in 1839.

He studied law and arose to high distinction in the profession. He wrote in 1863 a letter on “the rebellion,” which gave him much reputation as a statesman.

Blest with a competency, if not a superfluity of estate, he pursued his profession and polities more as an amusement than for profit or promotion.

He was much loved by all who knew him for his genial and gentle manners, his modest, unassuming temper, and high-toned principles. As a man, he was just and faithful; as a lawyer, of learning and probity, and as a statesman, above all intrigue or reproach.

He died unmarried, and his memory is enbalmed in the affections of all who knew him.

William Blount Rodman, born 29th January 1817, represented Beaufort County in the Convention of 1868: He was elected one of the Justices of the Supreme Court, the term of which expired in 1878.

He was educated at the University of North Carolina, and graduated in 1836 with the first honors.

His mother was the daughter of General John Gray Blount, and the sister of General Wm. A. Blount, whose biography we have just presented.

He studied law and has attained the highest rank in his profession. His opinions as a Judge of the Supreme Court are considered by many as models of research and learning. To some, however, “that glorious uncertainty” so proverbial to the law, is apparent in his rulings. Yet he is much esteemed by the profession as a just and learned jurist. He has never mingled much in politics, for, like Michael Angelo of his profession, he thinks the law too jealous a mistress to allow any rival in his affections. Like Hooker in his Ecclesiastical Polity, he believes “of law there can be no less acknowledged than that her seat is the bosom of God; her voice the harmony of the world. All things in heaven and earth do her homage; the very least, as feeling her care; and the greatest, as not exempt from her power. Both angels and men and creatures of what condition soever, though each in different sort and manner, yet all with uniform consent admiring her as the mother of their peace and joy.”

Edward J. Warren lived and died in Beaufort County. He was a native of the State of Vermont. Came to North Carolina and settled in Washington, as a teacher.

He read law and attained great eminence in the profession. He represented the county in the Senate in 1862 and 1864, and was Speaker of the Senate. He was appointed by Governor Worth one of the Judges of the Superior Court.

He married Deborah, daughter of Richard Bonnor. He died in 1878, much esteemed and regretted, leaving Charles F. Warren, now at the bar, and Lucy, who married William Rodman Myers.

James Cook, late a captain in the Confederate Navy, says Dalton, was a native of Beaufort, Carteret County, N. C. His name should be preserved among “the men of North Carolina”





His terrific engagement while commanding the Confederate steamer “Albemarle” with the Federal fleet, and clearing the Sound and the Roanoke river, after the capture of Plymouth by General Robert F. Hoke, who was so ably seconded by General M. W. Ransom, was a feat unparalleled in the annals of our naval warfare. Never before had the size of such guns and the weight of their crushing missiles been directed against any single vessel. Yet she struggled through it, having had the misfortune to have carried away one-half of one of the two guns she took into the action. She was literally loaded down by the enemy's shot, and in this condition had to fight to the end, until she gained a port of refuge.

During the perilous ordeal, Captain Cook was calm and collected; no excitement marked his conduct. Quietly did he give his orders, and his men partaking his spirit, promptly and quietly obeyed.

Captain Cook was as modest in his deportment as he was brave and fearless in action. Had such an exploit occurred under the English flag, Cook would have ranked with the Nelsons and Wellingtons of his age; but, as it is, he sinks into obscurity, forgotten, almost, by his native State, upon which he shed such imperishable honor. He was then in very delicate health, and after this terrible conflict, never completely recovered again. Soon after this battle his brave spirit winged its flight from the bosom of his family, in Portsmouth, Virginia, to join the spirits of his gallant comrades that had gone before him, where merit is rewarded, and not success alone, as in this vale of sorrows.

Charles Frederick Tayloe, son of Colonel Joshua Tayloe, who represented Beaufort County, in 1844, in the Senate of the State Legislature, should not be forgotten. His short and eventful life, his chivalric and daring character, and his tragic end, make his history interesting.

He was born in October, 1828, near the sea, (his father being for years collector of customs at Ocracock Inlet,) and possessed naturally a love for the ocean, which became the ruling passion of his life, and eventually his grave.

At the early age of 16, he left home on his first voyage, and in 1848, he shipped as an ordinary sailor before the mast, on the United States steamer “Oregon,” on a voyage from New York to San Francisco, via Cape Horn. His diligence, attention, and good conduct, were so marked that he was make first officer of the ship “Columbia,” on the dangerous and then unknown coast of Oregon. When some days at sea, the ship was discovered to be on fire. She had on board 400 troops, under the command of General Wool. The coolness, intrepidity, and energy of young Tayloe, on this perilous occasion, contributed greatly to the saving of the ship, passengers and crew. This was expressed in the grateful thanks of the passengers by resolutions.

On his return to San Francisco, the war in Nicaragua was found to be the exciting question of the day, and offered allurement to the daring. He tendered his services to General Walker, and was assigned to the command of the fleet of steamers and gunboats on the Lake of Nicaragua. He more readily engaged in this expedition of “the gray-eyed man of destiny,” since his younger brother, James, was an officer in Walker's army, and had borne a conspicuous part in many desperate battles from the breaking out of the war. It was then and here that I formed the acquaintance of these two gallant young men. I was at this time the Minister Resident of the United States near the Republic of Nicaragua, and I was much pleased with their modest and intelligent conduct. James fell in battle in the desperate endeavor to raise the seige of Grenada, thus relieving General Henningsen





and his command, beleaguered by the troops of Guatemala. It may not be uninteresting to record here the true facts in relation to this expedition in which so many of our countrymen took part, and where so many and valuable and enterprising lives were sacrificed. The character and the objects of this expedition have never been understood or fairly stated. Now, when more than a quarter of a century has passed, and prejudice and passion subsided, the truth should appear. When I arrived in Nicaragua, I found the republic convulsed in civil war. War is the normal condition of Central America. The two parties, the Democratic, headed by General Castellon, and the Legitimists, by General Chamora, waged a fierce and bloody internecine contest. The Democratic party sent agents to California for men and arms. These engaged the services of General Walker and others, who became enlisted in their service, and Walker was placed in command of a regiment, and became a naturalized citizen of Nicaragua. He soon, by his energy and activity, trained the ragged, barefooted and half-naked natives to become disciplined troops, and as such led them to victory. He soon took the towns of San Juan del Sur, Virgin Bay, and the cities of Rivas and Grenada, the latter the capital and a city of 10,000 inhabitants. I witnessed this battle, which was of short duration, and which completed the conquest of the republic. The President of Nicaragua fled, and after a short interim, Walker was elected President. Americans from New York, New Orleans and California, and almost every State of the Union, flocked to “this El Dorado.” Peace and prosperity for the time smiled on this beautiful country.

From the natural fondness of these people for war and revolution, the other republics of Central America (as Costa Rica and Guatemala) proclaimed hostility, and determined to drive the Americans from the country. They alone could not have effected this, but our Government, under lead of Governor Marcy and others, denounced Walker, although President Pierce received Padre Vijil as the Envoy and Minister Plenipotentiary of Walker's government, and authorized Captain Davis, of the United States Navy, to take Walker and bring him to the United States; which was done. But soon Walker again returned to Central America, when, under orders, he was again seized by Commodore Paulding and brought to the United States. This act was pronounced by the President “a grave error,” and severely denounced in Congress, and very generally by the press of the country as unjust and unconstitutional.

Walker again embarked for Central America, and landed with a few troops in Honduras, where, after some bloody and successful skirmishing with the Honduras troops, he encamped near Truxillo. While here a superior force, dispatched by Captain Salmon, of the British man-of-war “Icarus,” under command of Alvarez, of the Honduras army, demanded of Walker his surrender. Walker then surrendered to the British officer, who delivered him to the Honduras authorities. The next day [12th September, 1860] he was shot. His fate was melancholy and undeserved. Doubtless Walker had faults, but he supplanted a government of ignorance, superstition, indolence, imbecility, and treachery. Had he succeeded, he would have rivaled the fame of Houston, and added to the area of human liberty and enjoyment. Compare the present condition of Texas and California now with what it was under the rule of Mexico. There is a destiny in the affairs of nations, as well as of men.

Captain Tayloe, after the failure of Walker, was ordered to conduct his command through a trackless and almost inaccessible route, from Rivas to Point Arenas, during which march they suffered every privation that famine, disease,





savage foes, venomous reptiles, and a torrid climate could inflict. They reached Point Arenas worn down by exertion. He then embarked in a brig to Panama, and from thence on the regular steamer to California.

After remaining in San Francisco a few weeks to recruit his exhausted system, in 1857 he embarked for his home and his native land, a passenger on the steamer “Central America.” This gallant ship had nearly completed her voyage, and was in sight of the home and birthplace of our hero, where his affectionate parents anxiously were awaiting the return of their “war-worn son” when the alarming discovery was announced that the ship had sprung a leak. Young Tayloe, although only a passenger, was the first to tender his services to the noble Herndon; and from that time until the brig “Marine” rounded to under her lea, he was foremost in relieving the steamer; working at the pumps until they were exhausted and useless. When all hope of saving the steamer was abandoned, he remained at his post, an example of coolness, of courage and seamanship. He was indefatigable in aiding the ladies, children and others in embarking on the relieving ship, and could have saved himself but for his attention to others. But on consideration with the officers it was decided that the ship would continue afloat till daylight, and as did Captain Herndon and our lamented John V. Dobbin, (brother of James C. Dobbin, Secretary of the Navy 1853-’57,) Captain Tayloe retired to his stateroom, seeking that repose that his continued labors demanded.

In the course of the night a huge wave swept with violence the ship's decks, and she went suddenly down with all on board.

Thus perished, off his native coast of North Carolina, near Cape Hatteras, one of her boldest, bravest sons.

The eternal sea in its dark waves have swallowed up the mortal remains of our gallant countryman; but neither sea nor time can bury his virtues and his gallantry from our memories, our sympathies, or our affections.

  • Toll for the brave!
  • The brave that are no more;
  • All sunk beneath the wave,
  • Fast by their native shore.
  • Toll for the brave!
  • Brave Tayloe! he is gone;
  • His last sea fight is fought,
  • His work of glory done.
  • Toll for the brave!

It has been suggested as proper to recall some further memories of Central America, and of a long residence in that interesting country at a most exciting period. Even at this day this country is of rare interest, forming as it does the connecting link between the two great oceans, and which from recent surveys by Captain Lull, of United States Navy, and others, will be the probable route of the oceanic canal.

The resignation of Hon. Solon Borland caused a vacancy in the Mission to Central America, and without any solicitation or expectation on my part, my name as Minister Resident to the Republic of Nicaragua, was sent to the Senate, and on the 2d August, 1854, (my birth-day) I received from the State Department my commission. This was considered, from the position of the country and the complications as to the protectorate assumed by England, as an important and delicate mission. Mr. Everett, of Massachusetts, in March, 1853, stated in the Senate that “it was more important than the mission to London or Paris.” After waiting for instructions and arranging my private affairs for a long absence, with my family I departed from Norfolk, Virginia, on 31st October, 1854, on board the U. S. steam frigate “Princeton,” commanded by Captain Henry Eagle. We touched at Havanna for a supply of coal, and at Pensacola we went on board the “Columbia,” the flag-ship of the home squadron, commanded by Commodore Newton, a model officer





and accomplished gentleman, who landed us in December, 1854, after a long voyage of nearly thirty days, at San Juan del Norte. The mild climate, the gorgeous foliage and rich scenery, created pleasure and surprise. One can hardly realize, who has never visited the tropics, the mildness and beauty of the climate; the very air is redolent with the fragrance of fruits and flowers, to breathe which renders existence itself a luxury. The evenings are still more delicious. These have been graphically described.

“By and by night comes on; not as it comes to our northern latitudes, but it falls suddenly, like a rich drapery, around you. The sun goes down with a glow, intense and brief. There is no lingering twilight, but suddenly the stars burst forth, lightening, one by one, the horizon. They come in a laughing group, like bright-eyed children relieved from school, and reflected from the lake they seem to chase each other in frolicsome play, printing sparkling kisses on each other's luminous lips. The low shores, lined with heavy foliage of the mangroves, looked like a frame of massive antique carving around the mirror of the quiet lagoon, across whose quiet surface streamed a silvery shaft of light from ‘the Southern Cross,’ palpitating like a young bride at the altar. Then there were whispered ‘voices of the night,’ the drowsy winds hushing themselves to sleep, and the gentle music of the little ripples of the lake, pattering with fairy feet along the sandy shore. The distant heavy and monotonous beatings of the sea, and the occasional sullen plunge of some marine animal, gave a novelty and enchantment to the scene, and entranced my senses during the delicious hours of my first evening alone with nature on the Mosquito Shore.”*

We could well ask, with Rodgers.

This region is surely not of earth.

Was it not dropped from Heaven?

Not a grove but is of citron, pine, or cedar;

Not a grot, sea worn, and mantled with the gadding vine.

But breathes enchantment.

This lovely region, where Providence has done so much and man so little for himself, we found, as already stated, involved in the tumults of civil war. As we journeyed to Castillo, some seventy miles up the river, the marks of blood spilled in a battle fought on the day before on the wharf on which we landed were seen. As before stated, both parties claimed to be the supreme power of the government. The Democratic party, headed by Castillon, held most of the republic except Grenada, and had that city under close siege. I was assured that this would be soon raised, and the Legitimists resume the authority of government. I was instructed to present my credentials to “the President of Nicaragua.” Now a knotty diplomatic problem came up, which I alone must solve. A mistake would be fatal. I applied for instructions, but none came. Mr. Stephens, a predecessor, was involved [1841] in a similar quandary. He tried in vain. Once, as he states, he thought “he came very near discovering a live President. But suddenly he vamosed on the back of a mule.” Mr. Squire [1849] did find a President in Ramirez. But when Mr. Kerr [in 1851] came he was not so successful, for the republic, as now, was in civil war. Mr. Borland, my immediate predecessor, did find a President, (Don Fruto Chamoro,) but he is now beleagured by superior force, and inaccessible.

By instructions of the Government, I remained some time in Greytown, or San Juan del Norte, engaged in collecting testimony as to the destruction of property by the bombardment of Greytown [9th July, 1854] by Captain Hollins, and then went to Virgin Bay, on Lake Nicaragua, where I remained three months, during which time the siege of Grenada was raised, General Chamoro died of cholera, and General Estrada was declared President and assumed the duties, and in April, 1855, I was recognized by him as the Envoy Resident, and raised the flag of the United States at Grenada.

[note]



Under instructions, a treaty was formed [20th June, 1855] of amity and commerce.

The President was kind and polite, and more of a poet and musician than a soldier or statesman. Our intercourse was kindly and pleasant, and the republic was quiet. But it was only the lull that precedes a fearful storm. The agents of the Democratic party succeeded at San Francisco in engaging the services of William Walker, and on the 4th of May, 1855, he embarked on the brig “Vesta” for Nicaragua, with fifty-two followers, to invade a territory of more than 200,000 people. Was the act of Cortez in burning his ships after landing his troops more daring or desperate?

He and his force landed at Realejo, and was strengthened by three hundred native troops under General Valle. After a repulse at Rivas by Colonel Bosque, in which Achilles Kewen and Timothy Crocker and some of Walker's best troops were killed, he attacked Guardiola at Virgin Bay, whom he defeated with heavy loss. He captured, without loss, the steamers on the Lake of Nicaragua, and on the 12th October, after a sharp conflict, he captured Grenada, which, as before stated, completed the conquest of the republic. The President and Cabinet fled, and many resorted to my house and placed themselves under the flag for protection. I met now, for the first time, General William Walker. He appeared to be about thirty-one years of age [born in Nashville, Tennessee, on 8th May, 1824.] He was liberally educated, and graduated at the University of Tennessee in October, 1838.

He studied medicine, and received a diploma from the Medical University at Philadelphia, in April, 1843. He then went to France and England, where he completed his studies. He then traveled extensively on the Continent, where he learned to speak and write the French, German, Italian, and Spanish languages. He returned to the United States in June, 1845. Although he had a fondness for the profession of medicine and acquired knowledge from the ablest masters, yet he saw and felt that it was not as auspicious as the profession of the law for an ambitious and aspiring temperament. He entered the law office of Edward and Andrew Ewing, and remained there two years. He was admitted to the bar in June, 1847, at New Orleans.

His active temper still sought additional action, and he entered the stormy sea of politics. He became editor of the New Orleans Crescent.

In July, 1850, he went to California, and was connected with the Daily Herald, just then established by John Nugent. He had some difficulty with Judge Parsons as to some articles he wrote for the paper, and he removed to Marysville, and devoted himself to the law.

In October, 1853, he visited Sonora, and, with Gilman, Emory, Crocker, and others, made an unsuccessful attempt on the Mexican authorities. Walker returned to San Francisco, and was arrested and tried for violation of the neutrality law, but was acquitted.

The Democratic party of Nicaragua forwarded to him a commission as colonel and an extensive grant of land, through agency of Byron Cole.

Gathering a band of sixty-two followers, (among whom were C. C. Hornby, of North Carolina, and Julius de Brissot,) he landed at Realejo, in the northern part of Nicaragua. His history will now be connected with Nicaragua for all time.

He had, as already stated, captured Grenada, and was now “master of the situation,” and had the possession of the capital. Had Walker possessed some portion of that quality which General Lee called “a rascally virtue,” he could have attained complete success. The history of every nation repeats only the history of nations gone before. First comes the adventurous pioneer, with his rifle; then the schoolmaster, with his books; then the clergyman





and his creed; then the merchant, the railroad, and the telegraph.

The advent of Walker was not unpleasant nor unexpected to the simple-hearted and gentle natives of Central America. They had been grievously oppressed by the Spanish dominion; nor was their condition much better under their successors. “There was a tradition among them,” says Crowe, in his “History of Central America,” published in London in 1850, “founded on an ancient prophecy made years ago, that these people would only be delivered from cruel oppression by ‘a gray-eyed man.’ ” Mr. Crowe adds in a note the prophetic remark: “We would remind those who attach any importance to this prophecy, that it may be reserved for our trans-Atlantic brethren to fulfill this prophecy.”

“Last week we saw many of the native Indians,” says the Grenada Nicaraguense, “in our city, who desired to see General Walker; and they laid at his feet the simple offerings of their fruits and fields, and hailed his appearance, with fair skin and gray eyes, as ‘the gray-eyed man of destiny,’ so long and so anxiously waited for by them and their fathers.”

The next day after the capture of Grenada, an election was held by the people for a provisional President, and under the policy of Walker, and at his suggestion, General Ponciano Corral was chosen. General C. was at this time at Rivas, at the head of a large force of troops, preparing to march on Grenada and drive Walker out of the country. Walker knew that with his small force and his unreliable allies, that an attack by Corral (who had some military genius and experience, and much desperate courage) would be serious if not disastrous. He knew that Corral was very ambitious, and fond of power and place. Hence this election.

But how to get this information to Corral was the point. Not one of Walker's native troops would venture, for they knew that no power could save them if once in the hands of Corral. Appeals were made to the Consuls from Sardinia, Prussia, and France, resident at Grenada, without success. Finally, the Archbishop of Grenada, with the agent of the Transit Company, called on me, and besought me to act as a messenger of peace. Thus urged by them, I agreed to go. Accordingly a steamer was made ready, and with Mr. Van Dyke, of Philadelphia, who was acting as Secretary of the Legation, and Don Juan Ruiz, late Secretary of War, we went to Rivas with the certificate of election of General Corral.

Rivas is a walled town about fifty miles from Grenada.

We found it closely picketed and full of infuriated soldiers, commanded by General Zatruche.

On inquiry for General Corral, I was informed that he had just left Rivas with all his forces, to attack Walker at Grenada. A courier was immediately dispatched to Corral with the communication of his election as President. Zatruche, the General in command, was one of the most bloodthirsty and pertidious men in Central America. Smarting under the defeat he had met with at Virgin Bay, from Walker, he was insolent and imperious. After waiting for some hours for Corral, (and we since ascertained that he was still in Rivas,) I directed the horses to be brought, purposing to return to Virgin Bay and there await Corral's coming. My servant then came and informed us “that Zatruche had taken the horses, and that a guard was then approaching to seize me and my secretary.” They entered, and I never saw a more ferocious and villainous looking crowd, armed to the teeth; their uniform was a scanty shirt that hardly reached the knee, a dilapidated straw hat, with a red ribbon, and barefooted. We were then placed in the quartel with a guard over us. Our poor





boy (Carlos), after the doors were locked, with sobs and tears, informed us that we were to be shot at sunrise to-morrow. Mr. Van Dyke, with great emotion, said that he cared but little for himself, but much for me and my little ones and wife at Grenada. I felt buoyed up by the consolation that I was in the line of duty—on a mission of mercy and peace. Never did I spend a more unhappy night; the dim lamp revealed the army officials peering at intervals to ascertain our confinement, and the watch-word, ALERTO, (all well,) sounding in our cars from the line of guards. But early in the morning the sound of cannon and rifles was heard firing on the town. Zatruche had felt their fatal accuracy and danger. He rushed in and exclaimed, “In the name of Christ! Senor, what does this mean?” He was informed that my friends had expected me to return last night; that they had determined to rescue me, and in doing so would not spare one of his party; that they were well-armed with rifles that were certain, and with cannon. “Won't you write a small letter (un billitte), to them to cease their fire?” This was pre-emptorily declined. He then said. “You know, Senor Minister, that we are friends; you are very dear to me. Go out to them, forthwith, your horses are at the door, and I will send a guard of honor to escort you and your flag.” Accepting the leave, but declining the honor of the escort, we soon mounted and were soon at the steamer where Captain Scott was with only six men and four small brass cannons. We soon reached Virgin Bay, where Judge Cushing, the agent of the Transit Line, was, and who had dispatched the steamer to relieve me, and who stated that when I set out on the day before, he had never expected my return. Judge Cushing, late our Minister at Bogota, and agent at this time of the Transit Company, had, only a few days before, been seized and imprisoned by Zatruche, and only escaped murder by paying a ransom of two thousand dollars in gold. That my destruction was imminent, is proved by the letter of General Corral, that “he would not be responsible to what might happen to me personally,” as he had issued orders to Zatruche to execute me. But the kindness of Scott, and a gracious Providence prevented his atrocious purpose.

The following letter, the original of which is in my possession, was received by me at Virgin Bay:

“COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE

“REP. OF NIC'A, HEADQUARTERS,

“Marching, 17th Oct., 1855.

“To the Minister of the United States:

“I am placed under the imperious necessity to manifest to the Minister of the United States that in consequence of his leaving the city of Grenada in the steamer of the Accessory Transit Company, taken by the chief commanding the forces who occupy that place with the object to hurt the forces of the Supreme Government, whom I have the honor to command at Rivas, I now inform you that I am not, or will not be responsible for what may happen to you personally, for having interfered in our domestic dissensions to the prejudice of the Supreme Government, by whom he has been recognized; and has made himself the bearer of communications and proclamations against the legitimately recognized authority. Therefore I now protest and give you notice that in this same date I have informed Governor Marcy and the newspapers of New York. I am your dear servant, D. F. L.,

“PONCIANO CORRAL.”

“To which the following reply was sent:

“LEGATION OF UNITED STATES,

“NEAR REPUBLIC OF NICARAGUA,

“VIRGIN BAY, 18th Oct., 1855.

“To Gen'l Ponciano Corral:

“I have honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of yesterday, in which you inform me that you are compelled to manifest your protest against me for leaving the city of Grenada with the intent of injury of the forces under your command in the town of Rivas.

“I reply, I had no such object in visiting Rivas, as will appear more fully by a letter which I wrote to the military governor of that department, a copy of which I enclose.





“I had no personal desire to leave Grenada; and for some time positively objected; but influenced by the chief citizens of Grenada (your own friends) the venerable fathers of the church, the tears of your own sisters, and your daughters, I consented to visit you, accompanied by Don Juan Ruiz, the Secretary of War, and your superior in office, bearing the olive branch of peace; and a proposition from the commander-general of the Democratic forces, to make you the provisional President of the Republic. When it was stated you were absent, I desired to return to this place. Judge my surprise, when I was informed by the Prefect and Governor, that I should not return, my life threatened, and my person (with my secretary, servant, and the national flag) imprisoned in the quartel under strict guard.

“For this violation of the laws of nations and my personal rights, I protest, and be assured, General, that my Government will hold you and your Government to a severe responsibility for such lawless conduct.

“You further inform me that ‘you will not be responsible for what may happen to me for my personal safety,’ and that you will inform Governor Marcy, the Secretary of State, and the newspapers of New York of my conduct in this matter. In reply, I inform you that when I have kept my word of honor to the Governor of Rivas to remain here two days to await your reply, I shall return to my post at Grenada; and that I do not request, nor have I ever expected, you to be responsible for my personal safety. The flag of the United States is sufficiently powerful for my protection, backed as it is by a patriotic President and thirty millions of people.

“I have myself fully informed Governor Marcy of all these matters; and feel in no way responsible to you and the newspapers of New York for my official conduct.

“Yours faithfully,

“JOHN H. WHEELER,

“Minister of U. S. A. near

“the Republic of Nicaragwt.”

As I left Rivas a parting salute from a heavy cannon was fired at us, which struck near us an adobe gate, and covered us with dust and dirt, but with no other effect than to make us mend our gait in retreat.

On my return to Grenada, General Walker called on me. On learning the cause of my delay, my imprisonment by Zatruche, he expressed but little surprise, but remarked quietly, that he expected I would come to grief; and “it would have been a fortunate event had Zatruche carried out his intention to shoot me; for then,” he added, “your Government must have resented such outrage, and taken my part.” This was cool, rather than consoling, and characteristic of Walker, who looked upon men as the mere titulary pawns of the chess board, to be moved and sacrificed to advance the ambitious plans of others. His conduct can only be justified or apologized for by the fact that he was at the time in imminent peril himself. The enemy had now the possession of that portion of the country on which the Transit Company had their route. From this reservoir be could only receive reinforcements. The enemy, exasperated to madness, and infuriated by defeat in every battle by an inferior force, their capital taken, their President and Cabinet fugitives, were ready for the most desperate deeds. The agent of the Transit Company, Judge Cushing, as already stated, was seized and the office broken open, and his life jeopardized. The steamer, loaded with passengers from New York and San Francisco, was fired on by Fort San Carlos, to the imminent peril of every one on board, and several persons killed, among them Mrs. White, of Sharon, New York; and many wounded, among them J. G. Kendrick, then of Cincinnati, Ohio, now of St. Louis. Many whose names were unknown were found murdered, with their throats cut, and their bodies robbed even of their clothes. The steamer, unable to pass the fort at the outlet of the river, or to land at Virgin Bay, on the 22d Oct., 1855, came to Grenada, with 250 passengers, to claim the protection of the American Minister. To add to the misfortunes, the cholera was raging among the crowded passengers. A committee called on the Minister for relief, and I went on board. Such a scene I never before witnessed.





Dead and wounded, sick and dying from cholera, crowded the decks. One died (Nicholas Carrol) with the cholera, while I was on board. Many of these were wealthy; all respectable, and all my countrymen. I persuaded them all to leave the crowded and infected ship, took them into my own house, as many as I could accommodate, and rented a large house for the others.

Added to these miseries, evident preparations were making for a sanguinary battle which was near at hand. Arrests were hourly made and imprisonments, and continual applications for protection and relief.

The Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the late Government, Don Mateo Mayorga, for the outrages at San Carlos and other places, was lying dead at this time in the plaza, shot by order of Walker; leading and wealthy citizens arrested and imprisoned.

What a scene of horror! what a night of anxiety and excitement was experienced!

An anxious and fearful morning came; but General Corral, instead of attacking Grenada, made his appearance in the plaza accompanied by his staff and General Walker, with some of his officers. A treaty of peace between these generals was made, (23d October, 1855,) by which Don Patrico Rivas was named as provisional President—an oblivion of past differences. Walker was made Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Corral Minister of War, the barricades of the streets destroyed, the prisons all opened, and peace dawned on the land. Corral marched his forces into the city, wearing the blue ribbon, and they were incorporated into the army of Walker. The two chiefs embraced each other on the plaza, and the officers, military and civil, proceeded to the church “to return thanks to the God of Peace for the termination of the war.”

Everything now seemed quiet. But it was only temporary. At this very time, when the real strength of Walker was known to Corral, with the instincts of his race and color, he was planning treason and murder. Letters from him to Gardiola and Zatruche were intercepted, urging them to come with arms and force, and overthrow the new government. He was arrested, imprisoned, tried for treason by a court-martial, and condemned to be shot, which sentence was executed in the plaza of Grenada, at 2 p. m., on 8th November, 1855.

I was on the plaza of Grenada on the 8th November, 1855, in company with Captain Scott, Judge Cushing, and some friends, when the tolling of the Cathedral hell, the solemn air of crowds of spectators, indicated some event of deep and solemn importance.

A guard of soldiers marched out from the quartel, with whom appeared General Ponciano Corral. On one side of him was a priest, bearing in his hand a small cross, and on the other his faithful friend, Don Pedro Rouhard, the Consul of France. The splendid person of Corral seemed borne down with calamity; his features bore the marks of extreme mental suffering. He took his seat in the fatal chair, which was placed with its back to the wall of the Cathedral. He calmly took out his handkerchief, folding it in his hands, and bound it around his eyes; then, folding his hands in an attitude of prayer, uttered the word “pronto”—ready. A detail of Mississippi rifles, at the distance of about ten paces, at the word, fired, and every ball pierced through and through his body; he fell dead from the chair, and his spirit departed to answer for the deeds done on earth—

—With all his crimes broad blown,—And how his audit stands, who knows, save heaven? But, in our circumstance and course of thought, ’Tis heavy with him.

I witnessed, with painful emotion, this tragic scene. General Corral was of a soldierly demeanor and commanding presence. He was rather portly in size, weighing about two hundred pounds, social in his character, of daring courage and indomitable purpose. He was excessively





polite, and profuse in his expressions of friendship. He was as sincere as his nature, education, and mixed blood would allow. So natural was intrigue and treachery ingrained in his nature that he practiced these vices when it were easier to be honest and sincere. He was popular among the people, and his death caused a profound sensation in the State.

It would be foreign from the plan of this work to record all the spirit-stirring events in the career of Walker, or to attempt to describe the character of the country or its inhabitants.

The career of General Walker, after many battles between the Nicaraguan forces and Costa Rica, as well as Gnatemala, had varied fortunes; from his injudicious interference with the Transit Company, and other causes, his career was checked by defeat, and in May, 1857, an agreement was entered into by him and Captain Charles Henry Davis, a Commander in the United States Navy, ship “St. Mary,” by which “General Walker, with sixteen officers of his staff, marched out of Rivas with their side-arms, pistols, horses, and personal baggage, under guarantee of said Davis not to be molested by the enemy, and be allowed to embark on the ‘St. Mary,’ then in the harbor of San Juan del Sur; and the said Davis undertaking to transport them safely to Panama, in charge of a United States officer.” From Panama, Walker returned to the United States. He was received with much enthusiasm; nor was he disturbed by the Government of the United States for any violation of law.

He soon embarked again for Nicaragua, with men and arms, when, whether with orders from the Government of the United States or not, he was seized by Captain Paulding, as already alladed to. He was brought back to the United States. He again embarked for Central America, and landed in Honduras, where he had some skirmishes near Truxillo, when he surrendered to the English officer commanding Her Majesty's steamer “Icarus,” who delivered him to General Alvarez, of the Honduras army, and on the 12th September, 1860, he was shot.

This is a copy of the last note that Walker ever wrote:

I hereby protest, before the civilized world, that when I surrendered to the captain of Her Majesty's steamer, the “Icarus,” that officer expressly received my sword and pistol, as well as the arms of Colonel Rutler, and the surrender was expressly, and in so many words, to him, as the representative of Her Brittanic Majesty.

WILLIAM WALKER.

ON BOARD THE STEAMER “ICARUS,” September 5th, 1860.

Thus perished, in the prime of life, William Walker, at the early age of 36, as fearless a man as our country ever produced. Necessarily brief has been this sketch, which the stirring events of the time afford ample material and might have much extended. But it is only a glance at these events, comprehending the salient points of interest, are attempted with truth and justice. Much that I have endeavored to describe, if not

Pars fui; mesiriema vidi.

and had Walker been prudent and successful, the battles of Grenada and Rivas would have rivaled the triumph of San Jacinto, and Walker ranked with the Houston of other days. His enterprise and valor deserve our respect, and his tragic end our sympathy.

  • —Duncan is in his grave.
  • After life's fitful fever he sleeps well.
  • Treason has done his worst, nor steel nor poison,
  • Malice domestic, foreign levy,
  • Nothing can touch him further.
  • MACBETH.

From the disordered condition of this country, and from individual danger incident to any foreigner, I was instructed by the State Department to retire from Grenada to San Juan del Norte. In impaired health, I was allowed to return home, and in 1857 resigned. The events of these three years can hardly be classed in my life as among “The Pleasures of Memory.”





CHAPTER IV.
BERTIE COUNTY.

Whitmill Hill, (born 12th February, 1743. Died 12th September, 1797,) was born in Bertie County, and the ancestor of a large and wealthy family in Eastern Carolina.

He was educated at the University of Pennsylvania, and was the early and earnest advocate of the rights of the Colonists in the Revolution, and served faithfully in all the legislative bodies—Provincial, State, and National—the devoted patriot and statesman.

He was a member of the Provincial Congress that met at Hillsboro, 20th August, 1775, and at Halifax, on 4th April, 1776, and elected to House of Commons from Martin County, in 1777; Senator, 1778-’79 and ’80. He was Speaker of the Senate in 1778. In 1778 he was a delegate from North Carolina to the Continental Congress, and served until 1781.

He survived the perils of the Revolution, and was one of the ablest advocates of the Constitution of the United States in the Convention which met at Hillsboro in July, 1788, which rejected the Constitution by a vote of 184 to 84. He died at Hill's Ferry, Martin County, on 12th of September, 1797.

His letters to Governor Burke, while a member of the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, 1780, have been preserved, (see Uni. Mag. x, No. 7, March, 1861,) and breathe the pure spirit of patriotism and valor. We regret that so little has been preserved of this patriotic statesman, whose character and whose services deserve the regard of posterity.

The name of Jonathan Tayloe is remembered with veneration and regard in Bertie County. One of this name is recorded as a freeholder in Bertie County far back in Colonial times, and one of the name yet lingers upon the scene of his long pilgrimage, though he was old enough to be a soldier under Lieutenant Gavin Hogg and Captain James Iredell, and marched in 1812 in defence of Norfolk. He was for a period of years a pillar of the Baptist Church, universally loved for his noble Christian qualities, and was for a long time the clerk of the county court.

David Stone, born February 17, 1770. Died 7th of October, 1818.

Among the distinguished names in the earlier history of North Carolina, is that of David Stone.

His father, Zedekiah Stone, came early to North Carolina from New England (Vermont, we have understood,) and having purchased lands from the Tuscarora Indians, settled in Bertie County and married Mrs. Elizabeth Hobson, (neeShrivers,) of Martin County.

He lived at Hope, five miles from Windsor, and carried on mereantile and farming business.

He was a devoted and a ready friend to the cause of liberty and independence, and was a member of the Provincial Congress, at Halifax (1776) which formed our State Constitution.

He was, for many years, annually elected a Senator of the Legislature from Bertie, and was distinguished for his intelligence and shrewdness of character.

His son, David Stone, was born at Hope, 17th of February, 1770.

His early education was conducted by the best teachers that the country could afford, and he was diligent, laborious, and apt to learn.

After his academic studies were completed, young Stone was sent to Princeton College, where he graduated in 1788, with the first honors Dr. Witherspoon, then the President of the College, often referred with approbation to his studious and exemplary conduct,





and predicted for him a bright career of honor and usefulness.

He studied law with General William R. Davie, whose knowledge and successful practice well qualified him to prepare and fit upon his students that armor which would enable them to endure the tilts of the legal tournament. His teachings were inculcated with an elegance of manners, and a suavity of temper, that, while they instructed, gave satisfaction and pleasure. Judge Daniel, long one of the Judges of our Supreme Court, who also read law with him, pronounced General Davie one of the most able jutists and accomplished gentlemen he ever knew. Under such a teacher, Mr. Stone was well fitted for the duties of his profession; and from his solid acquirements, his signal ability, his close attention to the interests of his clients, the skillful and careful preparation of his cases, he won the confidence of the community, and attained the highest rank in his profession. When in the 26th year of his age, he was elected by the Legislature a Judge of the Superior Court of Law and Equity.

He early embarked on the stormy sea of political life, in which, from the suavity of his manners and the solidity of his acquirements, he enjoyed a long and brilliant career. From 1790 to 1794 he was a member of the House of Commons. In 1795 he was elected one of the Judges of the Superior Court, the duties of which he discharged with dignity and ability until 1799, when he was chosen Representative in Congress. In 1801 he was elected Senator in Congress, which place he resigned in 1807, on being again elected Judge of Superior Court. Whilst a member of the Senate his distinguished colleague, Jesse Franklin, was President protem, of that body. It is a fact worthy of record that at this time the presiding officers of both Houses of Congress were from North Carolina, Mr. Macon having been Speaker of the Lawer House during the 7th, 8th, and 9th Congresses, 1801 to 1806. In 1808 Mr. Stone was elected Governor of the State. He discharged all the duties of that elevated position with great dignity during his constitutional term. In 1811 and 1812 he again appeared as a member of the Legislature, and his experience, abilities and principles gave him commanding influence. This was a stormy period in the political history of the State. A bill to confer the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States upon the Legislature, so as to give an undivided vote (instead of the district system then in vogue,) was introduced and advocated by Governor Stone; this failing, he introduced a similar measure to choose the electors by a general ticket system, which he advocated with great ability and unequaled eloquence. This measure was opposed by Duncan Cameron, John Stanly, and others; and also miscarried. He opposed the proposition of Mr. Phifer to make a choice of electors by the district system, but this was adopted. At this session he was again elected a Senator in Congress to serve for six years, from the 4th of March, 1813.

He possessed extraordinary and highly cultivated intellectual powers, cautious and shrewd in business transactions, fond of money, and successful in the accumulation of property.

He was twice married, first to Miss Harriet Turner, by whom he left several children; second to Miss Dashield, of Washington City.

(For Genealogy of the Stone family of Bertie County, North Carolina, see Appendix.)

General Stone entered the Senate again at a period of intense national excitement. The United States were at war with the most powerful nation on earth, and party spirit raged with unwonted violence. The majority of the people of North Carolina supported Madison and the war, and the Legislature elected Governor Stone to sustain that policy; but, unfortunately, he differed from the Legislature and





the people. His reasons were, as stated in Niles’ Register, (vol. vii., 163,) that “these measures had led to division among ourselves, and to bankruptey and ruin to the nation.” The embargo, a measure strongly recommended by the President, had passed the House. It was rejected in the Senate by two votes only, and one of them was Governor Stone's. He also voted against a bill to raise by direct tax revenue to support the war. He complained, personally, that to a call for information from the Committee of Ways and Means, the reply was that “there was not time to furnish the desired information.”

In this course he differed from his colleague, Governor Turner, of the Senate, and from Willis Alston, Peter Forney, John Culpepper, Meshack Franklin, William R. King, Nathaniel Macon, William H. Murfree, Israel Pickens, Richard Stanford, and Bartlett Yancey. His course called down the censure of the Legislature.

In December, 1814, Mr. Branch, afterwards Governor, as chairman of the special committee upon the subject, reported a resolution that “the conduct of David Stone had been in opposition to his professions, and had jeopardized the safety and interest of the country, and had incurred the disapprobation of this General Assembly.”

This passed, 40 to 18, and Governor Stone forthwith resigned his seat in the Senate. This closed his distinguished and eventful public life, and four years afterward he died, in the 48th year of his age.

Governor Stone was in person tall and commanding of reddish hair, which he wore, as was then the fashion, in a queae.

Willie Blount, Governor of Tennessee, was born in Bertie County 1768; died 1835.

He was the son of Jacob Blount already referred to in a sketch of the Blounts of Beaufort. He was the brother of Governor William Blount, the first Governor of Tennessee, (see Craven County,) and was his private secretary.

He was a lawyer by profession, and so highly esteemed that, at the age of 28, he was elected Judge of the Supreme Court of Tennessee.

He was the Governor of Tennessee from 1809 to 1815. This long period of public service, in so elevated a position, proves the wisdom and prudence of his conduct and his acceptable service. It was his fortune to be Governor in a most exciting period of our history—during the war with England—and he gave to the administration his cordial and constant support. He tendered to President Madison 2,500 troops, and placed them under command of Andrew Jackson, who won for his country the glorious victory at New Orleans.

He was equally active in the Creek war, raising 2,000 volunteers and $300,000.

He married Lucinda, daughter of John and Anne Norfleet Baker, of Bertie County.

He died at the residence of Wylie Johnson, near Nashville, in 1835. A monument was erected by order of the Legislature anto his memory at Clarksville. He left several children, among them Mrs. J. T. Dabney; Mrs. Dortch, whose son, Willie B. Dortch, married a daughter of Governor A. V. Brown.

The names of Cherry and Outlaw are preserved by a patriotie and talented race full of generous feeling and kindly dispositions.

George Outlaw was born, lived and died in Bertie County. He was distinguished, says Mr. Moore in his History of North Carolina. for the blandness of his manners, and was as noted for his usefulness in the Church, as for his talents as a statesman. He entered public life as a member of the House of Commons in 1796 and in 1799, and a member of the Senate from 1806 to 1822, with some intermissions, of which body he was Speaker in 1812, ’18, and ’14, and elected a member of the 18th Congress, 1823-’25, to supply a vacancy occasioned





by the resignation of H. G. Burton, elected Governor. He was the first Moderator of the Chowan Baptist Association, established in 1806.

His fine personal appearance, his kind, genial manners, and his generous, charitable temper, rendered him universally popular. His son, George B. Outlaw, succeeded him in the State Senate, in 1823 and 1824, whose widow (nee Jordan) married Governor John Branch.

Thomas Miles Garret was a resident of this county, and lived near Colerain. His education was good. He was prepared for college by John Kimberly, and graduated in 1851, in same class with David M. Carter, Bartholomew Fuller, Francis E. Shober and others. He read law, and by his diligence and capacity attained renown. But the war broke out, and he joined the army. He was brave and devoted to the cause, and fell in battle as colonel, at the head of his regiment, amid the horrors of that fearful conflict. He remarked on the eve of the engagement that the day would end with a general's wreath or with his life. Both were verified. A commission arrived next day as brigadier, but too late!

There are but few persons in North Carolina who did not know David Outlaw (born about 1805 and died 1868,) and appreciate his estimable character. He was born, lived and died in Bertie County. He was endowed by nature with a clear and penetrating mind, which was highly improved by a liberal education. He graduated in 1824 at the University of the State, at the head of his class. When it is recollected who composed this class, and their mental material, this high honor will be appreciated. Among them were Daniel B. Baker, Benjamin B. Blume, John Bragg, member of the Legislature, member of Congress, and Judge in Alabama; James W. Bryan, distinguished lawyer, Senator 1836 from Jones County; Thomas Dews, of Lincoluton; William A. Graham, Governor of North Carolina, Senator in Congress, Secretary of the Navy; Matthias E. Manly, Judge of the Superior and Supreme Courts; Augustus Moore, Judge of Superior Courts; Edward D. Simms, member of Congress, 1824, from South Carolina. In even this galaxy of merit and talent Mr. Outlaw was conspicuous.

He studied law with that able and accomplished jurist. William Gaston, and by his assiduity, ability and labor did credit to his accomplished preceptor. He was admitted to the bar in 1827, and soon rose to the front rank of his profession. For years he was the Solicitor of the Edenton Circuit, in which responsible position he won the respect, confidence and admiration of the bench, bar and juries. When to his discriminating judgment, oppression or persecution was attempted, he was mild and yielding, but when the law was violated, no matter by whom, high or low, indigent or wealthy, it was firmly vindicated.

Naturally generous and just, though resolute, he was universally popular. His warm and enthusiastic temper was often roused when duplicity or artifice was attempted; and he would assail his victim with resistless power and matchless eloquence. This trait in his character was well known to his associates at the bar, as also to the community at large. Often has the trembling offender of justice, when on trial, whispered to counsel, “Doa't make Outlaw mad, for if you do, I shall not have any chance to escape.” He was truly “a terror unto evil-doers, and a praise to them who do well.” “To the just, he was mild and gentle; but to the froward he was as fierce as fire.”

Such a man could not fail to secure regard and respect. He was frequently elected a member of the Legislature, and was elected member of the 30th (1847,) 31st (1849,) and 32d (1851) Congresses. Here his unbending integrity, his unselfish patriotism, his unquestioned





abilities, and his pure and unobtrusive virtues, commanded the respect and the affection of his associates. He was ever ready to do generous acts, while he scorned any intrigue or artifice— the unflinching foe to corruption, extravagance or indirection. Sincere and honest himself, he was unsuspicious of deceit or fraud in others.

In his person Colonel Outlaw was but little favored by nature. He was very near-sighted, and constantly were glasses that were green, and which to strangers made him appear distant, reserved, and awkward. Yet, with these disadvantages, to those who knew him well, this rugged exterior did

Hide a precious jewel in its head.

and present every quality of honor, truth, and justice that can dignify human nature.

His last public service was as a member of the State Senate in 1863. He died on 22d October, 1868.

His latter days were clouded by misfortune. The vicissitudes of war, his confidence in friends, and his carelessness in financial matters, had wrecked his fortunes. The natural infirmity (defective eyesight) terminated in total blindness. But his generous qualities triumphed over calamity. To such men may North Carolina proudly point as the mother of the Gracci did to her sons, and sincerely say,

These are my jewels.

James W. Clark, born 1779, died 1843, was a native of Bertie County, son of Christopher Clark, who died at Salmon creek.

He was liberally educated, and graduated at Princeton in 1796. He was elected a member of the Legislature from his native county in 1802-’3. He removed to Edgecombe County, which he represented in 1810 and 1811, and in the Senate 1812-’13 and ’14, and elected a member of the 14th Congress—1815-’17. He served out his term and declined a re-election. He was succeeded by Dr. Thomas H. Hull.

He served in 1827 as Chief Clerk of the Navy Department under Governor Branch.

He was an enterprising, patriotic and honest man, loved and respected by all who knew him. He married Arabella, daughter of Henry I. Toole. He died in 1843, leaving one son, who became Governor of the State, 1861, and two daughters, Maria, who married Mat Waddell, and Laura, who married Cotten.

(For the Genealogy of the Clark family, see Appendix.)

Patrick Henry Winston resides in Bertie County, but is a native of Franklin County. He was educated at Wake Forest, and at the Columbian University, at Washington City, where he graduated. He read law at Chapel Hill, and after receiving a license to practice, settled in Windsor. He represented Bertie County in the Legislature in 1850 and 1854.

In 1861, he, together with Hon. B. F. Moore and Sam'l F. Phillips, were elected by the Legislature as Judges of the Court of Claims. This was a delicate and severe duty, and this able court discharged it with fidelity and ability.

After his term in the court had expired, he was appointed by Governor Vance Financial Agent of the State in her fiscal relations with the Confederate Government.

In 1864 he was elected one of the Council of State, and by that body chosen President, a position at this time involving great responsibility.

In 1865 he was chosen a member of the Constitutional Convention from Franklin, whither he had taken refuge during the troubles of the war, and no one did more to build up the broken down walls of our political Zion than Mr. Winston. He was of the few men who declined to sign an open letter to Governor Holden, requesting him to be a candidate for Governor. In 1868 he was





offered and declined the nomination for Congress, preferring to pursue the practice of his profession, of which he is alike a pillar and an ornament. He posseses untiring industry, profound learning, and unspotted reputation.

He has a family likely to be as distinguished as their father for ability, influence and integrity.

A fearful epidemic appeared in Bertie County, as recorded in Niles’ Register, vol. x, 364, which was most fatal among the people, in May, 1816. Some sections, especially Cashie Neck, were nearly depopulated. The statement says that “the most robust constitutions melted before it as wax before a fire.”

CHAPTER V.
BLADEN COUNTY.

With this county are associated many stirring events connected with the war of the Revolution, which attested the patriotism of her sons, and their devotion to liberty.

The battle of Elizabethtown, fought in July, 1781, was a complete victory of the Whigs, led by Thomas Brown, over the Tories, commanded by Slingsby and Godden. This has been already so fully recorded from authentic documents in the History of North Carolina (II, 36,) that its repetition is unnecessary here. The heroic character of Denny Porterfield is detailed in The Memories of Cross Creek.

THE MEMORIES OF CROSS CREEK.

The Highlanders of Scotland, after their defeat at Culloden in 1746, migrated to North Carolina, under the advice of Neill McNeill. They found a resting-place on the banks of Cape Fear, at what has remained the head of navigation on that river to the present time.

As early as 1762 Cross Creek and Cambellton (now Fayetteville) began to assume importance in a commercial point of view, the fame whereof attracted many from abroad, and amongst others James Porterfield, an Irishman by birth, but who for some years had been a resident of Pennsylvania. Mr. Porterfield had five children—Eleanor, who intermarried with Col. Thomas Owen, the father of Gen. James and the late Gov. John Owen; one son who died in early life; John and James, who for many years were merchants in Fayetteville, and Denny, who is the subject of this brief sketch.

On the breaking out of the Revolutionary war, the whole family of Porterfields espoused the Whig cause. In the death of James Porterfield, senior, the Whigs lost an able and influential friend. But his widow, animated by the same ardent temperament, made her mansion headquarters for the Whigs of Cross Creek. She was celebrated as an expert cartridge-maker, and frequently spent nights in preparing bullets to be used by the Americans. At that time she lived in the house that has for many years been known as the residence of John McLearn, deceased, and now of his son William.

Under such a father and mother, and in such times, Denny Porterfield grew to manhood.





He became a soldier, served with distinction in the American army, and attained the rank of Major. It is not our object to give a detailed account of the exploits of Denny Porterfield, but will simply endeavor to record his daring bravery as exhibited in his last battle.

It is a well known fact that while Cornwallis retreated from Guilford Court House via Fayetteville and Wilmington to Yorktown, where he was compelled to surrender to the prowess of Washington, Gen. Greene, instead of pursuing him, determined to relieve North and South Carolina from the persecutions of Lord Rawdon, and so pressed upon him, that in July, 1781, he took post at the Eutaw Springs, where the Americans attacked him and drove him from his entrenchments. Foremost in this intrepid charge was the high-souled and valorous Denny Porterfield who seemed to have a charmed life, as he exposed himself upon his mettled charger, with epaulettes and red and buff vest on, to the murderous fire of the enemy. Lieut. Col. Campbell received a mortal wound while leading the successful charge. Porterfield and his brave companions rushed on to avenge his death, and took upwards of five hundred prisoners.

In their retreat the British took post in a strong brick house and picqueted garden, and from this advantageous position, under cover, commenced firing.

At this crisis in the battle Gen. Greene desired to bring forward re-inforcements to storm the house. To save time it became important that some one should ride within range of the British cannon. It was in reality a forlorn hope. The American General would detail no one for the enterprise, but asked if any one would volunteer. Instantly Denny Porterfield mounted his charger and rode into his presence. Gen. Greene inquired if he was aware of the peril, if he knew that his path lay between converging fires, and in full sight of the British army. Porterfield modestly replied, that when he entered the American army he had subjected his powers of mind and body to the glorious cause, and if needs he was prepared to die in its behalf.

Greene communicated the command, which was to order into service a reserved corps that lay in ambuscade, ready to advance upon receiving the signal agreed on.

With a brave and undaunted bearing Major Porterfield dashed off upon his fleet courser, and so sudden and unexpected was his appearance among the British, and so heroic the deed, that they paused to admire his bravery, and omitted to fire until he was beyond the reach of their guns; but on his return, they fired, the shot took effect in his breast, and the brave Denny Porterfield fell, and sealed his devotion to the cause with his blood, on the plains of Eutaw. His horse escaped unhurt galloped into the American lines, and never halted till he reached his accustomed place in the ranks.

Gen. Greene, who witnessed the instinct of the animal, shed tears, and ordered David Twiggs, father of Miss Winny Twiggs, now of Fayetteville, to take charge of the horse and carry him to Mrs. Porterfield at Cross Creek. And upon a Sunday afternoon the mother of the distinguished gentleman who communicated some of the facts detailed, remembered to have met David Twiggs coming into Cross Creek, who in one breath announced the fall of his beloved Major and the success of the American arms at Eutaw. He brought with him the red buff vest that Major Porterfield wore, and Gen. James Owen has informed me that he remembers to have seen it, and that there was a rent or tear on one side and slightly blood-stained. On the retreat of Lord Rawdon, Gen. Greene retained possession of the field, and there the body of Denny Porterfield found an honorable grave. His





horse lived for several years, a pensioner roaming at pleasure on the banks of Cross Creek—known and beloved by all who venerated the valor and chivalry of Denny Porterfield.

John Rutherford, or Rutherford, resided in Bladen County.

He married Penelope Eden, the widow of Governor Gabriel Johnston, and lived on the place in Bladen, where the Governor had built a house. (Moore, I, 147.)

He was one of the Council of Governor Martin, and should not be confounded with the name of General Griffith Rutherford, who did great military service in the Revolution.

John Owen, (born 1787; died 1841,) was the grandson of Major Porterfield, above alluded to, and the son of Thomas Owen, who died in 1803, and was a brave officer of the Revolution, and commanded a regiment at Camden.

To many of our State, he was well known, and by all he was highly appreciated for his amiable character, his generous disposition, and pure and upright demeanor. It was not his taste, or his fortune, to command in the field of war, or even

The applause of listening Senates to command.

He preferred rather to enjoy the quiet comforts of home and his family, and the kindly intercourse of neighbors and friends.

Such was his popularity that he was often elected by the people of Bladen a member of the Legislature, (1812-’27, and in 1828;) during the last year he was chosen Governor. He was within one vote of being elected Senator in Congress in 1831.

He was President of the Convention at Harrisburg, in 1840, that nominated General Harrison for President. He was offered the nomination as Vice-President; he declined, and Mr. Tyler was nominated. Had his modesty allowed his acceptance, as was the course of events, he would have been President of the United States. But his health was very precarious, and would not allow him to accept any position. He died October, 1841, at Pittsboro.

He married, at an early age, the daughter of General Thomas Brown, the hero of the battle of Elizabethtown, leaving an only daughter, who married Haywood Guion, deceased, and who now resides at Charlotte.

Governor Owen was a true type of a North Carolinian. Sincere, but chary in his professions and promises; and faithful and exact in his performances; varied and deep in his acquirements, but modest, reticent and unobtrusive in his demeanor; firm and gallant in maintaining his convictions of right. His name is worthy to be classed with Bayard of France: “Sans peur, sans reproche.”

His brother, General James Owen, was well known for his urbane and intellectual character. He was elected a member of the 15th Congress (1817,) and President of the North Carolina and Raleigh Railroad.

His sister married Elisha Stedman, of Fayetteville.

James J. McKay, (born 1793; died 1853,) of this county, was distinguished as a lawyer and statesman. He was often a member of the Legislature in the Senate (1815, ’16, ’17, ’18, ’22 and ’26;) district attorney of the United States, and a member of Congress from 1831 to 1849, serving at one time with great acceptability as Chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means. In the National Convention of 1848 General McKay received the undivided vote of North Carolina as a candidate for Vice-President. As a statesman he was of unquestioned ability, of stern integrity, capable of great labor and patient investigation. He was in public, as in private life, a radical economist, and belonged to that school of which Mr. Macon was the father, and he, with George W. Jones, Cave Johnson, of Tennessee, and John Letcher, of Virginia, were faithful disciples.





General McKay died very suddenly at Goldshoro in 1853.

In closing our sketches of “The memories of fifty years or more,” as regards the men of Bladen County, we should do injustice to the integrity of history and to merit and virtue to pass over the name of Thomas David McDowell, one of the purest men in public and private life that I ever knew.

He was born in Bladen County, the son of Dr. Alexander McDowell, on the 4th of January, 1823.

His education was liberal, conducted at the onaldson Academy and the University, where he graduated in 1843, in the same class with Hon. John L. Bridgers, Hon. Robert P. Dick, Philo P. Henderson, Judge Samuel J. Person, and others. He served in the Legislature in 1846 to 1850 in the House, and 1854 and ’58 in the Senate, and in the Congress of the Confederacy.

He is a planter by profession, and now lives in dignified retirement like Cincinatus, until he is called, like him, by the people, to position of responsibility and honor, which his merits entitle him, and his talents so admirably qualify him to adorn.

CHAPTER VI.
BRUNSWICK COUNTY.

There are so many memories that cluster around the early times of this ancient county, associated with the chivalric daring of her patriotic sons, that the historian is embarrassed by the riches the glowing record presents. The difficulty arises not so much in finding material for his study as in selecting events and subjects most worthy of preservation. Here was the ancient borough of Brunswick.* This section was the home of Howe, of Harnett, and of Hill, where wealth and enterprise reared stately mansions; where generous hospitality, gentle courtesy, and social harmony prevailed, and where wit, science and refinement found a habitation.

These people were happy when left to themselves; never yielded quiet obedience to the rule of the lords proprietors, nor were they even on good terms with the rulers of Royalty. Governor Dobbs, with amiable traits of character and with all the patronage of the Government, could win but few advocates. Governor Tryon, his successor, by turns threatened and flattered them, but in vain; and finally they drove out Gov. Martin, the last of the Royal Governors, from the country to whom, like the guests of Macbeth, the people of Brunswick said, with more decision them comity,

  • —At once, good night!
  • Stand not upon the order of your going-
  • But go at once.

These people, when the Stamp Act was before the Parliament, saw the storm approaching; without fear they watched its course, and when it came, they breasted its fury with firm and manly spirit. When its final passage was announced, the Chevalier Bayard of the day,

[note]



John Ashe, then Speaker of the House of the Colonial Assembly, boldly proclaimed to the Royal Governor, surrounded by his satraps, that “he would resist the execution of the act to death!”

It was here occurred a scene which excels in daring any event of the age; and which leaves the Boston Tea Party a secondary legend in point of courage and patriotism.

In the year 1766, an English sloop-of-war, (the “Diligence”) is seen entering the harbor. “The meteor flag of England” flaunts proudly from her mast, and her cannon, loaded and ready, frowned upon the devoted town. She sails gracefully into the harbor, and drops her anchor. Governor Tryon, anxiously expecting her, announces her arrival by a proclamation dated 6th January, 1766, and the reception of stamps, and directs “all persons authorized to distribute stamps to apply to the commander.”

But other eyes than Tryon's were watching. Colonel Hugh Waddell forthwith sent from Brunswick a messenger to Ashe, announcing the arrival of the “Diligence” with stamps; he immediately repairs to Brunswick. Now comes the tug of war. Will the arrogant Tryon, with his armed men, triumph; or will the daring Ashe

Beard the Douglas in his castle?

Will he and Waddell commit acts that are treason, and will send them to prison and death?

They felt the importance and the peril of the occasion. Like the ancient Romans they felt

  • Gods! can a Roman Senate long debate
  • Which of the two to choose, liberty or death?
  • No, let us rise at once, and at the head
  • Of our remaining legions, gird on our swords
  • And charge home upon him.

They with force prevent the lauding of any one from the ship; and intimidating the commander, seizing the ship's boat, brought it on shore, mounted it on a cart, raised on it a flag, and marched in triumph to the residence of the Governor at Wilmington. The whole town was wild with excitement, and was illuminated at night. The next morning Colonel Ashe, at the head of a crowd of people, went to the house of the Governor and demanded the Stamp-master, (William Houston,) who had fled to the Governor for safety. The Governor refuses to deliver him up, and forth with preparations are made to surround and burn the house, in which was the Governor, Stamp-master and others. Terrified, although a practiced soldier, the Governor yields, and Houston is delivered up. They do no act of bloodshed; but firmly conduct Houston to the Market-house, where he makes a solemn pledge in writing “never to receive any stamped paper which may arrive from England, nor officiate in any way in the distribution of stamps in the Province of North Carolina.”

Three loud cheers ascend to Heaven, and ring says Davis, “through the old market place, and the Stamp Act is dead in North Carolina.” This was more than ten years before the Declaration of Independence, and more than nine before the battle of Lexington, and nearly eight years before the Boston Tea Party, which was in the night, and by men in disguise, and upon the harmless carriers of freight. History has blazoned this act of Boston to the world, but the act of the people of the Cape Fear was far more daring; done in open day by men of character, with arms in their hands, under the King's flag; and who has heard of it? Who remembers it? Who tells it? “When,” concludes the eloquent address of Mr. Davis, from which I am proud to copy, “will history do justice to North Carolina? Never until some faithful and loving son of her own shall gird up his loins to the task, and with unwearied industry and unflinching devotion to the honor of his dear old mother, narrate the virtues and valor of her sons.





This decided conduct on the part of the people, as was to be expected, infuriated Tryon; and he fulminates in his dispatches to the Earl of Hillsboro his threats of vengeance. He enclosed a copy of the pledge extorted from his Stamp-master, which is filed in the Rolls Office, and which, for future historians, I copy and here record.

From Rolls Office, London; extract from Governor Tryon's dispatch; dated 26th December, 1765; a pledge extorted from William Houston by John Ashe and others.

“I do hereby promise that I never will receive any stamp paper which may arrive from Europe in consequence of any act lately passed in the Parliament of Great Britain, nor officiate in any manner as Stamp-master in the distribution of stamps within the Province of North Carolina, either directly or indirectly.

“I do hereby notify all the inhabitants of His Majesty's Province of North Carolina that notwithstanding my having received information of my being appointed to said office of Stamp-master, I will not apply hereafter for any stamp, paper, or to distribute the same, until such time as it shall be agreeable to the inhabitants of this Province.

“Hereby declaring that I do execute these presents of my own free will and accord, without any equivocation or mental reservation whatever.”

“In witness hereof I have hereunto set my hand this 16th November, 1765.

“WILLIAM HOUSTON.”

  • There are deeds which should not pass away;
  • And names that must not wither, tho the earth
  • Forgets her empire with a just decay.
  • The enslavers and enslaved, their death and birth.

Among the records I find a letter from Houston to Tryon, in which he states, “I am hated, abhorred and detested, and have no friend,” that he thinks John Moses DeRosset would not refuse a copy of his bond lodged in his hands, dated at Socrate, 21st April, 1766.

Such was the enthusiasm and spirit of the aroused people, that fears for the personal safety of Governor Tryon were excited, and required all the efforts and popularity of Ashe to allay them.

I find among the public records in London, never before published, the following letter:

“February 19, 1766.

“TO GOVERNOR TRYON:

“SIR: The inhabitants, dissatisfied with the particular restrictions laid upon the trade of this River only, have determined to march to Brunswick, in hopes of obtaining, in a peaceful manner, a redress of their grievances from the Commanding Officers of His Majesty's ships, and have compelled us to conduct them. We, therefore, think it our duty to acquaint Your Excellency that we are fully determined to protect from insult your person and property, and that if it will be agreeable to your Excellency, a guard of gentlemen shall be immediately detached for that purpose.

“We have the honor to be, with the greatest respect, sir,

“Your Excellency's most

“Obedient, humble servants,

“JOHN ASHE,

“THOMAS LLOYD,

“ALEXANDER LILLINGTON.”

This shows the well balanced temper of Ashe and his associates. He had raised a tempest, fierce and furious, in the cause of right and opposed to illegality and oppression. But he was a sufficiently potent Prospero to allay its excess.

The position of the Governor was humiliating and galling to his pride. As a soldier he had been trained to arms. His temper was imperious, daring and desperate, as he afterwards evinced at Alamance. But he saw that he was no match before the people with the popular and fearless Ashe.

His political sagacity induced him to change his course, for he knew well when to brag and bully and when to flatter and fawn. “He began,” says Davis, “to court the people and flatter them with shows and sports.” “In February, of that same year, 1766, there was a muster of militia in Wilmington. The Governor prepared, at considerable expense, a fine repast for the people. But when the feast was ready the people rushed to the spot, poured the liquor in the street, and threw the





viands, untasted, into the river. He forgot that he was in the home of John Ashe, and he had seen that neither he nor the people could be intimidated or cajoled.”

I am indebted to the able address of Hon. George Davis for much of the eloquent style in which these events have been recorded, and use his language, so forcible and correct, and so much better than any I could employ.

After the battle of Alamance, Tryon was transferred to the Governorship of New York, and he left North Carolina to the mutual satisfaction of himself and the people. He declared in a dispatch to his Government, that “not all the wealth of the Indies could induce him to remain among such a daring and rebellious people.”

His successor, Governor Martin, found his place no bed of roses, notwithstanding he used every means to reconcile the people to the mother country. He early experienced the restive spirit of the age, and as already stated, found it convenient to take refuge (on 10th July, 1775) on board of His Majesty's ship of war, lying in the Cape Fear river. In a dispatch dated 20th July, 1775, from on board the “Cruiser,” he informs his Government that “Fort Johnson had been burnt, and that Mr. John Ashe and Mr. Cornelius Harnett were the ringleaders of the savage and audacious mob.” Governor Martin found as little pleasure in association with such daring men as had Governor Tryon, and with English squadron left the Cape Fear country for Charleston. Thus was the State free from any foreign ruler. This same year, 20th of May, 1775, the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence was proclaimed, and the year following (18th November, 1776,) a State Constitution was formed at Halifax.

These were the men that formed our State; these—

  • Like Romans in Rome's quarrel,
  • Spared neither land nor gold,
  • Nor son nor wife, nor limb nor life,
  • In the brave days of old.
  • Then none was for a party;
  • Then all were for the State;
  • Then the great man helped the poor,
  • And the poor man loved the great.

It has been the subject of frequent remark and admiration, that North Carolina should haved formed, under such circumstances, so perfect a Constitution that it carried the State through the long and bloody revolution in safety, and for nearly sixty years, in honor and happiness. For any people, long inured to aristocratic forms and monarchial rule, should, bursting from the gloom of monarchy into the light of liberty, to have created so perfect a form of Government, was indeed a subject full of wonder. It has been amended several times; but to the minds of many it has not been improved. It was the work of men who knew the great principles of liberty, truth and justice, and many of them afterwards fought and died to secure them.

It was adopted on the 18th December 1776, as reported by a committee, among whom were W. Avery, John and Samuel Ashe, Thomas Burke, Rich'd Caswell, Cornelius Harnett, Joseph Hews, Robert Howe, Willie Jones, Thomas Jones, and others.

It is recorded that it was chiefly the production of Caswell, Burke and Thomas Jones. But whoever they were, they proved themselves master workmen in their craft.

  • Thou, too, sail on, oh Ship of State,
  • Sail on thy course, both strong and great,
  • Humanity with all its fears,
  • With all the hopes of future years,
  • Is hanging breathless on thy fate.

By many it is stated that our Constitution was the earliest formed. But this is error. When the power of the mother country over the colonies was gone, and some Government other than England was necessary, the Continental Congress, by a resolution adopted 3d November, 1775, recommended the Colonies to adopt such Government as should best





conduce to their safety. In accordance with this resolution—

I. New Hampshire formed a State Constitution 28th December, 1775.

II. South Carolina, on 26th March, 1776.

III. Virginia, June 29, 1776.

IV. New Jersey, July 3, 1776.

V. Delaware, September 12, 1776.

VI. Pennsylvania, September 21, 1776.

VII. North Carolina, 12th November, 1776.

VIII. Georgia, 5th February, 1777.

IX. New York, April 20, 1777.

(See Ben: Perley Poore on Charters and Constitutions.)

I. The Convention which formed the first Constitution for North Carolina met at Halifax, 12th November, 1776, as above alluded to.

II. The Convention which revised and amended the Constitution, met at Raleigh on 4th June, 1835, (Nath'l Macon, President.)

III. The Convention (secession) met at Raleigh 20th May, 1861, (Weldon N Edwards, President.)

IV. The Convention, under orders of the President of the United States, (Johnson,) met at Raleigh 2d October, 1865, formed a Constitution which was not ratified by the people, (Edwin G. Reade, President.)

V. The Convention, under orders of General Canby, of the United States Army, met at Raleigh 11th January, 1868, formed a Constitution, (Calvin J. Cowles, President.)

VI. The Convention to amend the Constitution, met at Raleigh on 6th September, 1875, which was ratified by the people by a majority in November, 1876, (Dr. Ew'd Ransom, President.)

Lists of the persons who were members of the Conventions of 1776, 1835, 1861, 1865, 1868 and 1875, are to be found in the admirable hand-book of L. L. Polk. Commissioner of Agriculture, published at Raleigh, 1879.

Brunswick County presented many patriotic sons to the cause of Independence, but none more worthy of our memories than Robert Howe, (born 1732; died 1785.) So little has been preserved and presented to the county of this distinguished man that the indefatigable and accurate historian* has been compelled to state that history bears no record of his private life.

The reproach has been removed, in some measure, by an abridgement of the memories of General Howe, compiled by Archibald Maclaine Hooper.†

Had his services and sacrifices been rendered in any other State than North Carolina, he would have been lauded among the statesmen and patriots of the nation. Let us try to supply this omission, and endeavor to present the character and services of General Howe as they deserve.

His name and fame belong to Brunswick; for it was in this county he was born, lived and died.

He was born in 1732. His father's family was a branch of the noble house of Howe, in England. He had the misfortune to lose both of his parents at any early age; and the guidance of his boyhood was entrusted to a kind grandmother, who, like all grandmothers, so completely indulged him that his education and training was much neglected. He was, however, of an active, inquisitive mind, and by even desultory reading, and conversation of literary men, he acquired much and varied information. He married at an early age a young lady of the Grange family, much against the will of her parents. With his bride he visited his relatives in England, where he remained about two years, enjoying the noble and munificent hospitality of his friends and family.

[note][note]



On his return he commenced his public career. I copy from the Rolls Office in London the following:

“3d Nov., 1766.

“At a meeting of the council at Newburn, Robert Howe, Esq., produced the Governor's (Tryon's) commission appointing him captain of Fort Johnston, and he took the oath and subscribed the test.”

In a dispatch of Gov. Martin to Earl of Dartmouth dated December 24th, 1772. “the Governor complains that the Colonial Assembly had passed a resolution requesting Governor Tryon to forward their petition to the King and thus overlooking him.”

“This,” he adds, “was done by the influence of Robert Howe and Isaac Edwards.”

“Of Mr. Howe,” the Governor says, in the same dispatch, “when he came to North Carolina. Mr. Howe was the captain of Fort Johnson, and Baron of the Exchequer; but believing the two offices incongruous, he appointed Mr. Hasell Baron of the Exchequer; by the King's appointment Captain Collet was made captain of the fort, which deprived Mr. Howe of a post of contemptible profit to a man of honor; but he, by extraordinary management of moneys that came into his hands to support the garrison, made it very lucrative, and served to keep together the wreck of his fortune. Mr. Howe is a man of lively parts and good understanding, but, in the present state of his affairs, of no account or consideration, and is trying to establish a reputation for patriotism.”

“The Legislature resolved to continue the establishment of Fort Johnston only to the next session, which, I fear, is owing to the command being held by an officer nominated by His Majesty, instead of Mr. Howe, a native of this country.” (Colonial Records, London.)

This year and in the next, 1772 and 1773, Howe was elected a member of the Assembly. He was also elected a delegate to the Colonial Congress which met at New Berne on 25th August, 1774. This was the first assemblage of the representatives of the people in a legislative capacity in the Colony in direct opposition to the Royal authority. It was violently denounced by Governor Martin. Howe was appointed chairman of a committee to whom the speech of Martin was referred, and wrote an able and eloquent reply. On the 8th August, 1775, Martin by proclamation dated 8th August, 1775, on board the British ship “Cruiser,” denounced Howe for having taken the style of colonel, and for summoning and training the militia, etc.

This closed Howe's legislative career. By the Colonial Congress that met at Hillsboro on 21st August, 1775, he was appointed colonel of the 2d Regiment, then about to be raised on the Continental establishment.

The officers appointed to this regiment were Robert Howe, colonel; John Patton, major, (maternal grandfather of the Hon. C. C. Cambrelling, already alluded to;) Alexander Martin, lieutenant colonel, afterwards Governor of the State. Among the captains were James Blount, Hardy Murfree, Henry Irwin Toole, Michael Payne, and others. In this gallant regiment Hertford County contributed her first quota of troops enlisted for the war. They constituted Company D, and were commanded by Hardy Murfree. Colonel Benjamin Wynns commanded the Hertford Battalion. Their first march under Howe was to Norfolk, and reached the Great Bridge only two days after the battle. Thence they went south under Lee. One of the best and truest of Hertford's sons was aide-de-camp to General Howe. This was young Godwin Cotten, of Mulberry Grove. Like his young kinsman, Colonel James Cotten, of Anson, he was the surveyor of the county. He was the youngest son of





Captain Arthur Cotten, and lived at the old homestead near St. Johns. He was as amiable as he was brave, and universally beloved. He lived long after the war, and many now alive may recollect his exemplary and pious character. He was the last of his name in Hertford, for he left no sons; but he left two daughters, who were the belles and beauties of their day. One of them was the lovely mother of Dr. Godwin Cotten Moore, of whom we shall write when we come to Hertford.—(Moore's Hist., Sketches of Hertford, IX, XVI, 556.)

In December, 1775, Howe was ordered to take command of the troops raised in North Carolina, and march to aid Virginia. Unavoidable circumstances prevented him from reaching the Great Bridge until two days after the brilliant battle, [9 Dec. 1775] but he took post at Norfolk, and rendered good service in driving the Royal Governor (Lord Dunmore) and his forces out of this section of the State; for this he received the thanks of the Convention of Virginia, and of the General Congress at Philadelphia, and was promoted to the rank of brigadier general.

When General Lee, in March, 1776, arrived in Virginia, Howe joined him with his regiment and went south. As he passed through North Carolina he received the thanks of the Convention at Halifax and at New Berne for his services, and he was received with public honors.

As an additional evidence of appreciation of his patriotic efforts, he was especially excepted from the offer of pardon proclaimed by Sir Henry Clinton to all who should down their arms, and his estates on the Cape Fear were ravaged by the English troops. This was the second time that Howe had been the honored subject of Royal indignation and marked enmity. This second proclamation of Sir Henry Clinton was a grateful acknowledgment to General Howe for compelling Sir Henry's friend, Lord Dunmore, to leave Virginia forever.

General Howe was placed in command of the North Carolina troops in defence of Charleston and Savannah; and the latter end of July General Lee undertook an expedition against Florida. But by an express he was ordered North, and General James Moore succeeded him. Soon after General Moore was ordered to join the Army of the North, and Howe was appointed to succeed him in the command of the Southern Department.

On the 2d of October, 1777, Howe was appointed by Congress major general; and in the Spring of the next year he made an unsuccessful expedition against Florida. From want of proper supplies, insubordination of some of the officials of Georgia and South Carolina and the health of his troops, he was compelled to retreat to Savannah. The retreat was commenced in July, 1778; the conduct of General Howe was severely commented upon in various publications. Among these was a letter of General Gadsden, which was highly offensive to General Howe, and led to a duel near Charleston. Howe's second was C. C. Pinckney, and Gadsden was accompanied by Colonel Barnard Elliot. They fought, 13th August, 1778. Howe's ball grazed his opponent's ear, on which Gadsden fired his pistol in the air. The parties then shook hands, and became reconciled.

He was attacked at Savannah by the British an force, and defeated.

From the commencement of Howe's administration, South Carolina and Georgia had been urgent in memorials to Congress to recall him and to replace him by an officer of more experience.





In compliance with these solicitations, in September, 1778, Howe was ordered to the headquarters of General Washington, and General Lincoln appointed to succeed him, and to repair immediately to Charleston. Howe was stationed on the Hudson river, and in 1780, was in command at West Point, where he rendered acceptable services, and for his energy and activity at this and other important commands he received the thanks of Washington.

In January, 1780, a committee of the Georgia Legislature, appointed to consider the situation of the State since 29th of December, 1778, and extracts from the minutes of the assembly respecting the condact of General Howe, were transmitted to the Commander in Chief, “with a request that he be directed to cause inquiry to be made into matters therein alleged, in such manner as he should judge proper.”

In pursuance of this order General Washington summoned a Court Martial of thirteen officers—Baron DeKalb presided as President. After a rigid examination of six weeks he was acquitted “with the highest honors.”

Extract from Journals of Congress, 24th January, 1782: “The acquittal of General Howe by Court Martial with the highest honors is approved by Congress.” (Journal 1782, page 271.) Although the war was over General Howe continued active in service.

In 1781, Howe was sent by Washington to suppress a revolt of the New Jersey troops. Hildreth, III, 359.

Extract from Journals of Congress, Monday, 1st July, 1783, page 64, ordered by Mr. Hamilton, and reported from a committee of which he was the chairman, that “Major General Howe shall be directed to march such part of his force as he shall judge necessary to the State of Pennsylvania, in order that immediate measures may be taken to confine and bring to trial such persons belonging to the army as have been principally active in the late mutiny; to disarm the remainder, and to examine into all the circumstances relating thereto.”

In May, 1785, he was appointed by Congress to treat with the Western Indians.

He remained at the North for some time awaiting the adjustment of his claims for losses to his estates in North Carolina, ravaged by the enemy, and which were rendered useless and unproductive, and, from the depreciation of the currency, he was reduced to want.

From the Journals of Congress, page 65:

April 12th, 1785.

“Mr. Hawkins introduced a resolution, paying ‘for depreciation, to Major General Howe, on account of monies ($7,000) advanced.’ ”

In the spring of 1785 he returned to North Carolina, and was welcomed by public honors at Fayetteville and by kind friends at home. He was induced to allow his name to be used as a candidate as a member from Brunswick of the General Assembly. He was triumphantly elected. But exposure during the summer produced a severe bilious fever, from which he partially recovered, and in October started for the seat of Government. His first day's ride brought him to the house of his friend, General Clarke, about thirteen miles above Wilmington. Here he relapsed, and after two weeks’ illness died in November, 1785.

He had served his country from the first dawn of the Revolution till the end of the war, with fidelity and valor, and his services demand the remembrance and regard of his country. One whose opinion is valuable, styles him “The wit, the scholar, and the soldier.”

Drake describes General Howe as an officer of approved courage, well versed in military tacties, a skilful engineer, and a rigid disciplinarian, and a man of cultivated mind.





After all the toils of war and the vicissitudes of fortune, he returns to his home.

  • —Life's long vexations passed,
  • Here to return and die at home at last.

Cornelius Harnett,* born 20th April, 1723; died 20th April, 1781.

Associated with Robert Howe in the cause of Liberty and Independence was Cornelius Harnett.

Both of these distinguished men, by the proclamation of Sir Henry Clinton, were excluded from all pardon from the Royal Government. Although not, like Howe, a soldier, it was not the fortune of Harnett to figure in “feats of broil and battle,” yet he did equal deeds of daring and courage in the great drama of life, in which men and arms are only subordinate parts, and “the value of whose services,” says Mr. Davis, “was only equalled by the extent of his sufferings and his sacrifices.” We regret that so little has been accurately known of Mr. Harnett that even his birthplace is conjecture. Mr. Drake states, as does Lossing, “he was born in England,” but gives no authority. Unquestionably there were two persons of the same name, both distinguished in the annals of North Carolina.

The father, whose name the subject of our sketch bore, was not an obscure man, from the fact that he was the abettor and friend of Gov. Burrington in his quarrel with Everhard, and one of the Governor's councillors, 1730. It may be inferred that he was a man of distinction in North Carolina as early as 1725. But, as will be seen, he and Burrington did not remain friends very long.

From the Rolls Office in London, in a dispatch dated Feb. 20th, 1732, of George Burrington, Governor of the Province of North Carolina, to His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, one of His Majesty's principal Secretaries of State, I extract the following:

“Mr. Cornelius Harnett, another of the Council, was bred a merchant in Dublin and settled at Cape Fear in this Colony. I was assured by a letter I received in England that Harnett was worth six thousand pounds sterling, which induced me to place his name on the list of persons to be Councillers; when I came to this country he was reputed to be worth £7,000; but now he is known to have traded with other men's goods; and is not worth anything, and so reduced as to be compelled to keep a public house.”

There are other records that aid us. “At the General Court, sitting at Edenton, the 26th March, 1726, George Burrington, the Governor, was indicted, for that about the 2d of December, 1725, with Cornelius Harnett, of Chowan County, and others, he assaulted the house of Sir Richard Everhard.”*

In the Register's office in New Hanover County‡ there is a record of a bond from Colonel Maurice Moore, of New Hanover Precinet, to Cornelius Harnett, “of the same place,” dated 30th June, 1726; &c.

Since we know from the inscription on the headstone of Cornelius Harnett, of Cape Fear, that he was born in 1723, it is clear that the Cornelius Harnett, of Chowan, was another person, probably the father, and that he was not of English birth, but of Irish descent. But we are led to believe that his son was born in North Carolina, and there was no movement from 1765 to 1780 in the cause of independence in which he was not ready and active; “The Samuel Adams of North Carolina,” as he was styled by Josiah Quincy, who visited the South in 1773.

With Colonel John Ashe, he was denounced by Governor Martin in 1775, for the burning of Fort Johnson. He was Chairman of the Wilmington Committee of Safety, and after Governor Martin's retreat the State was governed

[note][note][note]



by a Provincial Council, of which Harnett was chairman, and de facto the Governor of the State, at a period when the affairs of the Government demanded the atmost prudence and sagacity. He was elected a member of the Colonial Congress that met at Halifax on the 4th April, 1776; Chairman of the Committee to Consider the Usurpations of the English King and Parliament. He presented resolutions directing the delegates from North Carolina in the Continental Congress to unite in declaring independence. This was unanimously adopted on 12th April, 1776, more than a month before the celebrated resolutions of Virginia. No one has ever heard of this forward step of “poor, pensive North Carolina,” while the act of Virginia has been sounded by every tongue, and recorded on every page of her history.

Mr. Harnett was of the Colonial Congress that met at Halifax on 12th November, 1776, which formed the Constitution of the State, and with Samuel Ashe, Waightstill Avery, Thomas Burke, Richard Caswell, Hews, Willie and Thomas Jones, and others, was a committee on this important subject.

In 1777, 1778 and 1779, Mr. Harnett was a member of the Continental Congress at Philadelphia. His letters which are extant breathe the spirit of a patriot, and prove him to have been a faithful and devoted public servant.* These letters also reflect much light on the condition of the country and the proceedings of the Continental Congress during this eventful period.

He returned home to North Carolina, and when, in 1781, the British forces, under Sir James Craig, occupied Wilmington, he was taken prisoner at the house of his friend Colonel Spicer.

From his delicate health and his distinguished character, he was admitted to parole. He submitted to the inevitable with dignity and philosophy. But broken in spirits, health and fortune, he died in captivity on his birthday, 20th April, 1781.

He lies buried in the northeast corner of the grave yard of St. James Church, Wilmington, with this inscription:

  • Cornelius Harnett.
  • Died 20th April, 1781.
  • Aged 58.
  • Slave to no sect, he took no private road,
  • But looked through nature up to nature's God.

A worthy name of a worthy community.

He is deseribed by his biographer, Mr. Hooper, as being delicate rather than stout in person; about 5 feet 9 inches high; hazel eyes and light brown hair; small but symmetrical features, and graceful figure. Easy in his manners; affable and courteous; with a fine taste for letters, and a genius for music, he was at times a fascinating and always an agreeable companion.

The capital of Harnett presents the honored name of Lillington.

John Alexander Lillington was the son of Colonel George Lillington, who settled on the Island of Barbadoes, and was a member of the Royal Council in 1698.

His grandfather. Major Alexander Lillington, emigrated from Barbadoes to the county of Albemarle, with his family.

On the north side of the tomb of Governor Henderson Walker, five miles below Edenton,* is inscribed the following:

  • Here lyes ye body of
  • George Lillington.
  • Son of Major Alexander Lillington,
  • who died in ye 15 year of his age
  • Anno 1706.

The oldest public record in the State is a commission issued to George Durant, Alexander Lillington, and others, to hold the precinet Courts in Berkeley Precinet.†

[note][note][note]



Upon the departure of Gov. Ludwell in 1693, the administration of the Province devolved upon him as Deputy Governor.* His grandson, the subject of our sketch, was left early an orphan, and when Edward Moseley, who had married Ann, daughter of Major Alexander Lillington and the widow of Gov. Walker, (died 1712,) emigrated to the Cape Fear, young Lillington came with him, in 1734. A fine mansion, known as Lillington Hall, about 40 miles above Wilmington, on the New Berne road, is still standing, and an engraving of it is delineated in Lossing.

When the notes of preparation for the war with the mother country were heard, Lillington responded gladly to the call.

He was early known as an active and decided Whig, and co-operated with Ashe in opposition to Gov. Tryon. We have seen his letter, offering, with Ashe and Thomas Lloyd (see ante, page 40,) to protect from insult the person and property of the Governor.

By the State Congress, which met on 21st August, 1775, at Hillsboro, to put the State in military order, he was appointed colonel of the Wilmington district, and Caswell for the New Berne district. Together, these gallant officers, with their forces, fought (February 27, 1776,) and won the battle at Moore's Creek Bridge, over the Scotch Tories, which has been fully described, with its important consequences.† The State deeply appreciated his services, for the Provincial Congress that met at Halifax on 4th of April following, appointed him colonel of the 6th Regiment of North Carolina troops on the Continental establishment. He served under General Gates at the ill-fated battle of Camden August 15, 1780. Though he served through the war with distinguished honor, and was promoted to rank of brigadier general, his military fame rests chiefly upon the battle of Moore's Creek.

General Lillington remained in service to the close of the war, when he retired to his estate at Lillington Hall, where he died; near his mansion rest the remains of General Lillington and his son John, who did good service in the whole Revolutionary war as colonel.

“General Lillington,” writes one of his descendants to Lossing,* “was a man of Herculean frame and strength. He possessed intellectual powers of a high order, undaunted courage and of incorruptible integrity. He has left,

  • —on the footprints of Time,
  • On of those names that never die.

General Lillington was the grandson of Major Alexander Lillington who was President of the Council, and ex officio Governor of North Carolina, in 1673. His grandmother was an Adams, from Massachusetts. One of her daughters married Governor Walker, and afterwards Edward Mosely. Another was the wife of the first Samuel Swann. General Lillington left issue at his death in 1786, one daughter, who married her cousin, Sampson Mosely, and a son George, who left a son, John Alexander, (who represented Davie County in the Senate, in 1848,-’50,-’52,) who was the last of his name, a gentleman of fine personal appearance, and talents.

Mrs. Harden of Hickory, and Mrs. Dr. Anderson, of Wilmington, are the present representatives of the family.—(Moore, Letter of Hon. George Davis.)

THE MOORES OF BRUNSWICK.

It is now just about fifty years ago when I first entered the House of Commons (as it was then called,) as a member from my native County of Hertford, and my attention was drawn on the first day of the session to one of the best expressed and best delivered speeches that I ever heard, and which made an indelible

[note][note][note]



impression on my own mind, and carried conviction to all who heard it.

The simple facts of the case were: One of the members from the Cape Fear country had lost or mislaid the certificate of his election; the question arose in the minds of many, could a member take a seat without the evidence that he was duly elected? Alfred Moore then arose and addressed the House.

His manner of speaking, the melody of his voice, the polished periods of his sentences, commanded the attention of all, while his argument and reasoning influenced their judgments.

There was no question of the fact that the member had been elected, and that he had lost or mislaid the certificate of the sheriff holding the election.

Mr. Moore traced the history of the mode of elections, as had existed from the foundation of the State, and also the mode in the Colonial period, that whenever the Governor called the Legislature, which body was composed of a Council, who were appointed by the Crown to advise with the Governor, and the House, which was composed of members elected by the people from each county; he directed the Clerk of the Crown or the Secretary to issue writs of election to each sheriff, to call together the people and to elect such number of names as the county was entitled to as members, and when executed and the election made, to endorse on said writ the names of the persons elected, and to transmit the said writ to the Clerk of the House or Crown or Secretary, as the case might be. This return was filed and recorded. On the day appointed for the meeting of the Assembly, the endorsement was read by him, and the persons called and qualified.

He further argued the person elected had no right to the custody of the certificate, no more than a party who sues out a writ. It was a part of the records of the court, and the party elected had no right to its possession.

This able argument was more effective by the ornate and elegant manner with which it was delivered.

No reply was attempted, and the member was unanimously admitted.

This question, we are aware, has been since decided differently; (Ennet's Case, 1842,) but it was when party arose superior to patriotism.

It has been often my good fortune to hear Clay in his happiest moods, and Calhoun's powerful logic, and Webster in his massive eloquence, but neither of these excelled this extempore effort of Mr. Moore, whose powers as a speaker were only excelled by courtly elegance of manners and simplicity and modesty of demeanor.

Mr. Moore was of a family long and well known for their integrity, their intellectual powers, and their devotion to the cause of liberty and law.

This family is of Irish descent, and claim to belong to the Chiefs O'More. The ancestor in America was James, who came to Charleston and married, in 1665, a daughter of Gov. Yeamans, who was Governor of Carolina in 1671.

He became Governor of Carolina in 1700, upon the death of Joseph Blake. He was supposed to be the grandson of Roger Moore, the leader of the Irish rebellion of 1641, and inherited the rebellious blood of his sire.* By his marriage with Miss Yeamans he had ten children.

The eldest son, of the same name, was worthy of his father. He acquired military renown in his campaigns against the Indians.

He, in 1703, marched to North Carolina to

[note]



subdue the Appalachian Indians, who had done great mischief and murder in this (the Cape Fear) section, and be completely subdued them.

He also commanded the forces sent by Gov. Charles Craven to succor the inhabitants, whose borders were ravaged by the Tuscaroras in 1713, and many of the inhabitants massacred, among them John Lawson, the first historian of North Carolina. He was accompanied by a strong force, and completely routed the savages. A severe engagement near Snow Hill in Greene County.*

He remained in North Carolina about seven months, when he returned home. Until 1693 the two Provinces were together, and under one Governor. The renown gained in the Indian wars was well calculated to render Col. Moore a favorite with the people. In 1719, when the quarrel between the people and the Government occurred, true to the instincts of his race, he was with the people, and was well qualified to be a leader in perilons and troubled times. Robert Johnson was at this time the Royal Governor. The people proclaimed against him and deposed him 28th November, 1719, and with this proclamation went up the expiring sighs of the Proprietory Government, and James Moore was elected by the people Governor. He was succeeded the same year, (1719) by Arthur Middlet on, and as he disappears from South Carolina history it is probable he came to Cape Fear.†

He never married. His younger brother, Maurice, accompanied him in his campaigns against the Indians.

Such was the inviting character of this section, its genial soil and mild climate, that many of the family settled on the Cape Fear. Of these Mr. Davis was correct when he said “they inherited the rebellious stock of their race; it was not in their name or blood to be other than patriots, or to shrink from any sacrifice at the call of their country.” In a dispatch from Governor Burrington as early as February, 1735, he shows his instinctive dread of such patriotic and pure-hearted men, and thus describes them:

“About twenty men are settled at Cape Fear from South Carolina. Among these are three brothers of a noted family, by the name of Moore. They are all of the set known by the name of ‘the Goose Creek faction.’ These people were always very troublesome in that Government, and will be so, without doubt, in this. Already I have been told they will spend a good deal of money to get me turned out. Messengers are continually going to Mosely and his crew, to and from them.” Such was the repulsion of the representative of royalty to the advocates of popular rights and equal justice.

Colonel Maurice Moore, to whom we have already alluded as the younger brother of Governor James Moore, the second, was a soldier, brave, energetic and successful. He had accompanied his brother in his expeditions to Northern Carolina, and was impressed with the character of the country. He had two years later commanded a troop of horse in the service of Eden, (Governor of North Carolina in 1713,) and marched to the Cape Fear to subdue the Indians, who were fierce and troublesome in that section. As Governor Eden resided in Chowan, it is inferred that he first went there. Three years after his expedition he was concerned with Edward Mosely in some matters of importance. He is supposed by Martin to have settled upon the Cape Fear about 1723. The dispatch already quoted of Governor Burrington shows “that three brothers by the name of Moore were located, in 1735, on the Cape Fear.” These three brothers were Colonel Maurice Moore, Roger and Nathaniel. To these three men is due the permanent settlement of the

[note][note]



Cape Fear. With these came others who were distinguished for their virtues and their valor, and were the germs of a noble colony. “They were,” says Mr. Davis, “No needy adventurers, driven by necessity to seek a precarious living in a wild and savage country, but gentlemen of birth and education, bred to the refinement of society, and bringing with them ample fortunes, polished manners, and cultivated minds.

Colonel Maurice Moore, the founder of the family, was the son of Governor James Moore and Miss Yeamans, and left a family of several children. Among these were his eldest son, Judge Maurice Moore, judge under the Colonial Government, a devoted advocate for popular rights, and decided opponent of wrong and oppression.

He was a lawyer, and was so much esteemed that he, with Richard Henderson and Martin Howard, constituted the judiciary of the Province. He was appointed 1st of March, 1768, associate justice.

This was no empty compliment or idle service. There were five circuits at remote and almost inaccessible points; through bad roads and worse accommodations, the judge had to travel eleven hundred miles to make the circuit of these courts.

But, although he was appointed and discharged judicial duties under the Crown, he was by no means the advocate of oppression. He sympathized with the Regulators in their sufferings, but did not sanction their violence.

He denounced the high-handed measures of Governor Tryon, in a series of letters signed “Atticus,” and showed the character of the Governor in despicable colors. This so incensed the Governor, that in a dispatch, dated 1766, he recommends “the removal of Judge Moore, and the appointment of Edmund Fanning.” But he continued on the bench until the Revolution closed the courts.

He was a favorite with the people. During the great riots at Hillsboro, in 1770, when Judge Henderson fled, Judge Howard was driven from the bench, the house of Colonel Fanning burned, and his person severely chastised. Judge Moore was unmolested.

He was chosen a member of the Provincial Congress, at Hillsboro, in 1778, and of the same at Halifax, in 1776, and materially aided in forming the State Constitution.

He married Anne Grange, by whom he had two children, Alfred, born in 1755, of whom we shall write directly, and Sally, who married General Francis Nash, who fell at Germantown, 1777.

He died the next year, on the 15th of January, 1777, at home, and by a wonderful coincidence, at the same time, same hour nearly, and at the same place in an adjoining room, died his distinguished brother, General James Moore. He was the son of Colonel Maurice Moore and Miss Porter. A soldier by his taste, by education and profession. He was devoted to the cause of his country, and considered the first military genius of his day.

He was early trained to arms, and when Tryon met the Regulators at Alamance, in 1771, Moore was one of his officers.

On the organization of the military forces of the State, he was appointed colonel of the First Regiment of North Carolina on the Continental establishment, by the State Congress that met at Hillsboro on August 21, 1775.

This was a high honor—to be preferred to Colonel John Ashe and others to the command of the first regiment raised by the State.

He was employed in watching the enemy on the Cape Fear, to prevent any junction of the forces of Clinton and Martin. When Clinton appeared in the river, the clans of Scotland gathered together to connect and co-operate with the forces of Clinton. Moore marched his regiment to Cumberland County to prevent this, and give them battle; but they avoided the offer, only to meet another force,





and experience a disastrous defeat at Moore's Creek Bridge from Caswell and Lillington.

On the departure of General Lee to the north from Charleston, March, 1776, the Continental Congress promoted Moore to the rank of brigadier general and commander in chief of the Southern Department.

He endeavored to discharge the duties of this important station with fidelity, but his feeble health sunk under the duty, and he returned home, there to die.

General James Moore married Anna Ivey, by whom he had four children, Duncan Moore, James Moore, Mrs. Swann, Mrs. Waters.

Judge Alfred Moore (born 21st May, 1755; died 10th October, 1810,) was the son of Judge Maurice Moore. He was sent to Boston to acquire his education. While there he made by his gental disposition many friends, and was offered a commission in the Royal Army. This was not accepted, but the presence of a large military garrison and the friendship of one of its officers, added to an inherited taste for the profession of arms, led him to acquire accurate knowledge of military tactics, which soon was to be called into requisition in defense of his native land. He returned home, and when all hopes of reconciliation were lost and contest commenced, the State Congress at Hillsboro, in August, 1775, organized two regiments for the Continental establishment, he was commissioned as captain in the First Regiment, of which his uncle, James Moore, was the colonel. He marched with his command to Charleston and was on duty there at the brilliant affair of Fort Moultrie, and evinced traits of character that ranked him among the first captains of his day.

But circumstances unforeseen and disastrous crowded heavily upon him. His father, Judge Maurice Moore, and his uncle both died the same day. His brother Maurice was killed by mischance at Brunswick. General Francis Nash, his brother-in-law, killed in battle. These calamities left a helpless family on his bands, and he was forced by these untoward events to resign.

His patriotism and his martial spirit, however, did not allow him to be idle or inactive. He raised a troop of volunteers, and so greatly annoyed the enemy that Major Craig (afterwards Sir James Craig, Governor-General of Canada,) when in possession of Wilmington, sent troops to Captain Moore's house, who plundered everything that was valuable, and destroyed the remainder. While the British were at Wilmington, his condition was deplorable—without means, or even decent clothes, driven from his home and family, his property destroyed, yet no murmur of complaint was uttered by him; no abatement of zeal.

Dear must that independence be, purchased at such a terrible price. After the battle of Guilford Court-house (15th March, 1781,) Captain Moore with others did good service in harrassing Lord Cornwallis in his march from Guilford to Wilmington.

But the war was soon to close. The English were then on their march to Yorktown; which proved to be the Waterloo of the contest.

But it was not in the field, although he had done a soldier's duty with credit and gallantry, that Judge Moore's reputation was won, and which preserves his name to a grateful posterity. The General Assembly in 1782 elected him Attorney-General of the State, when it was known that he had never read a law book. This was done to alleviate, in a delicate manner, his immediate wants, and as some slight acknowledgment of gratitude for his sacrifices and sufferings. His habits of industry and acute penetration soon supplied any deficiency. In the opinion of the Supreme Court, in case of State vs. Gernigan,* he “discharged the

[note]



arduous duties of the office for a series of years in a manner that commanded the admiration and gratitude of his contemporaries.” A clear perspicuity of mind, methodical accuracy and pertinency of argument, a pleasing, impressive and natural eloquence, distinguished his legal efforts. He soon arose to eminence. In 1798 was called to the bench of North Carolina; the next year he was appointed by the President one of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. He held the elevated position for six years, with credit to himself and satisfaction to his colleagues and the nation. His health failing he resigned. He died in 1810 at the house of Major Waddell, in Bladen County, aged 55. His private life was equally as interesting as his brilliant public career. His manners graceful and winning, threw a charm over his domestic circle. His brilliant wit and his varied accomplishments, his gentle courtesy and unstinted hospitality, has, in the language of Mr. Davis, “handed his memory down to posterity as a finished model of a North Carolina gentleman.”

Judge Moore married Susan Eagles, and left four children; Maurice, colonel in war of 1812; Alfred, with whom we opened this sketch of Brunswick County; Anna, who married Hugh Waddell, senior, son of General Hugh Waddell, of the Regulation war; Sally, unmarried.

The best evidence of the high appreciation of the name and fame of Judge Alfred Moore, by the people of the State, is at this time, 1878, there are two members of Congress, and hundreds of others in North Carolina, who proudly bear his name as their patronomic, and who reverence his memory and virtues.

The genealogical diagram printed in the Appendix will explain the branches and descent of this distinguished family, and has been compiled with some care from historical documents, by aid of Mrs. Harvey, one of the descendants.

The capital town of Brunswick County preserves the name of Benjamin Smith, who was governor of the State in 1810, and a sketch of whom may be found in the history of North Carolina, vol. II, p. 49.

Governor Smith was at one time immensely wealthy, having large possessions on the Cape Fear river. His liberal donation to the University in 1789, of 20,000 acres of land, proves his friendship for learning.

His temper, “sudden and quick in quarrel,” involved him in several duels. In one of them, with a man by the name of Leonard, he received the ball of his adversary in his hip, which he carried to his grave.

He died in Smithville in February, 1829, entirely penniless, and was buried the same night he died by Major Wilson and Captain Frazier, of the United States army, under the cover of the night, to prevent the sheriff from levying upon the dead body for debt, which was allowable in those days, that when a ca. sa. was levied, once levied on the body it could be kept out of the grave in order to force the friends to redeem it by satisfying the claim in hands of the sheriff.*

There are many other names connected with the early history of this county, as Thomas Allen, Archibald McLaine, Roger Moore, William Lord, Thos. Leonard, William R. Hall, Parker Quince, John Rowan, and others, well deserving of our remembrance and record.

It is hoped that some son of Brunswick will gather together the rich materials before they are forever lost, and present their lives and services to posterity. A recent and graphic sketch of Gov. Smith, from the polished pen of President Battle, is well worth preserving.

[note]



BENJAMIN SMITH, SOLDIER, STATESMAN, PHILANTHROPIST.

Near the mouth of the beautiful Cape Fear river, on its right bank, is a pleasant little town. It is fanned by the delicious sea breezes; huge live oaks gratefully shade its streets. In its sombre cemetery repose the bodies of many excellent people. Its harbor is good. It is on the main channel of the river. From its wharves can be seen not far away the thin white line of waves as they break on the sandy beach. But the ships to and from its neighbor. Wilmington, pay little tribute as they pass and repass. Its chief fame is that it contains the court-house of the county of Brunswick. Its name is Smithville.

Opposite this good old town is a desert island composed of undulating sand hills, with here and there occasional green flats and dwarfed pines to relieve the general monotony. It is exposed to the full fury of the Atlantic storms. New Inlet once poured a rapid stream between the island and the mainland. But daring and industrious man seeks to force by walls of stone the impetuous floods through the river channel to the west, and thus float larger ships up the river to the port of Wilmington. Its southern end forms the dangerous cape which Mr. George Davis so eloquently describes:

“A naked, bleak elbow of sand jutting far out into the ocean. Immediately in its front are the Frying Pan Shoals, pushing out still further twenty miles to sea. Together they stand for warning and for woe; and together they catch the long majestic roll of the Atlantic as it sweeps through a thousand miles of grandeur and power, from the Aretic toward the Gulf. It is the play-ground of billows and tempests, the kingdom of silence and awe, disturbed by no sound save the sea-gull's shriek, and the breakers’ roar. * *

* There it stands, bleak and threatening and pitiless, as it stood three hundred years ago, when Greenville and White came nigh unto death upon its sands. And there it will stand, bleak and threatening and pitiless, until the earth and sea shall give up their dead. And as its nature, so its name, is * * * the Cape of Fear.”

The name of the sandy reach which I have described, so desolate, yet so full of interest, is Smith Island.

The University of North Carolina has amid its group of buildings, one, in its shape and portico and columns, imitating a Greek temple. Its basement was until recently the home of the State Agricultural Experiment Station, which has done so much to protect our farmers from frauds, but now is the laboratory of the professor of chemistry. Above is a long and lofty room containing the library of the University.

On its shelves are many ancient books of great value, but vacant spaces plead piteously for new books in all the departments of literature and science. The names of this building is “Smith Hall.”

What member of the widely-spread family of Smiths has thus given his familiar name to a county town, an island, and a University Hall? His Christian name was Benjamin. He was an active officer of the Revolution and a Governor of our State, and the first benefactor of the University.

Governor Smith had many vicissitudes of fortune. In his youth he was aide-de-camp of Washington in the dangerous but masterly retreat from Long Island after the defeat of the American forces. He behaved with conspicuous gallantry in the brilliant action in which Moultrie drove the British from Port Royal Island and checked for a time the invasion of South Carolina. A Charleston paper of 1794 says, “he gave on many occasions such various proof of activity and distinguished bravery as to merit the approbation of his impartial country.” After the strong Union superseded the nerveless Confederacy, when there was danger of war with France or England, he was made general of militia,





and when later, on account of insults and injuries of France, our Government made preparations for active hostilities, the entire militia of Brunswick County, officers and men, roused to enthusiasm by an address from him full of energy and fire, volunteered to follow his lead in the legionary corps raised for service against the enemy. The confidence of his countrymen in his wisdom and integrity was shown by their fifteen times electing him to the Senate of the State. From this post he was chosen by the General Assembly as our Chief Executive in 1810, when war with England was constantly expected, and by large numbers earnestly desired. The charter of the University was granted in 1789. The trustees were the great men of that day—the leaders in war and in peace.

Of this band of eminent men, Benjamin Smith was a worthy member. He is entitled to the signal honor of being the first benefactor of the infant institution, the leader of the small corps of liberal supporters of education in North Carolina. For that reason alone his name should be revered by all the long line of students who call the University their Alma Mater—by every one who desires the enlightenment of our people.

The Trustees met, for organization, in Fayetteville, on November 15th, 1790, choosing as their chairman Colonel William Lenoir, the Speaker of the Senate. General Smith gladdened these hearts by the munificent donation of patents for twenty thousand acres of land in Western Tennessee. A large portion of them was a gift to him for his gallant services during the dark hours of the Revolution. They were the price of liberty. They were the offering of a generous heart and a wise head, which knew well that liberty could not be preserved without education—that ignorance must be slain or vice will be the ruler of our land.

Generation after generation grew up and passed away. Year after year young men, their mental armor supplied and burnished through his wisdom and liberality, went from the University walls to become sources of good influence in all our land, from the Potomac to the Rio Grande. The institution he loved so well, after many vicissitudes of trials and sufferings, had become wealthy and prosperous. Nearly five hundred matriculates every year entered their names on its roll to partake of its instruction. The revered donor had drunk to its dregs the cup of bitterness. His too generous disposition and misplaced confidence in others had deprived him of his wealth. His once strong and vigorous body had been wasted by disease and racked by pain. In poverty and in wretchedness he had long since sunk into his grave under the weeping moss of the great swamp trees. Sixty years after his generous gift the trustees of the University honored themselves by bestowing his name on a beautiful structure devoted to literature and to science. The sacrifices of the old hero were not in vain. His monument is more enduring than marble or brass. Centuries will come and go. Men's fortunes will wax and wane. But the blessings of the gift of Benjamin Smith nearly a hundred years ago will never cease, and his name will keep green forever.

KEMP P. BATTLE.





CHAPTER VII.
BUNCOMBE COUNTY.

Buncombe worthily preserves to all time the name of Edward Buncombe, a patriot and a soldier, who served his country faithfully, and who gave up his life in her defence, a more minute account of whom is presented in the sketch of the men of Tyrrell County, of which he was a resident.

There is perhaps no section of the State more familiar by name, and less known abroad. “Talking for Buncombe” has become as familiar as a household word, not only in our own native, but has pervaded other countries.* This slang phrase had this origin. Some years ago the member in Congress from this district† arose to address the House on a question of local importance; some of the members left the Hall, which he observing, very naively said to those remaining, that they might go too; as he should speak for some time and was only “talking for Buncombe.”

Ample materials for description of the lovely scenery and the genial climate, the fertile soil, and its gold giving ore, exist, but these are not germane to our object; it is of the men of Buncombe only we propose to write.

Many of the earlier in habitants and pioneers of this lovely region of the State we are compelled to pass over. It were a pleasing duty to dwell upon the character and services of the Alexanders; the Barnetts, (the first men that ever piloted a wagon over the mountains;) The Beards, Readon and Zebulou; Thomas Case, (who died in 1849, aged 82, “who lived longer, easier and heartier, and left more descendants than any man of his day;”) the Davidsons; the Edueys; the Lowries; the Irwins; the Pattons, (especially James, who died 1845, aged 90, the founder of the Warm Springs;) Rev. Humphrey Posey; James McSmith, the first white child born in the State west of Blue Ridge; and many others.

We leave these for some son of Buncombe as indicated by Hon. George Davis, “who shall gird up his loins to the task, with unwearied industry and unflinching devotion to the honor of his dear old mother.”

David Lowry Swain, born 4th of January, 1801; died 27th of August, 1868.

Few men have lived in North Carolina who have made a deeper or more lasting impression on her history than the subject of our present sketch.

Without fortune or thorough education, or any personal advantages, but by his own intrinsic merits, his unspotted character and sterling virtues, he was called on to fill the highest offices in the State.

If his education was, from his limited circumstances, not complete, he was blessed with an unquenchable thirst for knowledge, habits of unremitting labor that was never satisfied until it exhausted a question, and a powerful memory. He remained a short time (1821) at the University, “but he did not need, (as Johnson says of Shakespeare,) the spectacles of books to study the great works of nature or the character of men.” He was a student all his life. Truly—

  • —He sought rich jewels
  • From the dark caves of knowledge,
  • To win his ransom from from those twin jailors of the
  • daring heart,
  • Low birth and iron fortune—

and so successfully did he labor, that at the time of his death he had no superior in the

[note][note]



country upon the science of Constitutional law, moral science, or political economy.*

His ancestors were English. His father, George Swain, was a native of Roxboro, Massachusetts, (born 1763.) He came South and settled in Georgia. He was a man of mark and influence. He was a member of the convention that revised the Constitution of Georgia, and served in the Legislature for five years. His health failing, he moved to the health-giving climate of Buncombe, and was many years postmaster at Asheville. He married Mrs. Caroline Lowry, widow of Captain Lowry, (who had been killed by the Indians,) and the daughter of Jesse Lane, of Wake County, who was the grandfather of General Joseph Lane, of Oregon, and Governor Swain; by her Mr. Swain had seven children, all now dead.

Governor Swain was born, as stated, in 1801, at Asheville. His early education was conducted by Rev. George Newton and Rev. E. M. Porter. He often referred in gratitude to their patient labors, and they were proud of their diligent pupil. His father was ambitious for him. He taught his son early to choose only good society, and to aim at excellence in whatever pursuit he followed. After his early education was completed he came (in 1821) to Raleigh, where he entered the law office of Hon. John Louis Taylor, and was admitted to the bar in 1823.

On the 12th of January following, he married Eleanor White, daughter of William White, late Secretary of State, and the granddaughter of Governor Caswell. He then returned to his mountain home, and commenced the practice of law with great success.

In 1824-’25-’26-’28 and ’29 he was a member of the Legislature from Buncombe County. During this period (1827) he was elected Solicitor of the Edenton District, and rode this circuit only once, when he resigned. In 1830 he was a member of the Board of Internal Improvements, and was active in promoting the best interests of the State. In the winter of this year he was elected Judge of the Superior Court of Law and Equity.

In December, 1835, he was called to the presidency of the University. Here was his proper element, and here he spent the best years of his life, (till 1868.)

“Never,” says his able biographer, Governor Vance, “did a Grecian philosopher gather around him his disciples with more pride and delight than did Governor Swain. In the midst of his three or four hundred ‘boys’ who annually surrounded him at Chapel Hill, he was entirely at home and happy, and such society was the charm of his life. His knowledge was encyclopedic in its range, especially in English literature. So overwhelming were his stores, that the writer remembers with grateful pleasure, when forgetting altogether the subject on hand he would stand up in front of his class, and in an outgush of eloquence, poetry, history, anecdote and humor, wrap us all as with enchantment. His most remarkable trait of mind was his powerful memory, and the direction in which that faculty was notably exercised, was in biography and genealogy. In this particular he had no superior in America. A youth coming to college needed no letter of introduction. Not only was it so in his own State, but from the most distant Southern and Southwestern States it was the same. Knowing all the principal families of the Southern Atlantic States, he took note of their migrations westward; and when their sons returned East for education he would generally tell them more of their family history than they knew before.

“Amazed at his display of this genealogical history,” Governor Vance continues, he once asked him, “Don't you, Governor, know when

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every man of North Carolina cut his eye teeth?” “Oh no,” said he, “but I know very well when you, sir, had the measles.”

“Thus for a period of an ordinary lifetime (33 years) he devoted himself to the highest and noblest service to his State and country in training the future statesmen, jurists and divines of our country. Eternity alone can reveal the influence which he thus indirectly exerted on the intelligence and morals of society; not only of his native State, but of all that vast region known as the South and Southwest, where his pupils filled every possible place of honor, trust or profit. He preferred to tread the noiseless tenor of his way in the quiet paths of science and philanthropy than those of political ambition. The plaudits of statesmanship, the renown of the warrior, had no charms for him. He felt truly—

  • —The warrior's name
  • Tho’ pealed and chimed on every tongue of fame,
  • Sounds less harmonious to the grateful mind,
  • Than he who fashions and improves mankind.

“As an author,” continues Governor Vance, “with all his stores of knowledge, and his great capacities, he left but little for posterity to judge and admire. His literary reputation is confined to those who were his cotemporaries, and such traditions as affection and friendship may preserve. Many fragmentary articles from his pen and lectures exist; some of which are preserved in the University Magazine, relating chiefly to North Carolina history. He had collected a considerable amount of historic material, and it was expected that he would have left a work on that subject as a legacy to his countrymen. His age, the troubled times, and an aversion to continued systematic labor, doubtless prevented him.”

A vast number of rich traditions of the early times and the men of Carolina were locked up in the vast stores of his memory; the key to which is buried with him. Yet he was ever forward and ready to aid other laborers in the historic field. As Caruthers, Wiley, Wheeler, and Hawks could testify. He materially aided me in my poor efforts in this respect, and in gratitude to him I dedicated my “History of North Carolina.”

At his suggestion and request, with a letter from Governor Vance, in 1863 I visited England, and spent all my time in the Rolls Office collecting material from the original records as to the early history of North Carolina.

But his name could not have received any additional lustre than it already enjoyed.

His fame will forever rest upon the success with which he conducted the University of the State. When he went to Chapel Hill there were not ninety students. In 1860 there were nearly five hundred. He determined to make its influence powerful, and he succeeded. It was by intuitive perception of character, gentle but firm administration of authority, and high consideration and gentlemanly treatment of his pupils. In the classic halls of the University he never assumed the commanding and repellant attitude of a “Jupiter Tonans,” but like the course of the Apollo, leading by graceful manners and gentle words his admiring votaries.

But the unhappy internecine war came—the call for men and arms to defend the homes and hearths of the South was heard, and the gallant youths of the University obeyed the call. Of the class of 1860,* every one, (with perhaps a single exception,) entered the service, and more than a fourth of the entire number now fill a soldier's grave. Every exertion was used by Governor Swain to preserve the University. It was owing to his exertions that the conscript law, “that robbed alike the cradle and the grave,” was not rigidly enforced, and when the Federal army took possession of Chapel Hill in 1865, a few students were still there. In order to avert

[note]



from the institution the fate of all others lying in the route of a conquering army, Gov. Swain was appointed by Gov. Vance one of the commissioners to General Sherman to preserve the Capital and University.

After the war he visited New York and Washington to interest northern capitalists as to the financial condition of the University, and was greatly instrumental in securing the land scrip donated by Congress for agricultural schools.

But the election of 1868 adopted the new Constitution, and destroyed what war had spared. The doors of the University was closed by negro troops, and with the venerable president, fell, unwept, without a crime.

“This was the unkindest cut of all.” This unexpected blow completely prostrated Gov. Swain; his energies seemed subdued, and he seemed suddenly to grow old, losing all his vivacity and elasticity.

The able tribute to the memory of Gov. Swain by his life-long friend Gov. Vance evinces the deep affection of the latter, which has been so liberally drawn on, and this feeling was fully reciprocated by “his gentle, patriotic, and distinguished preceptor.”

In a letter which I received from Gov. Swain when at West Point as one of the board of visitors to the United States Military Academy at that place, dated 16th June, 1865, he writes thus:

“I have been detained here much longer than I expected; I cannot leave earlier than Monday next, and be in Washington on Wednesday. I will be very anxious to see Gov. Vance. Will it not be in your power to obtain for me permission from the War Department to do so, in anticipation of my arrival? I have been hoping constantly to hear of his receiving permission to return home. Please write to me immediately to New York. I will probably have only a day to spend in Washington, and during that day I must see Gov. Vance

“I remain very truly yours,

“D. L. SWAIN.”

I procured for him the desired permit, and together we went to the Carroll Prison, where we met in the same place the Governors of three sovereign States “in durance vile,” Gov. Vance, Gov. Brown, of Virginia, and Gov. Letcher, of Virginia. The cause of the visit of Gov. Swain to Washington at this time (20th May, 1865,) was an invitation from the President of the United States, Andrew Johnson, extended also to B. F. Moore, and William Eaton, to consult in regard to “Reconstruction of the Union.”

This was no idle compliment. The country had just ended a long, exhausting and desolating war. The President, Lincoln, had been murdered by an assassin; every branch of industry was paralyzed; the commerce of a nation destroyed, and confusion and dismay pervaded every section. That the President should call from their homes men who had never figured in the field or the forum, but only known as pure, honorable and conscientious men, was evidence of his sagacity and of their high character.

They met the President on 22d May, 1865, at his office in the Treasury. Neither of them personally knew the President, and I introduced them. I then was about to retire when the President requested me to remain and participate in the consultation. No questions of more vital importance to the South since the foundation of the Government were ever discussed. All of those who participated in that conference have gone. No account has ever been published of their deliberations. From my diary of that date I extract the following:

“Saturday, 20th May, 1865.—Mr. A. G. Allen, editor of the National Intelligencer, met me on the street and informed me that Gov. Vance, of our State, had been brought to the city, a prisoner of war, and that I might do good by going to see him, and that Gov. Swain was at the Ebbitt House and wished to see me. I went to the Ebbitt House and found Gov.





S. and William Eaton, jr. Gov. S. accompanied me home. I sent for his baggage, as he wishes to be more quiet than at the hotel. He, with Messrs. Eaton and Moore, are here, invited by the President to advise measures to restore North Carolina to the Union.

Sunday, 21st May.—Gov. S. accompanied me to chure. Dr. Pinckney preached.

In evening, at request of Gov. S. and Mr. Moore, I called on the President and made arrangements for their meeting at 2. p. m. to-morrow.

Monday, 22d May.—Gov. Swain engaged in writing, preparing for the conference with the President.

At 2 I went with him and Messrs. Moore and Eaton to the President's office and introduced them. Mr. Thomas and General Mussey, of Lewisburg, were with him.

After introducing them I arose to retire, when the President again desired me to remain. A conference deeply interesting in all its details occurred.

The President directed his Secretary to read a proclamation which he proposed to issue, and an amnesty to certain classes by which North Carolina was to be restored to the Union. He invited a frank, free, and open discussion.

Mr. Moore, with much decision, earnestness, and courage, denounced the plan, especially as to the classes who were to be exempted from pardon. The plan, he alleged, was illegal, and he denied the power of the President to issue it. He demanded of him where in the Constitution or Laws he found such power. The President replied ‘that by IV Art., 4 Sec., the United States shall guarantee to every State a Republican form of Government, &c.’ ‘True,’ replied Mr. Moore, ‘but the President is not the United States.’

As to exempting from all pardon, or requiring all persons owning a certain amount of property to be pardoned, was simply ridiculous. You might as well say that every man who had bread and meat enough to feed his family was a traitor, and must be pardoned.’ Mr. Moore continued in that same caustie manner, to examine other points of the proclamation, and specially the appointment of a Governor by the President, averring that the President had no such power. He finally suggested to the President to meddle as little as possible with the State, that she was able to take care of herself by aid of her own citizens; that his plan was to let the Legislature be called, which, as the Governor was a prisoner, the Speakers of the Legislature could do; then the Legislature would authorize the people to call a Convention, who could repeal the Secession Ordinance of the 20th of May, 1861, and thus restore good correspondence with the Union, with the rights of the State unimpaired and her dignity respected. The President listened with much attention, and bore with great dignity the fiery phillipics of Mr. Moore.

Governor Swain, in a long and temperate speech, but with much earnestness, advocated the plan of Mr. Moore. He detailed circumstances of much interest before unknown, illustrative of his course, and that of Governors Graham and Vance. He read several letters from Governor Graham.

“The President stated ‘that he appreciated the able views and the frank enunciatious of his friends, but still thought that the Provisional Governor should be appointed by the United States; that the President was the Executive Officer of the United States, and therefore, the Governor, he thought, should be appointed by him. ‘He did not seem much inclined to give any ground. As it was then half-past six o'clock he adjourned the Conference to meet again on Thursday next at 2 p. m.’ ”

Thursday, 25th May, 1865. * * *

At 2 o'clock I went with Governor Swain to the President's house; we found Messrs. Moore and Eaton, and also W. W. Holden, R. P. Dick, Richard Mason, J. P. H. Russ, Richardson, Rev. Mr. Skinner, Dr. Robt. J. Powell, and Colonel Jones. The President laid before us the Amnesty Proclamation, by which he proposed to restore the State of North Carolina to the Union, a Military Governor to be appointed by the President, who should proceed forthwith to organize the State Government; direct the people to call a Convention, appoint Judges, officers, &c.

The President further stated that the name of the person as Governor was purposely left blank in the proclamation, and requested that we should select some name, and that whoever we selected he would appoint. The President then retired.

Governor Swain stated that it was a preferable mode to him, and more in accordance with the laws of North Carolina, that the Convention should be called by the Legislature, which could be summoned by the Speaker of the Senate, or they might meet of their own accord. But the President was unwilling to trust that body.

Mr. Eaton declared himself opposed to the





appointment of Governor by the President; that he was only invited for advice and conference, and not for making offices, and that he would not unite in any recommendation of any one for this, or any other office.

It was then proposed to organize the meeting, and on motion of Dr. Powell, Mr. Moore was called to the chair.

“Mr. Moore said he concurred in the sagacious views of Mr. Eaton, and declined to take the chair. He, with Governor Swain and Eaton, retired to another room.”

Dr. Powell then moved that Colonel J. P. H. Russ be appointed chairman, which was carried, and on motion of Dr. Powell, the name of W. W. Holden was inserted as Governor.

The President was then sent for, who came in and seemed gratified at the selection.

The party then dispersed.

The President gave Governor Swain and myself permits to visit Governor Vance in prison.

Friday, 26th May, 1865. * * *

* * Governor Swain and myself rode to Carrol Prison where we saw Governor Vance, Governor Letcher, and Governor Brown confined in the same place. Governor Vance was in good spirits and health.

Governor Corwin, of Ohio, also called to see Governor Vance, and denounced the outrage of imprisoning him without process of law and without crime, three Governors of sovereign States confined together, and he promised Vance that he should use every effort to get him out. Which pledge he nobly redeemed.

He asked Vance, ‘for what crime was he imprisoned?’

Vance replied, ‘he did not know,’ ‘unless that Governor Holden, who had voted for the Ordinance of Secession in Convention, and had pledged the last man and the last dollar, and failed to redeem his pledge, and now he, Vance, was his security, and had to suffer.’

We remained with Gov. Vance more than an hour, when we returned to my house.

As weather was rainy and disagreeable, Gov. Swain remained within doors, and we conversed on historical matters, and the stirring events of the last few days, of which he forebodes much evil.

“I read, at his request, my diary,” (as above recorded.)

“He asked for a copy, as he thought it concise and correct, to send to Mrs. S.”

The memories of these times cannot but be interesting, as showing the prominent part that Gov. Swain bore in these eventful scenes, and the sad condition of affairs. They have never been published.

Gov. Swain, after visiting New York, returned home with feelings of depression and distress.

Hoping to restore tone to his mind and body, before taking a final leave of Chapel Hill, he was preparing for a visit to his native mountains of Buncombe. On the 11th August, 1868, riding in an open buggy, his horse took fright, ran away, and threw him with violence to the ground. He was carried home in a bruised condition. No one thought him seriously injured; but his hour had come. On 27th August he fainted away, and without a struggle or groan passed from time to eternity.

Gov. S. married, 12th January, 1824, as previously stated, Eleanor, daughter of William White, Secretary of State, (1778 to 1811,) and granddaughter of Gov. Richard Caswell. His widow now resides in Raleigh. A daughter, who married General Aiken (in 1865,) of Illinois, where she now resides. Gov. S.’s remains are interred at Raleigh.

We have now finished, from authentic sources, an account of the services of David L. Swain, of which his State may well be proud. In his public as well as his private character, there was much to admire and to love.

As a statesman and politician he was patriotic, yet conservative and cautions. Rather a believer in St. Paul's advice, if it be possible, live in peace with all men—almost verging on the practice of the good saint of—

Being all things to all men.

He certainly never was intolerant or vindictive. In the early days of the Republic he would have been a Federalist; in the log cabin





age, he was a Whig; and to his last days a Union man.

As a Christian he was the admirer of piety and virtue in any sect. He would say “my father was a Presbyterian elder and my mother a Methodist; Bishop Asbury blessed me when a child, the Presbyterians taught me, and Humphrey Posey, a Baptist, prayed for me. I was brought up to love all good Christians.”

He was for years a communicant of the Presbyterian church, and gave largely to its support. He was careful of money; economical in his expenses, punctual and precise, and faithful to his promises; simple in his habits and dress. He was little blessed by nature in personal appearance. “Certainly,” says Governor Vance, “no man owed less to adventitions aids. His voice was peculiar and harsh; in person he was exceedingly ill formed and uncouth; his knees smote together in a most unmilitary manner.”

But his countenance redeemed his person, and one may say as did Hamlet of his father—

  • —See what grace was seated on this brow!
  • A combination and a form indeed,
  • Where every God did seem to set his seal
  • To give the world assurance of a Man.

A recent writer (Dalton) on a “Few Hours at Poplar Mount,” has recorded of Governor Swain some appropriate remarks from his life long friend, Hon. Weldon N. Edwards, that should be more permanently preserved:

“With Gov. Swain a vast store of historical and other information was buried, perhaps beyond the possibility of resurrection.

“There is no one left to us who can fill his place.

“He was wrapped up in the University, and it was a serious blow to the State when the practised and learned faculty was broken up by political interference and partisan malice. It was a grievous fault and a blunder not to be tolerated in any party.

“I have heard many of the friends of Gov. Swain state that he became melancholy and began to droop away on the termination of his duties as President of the University, and they believed a broken heart was as much the real cause of his death as the fall from his carriage. He felt ‘the last link was broken’ that united his heart and hopes to all earthly objects. The whole manner of the man was changed.

“His step was tottering and slow; his massive frame was bowed down in grief. His countenance, so wonted to be lifted up in smiles and playful wit, had already settled into the stern reality of the impending gloom and of perpetual silence.

“It was thus I met for the last time this distinguished man. He said: ‘My friend, since I last saw you my connection with the University has been brought to a close; it was a trial I dreaded.’

“What he suffered can only be known to the Great Searcher of all human hearts. There has never been a parallel case of injustice, prejudice and folly. It was a blow aimed at education, science, and civilization, and society; to Governor Swain it was malignant parricide, and its baleful effects were felt throughout the Commonwealth. Col. Venable, the distinguished and learned head of the University of Virginia, when this subject was, soon after its occurrence, discussed, declared that there was no Governor of Virginia, not excepting Pierpoint, who would exhibit a control similar to that of our Governor over the University of North Carolina.”

But another era has dawned on this venerable institution, and we trust that it will soon regain its pristine prosperity.

Connected with Gov. Swain and Professor Mitchell of the University was Rev. James Phillips, D. D. He was a native of England, born at Nevenden, Essex County, in 1792. His father was a Minister of the Church of England.

He came to America in 1818 with an elder brother, Samuel A. Phillips, and engaged in the profession of teaching at Harlem, where he had a flourishing school. In 1826 he was appointed Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in the University of North Carolina, then in his 34th year. For forty years he labored to impress broad and deep the elements of science and knowledge; how faithfully that duty was performed many now alive can testify. As his life was useful so





his death was sudden and unexpected. On the morning of the 14th of March, 1867, he set out to the chapel to officiate at morning prayers. The weather was tempestuous; he ventured forth and took his seat behind the reading desk. The first student who entered the chapel after the bell commenced ringing bowed and spoke to him. The salutation not being returned, as was his wont, the student advanced toward him and saw him falling from his seat, and soon he was extended on the floor in an apoplectic fit. Doctor Mallet was sent for, but in a few moments life was extinct. Such was the end of this excellent and useful man. He left three children: Rev. Charles Phillips, D. D., Professor in University; Hon. Samuel F. Phillips, Solicitor General of the United States; Mrs. Cornelia Phillips Spencer.

Hon. Samuel Field Phillips, LL. D., son of Professor James Phillips, a sketch of whom we have just presented, was born at Harlem, N. Y., February 18, 1824. He was carefully educated, and graduated at the University in 1841, one of a distinguished class of which he took the first honors, and in which was Governor John W. Ellis, Judge Wm. J. Clarke, Professor Charles Phillips, John F. Hoke, Robert Strange, and others.

He read law with Governor Swain and entered the profession with most flattering prospects.

He was elected a member of the House of Commons from Orange in 1852, with John Berry, Senator Josiah Turner, B. A. Durham and J. F. Lyon—and this compliment was more appreciable, as the county had presented a formidable majority against the Whig party, to which he belonged. He was again elected in 1854, 1864, and 1865, at which latter session he was chosen Speaker of the House.*

But politics was not his appropriate sphere, and he retired from its exciting arena to the more germane pursuits of his profession. He removed to Raleigh and formed a law partnership with Hon. A. S. Merrimon. This able firm enjoyed a full share of practice. He was unexpectedly to himself and others, in 1870, nominated by the Republican Convention as Attorney General of the State. Hon. Wm. M. Shipp was elected; this was the subject of no regret to Mr. Phillips, for it left him opportunity to pursue uninterruptedly the practice of his profession. When Judge Settle resigned on the Supreme Court Bench, Mr. Phillips was tendered and declined this high position.

In December, 1871, he was confirmed by the Senate as Solicitor General of the United States, which position he now holds, with credit to himself and confidence to the country.

He married Fanny, the granddaughter of Governor David Stone, by whom he has an interesting family.

Connected with the favorite and laborious portions of the life of Governor Swain, as President of the University, it is but proper to notice Elisha Mitchell, D. D., Professor of Chemistry, Mineralogy and Geology. He was a native of Connecticut, born in 1793. He graduated at Yale college in 1803, in the same class with George E. Badger and Thomas P. Devereux. In 1818, by the influence of Judge Gaston, he was appointed to a Professorship in the University with Professor Olmstead, also a graduate of Yale.

For more than an ordinary lifetime, he served the institution with fidelity and zeal, and his pupils acknowledge to this day his learning and patience. He was not idle in vacations, but extended his surveys and researches in every direction. No stream or mountain, no coal field, or gold, or other mineral mine, escaped his acumen. He was the first to determine by barometic measurement

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that the Black mountains were higher than the White mountains in New Hampshire, and his name is borne by its loftiest summit. A controversy arose between Dr. Mitchell and Mr. Clingman, in regard to this highest peak, and in 1857, Dr. Mitchell again visited that mountain for the purpose of verifying his former measurement. On the 27th June, he dismissed his son Charles, who was his only assistant, and requested him to return on Monday and renew this survey; he said that he would cross the great range and descend into the valley on the other side. He never was seen again alive. His body was found below a precipice in a pool of water about 14 feet deep, over which he had fallen and in which he had perished.

Following the imperfect sketch of Governor Swain, we take up that of his pupil and his life long friend, Zebulon Baird Vance.

The family is of Irish origin. From “An Account of the Family of Vance in Ireland,” by Wm. Balburnie, printed at Cork, 1860, we extract the following:

“The next of the family proceeding from Dougal, is named William, who was located at Aughavid, Ballydug, Tyrone. His will is dated 19th April, 1713. He left four sons. One of these, David, went to America, and fought under Washington. (Page 31.)

“I now return to the eldest son, John. He married and had four sons and three daughters. One of these daughters married Andrew Jackson, of Mahrafelt, who emigrated to America, and there gave birth to Andrew Jackson, late President of the United States, of whom it is written ‘that he was the bravest soldier, the wisest statesman that ancient or modern history has ever recorded.’

“Another son was in the American war, and was killed in battle. A descendant of his was a member of Congress from North Carolina in 1824.”* (Page 35.)

Whatever credit may be given to this statement, (and there could be no object in the writer to violate the truth,) our own records show that the grandfather, David Vance, was born near Winchester, Va., and came to North Carolina before the Revolutionary war, and first settled on the French Broad river; that when Lord Cornwallis sent a strong force under Colonel (or Major) Patrick Ferguson, and endeavored to win by force of arms or blandishments of art the people of Western Carolina to the Royal cause, that Vance joined McDowell, who led the Burke and Rutherford boys to battle, and under the gallant lead of Cleaveland, Shelby, and others, who attacked Ferguson on King's Mountain, killed him, and completely routed his army. We shall speak more of this battle when we reach Cleaveland County; of its gallant achievement and important results. It was the turning point of the Revolution, and was the cause of American success.

At this time the whole South lay prostrate before the arms of the British; Georgia had surrendered, so had South Carolina. Lord Cornwallis, defeating Gates at Camden, had unmolested possession of Charlotte. This battle turned the tide of war, for soon followed the victory of Cowpens, then the drawn battle of Guilford, and the finale at Yorktown.

After the war was over, Mr. Vance returned to his home on the French Broad river, where he spent the remainder of his days, universally esteemed for his integrity and ability. Colonel Joseph McDowell, of Burke County, David Vance, of Buncombe, and Musentine Matthews, of Iredell County, (Speaker that year of the House, 1796,) were appointed to run the line between North Carolina and Tennessee. (Moore's History, 136.)

He married a Miss Brank, and left several children, among them Dr. Robert B. Vance, who defeated for Congress Hon. Felix Walker, in 1823.* This singular canvass resulted in a tie in the popular vote, and was settled

[note][note]



by votes of the returning officers (sheriffs.) He ran again for Congress (19th Congress, 1825-’27,) and was defeated by Hon. Samuel P. Carson. This canvass unhappily terminated in a duel between Carson and Vance, in which the latter was killed.

David Vance married Margaret Myra Baird, and left two sons, Zebulon Baird Vance, and Robert Brank Vance, jr.; Zebulon Baird Vance was born in the county of Buncombe, on the 13th day of May, 1830. Without the restraining hand of a father to guide and correct “the slippery paths of youth,” he is reported to have been a wild and wayward boy, so full of fun and frolic, that he tried the very soul of his mother and teachers to restrain him. But in all his pranks there was nothing but humor and no malice. It was the simple outgushing of volatile and irrepressible humor; he was always able to make his peace for all his mischievous capers, in the hearts of his superiors, by the genial kindness of his temper, his fearless and free disposition. As Mr. J. C. Calhoun was spending a summer in the mountains of North Carolina, when Zeb. was about fourteen years old, he stopped for the night where Zeb. resided.

Attracted by the vivacity and quickness of the boy, and rather amused at the sprightliness of his manners, he invited him to take a walk, and conversed for some time with him. He so impressed young Vance's mind by the picture that he drew of what he might be if he would only cultivate his mind and apply himself to study, that the imaginative boy resolved to study in earnest, and to make his mark “among those names which never die.” Acting upon this advice, he entered Washington College, Tennessee, remaining there two years, going thence to Newton Academy; his funds failing, he acted for a time as clerk at the Warm Springs. Here he was thrown in social contact with the first men of Western Carolina, South Carolina and East Tennessee. He improved these opportunities. The spark kindled by the great Calhoun was fanned into an ardent flame; and as soon as be could command the means he entered as a student at the University, where he was noted for the quickness of his mind and his “irrepressible impudence,” which, like “the wind, bloweth where it listeth;” all yielded a willing homage to its irresistible and magic influence.

His humor was involuntary and spontaneous. He could no more repress it than could the skylark withhold its liquid lays from the morning light, or the mountain stream prevent its pelucid current from bubbling up in radiance and beauty.

After leaving college he studied law and was admitted to practice and was chosen County Solicitor.

On the resignation of Hon. Thos. L. Clingman, (who was appointed Senator in Congress, vice Asa Biggs, appointed United States Judge, May, 1858, which appointment of Senator Clingman was confirmed by the Legislature, November, 1858,) Mr. Vance was elected to Congress over W. W. Avery, which position he held until the State seceded, (May, 1861.) He then returned home and raised one of the largest companies for the war ever raised in the State, of which he was elected captain, and it was incorporated into the 14th North Carolina Regiment. He was elected colonel of the 26th Regiment and attached to the brigade commanded by General L. O'B. Branch. He was engaged in the disastrous battle of New Berne, and also in the seven days’ battles around Richmond.

The following year he was elected Governor of the State, over Colonel William Johnston, of Charlotte, as the representative of the Union party, and opposed by the original secessionists. By some he was charged with the crime of deserting his party. He never deserted





the true interests and honor of the State. In a letter written by him to Governor Swain in January, 1864, he said:

“Almost every argument can be answered but one—that is the cries of our women and children for bread. Of all others that is the hardest for a man to meet.

“But the historian shall not say it was the weakness of their Governor, or that Saul was consenting to their death. As God liveth there is nothing I would not do or dare for a people who have honored me so far beyond my deserts.”

For this he was willing to make any sacrifice, even to death. He felt as did the brave Horatius of Rome.

  • To every man upon this earth
  • Death cometh soon or late,
  • And how can man die better
  • Than facing fearful odds
  • For the ashes of his fathers,
  • And the temples of his Gods;
  • And for the tender mother
  • Who dandled him to rest,
  • And for the wife who nurses
  • His baby at her breast.

To him these were no idle words or empty professions. During his whole term as Governor this was fully proved by acts and deeds.

He, at the suggestion of General Martin, purchased from the Clyde a steamship, and established a system of supplies by carrying cotton to Europe, and receiving in return arms and necessaries for the people, that else must have perished for food and raiment.

If the troops of North Carolina were the best clothed and best equipped men in the Southern army, it was due to the sagacity and energy of Governor Vance.

On the approach of Sherman's army the Governor went to Statesville, where he had some time previously sent his wife and children; there he was arrested and brought to Washington City and placed in Carroll prison.

There were many ridiculous statements made as to the capture of Governor Vance, which were offensive, and drew from him the following correction:

“CHARLOTTE, 13th October, 1868.

“TO EDITOR OF THE NEW YORK World:

“I see by the public prints that General Kilpatrick has decorated me with his disapprobation before the people of Pennsylvania. He informs them, substantially, that he tamed me by capturing me and riding me two hundred miles on a bareback mule. I will do him the justice to say that he knew that was a lie when he uttered it.

“I surrendered to General Schofield at Greensboro, N. C., on the 2d May, 1865, who told me to go to my home and remain there, saying if he got any orders to arrest me he would send there for me. Accordingly, I went home and there remained until I was arrested on 13th May, by a detachment of 300 cavalry, under Major Porter of Harrisburg, from whom I received nothing but kindness and courtesy. I came in a buggy to Salisbury, where we took the cars.

“I saw no mule on the trip, yet I thought I saw an ass at the general's headquarters; this impression has since been confirmed.

“The general remembers, among other incidents of the war, the dressing up of a strumpet, who assisted him in putting down the rebellion in the uniform of an orderly, and introducing her into a respectable family of ladies. This and other feats of arms and strategy so creditable would no doubt have been quite amusing, and far more true than the mule story. I wonder he forgot it.

“Respectfully yours,

“Z. B. VANCE.”

How Governor Vance employed his time while in prison is shown by the following notes received from him. He bore his confinement with all the patience of a patriot, and “submitted with philosophy to the inevitable.”

“CARROLL PRISON, 16 June, 1865.

“COL. WHEELER,

“MY DEAR SIR: I desire to study French while in confinement. I want a dictionary, grammar, and Ollendorf's method. I am quite well, and see no hope of getting out soon.

“Very truly yours,

“Z. B. VANCE.”

I was, of course, pleased to oblige him, and sent the books.





“July 2d, 1865.

“COL. J. H. WHEELER,

“DEAR SIR: Will you please do me the favor to borrow for me the following law books? I am not able to buy them: Blackstone, 2d volume only; Greenleaf on Evidence; Adams on Equity; Chitty's Pleadings, 1st volume.

“I desire to refresh my law studies. I am getting on bravely in French.

“Tout a vous,

“Z. B. VANCE.”

We have already described the interview of Governor Swain, at which Governors Brown, Corwin and Letcher were present, and how cheerful Gov. V. bore his condition.

I could but remark how polite and considerate the officers and the employees of the prison were to him. By his genial manners he had won their hearts. If he had been a candidate for any position in their gift, he would have received their unanimous vote.

He was release by the efforts of Governor Corwin and others, and allowed to return to his family on parole not to go beyond certain limits.

In November, 1870, the Legislature so sympathized with his sufferings and so appreciated his services, that he was elected Senator; but having been disfranchised he was refused by the Senate, and in January, 1872, he resigned, and General Matt. W. Ransom was elected. From 1865 to 1867 North Carolina had no members in either branch of Congress.

Gov. V. received a pardon from the President, (Andrew Johnson,) settled at Charlotte, and entered into the practice of the law, in partnership with that excellent gentleman and accomplished jurist, C. Dowd, Esq. In entering this firm, Gov. Vance told his partner that “in every firm there was one working man and one gentleman, and that it must be understood that he had to be the gentleman, as he was too lazy to be the other.” Admirably both filled the assigned role. But the law was not the natural element of Gov. V.

In 1876, after a canvas of unexampled exertion and ability on both sides, he was elected governor by a majority of more than 3,000 votes over Judge Settle, now a judge in Florida.

He resigned on being elected by the Legislature Senator in Congress from 4th March, 1879, to 3d March, 1885, succeeding Hon. A. S. Merrimon. His recent speech (19th May, 1879,) on restoration of the Union, was a model of eloquence, wit and statesmanship.

Governor Vance married on 2d August, 1858, at Morganton, Harriet Newell, the orphan daughter of the late Rev. Thomas Espy, of the Presbyterian church. She recently died, (at Raleigh, 3d November, 1878,) leaving several children.*

We have now finished to this date, some slight memories of the career of our Governor Vance.† They might well have been more elaborate and extended did our space and plan allow. We have tried to do justice to his merits, and—

  • — Nothing extenuate,
  • Or set down aught in malice.

Enough has been said to prove the high reputation of Governor Vance as a philanthropist and a statesman. As a popular orator he has no superior, and but few equals. His “infinite jests and most excellent fancy,” to which he adds, at times, the most touching pathos and brilliant eloquence carry the minds and hearts of his audience, and makes him irresistible and triumphant before the people. In his public addresses, as in the social circle, he often illustrates his positions by anecdote so pointed and piquant that the popular mind retains with pleasure the argument, when a graver mode would be forgotten.

[note][note]



For the Genealogy of the Vance family, see Appendix.

His brother, Robert Brank Vance, was born the 24th of April, 1828, and is the oldest son, and second child, of David and Mira M. Vance, of Buncombe County, N. C.

His education was very limited. His father dying when Robert was in his sixteenth year, a great portion of the burden of sustaining his mother devolved on him. On attaining his majority he was elected Clerk of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, which office he held for eight years, and voluntarily retired from in 1856. Mr. Vance's business was merchandising, which he followed until the war broke out in 1861. Being Union in sentiment, he voted against secession, but when the proclamation of Mr. Lincoln was received at Asheville, N. C., he, in common with most of his neighbors, took sides with the South. All of the male members of the family, including his brother Zebulon, and his three brothers-in-law, (one of whom, Rev. R. N. Price, was a traveling Methodist minister,) went into the army at once. Robert was left in charge of the families; but, being dissatisfied, he went to work and raised a company, which was organized as “The Buncombe Life Guards.” He was elected captain. The companies came and rendezvoused at Asheville, where the 10th and the 29th North Carolina Regiments were organized at “Camp Patton.” Vance was elected colonel of these forces, receiving every vote but one—his own.

The regiment was first ordered to Raleigh, and from there was sent to East Tennessee, where it formed a part of the garrison at Cumberland Gap, following E. Kirby Smith into Kentucky. The regiment suffered considerably in the battle of Murfreesboro, Colonel Vance having his horse killed in that engagement. He had just gotten off his horse and was holding the bridle, when a shell exploded near by, a piece entering the horse by the stirrup-leather. The act of dismounting no doubt saved Colonel Vance's life.

After the battle of Murfreesboro, Vance was taken sick with typhoid fever, and sent home by General Bragg. In the mean time he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general. On his return to the army General Bragg sent him back to North Carolina and upper East Tennessee to organize the troops, such as could be got up, and take command in that portion. During a raid he made across the Smoky mountains into Tennessee, he was captured at Cosby Creek, where the Federals attacked him, and he riding by mistake into their ranks. He was kept in prison till near the close of the war, when he was paroled until exchanged.

In 1866, he was elected Grand Master of Masons in North Carolina, which office he held for two years.

In 1872, he was nominated to a seat in Congress from the Eighth district of North Carolina, and beat his competitor, W. G. Candler, a Republican, 2,555 votes.

He was re-elected in 1874, beating Plato Durham, Independent Democrat, 4,442 votes. In 1876 he defeated E. R. Hampton, Republican, over 8,000 majority. In 1878, he was re-elected without opposition to Congress.

At the time of this writing General Vance has succeeded in having daily mails to every county town in his district, and had money-order offices established all over the district.

His principal speeches in the House of Representatives have been on the civil rights’ bill, the tariff, the internal revenue laws, the necessity of fraternal relations between the North and South, the remonetization of silver, etc., which were acceptable to his people.

Many times, through the years since laymen were admitted into the councils of the Southern Methodist Church, General Vance has been elected delegate to the annual conferences and two or three times to the general





conferences of said church. In 1876 he was appointed by the Bishops of the M. E. Church South as one of the Cape May commission which settled important matters between the Northern and Southern Methodist Churches.

General Vance has given many years of his life to the work of delivering lectures on temperance, and the education of children in Sunday schools.

General Vance was married to Miss Harriet V. McElroy, daughter of General John W. McElroy, of North Carolina. Six children—four sons and two daughters—were born to them, four of whom are living.

Such is a brief but accurate sketch of General Vance.

There are few public men in or out of Congress who possess that respect and regard of all who know him, more than General Vance. As a man he is true, sincere and frank in all the relations of life. As a Representative he is faithful, honest, attentive and active. His talents and success are duly appreciated in Congress; being placed chairman of the important Committee on Patents in the 45th and 46th Congresses, and second on the Committee on Coinage, Weights and Measures; A. H. Stephens, of Georgia, being chairman in the present Congress.

As a friend he is faithful, obliging and sincere, and above all, as a Christian he is a “burning and shining light,” and a prominent and consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

James Love Henry, late one of the judges of the Superior courts of law and equity, was born in Buncombe County, in 1838. He received only such education as the schools of Asheville afforded.

His father, Robert Henry, was a patriot of the Revolution, and was in the battle of Kings Mountain, and practiced law for more than sixty years, with much success.

His father died in 1862, aged 97. The maternal grandfather of Judge Henry, Robert Love, was one of the earliest pioneers in the settlement of Western Carolina, and prominent in the early history of this section. He figured in the rise and fall of the State of Frankland, which Governor Sevier attempted to establish, out of a portion of North Carolina, now in Tennessee, (in 1785,) and with General Tipton and others, arrested Sevier, under the charge of high treason,* and conveyed him to jail at Morganton. Robert Love is progenitor of the large and influential family of that name which pervades this and other sections of the west, and who have occupied positions of prominence in every walk of life.

Judge Henry presided as judge with great acceptability, from 1868 to 1878, having previously acted as solicitor for this (the 8th,) judicial district.

He was editor, at the early age of 19, of the Asheville Spectator, and served in the Confederate States army as adjutant of the 1st North Carolina cavalry, (General Robert Ransom,) and on Hampton's and Stuart's staff, and as colonel of cavalry.

He now resides at Asheville, engaged in the practice of his profession.

Augustus Summerfield Merrimon, lately one of the Senators in Congress from North Carolina, was born (in that part of Buncombe County since erected into Transylvania,) on the 15th of September, 1380.

His parents were Rev. Branch Hamline Merrimon and Mary E., nee Paxton, whose father, William Paxton, was the brother of Hon. John Paxton, Judge of the Superior Courts from 1818 to 1826, and whose mother (Sally,) was the daughter of General Charles McDowell.

The subject of this sketch was the eldest of a family of ten children—seven sons and three daughters.

[note]



The early education of Mr. Merrimon was as good as the circumstances of his father would allow. At the period when youths of his age were at college, he aided his father in working the farm to support the family, for in those days Methodist ministers were not oppressed with this world's goods. Yet the unconquerable thirst for knowledge so possessed young Merrimon that he embraced every opportunity for acquiring it. Often when at work on the farm, during the hour of rest for dinner, he would be found quietly ensconced in some shady place conning over his books. One of the appendages to his father's place was a saw-mill, which it was his duty to attend, and while the saw was at work in cutting the logs into plank, he would have his grammar or some other book, and improve every moment in study. His fat her appreciating this thirst for knowledge, sent him to a school in Asheville, then under the charge of Mr. Norwood. Such was his application and progress, that within the first session Mr. Norwood pronounced him “the best English grammarian that he ever knew.”

He was exceedingly anxious to be sent to college to complete his classical studies, but the res angusti domi forbid. He commenced the study of the law in the office of John W. Woodfin, in whose office at the same time was Zebulon B. Vance, both destined to occupy high positions of honor in their county and State, and often rivals in political contests. Such was his proficiency in his legal studies, with such inadequate preparation, that in January, 1852, he was admitted to practice in the Courts, and in 1853 in the Superior and Supreme Courts of the State.

By his close attention to business, his careful preparation and management of his cases, he soon made his mark. He was appointed Solicitor to several counties in his circuit, and by the Judge, Solicitor for the District in 1861. In 1860 he was elected to the Legislature as a member from Buncombe, by a few votes over Col. David Coleman.

On the breaking out of the war, he took a decided stand for the Union.

In the excited state of public feeling at this time of frenzy, such a step demanded not only moral, but physical courage. Mr. Merrimon's position was rudely assailed. Angry cards passed between him and Nicholas W. Woodfin, and a personal collision was imminent. On these occasions, he bore himself with dignity and courage. Though not over fond of arms, he felt—

  • —Rightly to be great
  • Is not to stir without great argument.
  • But greatly to find quarrel in a straw
  • When honor's at the stake.

But in the issuing of Mr. Lincoln's proclamation, calling for 75,000 men settled his course, and he entered in Z. B. Vance's company as a private, and marched to Raleigh. He was attached to the Commissary Department as captain for a short time, on duty at Hatteras, Ocrocock, Raleigh and Weldon. On the call of Governor Ellis, the Legislature reassembled, and he had to attend.

In the fall of 1861, he was appointed by Judge Franch, Solicitor of the Eighth Circuit, and the next year was elected to that position by the Legislature. Just at the close of the war he was a candidate as delegate to the State Convention called under the reconstruction acts of President Johnson, and was defeated by Rev. L. Z. Stewart, a Presbyterian clergyman, the Republican candidate. This contest was remarkable, as it was conducted in the presence of the United States troops and bayonets.

By the next Legislature he was elected Solicitor of the Eighth Judicial Circuit. The office of Solicitor was no soft place at this time, but one of imminent peril. The Democrats and “Mossy Backs” were in daily collision; affrays, riots, robberies, and murders were daily occurrences; deserters had to be arrested, and the





place purified. So satisfactory and firm were his efforts as Solicitor, Mr. Merrimon won the respect of the Judges, the regard of the bar, and the esteem of the people.

In 1866, he was elected a Judge of the Superior Courts by the Legislature. Here his services were equally acceptable.

He held the first regular Courts on this Circuit after the war under circumstances of great peril, so that in most of the counties, a police force had to be organized under the sheriff to preserve the place, and protect the Court. While in the faithful discharge of his duty the commanding general of the United States forces, (Canby,) issued military orders to the Courts, with instructions to the Judges to observe and administer them. This gross military usurpation was resisted by Judge Merrimon, who, seeing the Courts could not be held according to law, and his oath of office, resigned his commission as Judge.

In 1872, the convention at Greensboro nominated him for Governor against Todd R. Caldwell.

The universal opinion of the Democrats was that Judge Merrimon was fairly elected. The returns were; Caldwell, 98,630; Merrimon, 96,731; reported majority for Caldwell, 1,899.

He was importuned by the press and hosts of friends to contest this result. In a letter to S. A. Ashe, Esq., of 12th September, 1872, Judge Merrimon says:

“I am satisfied by a variety of facts that have come to knowledge that enormous frauds were perpetrated at the election, and great number of illegal votes were cast against me and the other candidates on the Democratic ticket. I sincerely believe that we received a majority of the lawful votes.

“If it so turns out, by the examination now being made through the executive committee, that substantial ground for contesting can be established, I will contest the election, and vindicate the rights of the people.

“I will not do anything rashly, or to gratify party spirit, or political revenge, but will do all that is just and lawful to establish the right.

“I am yours truly,

“A. S. MERRIMON.”

The executive committee “died and gave no sign;” the conservative character of the people preferred to wait for that success which they believed awaited them, and endure for a season some inconvenience and even injustice.

In December following, Judge Merrimon was elected Senator in Congress for the term of six years, from 4th March, 1878.

It is due to the integrity of history to say this election produced much excitement, inasmuch as it was effected by the defeat of Governor Vance, who was the Democratic nominee.

This, Judge Merrimon contended, was brought about by Governor Vance and his friends tampering with the caucus—pledging and packing it. Several Democrats refused to go into the caucus unless Governor Vance and Judge Merrimon would both withdraw their names. This Judge Merrimon was willing to do, for the sake of harmony, but Governor Vance, insisting that he duly nominated, declined to withdraw. The balloting then commenced, and continued for two weeks without any choice. Both then withdrew. Afterwards, the name of Governor Vance was again brought forward by some members who had voted for Judge Merrimon, and on the first ballot Judge Merrimon was elected. He received the entire Republican vote (72 votes,) and 15 conservative votes, the remaining eighty conservatives voting for Governor Vance. There was a deep feeling of mortification in several sections of the State; not so much because Judge Merrimon was elected, but at the manner in which this result was-brought about.

We took no side in this question. We have shown the appreciation in which we estimate both of these distinguished men, and we





believe that either would do honor to the State and defend to “the last gasp of loyalty,” her character and her interest. Many politicians will doubtless say, like Pope,

  • How happy would we be with either,
  • Were the other dear charmer away.

Of Judge Merrimon's career in the Senate it is not necessary to speak. It has given him a national reputation for integrity of purpose, for unsullied patriotism, and extensive acquirements. We may read its “History in a nation's eyes.” To the interests of his constituents he has ever manifested vigilance and caution. No one has ever applied to him for his kind offices that failed to receive prompt and efficient attention. Always at his post, vigilant in observation, he has proved himself a faithful sentinel of the rights of the State, of individuals, and the Nation.

That he deserves high reputation, is not questioned.

He must have intriusic merit who, in spite of the disadvantages of a defective education, has become the peer of the proudest of our land, and raised himself from the labors of a saw mill to the honors of a Senate chamber.

He was succeeded by Governor Vance, March, 1879.

Judge Merrimon married on 14th September, 1852, Margaret J. Baird, by whom he has an interesting family.

Thomas Lanier Clingman resides at Asheville, in this county.

He was born in the county of Yadken, then Surry Couny, July 27, 1812, the son of Jacob Clingman and Jane Poindexter,* and named for Dr. Thomas Lanier, his half uncle.

His early education was conducted by private instructors. He joined the sophomore class at the University, and graduated in 1832, with a class distinguished in after life for usefulness and talents. Judge Thomas S. Ashe, now of the Supreme Court; James C. Dobbin, Secretary of the Navy, 1853-’57; John H. Haughton, Cad. Jones, and others, were of the same class.

In a diary kept by Governor Swain at that date, I found the following:

“June, 1832. The graduating class acquitted themselves with much credit, especially young Clingman, of Surry County, who, if he lives, will be an ornament to the State.”

Mr. Clingman entered upon the study of the law with great energy, and was about to enter upon the practice when he, in 1835, was elected a member of the Legislature from Surry County, which was a field more germane to his tastes, where he took a decided position.

After this service was accomplished he removed to Buncombe County, where he still resides. He acquired much reputation for boldness and ability as a speaker, especially in a debate with Colonel Memminger, at Columbia, S. C., in which Colonel Memminger found himself overmatched. Mr. Clingman, in 1840, was elected by a large majority to the Senate of the State Legislature from Buncombe County.

This was an exciting epoch in political history, and parties (Democratic and Whig) waged a fierce and ferocious warfare. In the

[note]



Legislature or on the stump, Mr. Clingman led the cohorts of the Whigs, and like Henry of Navarre, his white plume was seen proudly floating in the van of every contest. Such was his ability and eloquence that he was elected a member of the 28th Congress (1843, 1845,) over that veteran politician Hon. James Graham. He was elected to the 30th Congress, 1847-’49, and successively to 1857-’59, when (in May, 1858,) he succeeded Hon. Asa Biggs, as Senator in Congress, in which elevated position he continued until 1861, when the State seceded from the Union.

To attempt to detail all the events in the political career of Mr. Clingman, and the prominent parts filled by him, would far exceed the limits of our work. His political history is so interwoven with that of the Nation, that an accurate sketch of the one would be a record of the other. In his long and varied career there were few questions that he did not examine and exhaust. So acceptable were his views that he was, during his last year's service in the House, the chairman of one of its most important committees (Foreign Affairs.)

His early career was in unison with Mr. Clay, (with whom he was personally a great favorite,) and the Whig party; but he never allowed the shackles of party to bind him to any cause in his opinion inimical to the true interests of the State or the people. When his convictions of right were settled, he followed where they led regardless of consequences, political or personal. He became convinced that the Whig party had become thoroughly denationalized, and that the only national party with which Southern patriots could consistently act, with any hope of good, was the Democratic party. His exertions and influence were used in promoting the election of Governor Reid, and of General Pierce. He has for years been an able, decided and consistent Democrat.

On retiring from the Senate with his distinguished colleague, Governor Thomas Bragg, he felt his duty called him to the field, and by his efforts to defend his native soil. He joined the Confederate army and attained the rank of brigadier general. He was in many engagement in which he conducted his command with military skill and undaunted bravery.

He was distinguished for his defence of Goldsboro, (17th December, 1862,) which he saved from a superior force under Foster, whose retreat was so precipitate that he left much of his materials, as blankets, muskets, and even horses.

General Clingman's brigade consisted of the

8th Regiment, Colonel Shaw.

31st Regiment, Colonel Jordan.

51st Regiment, Colonel McKethan.

61st Regiment, Colonel Radeliffe.

In July, 1863, he took command at Sullivan's Island, which exposed position he held until December following, during the most active part of the seige of Charleston. He was then ordered to Virginia, and in the attack on New Berne, February, 1864, led the advance force of General Pickett's army, in which he was wounded by the explosion of a shell. On the 16th May following, in the battle of Drury's Bluff, he was ordered with General Corse to attack General Butler. This was done with such spirit that the lines of Butler were broken, and he retreated rapidly to Bermuda Hundreds, where he was, to use General Grant's expression, “bottled up.”

He was then ordered to Cold Harbor, and on 31st May, met the advance of General Grant's army, and a severe engagement occurred. The next evening (1st June) one of the severest engagements of the war occurred, in which General Clingman's command received heavy loss, in rank and file, from its exposed position. Every staff officer, as well as himself, was wounded. One-third of the





command fell on the field, including Colonel Murchison and Major Henderson, of the 8th Regiment. They held the position and saved the day.

On the 10th of June following, General Clingman repulsed an attack on the lines of Petersburg, and on the evening following, held his position against the attack of two army corps (the 9th and 18th) commanded by Generals Burnside and Smith, numbering in the aggregate 43,000 men. Three brigades on his right gave way early in the engagement, but he held his position until 11 o'clock, p. m., when the engagement ceased—and Petersburg was saved.

On the 19th of August, following, an attack was made on the enemy's lines on the Weldon railroad, near Petersburg, by which 2,100 prisoners were taken, and many killed and wounded. In this affair General Clingman received so severe a wound that he was for several months kept out of the field, and was only able to join his command a few days prior to Johnson's surrender.

When the war closed (8th April, 1866,*) General Clingman, like many others, was left desolate and depressed in mind, wounded and exhausted in body, and utterly impoverished; yet he was ever ready to aid in building up the waste places of his country, and to repair as far as possible the desolations of internecine strife. He was elected a member of the Convention of 1875, and was vigilant and active in the cause of the people.

These are rapid and nusatisfactory sketches of the public services rendered his country by General Clingman.

In his private life, he is exemplary and consistent. He is a member of the Episcopal Church, an admirer of its tenets, and an observer of its ordinances.

Though his fame rests on his long and important service as a statesman and his gallantry as a soldier, yet he has not neglected the parsuits of literature and of science. His able defence of religion, and its support by science, gained him “golden opinions from all sorts of men,” both North and South; he has in various publications demonstrated to the country and to the world the capabilities and advantages of Western Carolina—its healthful climate and prolifie soil. Many have been induced by his descriptions to seek a home with us, bringing wealth, talent, and industry. He has made important contributions to the science of geology and mineralogy. His articles on these subjects have appeared in Silliman's and other journals, and rank with those of Dana, Guyot, Shepard, and other savans of the age. He has presented much and varied information as to mountains of North Carolina, which he has explored in person, and in compliment of such exertions his name has been worthily bestowed on one of its highest peaks.

General Clingman, as our readers may know, has never married. His busy life and active services in the cause of his country have denied him that pleasure. But he is far from underestimating female society, and is a great admirer of grace, beauty and intelligence.

No one possessing his warmth of friendship for his own sex can be indifferent to the charms of the other. As a friend, General Clingman is frank, sincere and vaithful, and this is reciprocated deeply by those who knew him best. No one that I know ever maintained such a hold on the affections of the people. The citizens of his district possess such unbounded confidence in his judgment and integrity that they followed him in whatever course he has pursued. For more than 15 years (with exception of one Congress,) he was elected by their

[note]



suffrages. No matter how adroitly the district was adversely arranged, or what principles he advocated, the people were his devoted supporters, and never deserted him.

I recollect when the State was redistricted, in 1852, a few who aspired to his place arranged the district so that he would likely be defeated. But the power and the popularity of General Clingman disappointed their aims and hopes. He was elected by an increased majority. Although kind, social and friendly in his private intercourse, his character is not of that negative kind so concisely described by Dr. Johnson of one “who never had generosity enough to acquire a friend, or spirit enough to provoke an enemy.” Whenever the rights of his State and his personal honor were infringed, he was prompt and ready to repel the assailant. He has followed the advice of Polonius to his son—

  • —Beware of entrance
  • Into a quarrel; but being in,
  • So bear thyself that thy opposer
  • Will beware of thee.

In 1845, Hon. William L. Yancey, of Alabama, well known in his day as “a rabid fire eater,” attempted some liberty with General Clingman. A challenge ensued. Huger, of South Carolina, was Yancey's friend; and Charles Lee Jones, of Washington City, was the friend of Clingman. They fought at Bladensburg.

Mr. Jones, the second of General Clingman, in his graphic description of this duel, published in the Capital, states:

“After the principles had been posted, Mr. Huger, who had won the giving of the word, asked, ‘Are you ready? Fire!’

“Mr. Clingman, who had remained perfectly cool, fired, missing his adversary, but drawing his fire, in the ground, considerably out of line, the bullet scattering dust and gravel upon the person of Mr. Clingman. After this fire, the difficulty was adjusted.”

Hon. Kenneth Raynor, the colleague of Mr. Clingman in Congress, was on the ground, states that “he had never seen more composure and firmness in danger than was manifested by Mr. Clingman on this occasion.” On seeing his friend covered by the dust and gravel, and standing at his post unmoved he thought he was mortally wounded. He rushed to him and asked him if he was hurt. “He has thrown some dust on my new coat,” he replied, quietly brushing off the dust and gravel.

On other occasions, as with Hon. Edward Stanley and others, General Clingman has evineed a proper regard for his own honor by repelling the insults of others; and in all these public opinion has sustained the propriety of his conduct; he has so borne himself that the aggressor has never attempted to repeat his insolence.

He has been accused of being ambitions. If this be so, in reply, the words of Anthony of Cæsar are appropriate—

  • He is my friend, faithful and just to me.
  • But Brutus says he is ambitious,
  • And Brutus is an honorable man.

J. C. L. Gudger, now one of the Judges of the Superior Courts, was born in Buncombe County in 1838; learned in the law, which he has successfully practiced for fifteen years.

He entered the Confederate army as a private in 1861, and rose to the rank of captain.

After the war was over he removed to Waynesville, in Haywood County, where he was extensively engaged in the practice of his profession when he was elected to the high position he so worthily occupies.

Robert M. Furman resides in Buncombe County, although a native of Franklin County, where he was born 21st September, 1846, at Louisburg. He early entered the Confederate army, but on his health failing he was, at the end of five months, discharged. He, on recovery, again entered the army (in 1864,) and served until the war closed. His young life has been spent in the editorial line, in which he attained much success. In 1866 he was in





charge of the Louisburg Eagle. He next established the Henderson Index, and became afterwards connected with the Norfolk Courier, and the Raleigh Sentinel. In 1872 he became editor of the Asheville Citizen. He was reading clerk of the Senate of the State Legislature of 1876. He holds, also, the position of clerk to the United States Senate Committee on Railroads, of which General Ransom is chairman.

Thomas Dilliard Johnston resides at Asheville; born 1st April, 1843, at Waynesville, educated at Colonel S. D. Lee's Academy and the University, but from ill health did not graduate; entered the army in Z. B. Vance's company, 14th North Carolina, and at the battle of Malvern Hill was severely wounded, which disabled him from active service in the field. After war was over, he read law with that accomplished jurist and noble hearted gentleman, Judge J. L. Baily, and was licensed to practice in 1866. In 1870 he was nominated to the House, and carried the county by 400 votes, a gain of 600 for the party. He was one of the managers in the impeachment trial of Governor Holden. He was re-elected in 1872, and elected to the Senate in 1876.

CHAPTER VIII.
BURKE COUNTY.

Waightstill Avery., born 1741, died 1821. There is no name in the anuals of North Carolina that is more deserving of being perpetuated than the subject of this sketch. His family were the devoted friends of liberty, and many of them martyrs to its cause. In the Revolutionary war there were eight brothers of this name and family, all patriots. Some of them were massacred at Groton, Connecticut, and at Fort Griswold; some perished at Wyoming Valley. Some of this family still reside at Groton, Connecticut, (where the subject of this sketch was born;) some reside at Oswego and Seneca Lake, and some came to Virginia.

It was early in the year 1631 that the ship Arabella arrived in Massachusetts Bay, from London, and landed passengers at the place where now stand Boston and Charlestown, and where Governor John Winthrop, senior, had commenced an English settlement the year before. Among the passengers were Christopher Avery, of Salisbury, England, and his little son James, then eleven years of age. They proceeded to the point of Cape Ann, where Gloucester now stands, which was at that time one of the most flourishing fishing establishments along the shore, where fish were cured for the European markets by fishermen from England, and in connection with which were agricultural and other profitable industries.

Christopher settled there as a farmer, and became the possessor of valuable and productive lands, which he cultivated to advantage. He had left his wife in England, like many of the leading men who first came over “to spy out the land,” for it was not easy to persuade their wives to leave their comfortable English homes and venture off upon the ocean on a passage of nearly a hundred days in a small





Vessel, crowded with passengers, to share the doubtful fortunes of an unknown wilderness.

The vessels sent from England by the merchant adventurers had for years rendezvoused at Cape Ann to cure and prepare the large quantities of fish taken by them for the European markets, and it was a remunerative trade for the farmers there. It had been a fishing and curing station for years, and with its variety of vegetables and abundance of fish, added to the game and other animal food obtained in trade with the Indians, the thriving community did not lack the means of good and wholesome living. They also had their little chapel where common prayer was offered on the Sabbath by “one Master Rashley, their chaplain,” as we are told by Leckford. When the Paritans afterward settled at Boston they received and fellowshipped Chaplain Rashley for eight or ten years, although he was not of them exactly.

For ten years Mr. Avery, with his son James, enjoyed that pleasant community, his greatest privation being that of the disinelination of his wife to come over and join them in their new home. As he could not persuade her to cross the ocean, he was compelled to send her so much of his earnings and savings as he could spare for her support there. She never came to America.

In 1642 the Cape Ann settlement had become so considerable that the General Court of the Colony incorporated it as the Town of Gloucester, and the Rev. Mr. Blinman, a Dissenting minister, who had made an unsuccessful effort to settle with the Pilgrims at Plymonth, was, by the Boston authorities, sent to Gloucester with a small company of Welshmen, who had accompanied him over the sea, to settle. This was not so pleasant for Christopher Avery, who had so long been the leading man of the settlement with Chaplain Rashley, but he was a man of so decided mark that he was nevertheless elected over and over again as selectman of his new town, notwithstanding the persistent and shameful persecution of the newcomers.

In 1643 his son James Avery, then 23 years old, went to Boston and brought to his home in Gloucester his young bride, Joanna Greenslade, who had with her a certificate of good standing in the Boston church, dated January 17, 1644.

Notwithstanding Mr. Blinman's ecclesiastical precedence, he was rather overshadowed by Christopher Avery, the civilian and sometimes first selectman. Insomuch that after he had been there six or seven years he became “dissatisfied with his teaching,” (as old Governor Winthrop wrote to his son John, then Governor of Connecticut,) and gladly accepted the call to settle at the month of the Thames, (Pequot,) where New London now stands.

He was accompanied by most of the leading members of his church at Gloucester, and among them James Avery with his young wife and three children. James sold all his land at Gloucester to his father Christopher in 1651, for he had settled at New London, October 19, 1650, with what was called the Cape Ann Colony. Mr. Blinman preached at New London about as long as he had at Gloucester, and then left, dissatisfied, for England. Christopher Avery remained in Massachasetts until after Blinman had left for England, and then joined his son James at New London, and in the valley of the Pequonne.

James Avery and Joanna Greenslade had ten children, three born at Gloucester, before 1650, and seven at New London, afterwards. Their youngest son, Samuel, was born August 14, 1664, who married Susan Palmer, daughter of Major Edward Palmer and granddaughter of Governor John Winthrop, Jr., on the 27th of October, 1686, and with her had ten children, to wit: Samuel, b. August 11, 1687; Jonathan, b. January 18, 1689; William, b. August 25, 1692; Mary, b. January 10, 1695; Christopher,





b. February 10, 1697; Humphrey, b. July 4, 1699; Nathan, b. January 30, 1702; Lucy, b. April 17, 1704; Waitstill, b. March 27, 1708, (had two wives;) Grace, b. June 2, 1712. When that portion of New London east of the Thames was set off as the separate town of Groton, in 1705, Samuel Avery, the father, was chosen the first moderator, and became the first selectman, which responsible position he held for twenty years—nearly up to the time of his death.

On the 5th of February, 1724, Humphrey Avery, (the sixth child of Samuel,) b. July 4, 1699, married Jerusha Morgan, daughter of William and Margaret (Avery) Morgan, and had twelve children, to wit: Humphrey, b. March 10, 1725; William, b. September 13, 1726; Solomon, b. July 17, 1728, who died August, 1728; Solomon, b. June 17, 1729; Samuel, b. October 5, 1731; James, b. August 13, 1733; Jerusha, b. June 7, 1735; Paulina, b. April 3, 1737; Christopher, b. May 3, 1739; Waitstill, b. May 10, 1741; Isaac, b. October 27, 1743; Nathan, b. November 20, 1746.

It was this Waitstill, the tenth child of Humphrey, who, after graduating at Princeton, (Nassan Hall) N. J., in 1766, studied law in Maryland, and moved to North Carolina in 1769, when he entered college at the age of twenty-one, he matriculated as Waightstill, thus changing the spelling of the old Winthrop name. His eldest brother, Humphrey, moved from Groton, where his family and ancestors had lived so many years, to Hempstead, Long Island, where he raised a large family. His brother, Waitstill, sixteen years younger than himself, as well as his youngest brother, Isaac, lived with him in their youth, and were both prepared for college at the select school of the Rev. Samuel Seabury there.

Deacon John Seabury, of Groton, who had married Elizabeth Alden, in 1697, granddaughter of John Alden, of the Mayflower, settled in Groton, 1704, and had a son, Samuel, b. July 8, 1706. The deacon was a cotemporary of Samuel Avery, b. 1664, who was the graudfather of Waightstill, of North Carolina. Alike prominent in Church and State affairs, Avery, the town's first selectman, and Seabury, the first deacon of the church, they were neighbors, friends, and their families were intimate.

Samuel Seabury, b. July 8, 1706, was licensed and preached as a Congregational minister in 1726, at the new church in North Groton. He declared himself a convert to Episcopacy in 1730, and next year went to London and was ordained by the Bishop of London. Returned in 1732, and was rector of the Episcopal church in New London for eleven years. Moved to Hempstead, Long Island, in 1743, where he kept a high school as well as preached until 1764, the year of his death. He it was, undoubtedly; who prepared Waitstill Avery for college, which he entered in 1762.

His son, Samuel, born at Groton 1729, went to England in 1784, where he was consecrated the first Bishop of the Episcopal church in America. On his return he took charge of the church at New London, where he died in 1796. My opinion and belief is that on this trip to England, he was accompanied by his father's pupil, Isaac, youngest brother of Waightstill Avery, who became a rector of that church in Virginia, and who is said to have been ordained in England. He was 21 years old at the time of his old tutor's death, by whom, no doubt, he was educated for the Episcopal ministry; and about 40 when ordained in England.

There is a family tradition in North Carolina that Waightstill graduated at Yale college before going to Princeton, and that he was a tutor there; but his name nowhere appears in the Yale catalogues, and all the dates and circumstances seem to show its incorrectness. If he had graduated at Yale, the fact would be stated in the Princeton, as well as





the Yale catalogues; but nowhere does it so appear.

As the name Waitstill is so historical, it is to be regretted that the master spirit of the Mecklenburg declaration and the patriarch of the North Carolina bar, ever changed the spelling. Still was the name of one of the maternal ancestors of the Winthrops, in England, at Groton manor, and Wait was another, Mrs. Susan (Palmer) Avery had an uncle, Wait Still, who in a matter of record at New London, April 16, 1713, is styled Major General Wait Still Winthrop, the middle name was often omitted in the signature in those early days. Susan named her son, b. March 27, 1708, after her distinguished uncle, and her son Humphrey gave the name to the distinguished North Carolinian. The first James Avery, and Edward Palmer, were distinguished in military and civil life; both were high commanding officers in successful wars with the Indians They had served many years together in the Legislature and upon the bench, and in the early history of New London, they are constantly named together as taking the lead in all public affairs. The families being so-intimate, it is not remarkable that Samuel, the youngest son of James Avery, should have wed Susan, the daughter of Major Palmer, and granddaughter of Governor John Winthrop, Jr., of Connecticut.

For this full and satisfactory account of the early history of this family, we are indebted to the unpublished manuscript of J. George Harris, of the United States Navy, residing at Groton, who is a lineal descendant of Christopher Avery, the common ancestor of all the Averys named.

Of this family there were eleven who were massacred at Fort Griswold, at Groton, Connecticut, by the English troops, commanded by that infamous traitor, Benedict Arnold, on the 6th of September, 1781; about 800 troops under his command attacked this fort, defended only by about 160 Americans. After a stout resistance they took it after heavy losses on both sides. Colonel Ledyard, commander of the fort, had ordered his men to cease firing, and stood near the gates prepared to surrender. The British entered; the officer shouted, “who commands this fort?” Colonel Ledyard replied “I did, sir; but you do now,” presenting his sword with its point towards himself. His sword was thrust back through his body and he fell prone on the earth. This was a signal of indiscriminate slaughter, and the British crossed the parade ground in plattoons, firing upon the defenseless garrison, who had grounded their arms. With the bayonet they stabbed the dead and dying. Of the command of 160 they left scarce 20 able to stand; there they in heaps fallen one upon another, as brave a band as fought with Leonidas of Thermopylæ. Of these are “immortal names that were not doomed to die,” and eleven of the name of Avery perished in that most infamous massacre by this demon of destruction.

In a letter from his brother Solomon Avery, of July 11, 1783, a copy of the original is to be found in “Uni. Mag.,” IV, 245, he states:

“Eleven Averys were killed in the fort at Groton, and seven wounded; many Averys have been killed in this war. There has been no Tory named Avery in these parts.”

From such a stock was Waightstill Avery descended.

Waightstill Avery came to North Carolina. He was truly an acquisition to any State. He was a gentleman and a scholar. He graduated at Princeton in 1766, studied law with Littleton Dennis, of the eastern shore of Maryland, and came to North Carolina, entering that province February 4, 1769, obtained a license to practice his profession, through Governor Dobbs, April 5, 1769, and settled in Mecklenburg, at the house of Hezekiah Alexander. His diary is preserved in the “University Magazine,”





vol. IV, p.366, giving a narration of his travels through the State, from which it will be seen that he was welcomed and appreciated by the leading men of the country.

After entering the State, February 4, 1769, having passed the Virginia line he arrived at Edenton, where he became acquainted with Mr. Johnston, then clerk of the court, afterward Governor and judge, and also Joseph Hewes; he passed on to General Allen Jones’ plantation, near the present town of Gaston; thence to Halifax, and arrived at Salisbury on March 2, 1769. Here he met Edmund Fanning, who was a native of the same province, a man of fine address, a scholar, and a lawyer of high attainment, who used every art and blandishment to draw Avery into an alliance with Tryon and the adherents of royalty. A personal friendship grew up, but no political alliance. After traversing every section of the province, from the Albemarle and the Cape Fear to the mountains, we finally find him settled at the house Hezekiah Alexander, who agreed to board him “at the rate of £12 for eight months, making allowance if he should not be there so long in the year.” Here he associated with the patriots of the incipient Revolution, the Alexanders, the Brevards, the Grahams, Davidsons, Polks and others, with whom he cordially sympathized and united in the spirit of liberty and independence that soon pervaded the lovely valleys of the Yadkin and the Catawba.

This period was one of stirring interest. The sentiment of revolution was beginning to rouse the gallant men of that day to arms, and the section where he had located was the first and foremost in the fray. He united with the men of Mecklenburg “in the declaration of independence of the 20th May, 1775, and pledged his life, his fortune, and most sacred honor” to the sacred cause of liberty.

He was elected a member of the Provincial Congress which met at Hillsboro, August 21, 1775, and the next year to the same, which met at Halifax, November 12, 1776. This body formed the State Constitution, in which he rendered important service, and was one of the committee who formed this instrument, so wisely and perfectly formed that under it the State lived for nearly sixty years in prosperity and peace. The next year (1777,) he represented the county of Mecklenburg in the Legislature. William Sharp, Joseph Winston, Robert Lanier, and himself, made a treaty with the Cherokee Indians at the Long Island of the Holstein, “a treaty made without an oath, and one that has never been violated.” On January 12, 1778, he was elected Attorney-General of the State.

July 3, 1779, he was appointed colouel of Jones County, (where he had removed,) in place of Nathan Bryan, resigned, and finding the climate of the low country was impairing his health, he removed, in 1781, to the county of Burke, and settled on a beautiful and fertile estate near Morganton, on the Catawba River.

The year previous (1778,) he had married, near New Berne, Mrs. Leah Frank, widow of Mr. Frank, who lived and died in New Berne, and daughter of William Probart, of Snow Hill, Maryland, a wealthy merchant there, who died on a visit to London.

In 1780, whilst the British occupied Charlotte, under Lord Cornwallis, his office was set on fire, and all his books and papers destroyed. In 1781 he removed to Burke County, and there he resided, in the practice of his profession, until the date of his death, 1821. He represented this county in the Legislature in 1782, ’83, ’84, ’85, ’93, in the House, and in 1796 in the Senate. At the period of his death he was considered “the patriarch of the bar.”

It is doubtful if any one family in this State suffered more severely than did the distinguished and gallant Averys.





Alphonso Calhoun Avery, now one of the Judges of the Superior Court, son of Colonel Isaac T. Avery, resides in Burke County. He is the eldest malesurvivor of this distinguished family. His three elder brothers, Waightstill, Clark, and Isaac J., (as we have recorded.) were killed in the late civil war.

He was born about 1837, liberally educated, graduated at the University in a large class of 70 members in 1857, among whom were B. B. Barnes, John W. Graham, L. M. Jeggitts, Thomas S. Kenan and others. In the proceedings of the commencement, Mr. Avery, then in his sophomore year, received at the hands of Governor Swain a copy of Shakespeare, a prize offered by the professor of rhetoric for the best composition in that class. “Uni. Mag.,” IV, 278.

He studied law, and was just commencing the practice when he obeyed the call of his country to do duty for her defence. He was engaged at the battle of Manassas, where his leader, the gallant Colonel C. F. Fisher, fell, and did noble service under Pender. During the last closing years of the war, he was on the staff of General D. H. Hill.

Since the war he has devoted himself to the practice of his profession, of which he was the pride and ornament, only occasionally interrupted by his election to the Legislature. He was a member of the Senate in 1866 and again 1867, and a member of the Constitutional Convention in 1875.

He was the Democratic elector in the 8th district; and by his ability and exertions did much to insure its success.

He was elected Judge of Superior Courts, which elevated position he holds now. He married Susan, youngest daughter of Rev. Robert A. Morrison, and sister of Mrs. Stonewall Jackson.

William Waightstill Avery was born at Swan Ponds, in Burke County, on the 25th of May, 1816. He was the oldest child of Colonel Isaac T. Avery and Harriet E. Avery. His father was the only son of Waightstill Avery, and his mother was the eldest daughter of William W. Erwin, and a granddaughter of William Sharpe.

There were, during his boyhood, no classical schools in the Piedmont region equal to Bingham and others in the central counties, and on attempting to enter college, in the year 1832, W. W. Avery found that he was not thoroughly prepared in the ancient languages. He remained at Chapel Hill during the vacation and prosecuted his studies under the instruction of the late Dr. Mitchell and Abram Morehead, Esq., then a tutor, and so faithfully did he apply himself that in one year he stood at the head of his class, and graduated with the first honors in 1837 in same class with Perrin Busbee, Peter W. Hairston, Pride Jones and others.

He studied law with Judge Gaston and was licensed to practice in the Superior Courts in 1838.

He was from boyhood an ardent admirer of Mr. Calhoun, and naturally became a States-rights Democrat. He was unsuccessful as a candidate for the Legislature in 1840; but in 1842 was elected as a Democrat from Burke County, though Governor Morehead, the Whig candidate for Governor, carried the county by a very large majority.

He had a large and luerative practice as a lawyer, and did not appear again actively as a politician till the year 1850. In May, 1846, he was married to Corinna M. Morehead, a daughter of the late Governor Morehead. She is still living.

He served afterwards in the House of Commons, as a member from Burke, in 1850 and 1852.

In 1856 he was chairman of the North Carolina delegation in the National Democratic Convention that nominated President Buchanan, and during the same year was elected to





the State Senate, of which body he was chosen Speaker.

In 1858 he was a candidate for Congress, to fill the vacancy made by the appointment of Hon. T. L. Clingman as United States Senator. Colonel David Coleman, who was also a Democrat, opposed him, and after they had canvassed a large portion of the district, Hon. Z. B. Vance announced himself a candidate, and Colonel Coleman withdrew; but the district had given Mr. Buchanan a very small majority, and the dissension was such that Vance was elected.

In 1860, W. W. Avery was again chairman of the North Carolina delegation in the National Convention at Charleston, and seceded with the southern wing of the party that afterwards nominated Mr. Breckenridge. During the same year he was again elected to the State Senate, and declined the nomination for Speaker in favor of his friend H. T. Clark, who become Governor after the death of Governor Ellis. After the election of Mr. Lincoln he was an avowed secessionist, and strongly urged the call of a convention during the winter of 1860 and 1861.

After the State seceded on the 20th of May, 1861, he was elected by the Convention as one of the members from the State at large of the Provisional Congress. He served in that body until the Provisional Government was succeeded by the permanent government, provided for in the Constitution adopted in 1861. He was a member and chairman on the Committee on Military Affairs.

A majority of the Democrats in the Legislature of 1861 voted for Mr. Avery for Senator in the Congress of the Confederate States; but a large minority supported Hon. T. L. Clingman, while the Whigs voted for a candidate from their own party. After balloting for several weeks the friends of the two candidates compromised by electing Hon. W. T. Dortch.

After the expiration of his term in Congress in 1862, he returned to his home with authority from the President to raise a regiment; but was prevented from carrying out his purpose by the earnest protests of his aged father and four brothers, who were already in active service. They insisted that he was beyond the age for service, and it was his duty to his family and country to remain at home.

He was an earnest and active supporter of the Confederate cause, and contributed liberally to the government and for the maintenance of the families of soldiers.

In 1864 an incursion was made by a party of so-called Unionists from Tennessee, commanded by Colonel Kirk, who afterwards gained a very unenviable notoriety in North Carolina. This party, after surprising and capturing a small body of conscripted boys in Burke County, retreated towards Tennessee. Mr. Avery with a body of North Carolina militia pursued the party, and in attacking the retreating forces at a strong position in the mountains, was mortally wounded. He was removed to his home in Morganton, where he died on the 3d day of July, 1864.

In all the relations of life he was distinguished for his kindness and affability, and his unselfish love for the comfort and happiness of others. No man has been more missed and lamented by the community in which he lived, and his aged father, (then in his eightieth year,) went down to his grave sorrowing for the loss of this the third son who had fallen in battle within one year.

For the Genealogy of the Avery family see Appendix.

McDOWELL FAMILY OF BURKE COUNTY.

There are no families in the State that have rendered more important service to the State than the McDowells.

Although careful research has been made for years in records of the State, and families,





and by extensive correspondence, yet, in the earlier periods of our history, the want of the facilities of the press, and a carelessness in preserving family records, some obscurity rests on the history of the early founders of this family.

In my “History of North Carolina,” as to this family, it is stated that Charles and Joseph McDowell were brothers, the sons of Joseph, who, with his wife Margaret O'Neal, had emigrated from Ireland, settled in Winchester, Virginia, where Charles and Joseph were born. For authority of these facts, statements were furnished from members of this family and others which were believed. Recent and more thorough examinations make these statements doubtful. A letter from one of the family* to me, states:

“It is singular how inacenrate has been any knowledge as to this family. An investigation, instituted some time ago, with a view of establishing a descent which would lead to the securing of a large estate through Margaret O'Neal, developed the fact, beyond all question, that her husband (the father of General Charles McDowell, and General Joseph,) was named John instead of Joseph, that they married in Ireland, and lived at Quaker Meadows, in Burke County.”

Lanman, in his “Biographical Annals of Congress,” states:

“Joseph McDowell was a Representative in Congress from 1793 to 1795; and again from 1797 to 1799.”

The family tradition and record is, he died in 1795. The first error does not destroy the truth of history that the family were of Irish origin; and the second arises from there being two of the same name of the same family. Every effort and pains have been taken to make the present sketch correct. If any error occurs, the corrections will be gratefully received. In compiling genealogical tables, or pedigrees, great attention is necessary in clearly stating the number of generations, in any given period, as they form a guide to the probability of persons having sprung from any particular ancestor or individual. A generation is the interval between the birth of a father and the birth of son. Thirty-three years have been allowed to a generation, or three generations for every hundred years. The birth and death dates, as well as the location, should be stated, since “chronology and locality are the eyes of history.” The repetition of the same names, without dates or place, creates confusion in our American genealogy, as it has caused in this instance.

John McDowell, called “Hunting John,” who resided at Pleasant Gardens, was one of the early pioneers of Western Carolina. He was, it is believed, a native of Ireland. He and a man by the name of Henry Widener, (many of whose descendants now live in Catawba County, known by the name of Whitener,) came to this country when it was an unbroken wilderness, for the purpose of hunting and securing homes for their families. John McDowell built his house on the west side of the Catawba River, on land now called the Hany Field, a part of the fine body of land well known as “The Pleasant Gardens,” which for fertility of soil, healthfulness of climate and splendor of scenery, cannot be excelled.

The date of his birth, or the time of his settling, or the date of his death, from the loss of family records, cannot be given; but from tradition, he lived in this lovely spot with his wife (Mrs. Annie Edmundston) to a good old age.

He was a famous hunter, and delighted in “trapping,” and to a late period of his life, he could be seen on his way to the mountains, with four large bear traps tied behind him on his horse, with his trusty rifle on his shoulder. On these excursions he would go alone, and be

[note]



absent for a month or more, hunting the deer, turkies, and bears, and in silent communion with nature and with nature's God. He realized the exquisite lines of Byron—

  • Crime came not near him; she is not the child
  • Of solitude. Health shrank not from him,
  • For her home is in the rarely trodden wild;
  • Tall and swift of [illegible text] were they,
  • Beyond the dwafing city's pale abortion,
  • Because their thoughts had never learned to stray
  • On care or gain; the green woods were their portion,
  • No sinking spirits told them they grew gray,
  • No fashion made them apes of her distortion
  • Simple and civil; and their rifles
  • The’ very true, were not used for trifles.

He left two daughters and one son: Anna, who married William Whitson; Rachel, who married John Carson; and Colonel Joseph McDowell, who was born on 25th February, 1758, at Pleasant Gardens, in Burke County. He was always called “Colonel Joe of the Pleasant Gardens,” to distinguish him from “General Joe of Quaker Meadows.”

He was a soldier and a statesman, and the most distinguished of the name.

He early entered the profession of arms. At the age of 18 he joined General Rutherford in an expedition, in 1776, against the Cherokee Indians, in which he displayed much gallantry and desperate courage. It is known that in a hand-to-hand fight he killed an Indian chief with his sword.

He was active in repressing the Tories, and took part in the battle at Ramsour's Mills, on 20th June, 1780, near Lineolnton, as mentioned by General Graham in eulogistic terms, for his conduct on that occasion, and materially aided in achieving a complete victory over a superior force.

At Cane Creek, in Rutherford County, with General Charles McDowell, he led the militia, chiefly of Burke County, and had a severe skirmish with a strong detachment of Ferguson's army, then stationed at Gilbert Town, and drove them back.

Immediately afterward he aided in measures which eulminated in the glorious victory of King's Mountain.

This was the darkest period of the dubious conflict. Gates was defeated at Camden; Savannah and Charleston surrendered to the British; Sumter, at Fishing Creek, (18th August, 1780;) Cornwallis, in “all the pride and circumstance” of a conqueror, held the undisputed possession of Charlotte and its vicinity.

Ferguson, with strong force, was winning the attachment of the people from liberty to loyalty; while the Tories ravaged the whole country with vindictive fury.

There was not a regular soldier south of Virginia, and every organized force was scattered or disbanded. The time had come, and these brave men felt that they must “do or die.”

Amid all these disastrous circumstances, the patriotic spirits of Cleaveland, Campbell, Sevier, and McDowell did not despair. They determined to attack the forces of Ferguson. They were all of equal rank, and as the troops were in the district of Charles McDowell, he was entitled to the command.

From a manuscript letter of Shelby, in my possession, he says:

“Colonel McDowell was the commanding officer of the district we were in, and had commanded the armies of the militia all the summer before, against the same enemy. He was brave and patriotic, but we considered him too far advanced in life and too inactive to command the enterprise.

“It was decided to send to headquarters for some general officer to command the expedition.

“Colonel McDowell, who had the good of his country more at heart than any title of command, submitted, and stated that he would be the messenger to go to headquarters. He accordingly started immediately, leaving his men under his brother, Major Joseph McDowell.”

The next day Shelby urged that time was precions and delays dangerous. The advance was made. Colonel Joseph McDowell, the subject of our present sketch, led the boys of





Burke and Rutherford Counties to battle and to victory, (7th October, 1780,) and his command was on the right wing of the attacking forces, and aided greatly in insuring victory. Ferguson fell bravely fighting and his army completely routed.

The next important battle in which Colonel Joseph McDowell was engaged was the Cowpens, fought by Morgan and Tarleton on 17th January, 1781, in which he led the North Carolina militia, which terminated in a glorious victory of Morgan, whose name is preserved in gratitude for his services by the county town of Burke.

This ended the military career of our patriotic soldier.

His civil services were equally brilliant; from his elevated character, his acknowledged abilities, and popular address, he was always a favorite with the people. His name is preserved by calling a county for him erected in 1842. He was a member of the House of Commons in 1787 and 1788; also a member of the Convention that met at Hillsboro, 1788, to consider the Constitution of the United States, of which he was the decided opponent, and which was rejected by a majority of 100 votes. He was again elected to the Legislature in 1791 and 1792; in 1793 he was elected to represent this district in the Congress of of the United States.

Of the influence and the popularity of the McDowells there can be no more ample proof than that in 1787, 1788 and 1792 the Senator and both of the members of the House were of this family.

His presence was tall and commanding, of great dignity of demeanor, and of impressive eloquence. Scrupulous in his statements and faithful in all business transactions.

He married Mary, the daughter of George Moffett of Augusta County, Virginia. He died in April, 1795, leaving two sons, John and James, and one daughter, Annie, who married Captain Charles McDowell, of “Quaker Meadows.”

His widow became the second wife of Colonel John Carson, whose first wife was Rachel, daughter of “Hunting John,” of Pleasant Gardens, a sketch of whom we shall present when the McDowells are finished.

John McDowell, son of Colonel Joseph and of Mary Moffett, above, was esteemed a man of superior intellect, and of a retiring and modest disposition, of exemplary purity of life and character. He was averse to public life; yet without any effort on his part, and indeed against his wishes, he was elected a member of the Legislature from Rutherford County in 1820 and 1821.

He married Mary Mansfield Lewis, of Augusta County, Virginia, and lived on Broad River, 14 miles above Rutherfordton, until they moved to the village for the purpose of educating their children.

Their children were Dr. Joseph McDowell; Mary, who married the Rev. W. A. Gamewell; Dr. James McDowell, (Texas;) Nancy; Martha, who married Dr. G. W. Michael, (Newton;) Mira, who married Col. J. M. C. Davis, who fell in the civil war; Sally; John, who was colonel of a regiment in the civil war. His sister Annie, only daughter of Colnel Joseph and Mary Moffett McDowell, married Captain Charles McDowell, son of General Charles, of Quaker Meadows, from which union there were five daughters and one son, namely: Eliza, married Nicholas W. Woodfin; Mary, married, first, General John G. Bynum, and second, Judge R. M. Pearson; Mira, married, first, John Woodfin, second, John Burnett; Margaret, married William McKesson; James, married Julia Manly, killed in battle at Fredericksburg, Virginia, on Marye's Heights; colonel of 53d Regiment in civil war.





James McDowell, the second son of Colonel Joseph McDowell that lived to mannood, possessed the esteem of all who knew him.

He was a member of the Senate in the Legislature, from Burke County, in 1832, and filled other offices of trust. Like each one of Colonel Joseph McDowell's children, he was remarkable for his modesty, for his integrity, and his open-handed charity.

He owned the Pleasant Gardens, where he lived until advanced in life. He then moved to Yancey County, where he died. He married Margaret Erwin, and left five children, namely: Dr. Joseph McDowell, Dr. John McDowell, of Burke County; William McDowell, of Asheville; Kate, who married Montraville Patton; Margaret, who married Marcus Erwin.

These are the descendants of the branch of which “Hunting John” was the ancestor.

John McDowell, of Quaker Meadows, was the cousin of “Hunting John,” (Dr. W. A. Michal.) He was one of the pioneers of this region of country, and settled “at Quaker Meadows,” on the Catawba River, about a mile from Morganton. He was a native of Ireland, and married Margaret O'Neal, (the widow of Mr. Greenlee,) by whom he had three sons; Hugh McDowell, General Charles McDowell, Major John McDowell.

Hugh McDowell, son of John and Margaret O'Neal, of Quaker Meadows, left three daughters: Mrs. McGintry, Mrs. McKinsey; Margaret, who married James Murphy, who left one son, John Murphy, who married Margaret Avery, and left three daughters and one son: Margaret, who married Thomas G. Walton; Sarah, who married Alexander F. Gaston, son of Judge Gaston; Harriet, who married William M. Walton; John H. McDowell, who married Clara Patton.

General Charles McDowell, (son of John and Margaret O'Neal, of Quaker Meadows,) born in 1743; died 1815, was probably a native of Ireland. On the commencement of our Revolutionary troubles, he was the commander of an extensive district in his section of country, and was a brave and daring officer.

It was not until the year 1780 that western North Carolina became the field of military operations in the Revolutionary war. After subduing the States of Georgia and South Carolina, the British forces advanced to this State and commenced making demonstrations, McDowell was active in counteracting their movements.

In June, 1780, having been joined by Shelby, Sevier, and Clarke, of Georgia, near Cherokee Ford on Broad River, McDowell determined to attack the British at a strongly fortified post on the Pacolet River, under command of Patrick Moore, which he gallantly performed and compelied him to surrender.

He also attacked the Tories at Musgrove Mill on the Enoree River and routed them.

Many other brilliant affairs in this section marked his energy and efficiency as a soldier. We have recorded the facts of his missing a participation in the battle of King's Mountain.

As the several officers held equal rank, by a council of officers McDowell was dispatched to headquarters, then near Salisbury, to have General Summer or General Davidson, who had been appointed brigadier general in place of General Rutherford, taken prisoner at Gates’ defeat.

This closed his military career. The people of his county were not ungrateful to him for his long and successful military service. He was the Senator from Burke from 1782 to 1788, and he had been also in 1778, and member of the House 1809-’10-’11. He died 31st March, 1815. He married Grace Greenlee, who was distinguished among “the women of the Revolution.” She was a woman of remarkable energy and firmness. Mrs. Ellet has recorded her extraordinary character, and relates that on one occasion some bummers, in the





absence of her husband, plundered her honse. With some few friends she pursued the marauders and compelled them, at the muzzle of a musket, to give up her property. While her husband was secretly making powder in a cave, she aided him, and burnt the charcoal herself. This very powder did good service in the battle of King's Mountain. Previous to her marriage with General Charles McDowell, she was the wife of Captain Bowman, who fell in the battle of Ramsour's mill. She was the daughter of Margaret O'Neal, by Mr. Greenlee, anterior to the union with the father of General Charles McDowell. She had a daughter by this marriage with Captain Bowman, named Mary, who married Colonel William Tate, and who was the mother of Junius Tate, and Louisa, who was the mother of the first Mrs. Z. B. Vance.

She had by General Charles McDowell, three sons and four daughters: Captain Charles McDowell; Athan A.; James R.; Sarah; Eliza Grace, Margaret; Sallie; in whom and in whose descendants, the blood of Grace Greenlee courses. It is curious as well as interesting, to observe the effect of blood. Dr. Rush declared that “the blood of one intelligent woman would redeem three generations of fools.”

This, like the golden thread of Ariadne, is clearly traceable in the genealogy of this family, marking with intellect, beauty, and in enterprise, in clear and definite lines. As Dr. Johnson, in his epituph of Goldsmith, expresses the beautiful idea—

Nil tetiget, quod non ornavit.

Of these Captain Charles McDowell, who was always called “Captain Charles,” owned the homestead of “The Quaker Meadows.” He was a member of the Legislature from Burke County in 1809-’10-’11. He was much resspected; an ardent politician. (For his descendants see sketch of Annie McDowell, whom he married.)

Athan A McDowell served in the Creck war. He was sheriff of Burke County. Senator in the Legislature, 1815. He removed to Henderson County. He married Ann Goodson, the stepdaughter of Colonel William Davenport, of Caldwell County, and left one son, Charles, and one daughter, Louisa, who married Hon. James C. Harper, whose daughter married Hon. Judge Cilly.

James R. McDowell lived a bachelor, and died at the old homestead. He was a very great favorite with all who knew him. He often contended with Hon. Samuel P. Carson in the political field, with alternate success. He was a member of the House in 1817-’18 and ’19, and of the Senate, in 1823-’25.

Sarah married Colonel William Paxton, brother of Judge Paxton; had several children; one of whom married Rev. Brank Merrimon, father of Hon. A. S. Merrimon, United States Senator; Eliza Grace married Stanhope Erwin; Margaret married Colonel William Dickson, whose son was in the Legislature 1842-