Biographical sketches of Wilmington citizens



“CHARACTER is as important to a state [city or county] as to individuals,” and that estimate is ∽ ∽ chiefly based upon the achievement and conduct of its citizens.


Geo Davis


Among all the great men who have adorned the annals of North Carolina, no one deserves to take precedence of George Davis, whose virtues rendered him illustrious, while his abilities, culture and public services gained for him an eminence that no other North Carolinian has enjoyed. * * * He was admired for his learning and his talent, beloved for his personal excellence and venerated for his patriotism and for the exalted sentiments which animated him in every walk of life. * * * He particularly was distinguished as a scholar, an able lawyer, for his decided convictions, severe integrity and high sense of right and honor, while as an orator, he probably had no equal in the United States.—Samuel A. Ashe.

GEORGE DAVIS, born in New Hanover County, March 1, 1820, died in Wilmington, February 23, 1896, probably brought greater distinction to North Carolina, as statesman, patriot, scholar and orator, than any other son of this great old commonwealth. His outstanding services as a citizen have left an undying impress upon his native city and state and his patriotism in the statesmanship of the Confederacy aroused the admiration and developed the close personal friendship of the illustrious Davis and the more illustrious Robert E. Lee.

Of a family stock that dated back to the earliest settlements in the two Carolinas, Sir John Yeamans and James Moore, he loved all things American and especially he loved the American Union. Throughout the perilous days preceding the Confederacy, he sought, by every honorable means, to effect an agreement between the North and South that might prevent secession and civil strife, with all the horrors of such a conflict. He was one of the delegates to the Peace Congress, in Washington, in 1861, and, during the same month, at Montgomery, Ala., where the Confederate government was established a few days before Lincoln's inauguration. In June, of that year, he was chosen as one of North Carolina's senators in the Confederate Congress, at Richmond, and was re-elected in 1862. In January, 1864, he became Attorney-General in President Davis’ Cabinet, in which position he remained until the Confederacy crumbled, April 26, 1865, at Charlotte, to which city the Southern government was removed following Lee's surrender.

Then came Lincoln's assassination and the North's delirium in its vengeance cry for the blood of President Davis and the members of his Cabinet. Mr. Davis first sought refuge at the home of his brother, Bishop Thomas F. Davis, of the Episcopal Diocese of South Carolina. Later, he went to Florida and eventually attempted escape to British soil in an old abandoned boat. After a harrowing and dangerous experience on the seas, he landed at Key West, submitted to arrest and was sent as a prisoner to Fort Hamilton. He finally was released on parole agreement not to leave North Carolina.

Upon his return to Wilmington, he reopened his law offices and began the practice of law in an effort to retrieve the fortune he had lost during the war. He continued active practice for thirty years and during that time appeared as counsel in some of the most important litigation in the legal annals of the Lower Cape Fear. He was the legal adviser in the organization of the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad (now part of the Atlantic Coast Line) and handled its affairs with such admirable accuracy that it always was free from legal embarrassments. He was employed, together with Judge Thomas Ruffin, to advise the legislature in the matter of the sale of the Western North Carolina Railroad and his work in that case is described by a North Carolina historian as “a marvel of skill.” In 1878, he was offered the appointment of Chief Justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court, but declined, perhaps the only instance in the history of the state, that he might continue in private practice and make adequate and proper provision for his family.

On November 17, 1842, he married Mary A. Polk, daughter of Gen. Thomas Polk, of Mecklenburg County and great-granddaughter of Thomas Polk, one of the signers of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. Of this marriage was born the late Junius Davis, who also became one of the best known citizens and lawyers of his generation and whose biographical history appears in this volume. Mary Polk Davis died in 1863. On May 9, 1866, he married Miss Monimia Fairfax, of Richmond, Va., to whom he became engaged while Attorney-General of the Confederacy.

Historians and biographers, including Hume, Ashe and others, allot great space to the life and achievements of this great Wilmingtonian, according him a high rank

among the notable men of the Southland. His home city, grateful for his constructive service as a citizen, has erected a bronze statue to his memory. The late Dr. Sprunt, in his “Chronicles of the Lower Cape Fear,” describes him as “a beloved leader whose memory will continue with increasing veneration.” The late Dr. T. B. Kingsbury, famous editor of the Wilmington Star during the dismal Reconstruction period, compared him with Pericles, Cicero, Burke, Fox and Sheridan, in appearance, in patriotism and effective oratory and Edward Everett wrote in his diary that “he (Davis) had no peer in eloquence and logic.” The widow of President Jefferson Davis, in a letter to Dr. Sprunt, wrote: “Mr. Davis’ public life was irreproachable” and “my husband felt for him the most sincere friendship as well as confidence and esteem,” while General Lee loved him with all the pure affections possible to that great heart and a short time before his death was a guest at the Davis home in Wilmington. Louis T. Moore, student of men and events in the Lower Cape Fear, in an article, “George Davis: Citizen of Wilmington,” says:

“Among those who brought honor and glory to his native state, an outstanding figure is the Hon. George Davis, of Wilmington. As Attorney-General of the Southern Confederacy, he held the love and esteem of President Jefferson Davis and of Gen. Robert E. Lee; as a peerless and eloquent orator, he occupied a place peculiarly his own; as a learned and distinguished lawyer, his counsel and guidance were always sought; as one whom the state wished to honor in life, he probably stands alone in having declined the high position of the State Supreme Court, which consideration for the maintenance of his family forced him to do; and last, but not least, as a true gentleman and Christian, his life was such as to indelibly impress itself upon the community and state in which he lived.”


The great English historian, Macaulay, one of the most brilliant minds of the last century, said: “The history of a country is best told in a record of the lives of its people.” In conformity with this idea, the “Biographical Sketches of Wilmington Citizens” has been prepared. Instead of going to musty tomes and taking therefrom dry statistical matter that can be appreciated but by few, I have gone to the leading citizens of this fine old city, assembled the data descriptive of their individual lives and am submitting, through biographical sketches, an accurate portrayal of Wilmington's consequence at this time. No more interesting or instructive book could be presented to the public of this section. Each narrative is a romance in itself. Some have maintained a mangnificent family tradition, born into culture and wealth, they have added to the heritages of generations; others, with limited advantages, but through industry, careful economy and native ability, have risen into notable influence; also this volume tells how that many in the pride and strength of young manhood left the store, the bank, factory, railroad office and every trade and profession and, at their country's call, went forth valiantly across the seas to sacrifice their lives in the cause of freedom for all mankind—these Wilmington young men became a mighty part of the greatest, most genuinely idealistic and most successful army ever mobilized in all the military annals of the world. The life of every man in this volume should be read with the most careful consideration. Each is an examplar of good citizenship, of accomplishment and all constitute a class of men, the type of which has been responsible for every step in the tedious progress of human liberty and advancement since civilization began. Wilmington is and always has been peculiarly fortunate in the remarkable caliber of its leading citizens. Its first colonists were sturdy, cultural and brave and included in their list governors, jurists, military chieftains and outstanding statesmen and patriots. Two citizens of Wilmington attended the Constitutional convention at Philadelphia and one became a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Local environ has produced two notably distinguished admirals of the American navy and one world-famous President of the United States once lived here. In art, America's greatest painter boasted a family connection with this city and the present ruling prima donna is a native. This volume contains the summary of the life of a president of one of the greatest railway systems in America; of another, whose philanthropic generosity has caused his memory to be beloved by every one in this entire section; one whose forensic ability and statesmanship attracted national recognition during the nation's most dangerous crisis; another whose huge heart and splendid mind created and perfected a boys’ organization that has built character and developed some of the best known citizens in the South; and still another whose genius for colonization has reclaimed millions of acres and received the commendation of peoples in two hemispheres. The present spirit of Wilmington is the same as it was almost two hundred years ago when the original settlers helped to lay the foundation of a nation destined to become the mightiest on earth; the same spirit that forcibly resisted an unjust tax assessed by a foolish monarch a decade before the Boston Tea Party; the identical spirit that caused Fort Fisher to be the last of the Confederate strongholds to crumble before an unparalleled assault by land and sea; and the same spirit that has met every demand in the past for valor in defense of meritorius causes. Had Wilmington with its illustrious history been located in some northern section, its glories would have been perpetuated in song and story more impelling, more courageous and more in the fitness of things than the dashing tales of the Reveres, the tea tax resistance in a New England harbor, Sheridan's ride down the Shenandoah and scores of other “inspirations” for paens in prose and rhyme. Sherman's march was less brave than the resistance offered it, yet this heroic resistance remains to this day unsung. Coming generations will appreciate this volume and treasure it because it contains so much that would never find its way into public records and which otherwise would be inaccessible. Great care has been taken in its compilation and every opportunity possible given to those represented to insure correctness in what has been written and I earnestly believe I give to the readers a work with few errors of consequence. Before concluding I especially desire to thank Mr. J. O. Carr, Colonel Walker Taylor and Mr. George B. Elliott with whom I first discussed the publication of this book; to Louis T. Moore, Thomas W. Davis, Lamont Smith, Fred E. Little, W. R. Yopp and the secretaries of the various organizations which are reviewed in the last pages of this volume. Also various histories have been consulted and copiously copied, particularly Dr. James Sprunt's “Chronicles of the Cape Fear.”


Collaborated by
Executive Secretary Wilmington Chamber of Commerce

We, of the present day, are so imbued with the notion of this being an age of progress and enlightenment, as compared with its predecessors, that we very frequently either altogether deride the attainments and performances of our forefathers, as being unworthy of our attention, or regard them with such a cold patronizing glance, that our approval of them is rather an insult than an honor to their memory. And yet there are times when this self laudation is not only ill-timed, but unfounded; when it would contribute much more to our present benefit, if we thought how little, rather than how much we had progressed, and considered, that, while running more speedily than our predecessors, we may be on an entirely different line, instead of the direct roadway which they were pursuing. It would be well, then, if everyone were, at least, familiar with the leading events connected with the history and early settlement of the community in which he resides, and had some knowledge of the character of the people to whom the civilization of today is much indebted.

Of all the departments of intelligent research, the study of historical events is certainly the most interesting, having attractions peculiarly its own. The student of human nature here finds the lives of all kinds of men, the circumstances that led to the formation of their characters, and the influence they exerted upon their contemporaries and their posterity. The student of prophecy here finds the data upon which his surmises regarding the unforseen future must be built. Gathering together the tangled webs of the past, and looking at their issues, he has some guide as to what is likely to spring from the events going on around him, and a clue to the movements and changes to which in turn these will give rise.

The voluminousness of historic detail, however, brings with it one or two serious drawbacks—one is, that it is impossible to overtake all history, and it is therefore, needful to confine one's attention to a comparatively limited portion of it. It would be impossible, for instance, to write a complete history of the world for a single year—for no building could contain the books that would have to be written—a lifetime would not suffice to write it—a lifetime would not be long enough in which to read it.

Recognizing the full force of what we have said, and, also, that “brevity is the soul of wit”—as well as having a due regard for the purposes with which this volume is published—we content ourselves with endeavoring to present, in as concise a shape as we may, some few of the principal events of the past history of the city of Wilmington, trusting that we may be able to make, at least, some slight record of those early times so pregnant of the city's future greatness and importance, as well as of her latter days of permanent and assured prosperity.

Before proceeding at once with our subject, it would, perhaps prove of interest to our readers to know that there are many who contend that the name of the majestic river, to which Wilmington owes her existence as a city, should be called by another name: That is to say, that Cape Fear should be Cape Fair. It is said that the name was originally so given because its surroundings presented to the early adventurers so fair and attractive an appearance. It is, furthermore, stated by some authorities that neither the cape nor the river were ever called by the present name until after 1750, and never officially until 1780. The preponderance of evidence, however, is strongly in favor of the existing name as against the more attractive appellation. The word was unquestionably often spelled “Fair”, and there is therefore, some foundation for the controversy. The true explanation of the apparent misnomer is, doubtless, to be found in the fact, that in those days a most startling latitude and license in the matter of spelling was universally allowed and most recklessly indulged in—every man, being as it were, his own Webster. Plantation was “plantacon”; proposals were “proposealls;” grant was grannte;” engage, “inguaige;” growth, “groathe,” and so on ad infinitum.

In pursuing this inquiry, it must be borne in mind that it is to the name of the cape, and not that of the river, that investigation must be directed, as for nearly a hundred years the cape bore its name before the river was known to history.

In De Bry's map of Lane's expedition, 1585, although no name is given to the cape, the two latin words “promontorium tremendum,” sufficiently attest the knowledge of its location and dangerous existence. In the narrative of Sir Richard Grenville's first expedition in the same year, the following entry is read for the month of June, 1585: “The 23rd we were in great danger of a wreck, on a breach called the Cape of Fear”. Again, two years later, in the narrative of White's first voyage, we are told that in July, 1587, “had not Captain Stafford been more careful in looking out than our Simon Fernando, we had all been cast away upon the breach called the Cape of Fear.” It will be observed that in those days a “breach” constituted a beach.

The river at first bore a different name, being called Charles river, and it was some time after 1663, that it took the name of the cape, and was called Cape Fear River. The first settlement on what is now Cape Fear River, was made in 1659, or 1660, but it was abandoned in 1663. In the same year one of the first acts of the Lords Proprietors of the Colonies, after receiving the liberal grant from the Crown, was to publish an important document, denominated the “Declaration and Proposealls to all y't will plant in Carolina.” It was published in August, 1663, and one of the first results effected was during the autumn of 1665, when Sir John Yeamans, with a colony of men from Barbadoes, sailed into Cape Fear River in search of a site for a settlement.

It was one of the strict requirements of the “Proposealls” of the Lords Proprietors that for every fifty acres of land granted there should always be one man “armed with a good firelock musket, performed boare, 12 bullets to ye pound, and with 20 pounds of powder and 20 pounds of bullets.” That is what colonization meant in those days. It was not so much against the Indians, however, as it was against the pirates, who infested the coast, and the Spaniards in Florida, that these precautions were necessarily taken. It was probably through fear of the latter that the Lords Proprietors were so anxious that settlements should be made to the westward of Cape Fear in order that the North and the South Provinces might the more readily afford each other mutual aid and protection. However that may be, the first condition in the “Proposealls” was: “If ye colony will settle on the Charles River, near Cape Feare, wch seems to be desired, it shall be free for them soe to doe, in ye larboard side entering. If in any other parte, of ye Terrytory, then to chose eithr side, if by a rivr.”

This “Terrytory,” on both sides of the Cape Fear River, early was formed into a county, 1728, and called New Hanover in honor of the House of Hanover, then on the English throne. While its present boundaries are Duplin County, on the North; Onslow County, East; Atlantic Ocean, South; and by the Cape Fear and South Rivers on the West, separating it from Brunswick and Bladen, at that time it included what now is all of New Hanover and a part of Brunswick Counties. However, because of the peculiar situation of New Hanover County, its narrow peninsular confines and the condition of the soil, the history of the county always has centered in the history of its principal settlement, first Brunswick and later, Wilmington.

In its early years, records show, Brunswick County was in Carteret Precinct (County), which was established in 1722 and ran down the coast to the unknown confines of North Carolina, and back into the wilderness without limitation. New Hanover, under the rearrangement in 1728, embraced the territory now in Duplin, Sampson, Bladen and Brunswick Counties. It was not until shortly before the Revolution, or in 1764, that Brunswick was formed from the counties of Bladen and New Hanover. Brunswick, incidentally, derives its name from the Prince of Brunswick, who, in 1764, married the British King's eldest daughter.

The organization of counties, naturally, followed the founding of settlements. Consequently, settlements flourished along the lower Cape Fear River, prior to the organization of New Hanover County. Brunswick settlement, destined in time to yield to Liverpool, then Newton, then Wilmington, antedated the establishment of New Hanover County by many years. This was in the regular course of events. The colonists were empowered to fortify the mouth of the river, and were presented by the King with twelve pieces of cannon and a considerable amount of ammunition for that purpose. Agreeably to the terms and stipulations contained in the “Proposealls,” Sir John and his men landed on the west side of the river, selected a site, and laid the foundation of a town. In honor of the reigning King, it was called Charleston, or as it was at first, and for years afterward written, Charles Town.

Among historians there has been much doubt and uncertainty as to the exact place selected, but tradition has fixed the spot beyond dispute. It was at, or near the junction of Old Town Creek with the river, about eight miles below Wilmington, on the

west side of the river, an evidence of this may be found, if any were wanting, in the fact that just before the Civil War, an old cannon was found, deeply imbedded in the earth, and almost devoured by rust, at this spot.

The town “assumed immediate importance, and in less than two years numbered eight hundred souls; and built up an important trade with the West Indies, particularly in timber and staves”. And such was the desire for emigration to it from Barbadoes that the Legislature there felt called upon to pass an act prohibiting “the spiriting people off the Island”. Its prosperity, however, was but temporary, and it soon began to decline. It can now only be conjectured what caused its decay. At any rate in 1671 Sir John was appointed to succeed Governor Sayle, and together with most of the colonists, sailed for Port Royal in the Southern Province, and afterwards removed to the neck of land between Ashley and Cooper Rivers, and founded the present city of Charleston, S. C. Many of his descendants are still living.

The new town afterward went totally out of existence, and it is conjectured that what few inhabitants it had left founded the old town of Brunswick, a few miles down the river. Brunswick was situated on the west bank of the Cape Fear, some sixteen miles below the present City of Wilmington, at the place afterwards known as Fort Anderson, which was the scene, during the late War between the States, of one of the most terrific bombardments known in the history of modern warfare.

Our first authentic knowledge of Brunswick begins about 1720. In 1725, Colonel Maurice Moore, a grandson of Sir John Yeamans, received from the Lords Proprietors a grant of 1500 acres of land on the west side of the river, and proceeded to lay off a town on its most eligible site, which he called Brunswick. Emigration rapidly set in. Many gentlemen, we are told, came here from both Carolina and Virginia and others from England. In the same year, also, a number of educated gentlemen, disgusted with the despotic laws of New England, settled here. It was from ancestors such as these that many of the most illustrious names in the history of this section were handed down to the present day.

The exposed roadstead of Brunswick, and the discovery that its harbor was unsafe for such crafts as were then in use for bringing produce from the upper rivers, necessitated a further exploration up the line of the river for the purpose of securing a more suitable place for the reception and shipment of the produce then constituting the principal articles of export from this part of the Province. The present site of the City of Wilmington was determined upon as the best for the purpose required.

Accordingly, in 1730, the first settlement was made, a village was laid out, and wharves and buildings first erected. It was called New Liverpool. In 1732, a survey having been made for the purpose of laying it out as a town, the settlement was called Newton, or New Town. In 1735, John Watson received a grant for 640 acres of land, situated on the east side of the Cape Fear River, and including the village or town of Newton.

In 1739, through the influence of Gabriel Johnston, then Governor of the Province, the name of Newton was changed, by Legislative enactment, to Wilmington, in honor of his patron, Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington. From this time forward, the town of Wilmington grew rapidly in wealth and population, while the old town of Brunswick sank into obscurity and decay. Brunswick was finally abandoned. It is believed by some that Brunswick was burned by the British during the War of the Revolution, but that Wilmington had previously absorbed almost the entire population.

It was near Brunswick, that, on the 8th of August, 1775, Josiah Martin, the last Colonial Governor of North Carolina, fulminated his proclamation against the famous Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, the Governor at the time, being on board H. M. Ship Cruiser, whither he had fled from the righteous indignation of the people.

The only vestiges of Brunswick now remaining are the walls of old St. Philip's Church, which was built, about 1729, of brick imported from England. The walls are two feet thick, and apparently strong enough to stand another century or more of exposure. It is, by the way, a somewhat memorable circumstance that during the terrific bombadment of Fort Anderson, during the Civil War, by the Federal fleet, on the day and night of February 18th, 1865, not a shell, or even the fragment of a shell, struck the old church, although its walls frowned upon the war vessels from the immediate rear of Anderson.

Dr. James Sprunt, in his “Cape Fear Chronicles” quotes from Swann's Collections

of Public Acts, the Act of Incorporation passed by the Assembly in 1739, “erecting the village called Newton, in New Hanover County, into a town and township, by the name of Wilmington; and regulating and ascertaining the bounds thereof.” The Act is signed by Gabriel Johnston, governor; William Smith, president; and John Hodgson, speaker. It follows:

Section 1. Whereas, several merchants, tradesmen, artificers and other persons of good substance, have settled themselves at a village called Newton, lying on the east branch of the Cape Fear; and whereas, the said village by reason of its convenient situation at the meeting of the two great branches of Cape Fear River, and likewise, by reason of the depth of the water, capable of receiving vessels of considerable burthen, safety of its roads beyond any other part of the river and the secure and easy access from all parts of the different branches of the said river, is, upon those and many other accounts, more proper for being erected into a town or township than any other part of said river.

Section 2. Be it therefore enacted by His Excellency, Gabriel Johnston, Esq., Governor, by and with the advice and consent of His Majesty's Council and General Assembly of this province, and it is hereby enacted, by the authority of the same, that the village heretofore called Newton, lying on the east side of the Northeast branch of Cape Fear River, in New Hanover County, shall, from and after the passage of this Act, be a town and township, and the said village is hereby established a town and township by the name of Wilmington, the bounds whereof shall be and are circumscribed in manner following: That is to say, to the northeast by the lands of His Excellency Gabriel Johnston, Esq., upwards and below, by the lands of Michael Dyer; to the westward by the northeast branch of Cape Fear River; and to the eastward by a line drawn between the said lands of His Excellency Gabriel Johnston, Esq., and Michael Dyer, one hundred and twenty poles distant from the river.

Section 3. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that forever after passing of this Act, the inhabitants of near the said town, qualified as hereinafter mention shall have the privilege of choosing one representative for the said town, to sit and vote in the General Assembly.

Section 4. And for ascertaining the method of choosing the said representative, be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that every tenant of any brick, stone or framed inhabitable house, of the length of twenty feet, and sixteen feet wide, within the bounds of the said town, who at the day of election, and for three months next before, inhabited such house, shall be entitled to vote in the election for the representative of the said town, to be sent to the General Assembly, and in case there shall be no tenant of such house in the said town, on the day of election, qualified to vote as aforesaid, that then, and in such case, the person seized of such house, either in fee-simple, or fee-tail, or for term of life, shall be entitled to vote for the Representative aforesaid.

Section 5. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that every person who, on the day of election, and for three months next before, shall be in actual possession or an inhabitant of a brick house, of the length of thirty feet, and sixteen feet wide, between the bounds of the said town upwards, and Smith Creek, and within one hundred twenty poles of the northeast branch of Cape Fear River, shall be entitled to, and have a vote in the election of a Representative for the said town (unless such person be a servant), and shall, as long as he continues an inhabitant of such house, within the said bounds, enjoy all the rights, privileges and immunities, to which any inhabitant within the said town shall be entitled, by virtue of said Act.

Section 6. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that no person shall be deemed qualified to be a Representative for the said town, to sit in the General Assembly, unless, on the day of election, he be, and for three months next before, was seized, in fee-simple, or for the term of life, of a brick, stone or framed house of the dimensions aforesaid, with one or more brick chimney or chimnies.

Section 7. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that forever, after the passing of this Act, the court of the county of New Hanover, and the election of the Representatives to be sent to the General Assembly, and the election of Vestrymen and all other public elections, of what kind or nature soever, for the said county and town, shall be held and made in the town of Wilmington, and at no other place whatsoever, any law, statute, usage or custom, to the contrary notwithstanding.

Section 8. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that from and after the passage of this Act, the Collector and Naval Officers of the port of Brunswick (of which port the said town of Wilmington is the most central and convenient place, both for exportation and importation by reason of its navigation and situation), shall constantly reside in the said town, and there keep their respective offices, until His Majesty shall be pleased to give his directions to the contrary. And likewise, the clerk of the court of the county of New Hanover, and the register of the said county, shall constantly hold and execute their respective offices in the said town of Wilmington; and that if either of the said officers shall neglect or refuse so to do, he so neglecting or refusing, shall, for every month he shall be a delinquent, forfeit and pay the sum of five pounds proclamation money; to be sued for and recovered, by him who shall sue for the same, in the general court of this Province, or in the county court of New Hanover, by action of debt, bill, plaint, or information, wherein no essoin, protecyion, injunction or wager of law shall be allowed, and one half of such forfeiture shall be for the use of the person who sues for the same, and the other half shall be paid to the commissioners for the time being, appointed for regulating the said town.

Section 9. And for the due regulating of the said town, be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that Robert Halton, James Murray, Samuel Woodard, William Farris, Richard Eagles, John Porter and Robert Walker, Esquires, are hereby established and appointed commissioners for the said town; and the said commissioners, or a majority of them, and their successors shall have, and be invested with all powers and authorities within the bounds of the said town of Wilmington, in as full and ample manner, as the commissioners for the town of Edenton have or possess, by virtue of any law heretofore passed.

Section 10. And whereas the justices of the county court of New Hanover, at the court held at Brunswick, on Tuesday, the eleventh day of December last, have imposed a tax of five shillings per poll, to be levied on the tihable inhabitants of the said county, between the first day of January, and the first day of March, one thousand seven hundred and thirty-nine; and afterwards, one other tax of five shillings per poll to be levied on the said inhabitants, between the first day of January and the first day of March, one thousand seven hundred and forty, towards building a court house and gaol in the town of Brunswick, for the said county.

Section 11. Be it enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that the justices of the said county court, shall, and are hereby directed to apply the said levy or tax towards finishing and completing the courthouse already erected in the said town of Wilmington, and towards building a gaol in the said town.

Section 12. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that if any one or more of the said commissioners shall die, or remove out of the county, that then and in such case, the surviving or remaining commissioners shall, within six months after the death or removal of such commissioner, present to His Excellency, the Governor or Commander-in-Chief for the time being, three persons, one of which the said Governor or Commander-in-Chief is hereby empowered to nominate and appoint; and the commissioners so appointed shall be invested with the same powers and authorities, as any commissioner nominated by this Act.

In 1738, the Parish of St. James embraced the whole of New Hanover County. At that period there was no parish church, and in 1747, the Court House was used as a place of worship. During this year the lot upon which the Church of St. James now stands was presented to the Parish by Michael Wihgins, on which the first church was afterward erected. It was nineteen years in course of construction, and when finished was a huge structure of brick, without ornament, but of most ample accommodation within. It gave place in 1839, to the present more commodious and elegant structure.

An interesting incident in the history of this church is worthy of mention in connection with the city's history. In 1749, a number of Spanish privateers, availing themselves of the defenseless position of Cape Fear, entered the harbor and committed a number of depredations upon the inhabitants. The people hastily collected and attacked them. During the action one of the pirate vessels was blown up and captured, and a number of valuables were taken from the wreck. The proceeds of this property were afterward applied to the building of the churches of St. Philips and St. James at Brunswick and Wilmington. Among other acts of the General Assembly of North

Carolina, will be found one passed, in 1760, authorizing a lottery to raise money to build the church of St. James Parish at Wilmington, and appropriating part of the effects of this vessel to the same object. Modern lottery companies are here presented with a precedent as to the righteousness of their undertakings.

Among the many valuable things found in this pirate ship was an “Ecce Homo”, a painting of the Saviour in one of the scenes of his passion as described in St. John XIX, 5. This fine painting is still preserved in the vestry room of St. James Church, and constitutes an historical and venerable attraction which brings many visitors to Wilmington. It is assumed that the painting came into possession of the pirates following one of their marauding descents upon the South American coast or an attack upon the West Indian Islands.

Colonial life was lively and substantial, along the Lower Cape Fear, throughout the period between the settlement of Brunswick and the beginning of the Revolution, nearly fifty years. Col. Alfred Moore Waddell, who like Dr. John Hampden Hill and, later Dr. James Sprunt, interested themselves purely as a matter of love in recording the early annals of this region, describes the life of the planters in his “A Colonial Officer and His Times,” as follows:

“In the Southern end of the Province, at Brunswick and Wilmington, and along the Cape Fear, there was an equally refined and cultivated society and some very remarkable men. No better society existed in America, and it is but simple truth to say that for classical learning, wit, oratory and varied accomplishments, no generation of their successors has equaled them.

“Their hospitality was boundless and proverbial, and of the manner in which it was enjoyed there can be no counterpart in the present age. Some of them had town residences, but most of them lived on their plantations, and they were not the thriftless characters that by some means it became fashionable to assume all Southern planters were. There was much gaity and festivity among them, and some of them rode hard to hounds, but as a general rule they looked after their estates and kept themselves as well informed in regard to what was going on in the world as the limited means of communication allowed. There was little display, but in almost every house could be found valuable plate, and, in some, excellent libraries. The usual mode of travel was on horseback, and in gigs, or chairs, which were vehicles without springs but hung on heavy straps, and to which one horse, and sometimes by young beaux two horses, tandem, were driven; a mounted servant rode behind, or, if the gig was occupied by ladies, beside the horse. The family coach was mounted by three steps, and had great carved leather springs, with baggage rack behind, and a high, narrow driver's seat and box in front. The gentlemen wore clubbed and powdered queues and knee breeches, with buckled low-quartered shoes, and many carried gold or silver snuff-boxes which, being first tapped, were handed with grave courtesy to their acquaintances, when passing the compliments of the day. There are persons still living who remember seeing these things in their early youth. The writer of these lines himself remembers seeing in his childhood the decaying remains of old ‘chairs’ and family coaches, and knew at that time, several old negroes who had been body servants in their youth to the proprietors of these ancient vehicles. It is no wonder that they sometimes drove the coaches four-in-hand. It was not only grand style, but the weight of the vehicle and the character of the roads made it necessary.

“During the period embraced in these pages (early Colonial Period), four wheeled pleasure vehicles were rare, and even two wheeled ones were not common, except among the town nabobs and well-to-do-planters. The coaches, or chariots, as a certain class of vehicles was called, were all imported from England, and the possession of such a means of locomotion was evidence of high social position. It was less than twenty years before the period named, that the first stage wagon in the colonies, in 1738, was run from Trenton to New Brunswick, in New Jersey, twice a week, and the advertisement of it assured the public that it would be fitted up with benches and covered over ‘so that passengers may sit easy and dry.’ ”

In the “Cape Fear Chronicles” (Dr. Sprunt), are listed some of the prominent lower Cape Fear men and the names of their plantations of Colonial and Revolutionary days. The list includes Governor Burrington, of Governor's Point; Gen. Robert Howe, of Howe's Point; Nathaniel Moore, of York; Governor Arthur Dobbs, of Russellboro; all below what is now the historic Orton plantation: “King” Roger Moore, of Orton; James Smith, of Kendal (now part of Orton); Eleazer Allen, of Lilliput; John Moore,

of Pleasant Oaks; Nathaniel Rice, of Old Town Creek; John Baptista Ashe, of Soring Garden, afterward called Grovely; Chief Justice Hasell, of Belgrange; Schnecking Moore, of Hullsfields; John Davis, of Davis Plantation; John Dalrymple (who commanded Fort Johnston) of Dalrymple Place; John Ancrum, of Old Town; Marsden Campbell, of Clarendon; Richard Eagles, of the Forks, Judge Alfred Moore, of Buchoi; John Waddell, of Bellville; Gov. Benjamin Smith, of Belvidere; all below Wilmington. And continuing further along the river, may be mentioned Cornelius Harnett, at Hilton; John Hill, at Fair Fields; Jehu Davis, Rock Hill; Parker Quince, Rose Hill; John Burgwin, the Hermitage; Dr. Nathaniel Hill, Rocky Run; the Lillingtons of Lillington Hall; Moseleys, Moseley Hall; the Swanns, Cutlars, and others, whose names continue prominent in the life of this section.

In 1758, sixty persons owned houses in the town of Wilmington, valued in the aggregate at $6,625. In 1762, the population of the place approximated one thousand persons. February 25th, 1760, the citizens were granted a charter erecting Wilmington into an incorporated borough, to consist of a Mayor, a Recorder and eleven Aldermen. John Sampson was chosen Mayor, and Marmaduke Jones, Recorder. Among those elected Aldermen were Cornelius Harnett, Dan Dunhibben, Arthur Mabson, Sam Green and Moses John deRossett. The borough had power to enact its own laws and send a Representative to the General Assembly. It seems, however, that a portion of this charter must have been subsequently set aside, as we find that afterwards the names of five gentlemen chosen appear as Commissioners.

In September, 1761, a violent equinoctial gale raged along the coast of Carolina in the vicinity of Cape Fear. It lasted four days, and was very disastrous in its effects. Such was the fury of the storm, that the waves forced open a new passage from the river to the ocean. What is known as New Inlet, which was closed about forty or fifty years ago at great expense and trouble by the Federal Government dates its existence from this great storm.

On September 1st, 1764, the first newspaper ever published in Wilmington, made its appearance. It was called the Cape Fear Gazette, and Wilmington Advertiser, and was edited and published by Andrew Stewart.

North Carolina is certainly entitled to precedence over the other colonies in taking steps toward throwing off the British yoke, for at Charlotte, in Mecklenburg County, on the 20th of May, 1775, there was drawn, signed and sealed, the famous Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. But Cape Fear as a section, anticipated the action of the State. The Stamp Act received the King's Assent March 22nd, 1765. The people of North Carolina were so warm in their indignation, and so violent in their opposition to this flagrant violation of the rights of the colonies, that Governor Tryon, who was called by the Indians, the “Great Wolf of Carolina”, was afraid to convene the General Assembly.

Early in 1766, the British sloop-of-war Diligence, arrived in the river Cape Fear, having on board the stamped paper destined for use of this Province. On the 6th of January, the Governor issued a proclamation announcing the circumstance, and calling on all persons authorized to act as distributors of the stamps to make application therefor to the commander of the sloop.

On the first notice of the arrival of this vessel, Colonel John Ashe, of the County of New Hanover, and Colonel Waddell, of the County of Brunswick, assembled the militia of the two counties. They marched at the head of the troops to the town of Brunswick, where the sloop was anchored, and notified the commander of their intention to resist the landing of the stamps. It was judged best by him not to make the attempt.

A party was then left by the colonists to watch the movements of the vessel. The rest of the militia marched back to Wilmington, carrying with them one of the boats belonging to the vessel. Having fixed a mast in it, with a flag attached, they hoisted it on a cart and drove triumphantly through the streets of Wilmington—the inhabitants all joining in the procession. At night the whole town was illuminated.

On the next day a great concourse of people, headed by Colonel Ashe, proceeded to the residence of the Governor, then situated on the south side of what is now Market street, between Front and Water streets, and demanded audience with James Houston, one of the Council, who had been appointed Stamp Master for the Province. The Governor first declared his intention not to allow it, unless Houston would come willingly, but the people threatened to set fire to the house, and proceeded to make preparations for so doing.

The Governor then requested Colonel Ashe to step inside and talk over the matter with the Stamp Master. Houston, finding himself so obnoxious to the people, went with them to the market house, nearby, where he took a solemn oath not to proceed with the duties of his office. The people then gave him three cheers and conducted Houston back to the Governor. Thus ended the first overt act of armed resistance to the British Crown. This display of real and defiant resistance to the Crown, antedated the much heralded Boston Tea Party nearly eight years, and given its proper setting in history properly should be recognized as the real beginning of the subsequent American Revolution.

In the latter part of February, at a general militia meeting in the town of Wilmington, the Governor offered to the people there assembled a barbecue ox and a number of barrels of beer. They were refused; the ox was thrown in the river and the beer poured out on the ground. The Stamp Act was repealed, and on the 26th of June, the Mayor, Aldermen and Recorder of Wilmington presented an address to the Governor, congratulating him upon the fact. This manly resistance to oppression on the part of the people of the Cape Fear section, was but the first exhibition of a valor and patriotic enthusiasm that soon brought about a revolution against the most powerful Government on the face of the earth, which finally resulted in the establishment of American liberty and independence.

In August, 1774, the citizens of Wilmington sent to the relief of the people of Boston, who were then suffering many privations from the arbitrary enactments of the British, a large sum of money and a vessel of provisions. The vessel was tendered free of cost by Parker Quince, Esq., and the captain and crew refused any compensation for their services.

On the 19th of June, 1775, after the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence had been signed, the citizens of Wilmington assembled and unanimously resolved themselves into an association, whose avowed object was resistance to the Government of Great Britain by an appeal to arms. A committee of safety was appointed, which remained in office until February 1776, and means of defense against the British were immediately collected and arranged. War was imminent, and the utmost prudence and foresight were exercised in making the necessary preparations to meet the emergency.

It is a properly prideful and glorious fact that the spirit of freedom, manifest in Wilmington and the entire Cape Fear section was active against the unjust acts of the British monarch even before the peoples of other colonies. Martin and Williamson, in their histories of North Carolina, Col. John Wheeler, and our own John Hampden Hill, Dr. Sprunt and Samuel A. Ashe, all are agreed upon this fact and each emphasizes the magnificent patriotism of the section. Wheeler, who was not a New Hanover County product, in writing of the period immediately preceding the Revolution says:

“There is no portion of North Carolina more early and more sincerely devoted to liberty than New Hanover County. Long before the Revolution, its inhabitants, led by John Ashe, showed indomitable resistance to the tyrannical acts of England. This section of the country was more exposed to the presence of the enemy than any part of our state and none showed firmer opposition. In July, 1774, on the Boston port bill being enacted by Parliament, the citizens of Wilmington met and declared ‘the cause of Boston, the common cause of America.’ In the next month, the citizens sent, by Parker Quince, a ship load of provision to their suffering brethren in Boston.

“On adjournment of the first Continental Cngress (in October, 1774) on the 23rd day of November, 1774, the freeholders of Wilmington held a meeting and elected a Committee of Safety, of which Cornelius Harnett, John Quince, Francis Clayton, William Hooper, Robert Hogg, John Ancrum, Archibald McLain, John Robinson and John Walker were members. In 1775, the citizens of New Hanover formed an association for defense of their liberties, with the citizens of Brunswick, Bladen, Duplin and Onslow; and declared themselves ready ‘to go forth and be ready to sacrifice their lives and fortunes to secure the freedom and safety of the country.’ When Governor Martin summoned His Majesty's Council to attend him on board the sloop-of-war, in the Cape Fear River, in January, 1776, the Committee informed the members, then on their way, that they could not consistent ‘with the safety of the country, permit them to attend the Governor.’ A more decided act does not appear in the annals of any state.”

These patriots did not hesitate, even though they knew they occupied a revolutionary aspect, and that they were, at any moment, liable to British attack. They fully

appreciated the fact that Fort Johnson was the key to the district: knew that it was defended by British bayonets, and that Governor Martin, the executive head of affairs in the State, had taken refuge there. They were fully aware, also, that the guns of the British man-of-war Cruiser, commanded the place. Yet, in the face of all this, they were determined that Fort Johnson should be reduced. Thoroughly frightened by the demonstrations of the colonists, Governor Martin caused the guns and stores of the Fort to be removed to the Cruiser, and was preparing to follow them himself, when on the 18th of July, Colonel John Ashe and his followers appeared before the walls of the Fort. Martin immediately fled to the ship, the works at Fort Johnson were burned and destroyed under its very guns, and Colonel Ashe and his men returned to Wilmington. In the language of another. “Thus, nobly upon the Cape of Fear, closed the first act of the drama, and when the curtain rose again, George, by the Grace of God, King, was King no longer, but the Constitution reigned, and the free people of North Carolina governed themselves.”

During the Revolution, the town of Wilmington became a place of much military importance. The most important event of this period, perhaps, as regards the town of Wilmington, was the battle of Moore's Creek. This occurred about eighteen miles from Wilmington, where the county bridge now crosses that stream. It was fought on the 27th of February, 1776, between the Scotch Tories, under Brigadier General McDonald, and a small body of patriot Whigs, under Colonels Caswell and Lillington. The Tories were on their way to Wilmington to effect a junction with Sir Peter Parker and Major General Sir Henry Clinton, who arrived in Cape Fear with a military and naval armament, on April 18th, 1776. The Tories were completely routed with great loss of both men and arms. The victory was an exceedingly important one, for the reason that it entirely broke up an intended British campaign in North Carolina. Clinton, being sorely disappointed at the result, and despairing of obtaining a foothold in the Cape Fear section, after landing with a part of his troops and devastating a portion of Brunswick County, re-embarked and sailed for Charleston on the 4th of June.

In 1780, the town of Wilmington became one of the military posts of the British army in America. A handsome dwelling house at the corner of Third and Market streets (still occupied by the present owner) was used as the headquarters of Lord Cornwallis during the occupancy of the town by the British. The enclosure around the graveyard of St. James’ Church was removed, the edifice stripped of its pews, and other furniture, and converted first into a hospital, next into a block house for defense against the Americans, and last into a riding school for the dragoons of Tarleton. The original church was built of brick, and extended thirty feet into what is now Market street, standing about fifty yards east of the present edifice. Materials from the original building were used in the present structure.

During the Revolutionary War the history of the town became blended with the records of the common country, and we hasten on. In the period extending from the close of the Revolution to the second war with Great Britain, the people of Wilmington and its vicinity were distinguished for gaity, cordiality, genercsity and sociability—traits which have ever marked the community even to the present day. Many opulent planters made the town their residence for a part of the year. Men of leisure, in conjunction with gentlemen of the liberal professions, moderated and refined the spirit of trade, and gave an elevated tone to society. The woods furnished game in abundance, and the river and neighboring ocean many varieties of fish. Racing was greatly indulged in, and gentlemen prided themselves, rather upon the quality of their horses than the style of their equipages. Style was hardly considered of so much importance then, as now.

In the Wars of 1812 and with Mexico, Wilmington was not lax in zeal and patriotism. The blood of many of the town's splendid sons was shed upon the heights and plains of Monterey, Buena Vista and Palo Alto. The city's contribution to the War of 1812 was notably distinguished in the person of Captain Johnston Blakely. Captain Blakely's achievements as commander of The Wasp, his daring and successful attacks upon the British, even in their home ports, almost parallels the gallantry of John Paul Jones during the Revolution and stands out boldly in all the world's annals of maritime warfare.

Prior to the late War between the States, Wilmington had become one of the most prosperous and wealthy cities in the South. With a safe and convenient port, the outlet of the most highly productive portions of this great State, her trade and commerce

had grown to extensive proportions, and an era of unbounded prosperity was being enjoyed. But cruel war came again, commerce was prostrated, trade paralyzed, and society completely demoralized for the time.

Every available man was needed in the Southern armies, and the port was blockaded by the Federal fleet. Although the State did not secede until the 20th of May, 1861, North Carolina for more than a month had been committed. In fact, a Wilmington Military company, in January, 1861, really committed the first overt act, marching upon Fort Caswell, at the mouth of the Cape Fear River, and taking possession of the reservation in the name of the State. The fort was formally offered to the Governor of North Carolina, who replied in effect that as hostilities had not been declared, he would suggest and advise its return to the representatives of the National Government, who had been dispossessed. This was done, but nevertheless, the capture of this reservation, really stands as the first real offensive on either side during the War between the States.

The news of the bombardment and capture of Fort Sumter by the Provisional forces, on the 14th of April, fired the people of North Carolina with patriotic zeal, and fearful lest Forts Caswell and Johnson, at the mouth of the Cape Fear River, should fall into the hands of the enemy, the young men of Wilmington rushed to arms. On the 15th of April, Col. John L. Cantwell, then commanding the 30th regiment of the North Carolina militia, was ordered to proceed, with the volunteer companies under his command, to Smithville (now Southport) and Caswell and occupy the forts there.

This order was countermanded the same day, but on the day following, a final telegram was received from Governor Ellis directing his previous order to be at once put into execution. On the morning of that day, therefore, four volunteer companies from this city, the Wilmington Light Infantry, Captain Wm. L. de Rossett; the Wilmington Rifle Guards, Captain O. P. Meares; the German Volunteers, Captain C. Cornhelson, and the Cape Fear Light Artillery, Captain John J. Hedrick, embarked for the fort. This, and the almost simultaneous seizure of Fort Macon, in Beaufort Harbor, was the signal for the revolution in North Carolina.

It is certainly a fact worthy of note that the news of the secession of the State from the Federal Government, and the call upon her people to arm themselves, was first made known to the pioneer troops of Cape Fear upon the parade ground of Fort Caswell. These four companies were the first in this section to take active part in the commencement of hostilities, and eventually gave to the war some of the most illustrious names that the South can boast. In the meantime troops began to assemble from all parts of the State, and the most distinguished men of the time offered themselves to the Executive for service. The terrific struggle between North and South began in earnest, and troops were rapidly advancing to the front. A Federal blockade was soon placed upon Southern ports, nothing but battles were thought or spoken of, and commercial enterprise was looked upon as a thing of the past.

During this period, however, every effort was made by leading citizens of this community, who joined with those of other sections of the State, to prevent the epochal strife. It is of historic interest that this city used every possible effort to adjust the differences between the North and South. A distinguished resident of Wilmington, the Hon. George Davis, was selected by Governor Ellis as a member of the delegation of eight North Carolinians to attend the Peace Convention at Montgomery, Ala., in February, 1861. Mr. Davis, historians agree, loved the Union and steadfastly counseled moderation, but he like Gen. Robert E. Lee, declined to permit his state to be invaded by hostile armies. As evidence of his talent and patriotism, he was chosen attorney general of the Confederacy in which position he served with distinction and constructive statesmanship—a monument erected to his memory by a grateful people now stands at Third and Market streets, one block east of the great Cornelius Harnett statue. Other names prominently identified with the period are James H. Dickson, Robert H. Cowan, D. A. Lamont, Thomas Miller, Donald MacRae, Robert G. Rankin, James H. Chadbourn, A. H. Van Bokkelen and O. G. Parsley.

Cape Fear River, though unmolested until near the close of the war, before long was recognized as one of the few links connecting the Confederacy with the outside world. The low, swift English built blockade runner became a frequent guest in these waters, and revived to some extent the dormant spirit of commercial enterprise, and the city began to assume some appearance of its former activities. Merchants and ship agents from abroad flocked to the city, railroad trains were filled with cotton and naval stores, either for the Government or private parties, and new buildings and

warehouses were erected to accommodate the increasing supplies arriving here, both for exportation and for the Southern Army.

The Army of Northern Virginia, in 1863 and 1864, drew much of its supplies from the Port of Wilmington. A large percentage of the army munitions furnished to the different ordnance and quartermaster departments of the Confederate States was received by blockade runners through Wilmington.

The importance of Wilmington as a post was not lost upon the Confederate Government, even as early as the first year of the war. Generals Gatlin, Anderson and French being successively placed in command, new works were projected, new fortifications built and requisitions made upon the War Department for men and material for the construction of these defenses. Yet work was delayed by the want of energy and skill of those commanding the department, and it was not until November, 1862, that operations were commenced in earnest. In that month, General W. H. C. Whiting, by order of the War Department, assumed command of the Post and the supervision of the Cape Fear defenses.

Then the work commenced with vigor. The grounds at Fort Fisher were energetically pushed forward to completion. Smith's Island was cleared, and the foundation of Fort Holmes established. Fort Pender at Smithville (now Southport), was built, and soon the guns of Fort Anderson, first called Fort St. Philip, the last great work of the defenses which fell to the Federal hands, frowned from the heights of Old Brunswick. No means were spared, and no labor was begrudged that could contribute to the defense of the river. Day by day the work went bravely on, new additions were constantly made to its defensive strength, until, at length, numerous guns looked forth threateningly to the sea from the five principal forts of the river. Torpedoes and sunken obstructions were placed in the river, batteries frowned from every bluff and the city itself was surrounded with a chain of entrenchments.

Of so great importance to the Confederacy, and one of its chief strongholds, it appears strange that Wilmington should have escaped attack until during the last year of the war. The nature of the coast and the known strength and durability of the fortifications, were enough, it seems, to deter the hazard of an attempt until December 23rd, 1864. On that day, memorable for all time, the Federal fleet appeared in the offing, opposite Fort Fisher, and at about two o'clock that night, Butler's Yankee Toy, the powder boat, was exploded near the works with no other result than that of affording the Confederates a gratuitous display of fireworks.

The next day, the Federal fleet, numbering fifty-two vessels, was ranged in line of battle opposite the fort, and, at about noon, opened a terrific bombardment. The fort replied slowly but steadily, until after an uninterrupted contest of five hours, the fleet retired. On the next day, the bombardment was resumed with redoubled vigor, and with a force, up to that time unprecedented in the history of the world. Shot and shell were literally hurled in an almost solid mass at the fort, and the air was filled with flying fragments. The gallant defenders held manfully to their posts and hurled defiance back.

In the midst of the fight, a landing was effected by the enemy at Anderson Battery, at the head of the sound, and advanced to attack the fort. The assault was assisted by an increase of fire from the fleet, which endeavored to prevent the Confederates from manning the parapet to resist the attack. General Whiting and Colonel Lamb, who were in command of the fort, were the first at the post of danger, and encouraged by their brave example, the men swarmed to the parapet, and the enemy were driven back to their entrenchments. That night the entire fleet was withdrawn.

Shortly afterwards, the land forces also re-embarked on their transports and the Federal force left for the North, defeated. Over twenty thousand shot and shell had been expended by the fleet in their futile attempt to reduce the fort.

The strength of Fort Fisher, as a defensive work, was vastly overrated by the Federal commanders, and it could easily have been taken by Butler at this time if a concentrated effort had been made. Its chief value to the Confederacy lay in the aid it afforded blockade runners in entering, or leaving, the port. Space requires that we pass over many acts of heroism on the part of the defenders of Fort Fisher, the memory of which will forever be cherished in the fond recollections of this people. One can only mention that little band of boys, yet children, who constituted the only defense of their mothers and sisters in Wilmington at this time, who alone stood guard over

the prisoners at this city on the night of the great bombardment, and who were “as true to the trust confided to them as if their leader had numbered fifty instead of fifteen years.”

The fatal time soon came, however, when Fort Fisher was doomed to fall, and when the Confederacy was destined to receive a fatal blow, from the effects of which it never recovered. Suddenly and without warning, the Federal fleet again appeared before Fisher on the 13th of January, 1865. Troops were landed at Anderson Battery, and when General Hoke arrived later in the day with his division, he found the line of the enemy confronting him, stretched across the entire peninsular from ocean to river.

At the first news of the intended attack, General Whiting had hurried to the assistance of Colonel Lamb, and these two heroes of the first great battle made vigorous preparation for a second defense. Although not exactly in the nature of a surprise, the attack came at a most inauspicious moment. Forts Fisher, Caswell, Anderson, Pender and Holmes, near the mouth of the river, and comprising the defensive strength of the Cape Fear, had become almost entirely stripped of troops for action at other points, and the division, under General Hoke, was then stationed at, or near Wilmington, but, between Fort Fisher and Wilmington, there intervened about twenty miles of sandy, tedious road.

At 2 o'clock, on the morning of the 13th, Hoke's command left for the fort, but arrived too late to prevent the landing of troops. In the meantime, General Whiting had left for the front. About noon, on the 13th, the fleet opened fire upon the fort, and a more terrific and terrible bombardment than the first, then ensued. The object of the enemy was plainly apparent. It was their intention to cripple the fort as much as possible by the fire of the fleet, and to make easy a projected assault by the land forces. Success rewarded their efforts.

So terrible was the fire of shot and shell that it was almost impossible to man the guns of the fort. The garrison were driven to the bomb-proofs and kept closely confined there. From noon of the 13th, until three o'clock, on the afternoon of the 15th, a period of fifty-one hours, the terrific bombardment was continued without cessation. At the last named hour, the fire of the fleet was suddenly raised, and the land forces were discerned moving to the assault of the fort. The assault was made in two columns, each advancing to the different points of attack.

The first numbered about two thousand, and was composed of sailors and marines, who moved up the line of sea beach, while the other, numbering four thousand, charged along the bank of the river, and made their attack on the left hand flank of the fort. The first column mentioned was easily driven back, and made no second attempt. The second was temporarily checked in its advance, but upon being strengthened by reinforcements, again advanced and succeeded in entering the fort. But Fort Fisher did not yield even then without a final and desperate struggle. The Confederates fell back in disorder, but not in confusion, and stubbornly contested every foot of the enemy's advance. From traverse to traverse they, retreating, fought the overwhelming force of numbers, driving them back. The fight was continued in this way for six hours, until, at length, the last traverse was torn from the hands of these brave defenders, and they were forced beyond the enclosure of the fort. Thus was Fort Fisher captured. It never surrendered.

The conflict ceased, and at about midnight, there being no means of escape to the mainland, General Whiting was compelled to surrender his command as prisoners of war. In this engagement, the loss of the Confederates while severe, was not nearly so large as that of the Federals. The losses of the former amounted to two hundred and fifty killed, wounded and missing, while the latter lost over eight hundred. So Fort Fisher fell, and, on the same night, the works south of it, and commanding Main Bar, consisting of Forts Caswell, Holmes and Pender, were destroyed and abandoned, and their garrisons moved to Fort Anderson. It was plain to be seen that Wilmington eventually must fall into the hands of the enemy.

Fort Anderson, on the site of the ancient town of Brunswick, still defiantly commanded the approach to the city. The river was filled with torpedoes, and sunken obstructions, and General Hoke was strongly entrenched between the advancing army and Wilmington. On the 17th of February, a portion of the Federal fleet steamed up the river and commenced the bombardment of Fort Anderson. The fire was returned as slowly and deliberately as if the garrison were at target practice. In the meantime, General Schofield had marched up from Smithville (Southport) with a land force of

eight thousand men, to co-operate with the fleet in the reduction of the fort. He was confronted by Hagood's brigade, which had been thrown over by Hoke to the assistance of the fort, and which was strongly entrenched, presenting an effectual barrier to his advance. Hagood's left rested on the fort and his right on Orton Mill Pond. Finding his path so completely obstructed, Schofield made a detour to his left around the pond, which was about nine miles in circumference, with the intention of striking Hagood on the flank. This movement could not be opposed with the small force on hand, and the immediate evacuation of Anderson became an imperative necessity.

On Sunday, the 19th, before daylight, the guns were spiked and the garrison quietly withdrew. This fort had been considered almost impregnable, and it has been often contended that, if a sufficient land force had been available to protect its rear, it could never have been taken. As it was, the bombardment left it comparatively uninjured. The garrison retreated rapidly, and paused the same day at Town Creek, where a few entrenchments had been hastily thrown up.

On the next day the line of retreat was resumed, and that night they reached Wilmington. On the following day, the advance of the Federals could be plainly seen marching along the causeway on Eagle's Island, but a shell, fired from the corner of Front and Market streets, informed them that the defenders of Anderson were in the city, and suddenly checked their onward march to take possession, which they had supposed an easy undertaking. They again endeavored to advance, but a few more shells drove them back in confusion. Skirmishers were then sent forward by both sides.

In the meantime, as soon as Anderson had been evacuated, Hoke had gradually fallen back upon the city, but still presenting a defiant front. On the morning of the 21st he reached Wilmington and effected a junction with Hagood and Hedrick. Then it was that Wilmington was evacuated, the enemy entering the next day, and with it expired the most sanguine hopes of the final success of the Confederate cause.

Reluctantly, one is compelled to pass over many of the incidents connected with the occupation of the city by the Federal forces, nor would it serve any real purpose to relate many of the events then transpiring. There is one incident of the Federal occupation, however, which viewed in any light reflects neither reputation nor credit upon the officers in command. The Rev. Dr. A. A. Watson, who was at the time Rector of St. James Episcopal Church, was ordered by the Federal authority to offer prayer in the church service for the President of the United States, instead of the President of the Confederate States. Feeling that he had no canonical or sympathetic right to do so at the time, Dr. Watson refused, and continued to pray for the head of the Confederate Government. The keys of the church were then seized by order of Major-General Schofield. Subsequently, Brigadier General Hawley, later a United States Senator from Connecticut, ordered that the edifice itself be seized and converted into a hospital. Members of the congregation begged him to spare their beloved church and offered him any number of more suitable and convenient places for the purpose. He was inexorable, however, and commanded a force of twenty-five negro soldiers, in charge of a negro officer, to proceed to the building with pick-axes and tear out the pews and other furniture. His orders were obeyed, the pews were thrown into the streets by negroes, and for the second time in its existence the historic and venerable church of St. James was turned into a military hospital.

To the discredit of the State, it should be mentioned that Hawley, while a North Carolinian by birth, having been born in Robeson County, was carried when an infant by his parents to Connecticut. It is some compensation to North Carolina, at least, to say that this party spent his entire life in the North, and had neither sentiment nor disposition which the South could claim with any degree of credit. During his occupation of Wilmington, this renegade boastingly averred that he had returned to his native state to teach the people “correct principles”. The conduct of this moral educator of the people would certainly seem to indicate that during his lifetime sojourn in Connecticut he had acquired peculiar notions as to what constituted correctness of principle, and that a preliminary step in this branch of knowledge consisted in the wanton and uncalled-for desecration of a House of God. One is free to confess, that to those not so enlightened, as this combination General-Senator Hawley, his conduct, on the occasion mentioned, would appear to indicate a most unfortunate ignorance of the ordinary decencies of life and an entire absence of reverence for the Almighty.

Before drawing the curtain upon the events of the war, one may be pardoned a few words in regard to the swift and silent blockade runners, whose incomings and outgoings

gave to Wilmington so much of commercial importance during 1863 and ’64. The blockade runners were English steamers built more for speed than carrying capacity. They were painted a French gray, or lead color, which blended with the atmosphere so as to make detection extremely difficult. They carried a pilot and signal officer, and when ready to leave port, dropped down the river near the mouth of the inlet, waiting for a dark night to slip out.

The guns of Fort Fisher commanded the entrance to the harbor, and no vessels could pass in, or out, without the knowledge of those within the fort. Signals were consequently arranged, and an officer placed on board each ship in control of that branch of the service, and by such means those in command of the fort could easily distinguish friend from foe. In running into the harbor the same precautions were necessary. When a runner approached the fort, which was, of course, always at night, the signal officer on board displayed a peculiar light and made a certain signal, which was answered by the fort, and she then passed in without molestation.

The blockading fleet lay out some four or five miles distant from the fort, and the danger of running in or out, was the risk of capture by them. In making the passage, the ship displayed no light, and the most rigid discipline was enforced. It frequently happened that in the darkness they ran so near the blockading fleet as to be heard by them, the noise of the wheel betraying their presence. Rockets would immediately be sent up and a fire opened. If coming in, a dash was then made to get under the guns of the fort; if going out, all steam was raised and a chase of the most exciting character began, the ships dashing through the water at a tremendous rate, the blockader firing continually at the fleeing runner, hoping by a well directed shot to disable her, and the latter using every means that skill and ingenuity could suggest to effect escape.

A great portion of the cargo was frequently thrown overboard to avoid capture. Instances were not infrequent when large amounts of gold, shipped out for foreign purchases were tossed into the sea when escape became impossible. In the early days of blockade running, the ships engaged were rarely captured, as they were much faster than the vessels of the blockading fleet. Very soon ships equally fast were obtained by the Federal Government, rendering escape more difficult. It is remarkable when the risk attending the running is considered, that so little damage should have been done to life and property. Some vessels were run upon the beach to prevent capture, but none were sunk outright by the blockading fleets. Individual acts of heroism were frequent.

After the close of the War between the States, and upon the re-opening of the port, the most gloomy anticipations as to the future were advanced. Little cotton and scarcely any turpentine had been produced during the war, and it was generally supposed that home manufacture and foreign shipment had exhausted the last bale and barrel of each. But as soon as it was ascertained that shipments could be made North with perfect security, the market became flooded with both cotton and naval stores, commerce suddenly revived and Wilmington began to rise again to commercial importance in the maritime world. A direct foreign trade began to be established and shipments were made to the principal points in Europe, the West Indies and South America. It was during this period, as well as prior thereto, that Wilmington was recognized as the leading naval stores market and port of the country.

On the 20th of February, 1866, the act incorporating Wilmington into a city was ratified by the Legislature, and, on Thursday, the 8th day of March, it was accepted by the citizens through the ballot box. The governmental form of Mayor and Board of Alderman, continued for many years, having been reinforced for a period with a supplementary Board of Audit and Finance, the latter having supervision and control of financial expenditures.

In its history, Wilmington has been devastated by three great conflagrations, each of which prostrated the place for a period of time. The most devastating of the three occurred Sunday, February 21st, 1886. At this time, practically the entire river front, from Chestnut street north, was destroyed, as well as a great portion of the northern section of the city. The spirit and determinination of the citizenship asserted themselves after each fire, however, and a larger and better community resulted.

Wilmington suffered extremely, after the end of the War between the States, from

the rule of “carpet baggers”—this infamous type of humanity having plundered many sections of the South. The era of tyrannical despotism finally reached such extremes, as to result in the formation of the Ku Klux Klan, by the flower of Southern manhood. This body worked silently and effectively for the protection of the home and fireside, and many interesting stories of its accomplishments locally could be retold if space permitted.

In 1898, and for several years prior, Wilmington and North Carolina were under the rule of radicals. These disreputable leaders mislead the negro population, the Republican Government having placed negroes as policemen, magistrates, as members of the board of aldermen, county commissioners, etc. Conditions soon became of such drastic nature that the white men were forced to organize to protect their wives and children. Colonel Roger Moore, an outstanding Wilmingtonian, who was in command of the Third North Carolina Cavalry, at the end of the War between the States, was placed in command by the citizens movement, and he was in full charge of the entire situation until martial law was declared and the state militia took charge on November 10th, 1898, following a race riot in which a number of negroes were killed, and two white men severely wounded.

The Wilmington riot, generally referred to, locally, as “The Revolution” was caused by the injection of the negro into politics and the inevitable assertion of self-importance by some members of that race. Although the situation had been threatening for some time, it became seething as a result of the appearance, from time to time, of “editorials” in a negro newspaper, The Daily Record, published by a negro named Manly.

Col. Walker Taylor, then in charge of the local National Guards troop and still a most highly respected and influential citizen of Wilmington, has a copy of one of the negro's (Manly's) editorials of that period. The editorial was nauseatingly insulting. It said: “Poor white men are careless in the matter of protecting their women. Especially on the farms. They are careless of their conduct toward them, and our experience among poor white people in the country teaches us that women of that race are not more particular in the matter of clandestine meetings with colored men, than are the white men with colored women. Meetings of this kind go on for some time until the woman's infatuation or the man's boldness, bring attention to them and the man is lynched for rape. Every negro lynched is called a ‘big, burly, black brute,’ when, in fact, many of those who have been thus dealt with had white men for their fathers, and were not only ‘black’ and ‘burly’ but were sufficiently attractive for white girls of culture and refinement to fall in love with them as is very well known to all.”

Manifestly, a situation developing that character of negro editorial, was aggravatedly serious and required positive treatment. And the treatment was administered, promptly and definitely. At the regular monthly meeting of the Chamber of Commerce, held Thursday, October 6, 1898, resolutions, adequately covering the subject, candidly attacking a political regime that permitted such a condition, were passed. These resolutions, a copy shows, were signed by Col. Walker Taylor, George Harriss, George Harriss, Jr., H. C. McQueen, Hugh MacRae, Judge George Rountree and thirty-three other prominent citizens.

In the meantime, there were numerous developments. Direct attention was called to the numerous negro officeholders. The list, printed by The Messenger, showed thirteen negroes on the police force; four in the health department; seventeen in the fire department; forty magistrates; three negro aldermen; three at the customs house, including the collector and deputy collector; seven at the courthouse, including register of deeds, coroner, constable and other positions; and four deputy sheriffs. Alex. Sprunt & Son and other business men, individually and collectively, sought to impress Governor Daniel L. Russell with the gravity of the situation, but his letter, in reply to one from the Sprunt company, indicated that he regarded the protests as purely partisan matters.

Seemingly, the entire nation was observing the crisis, for that exactly was what it was relative to white supremacy. The Washington Post, under the caption of “It Cannot Be Done” forecast the result, in the event the negro was not removed from politics. A portion of The Post's editorial stated: “Even General Grant, who had conquered the Confederate armies in the field, could not with all the civil and military power of the country at his back, force negro rule upon the Southern whites. The thing is out of the question. It cannot be done. And those who engage in such a desperate enterprise will reap only the harvest of dismay and ruin.”

In early November, a huge mass meeting was held, fully a thousand being in attendance. A committee was appointed by Chairman A. M. Waddell, composed of Judge George Rountree, Hugh MacRae, Colonel Taylor, Iredell Meares and S. H. Fishblate, to prepare resolutions in the nature of an ultimatum. The original copy of these resolutions, written in long-hand, is in possession of Mr. MacRae at this time. It demanded the banishment of certain negroes, the resignation of various officials and called upon all white citizens to enforce the demands. A copy of the demands were forwarded to a negro committee, which was given until a stated hour the following day to make reply. The negroes agreed to every demand but foolishly mailed, instead of personally delivering the reply, which did not arrive until after the zero hour and the “Revolution” had begun.

These resolutions were signed by hundreds of people, including Judge Rountree, Col. Roger Moore, J. L. Grafflin, Thomas W. Wright, B. G. Empie, F. H. Stedman, A. P. Yopp, P. L. Bridgers, S. W. Westbrook, J. F. Post, Jr., W. H. Yopp, F. S. Westbrook, George L. Peschau, H. C. McQueen, F. A. Montgomery, J. W. Plummer, Jr., Hugh MacRae, Colonel Taylor, Martin Newman, W. S. Herring, Don MacRae, J. R. Davis, Junius Davis, E. G. Yopp, J. W. Wright, F. H. Fechtig, Herbert McClammy, John W. Reilly, F. W. Harriss, W. E. Yopp, W. H. Wright, M. H. Bellamy, George Harriss, Jr., James Reilly, Walter H. MacRae, and great groups of others.

A committee of twenty-five was appointed by the chairman to carry out the provisions of the resolution. Those on this committee were Junius Davis, Hugh MacRae, F. H. Fechtig, F. A. Montgomery, Joseph R. Davis, P. L. Bridgers, and nineteen others. On November 10, Colonel Taylor, post commander, 2nd Regiment, North Carolina State Guards advised Governor Russell: “Situation here serious; I hold military awaiting your prompt orders.” Charles S. Davis, major 11th U. S. Infantry and acting adjutant general, answered instead of the governor and instructed Colonel Taylor to act to preserve peace. He also ordered Commander G. L. Morton, naval reserves, to report to Colonel Taylor. Companies also were sent from Clinton, Maxton, Franklinton and Kinston to reinforce the Wilmington guards. However, before peace was restored, Colonel Taylor's report to the adjutant general states, eleven negroes (all unknown) had been killed and three whites (one unknown) wounded.

The riot continued for less than 24 hours, the white citizens of Wilmington thus gaining control of the Government. The radical leaders, who had so badly advised the negroes, were driven from the city, and the negroes were assured full friendship and protection as long as they recognized the fact that the white men of Wilmington, and of North Carolina, intended to remain at the helm of government. Since this crucial time, for which the negroes were not as much responsible as their despicable white radical leaders, the relationship between the races has been of a kindly and friendly nature.

The Wilmington Riot, or Revolution, is the only instance except one other, in all the 190 years history of the city, in which the racial problem required drastic handling. In 1831, six negroes were tried for seeking to incite an insurrection. They were given a studiously fair trial, were convicted and hanged on a single scaffold. The incident was an overflow of the Nat Turner rebellion in Virginia. The local plot to rebel was quickly discovered and promptly suppressed by soldiers from Fort Johnston.

Some years ago, the aldermanic form of Government was changed to a semi-Commission form, with a Mayor, and a single Commissioner to represent each Ward. Later, the second form was superseded by the true form of Commission Government, with three Commissioners, elected at large, being placed in authority.

Since the War between the States, Wilmington as a city has steadily and surely progressed in population, wealth and commercial importance. In proportion to population, the city is one of the most stable and dependable in the South.

The industrial, port, agricultural and resort advancement of the City of Wilmington, is dealt with elsewhere in this volume. The purpose of this article is to give a chronological sketch of the different eras of development of the present community, dating from the earliest Colonial periods to the present time. Thus, to some good purpose, it may be hoped, has been traced the history of the Cape Fear region down to a period within the recollection of all of the present generation. Through the terrible and trying ordeal of several wars, this city has bravely passed, having an honorable and enviable record made by her sons who served in the Revolution, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the War between the States, the Spanish-American War, and the great

World War. From each conflict period, the city emerged like iron from a furnace, strengthened and purified. Today, her diversified industries give forth those sounds of prosperity and general well-being which quicken the pulse of a nation and prolong the life of a Republic.

In the prosperity of today, may the memory of the glorious past be ever fondly cherished. As the ancients were wont to twine the dark wreath of the cypress with the amaranthus and the rose, so let us join the memory of days gone by with the golden opportunities of the present and the brilliant promise of the future.

Dr. John Hampden Hill

(The following was written by Dr. Hill about 1845. It was never printed in book form. The original manuscript is owned by Thomas W. Davis, well-known attorney of this city, and was loaned for use in this volume of Biographical Sketches of Wilmington Citizens.)

When Sir John Yeamans was governor of the Island of Barbadoes, he fitted out a small vessel, and sent her under the command of a Captain Hilton, on a voyage of discovery. Hilton, according to instructions, located along the shores of the mainland, until he discovered the mouth of the Cape Fear River, which he entered and ascended with his vessel as far as the junction of its two main branches, now known as the North West and the North East. Here he anchored and proceeded with a small boat to ascend, selecting the North East branch as the most inviting for farther exploration. Several points attracted the attention and admiration of the adventurers, to which they attached names more or less characteristic, and it is somewhat remarkable that even at this remote time, many of those places retain the names given them by the first white men who had passed that way. Such for instance, the first attractive point on the right bank of the River as they ascended was named Hilton, in compliment to the commander of the party. Without encountering any unusual adventures, so far as tradition relates about the highest point which they reached was a place called Stag Park, named so by them, on the West bank of the stream. The tradition is that they saw a herd of deer on a handsome bluff, which overlooks the stream at this point. Standing amidst a magnificent park of forest trees, they gazed with startled amazement at these new intruders into their sylvan retreat, little knowing that they were the forerunners of far more formidable persecutors, than their red skinned cotenants of the forests. Meeting with some obstruction to his farther ascent, Hilton with his party, returned to their vessel, and after exploring a short distance up the North West branch, from the banks of which they were assailed by some Indians, they set sail for Barbadoes, to make report of their discovery.

Sir John Yeamans himself, afterward visited the Cape Fear, and brought a colony with him and made a settlement on the West Bank of the River, near the mouth of a stream which he named Charles River, now known as the Old Town Creek. Finding this location unhealthy and otherwise unsuitable, Yeamans soon abandoned it, and sailing farther South, he settled with his colony at the junction of the Ashley and Cooper rivers, when he founded the city of Charleston, naming it after his Sovereign and patron Charles II.

Not designing to follow the progress of Yeamans with his colony, we will return to the Cape Fear, of whose early traditions the writer has undertaken at the solicitations of some much valued friends to narrate (so far as his memory serves) some imperfect sketches. After this section began to be visited and settlements made by emigrants from Europe and the other provinces, amongst the earliest places that attracted attention was Stag Park. It was first located and patented by George Burrington, then governor of the Province of North Carolina. This Governor Burrington was a very worthless and profligate character, so much so that on one occasion being at Edenton, he was presented by the Grand Jury of Chowan County, for riotous and disorderly conduct on the streets with a party of rowdy companions. Of such material as this, did our English rulers make governors for the guardianship of the lives and fortunes of their loyal subjects in these provinces. After having disgraced himself in America, Burrington returned to England, where still pursuing his profligate habits, he not long after lost his life in a street brawl, in the city of London. Before that event he had contracted a debt to a Mr. Strudwick, for which he mortgaged the Stag Park estate of ten thousand acres, and a large body of land which he owned in what was known as the Hawfields in Orange County. Mr. Strudwick sent his son Edmund to look after his property thus acquired in this country. The tradition was that this gentleman had fallen into disfavor with his friends on account of having married an actress in the City of London, which was the cause of his coming to settle in America. His residence was divided between Stag Park and the Hawfields. He left a son whom the writer has only heard mentioned as Major Strudwick and as quite an influential citizen of Orange County, where he chiefly resided. He married a Miss Shephard of Orange, by which marriage there were several sons and daughters, of whom the late

Mr. Samuel Strudwick of Alabama was the eldest. This gentleman was a successful planter and acquired a large estate. Of high intelligence and remarkable for his fine conversational talent, Dr. Edmund Strudwick of Hillsboro, is well-known as one of the ablest physicians of the State, and especially eminent as a surgeon. Betsy, the elder daughter married Mr. Paoli Ashe, and was the mother of the Hon. Thomas Ashe, one of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, and a gentleman distinguished alike for professional ability and great worth and purity of character.

Stag Park was sold about the year 1817 for division among the heirs and purchased by Ezekiel Lane, Esq., for $10;000. This gentleman, we will have occasion to mention farther on. The next place descending the North East is the Neck, the residence of Governor Samuel Ashe, who together with his brother, General John Ashe, were among the most prominent and influential characters in the Cape Fear region both before and after the Revolutionary War. Governor Ashe held with distinction the position of District Judge up to the time of his election as Governor of the State. His oldest son, John Baptiste Ashe, was also elected Governor, but died before he could be inducted into office. There were two other sons of Governor Ashe, Samuel and Thomas. The latter was the grandfather of the present Judge Ashe, already spoken of, and the former will be mentioned farther on. There was still another son named Cincinatus, who with some other youths of the Cape Fear gentry, volunteered as midshipmen on board a privateer fitted out at Wilmington, and commanded by a Captain Allen, an Englishman. The vessel went to sea and was supposed to have been sunk by a British ship, or foundered in some other way, as she was never more heard of. The writer remembers when he was a child, an old lady, a Mrs. Allen, entirely blind, the widow of an English Captain, who lived with the families of the North East, first with one and then another, with whom she was always a welcome guest and treated with much respect and consideration.

Still below the Neck and within the precinct known as Rocky Point was Green Hill, the residence of General John Ashe. This gentleman did more probably than any man in the Province, towards rousing the spirit of resistance against what was called British oppression. He was the prime mover and leader of the party which resisted the then governor in his attempt to enforce the Stamp Act. And when the war of the Revolution did break out, he raised a regiment at his own expense, so ardently were his feelings enlisted in the cause.

But the history of General Ashe's services, is or ought to be known well to the people of the Cape Fear. But it may not be known that he died in obscurity, and the place of his interment cannot be pointed out. The story is that on a visit to his family at Green Hill, in feeble health, he was betrayed by a faithless servant to a party of soldiers sent out from the garrison at Wilmington for his capture. Taken to Wilmington, he was confined in Craig's bull pen as it was called. Here his health became so feeble that he was released on parole and attempted to get to his family at Hillsboro. But he reached no farther than Sampson Hall, the residence of Colonel John Sampson, in the county of that name. Here he died and was buried, and there is neither stone nor mound to mark the spot. General Ashe left a son who also had served in the war of the Revolution. This was Major Samuel Ashe. He was an active politician of the Democratic Republican party and represented for many years the county of New Hanover in the legislature.

Of the three daughters of General Ashe, one of them married Governor Joseph Alston of South Carolina, another married Mr. John Davis, and the third Mr. William H. Hill, the most talented man of the family, with the most brilliant promise of distinction when he died at the early age of thirty-six. This Green Hill property is now owned by the estate of the late Major John Walker. The Ashe family in early times, after the Revolution, differed in politics with the generality of the Cape Fear gentry. The Governor and his sons with the exception of Colonel Samuel Ashe were leaders of the Republicans or Jeffersonian faction, whereas the large majority of the gentry and educated class were Federalist of the Hamilton school. After the adoption of the Federal Constitution and a Republican form of government established, there is no doubt but that a good deal of feeling and prejudice existed against what was called too much liberty and equality. And the practice of some of the old Republicans was not always consistent with their professed principles. A little ancedote which the writer remembers to have heard will illustrate this. One day there came to the Neck a plain country man to see Governor Ashe on business. His errand was not finished before the Governor's dinner hour arrived. He was invited in, but seated at a side table, and helped from that at which the Governor and family dined. The man took no umbrage,

quietly ate his dinner and made no remark. It chanced that sometime afterwards the Governor was traveling to his summer residence in the up country, when night overtaking him, he stopped before a house on the roadside, and sent in his servant to know if he could get a night's lodging. He was invited in, and hospitably welcomed. When supper was ready, he was shown to a side table and then helped. The Governor at once recognized his visitor at the Neck, and very sensibly took the rebuke in good part.

The next place of note, and adjoining Green Hill to the West was a Moseley Hall, the residence of the Moseley family, and one of prominence in colonial times. One of them, Sampson Moseley, Esq., was a member of the King's council, and Surveyer General of the Province. But the writer does not know that any of the male members of the family survived the Revolution, or that any of their descendants whatever are left. They were nearly allied by blood to the Lillingtons. One of the daughters of the family married a Mr. Carlton Walker, and left one son, John Moseley Walker, who died soon after coming of age, and the estate passed to his half brothers and sisters. This was a large and quite a valuable place, and was said to have been handsomely improved, but all that the writer remembers to have seen were the remains of what were said to have been fine old avenues.

Crossing Clayton Creek, we come to the next place below, known in old times as Clayton Hall, the residence of a Mr. Clayton, a Scotch gentleman who died leaving no descendants, though I believe the Prestons of Wilmington were his nearest of kin. This property, which at one time was regarded as the best plantation in New Hanover County, was purchased by Colonel Samuel Ashe. Colonel Ashe when I knew him was about the only survivor of the olden times, on the North East River. He had been a soldier in the war of the Revolution, had entered the army when he was but seventeen years old, and served through the years of the war, was at the seige of Charleston, and was there made prisoner. Colonel Ashe was a gentleman of commanding appearance, tall and erect with prominent features, deep sunken but piercing eyes, of fine manners and bearing, of remarkable colloquial powers, and his manner and style of narration most engaging. Especially was he fond of anecdotes and incidents relating to the olden times most interesting and seemed almost inexhaustible. It was at the old Clayton Hall Mansion that he located the scene of his Tom Martin story and as it will serve to illustrate some of the characteristics of those old times, I will endeavor to relate it as well as my memory serves. At that time the old place was uninhabited, and the young gentry folks of the neighborhood held their dancing assemblies there. The Colonel related that on a day appointed for one of those assemblies, there arrived at his Father's at the Neck, two strangers, one of them an elderly man, the other much younger. The older man turned out to be a Methodist preacher, the younger man anything else as subsequent events soon proved, and it seemed a strange chance that should have brought two such dissimilar characters to be fellow travelers. They were hospitably received and entertained, and soon made to feel at ease. The Colonel goes on to relate that towards evening he and his cousin Samuel, Major Ashe, retired to their rooms to dress for the evening party. They had not long been thus engaged when the Colonel discovered that his hair was sadly in want of a tonsure, and remarked to his cousin Sam that he wished very much that he could have the services of a barber, when just at that moment, the young stranger stepped into the room and hearing the Colonel's wish, at once offered his services protesting that he could dress his hair as well as any barber. The Colonel said that he had a very fine suit of hair, which in those days was worn quite full, and was reluctant to trust its dressing to an unskilled hand. The young fellow, however, insisted to strenously in his efforts to make himself useful that the Colonel no longer objected, and the volunteer barber soon exhibited by his dexterous handling of the scissors and comb that he had not overrated his skill, and in a very short time had performed the task as well as any professional barber. When the hair dressing was completed, his cousin Major Ashe stepped up to the Colonel, and whispered in his ear, “Cousin Ashe, this fellow is certainly a barber.” Having finished their toilet they felt some hesitancy about inviting the young man to the party, but were reluctant to do so as he was an entire stranger, and each one departed on his way to meet at the dance. The Colonel to go through by Green Hill to take one of his cousins as his partner for the evening. When he got there, he found the young lady ready and waiting for him, and they passed on across the creek. As they approached the old Clayton mansion, their ears were regaled with some very delightful strains of music, which sounded like the human voice accompanied by some instrument. On reaching the house, they beheld the stranger who a little while before had been left at the Neck, promenading up and down the ball room performing a plaintive air on the violin accompanying it with his voice, and as the different couples arrived they were highly entertained and wondered

who the stranger could be. The Colonel said he had hardly gotten in the room, when Major Ashe who had preceded him, came up and whispered, “Cousin Sam, he is surely a music master.” By this time the party had all assembled and ready to begin the dance. At that time their assemblies were always opened with the old fashioned contra dance, which has now, I believe become obsolete, and each gentleman was expected to take as his partner for the first set, the lady whom he had brought with him. As soon as the couples were all arranged, occupying in two lines the whole length of the ball-room, the music struck up, a negro fiddler from one of the neighboring plantations. The first couple lead off, and as the figure was not well understood, there was much awkwardness and confusion. When the stranger came forward and said if any lady would condescend to take him as a partner, he would take the fiddle and play at the same time going through with the figures, and then call out and direct the dance, so that there should be no more confusion. They were all glad to accept his services, and one of the ladies having consented to dance with him, he immediately struck up a lively air, and lead off with his partner, going through the evolutions of the dance, never missing a step or a note. He then called out the next couple, calling the figures and so on until the set was completed much to the gratification of the whole party. About this time said the Colonel, Major Ashe came up and remarked, “Cousin Sam, he is most assuredly a dancing master.”

With such an acquisition as this young stranger proved to direct the dance and furnish music so superior, the frolic went on merrily. When the ladies retired just before supper was announced, the young men as was the custom kept up the fun, dancing Scotch jigs, and doing various feats of agility, and the stranger entered heartily into their merriment and proved himself equal to any of them, and on being bantered by someone, he proposed for a small wager that he would do a trick that none of them could perform. With that, taking an ordinary sized dining table, and placing it in the middle of the room, he took the fiddle and squatting down, placed a shilling piece under each ham, and commencing a lively air, he sprang nimbly across the table, first on one side and then the other, keeping time with the music, and never missing a note, and holding on to the shilling pieces where he had placed them. Presently Major Ashe came up and whispered, “Cousin Sam, this fellow is undoubtedly a mountebank.” After this the young men began to be quite familiar with the stranger, and a plot was arranged among them that each one should invite him in turn to the side board to drink. But the Colonel overhearing their plot, and not approving it, informed him of it. The stranger replied that he was aware of their design and would take care of himself and never declining to take wine with any of them, he soon had them all very lively, while he, himself kept very cool. And so the party passed off very quietly, the ladies all declaring it the pleasantest assembly they had ever attended, and gave full credit to the stranger for having contributed so large a share towards the entertainment of the evening. He remained in the Rocky Point and North East neighborhood for a considerable length of time, being hospitably welcomed at the hospitable mansions of all the gentry, ready at all times to join in the sports of the young people, and being full of anecdote proved no unwelcome companion at the fireside of the elders. The name of the hero of the old Colonel's story was Tom Martin. After becoming familiar with the Colonel he related his history as follows. He was a son of a Virginia planter, and his father had sent him to Petersburg with a wagon load of tobacco to sell for him, that after disposing of the tobacco, and having his pockets well filled, he unluckily fell in with a party of gamblers, and was enticed by them into a gambling hell. Here having engaged in play, he was very soon swindled out of all the money for which he had sold the tobacco. He then staked the horses and wagon and lost them. Finally, he staked the negro boy who had gone to market with him, and he also soon went, as money, horses and wagons had gone. So having lost all he had to venture, he was ashamed and afraid to return home to meet the anger and reproaches of his father, and falling in with a company of strolling play actors, he joined them and for some time traveled with them. It was while with these people probably that he picked up his mountebank tricks. He finally became tired of this sort of life and wandering in pursuit of other adventures, he arrived as has been stated among the North-Easters. The old Clayton Hall mansion left for a long time untenanted went to decay and there was nothing left of it when the writer can remember but the foundation. He can remember an old vault which stood to the North of the Creek, in which it was said, the remains of Mr. Clayton rested. After Colonel Ashe came in possession of the place he built immediately on the bank of the creek, so that you could stand at one end of his piazza and fish. The spring out of which they got their drinking water flowed from the base of a rock, which formed the bank of the creek, and when the tide was up the Spring was overflowed.

It was a great treat to visit the Colonel and hear him talk of old times. His memory was remarkable and his style of narration uncommonly good. He seemed familiar with the genealogy of every family that had ever lived on the Cape Fear, and their traditions. It is much to be regretted that some one had had the capacity could not have chronicled his narratives as they were related by himself. Colonel Ashe removed from Rocky Point, when he was pretty well advanced in years to a place which he owned on the Cape Fear in the neighborhood of Fayetteville where he lived several years. His only male descendant in the state I believe is Samuel C. Ashe, Esq., of Raleigh. Colonel Ashe on his removal sold the Clayton Hall Estate to Dr. James McRee, who retired from the practice of medicine in Wilmington, and made his residence here, where he carried on planting operations with fair success. He abandoned the old settlement and built what is known as the Sandridge, and renamed the place, calling it Ashemoore in compliment to the two families so long known and distinguished in the Cape Fear region. Dr. McRee had acquired a higher reputation than any physician of his day in the Cape Fear region or even in the whole state. The writer enjoyed the privilege of having been his pupil, and of his lifelong friendship, and to speak of him in such terms as he esteemed him as a noble gentleman and physician, might seem like extravagant eulogy.

The next place on the river is the Vats. Here the river changes its course making a pretty sudden bend, and a prominent point of rocks jutting into the stream gives the name of Rocky Point to all that portion of country lying West, as far as the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad. This place was first located by Colonel Maurice Moore, one of the earliest pioneers of the Cape Fear section. It is related that Colonel Moore and Governor Burrington, both of them exploring in search of rich lands happened to reach this place about the same time. As they stepped on shore from their boats each claimed possession by right of prior location and occupation. But the Colonel stoutly resisted his Excellency's pretensions and by dint of strong will held the property. The arbitrary spirit exhibited on this occasion rather strikingly illustrates what was said to have been characteristic of the Moore family, especially that branch of it. The lands of this place was very rich and it continued in the Moore family for several generations. It was finally sold by Judge Alfred Moore to Mr. Ezekiel Lane, a most worthy gentleman, who laid here the foundation of quite a large estate acquired by farming alone. Commencing with small means, he became the largest landowner in the county of New Hanover, and mostly composed of these Rocky Point lands. The next two places adjoining and to the South of the Vats were Springfield and Strawberry, owned by, and the latter place the residence of Mr. Levin Lane, a son of Mr. E. Lane, a planter like his father and a most worthy and highly respected gentleman.

Let us return to the Vats and cross the river by the ferry there, and traveling eastward by the New Bern road, about four miles, we come to Lillington Hall, the residence of General Alex. Lillington. It would seem to have been a singular selection for a gentleman to have made for a residence. Just on the border of the great Holly Shelter pocoson or dismals and quite remote from the other gentry settlements. But in those days stock raising was much attended to, and here immense tracts of unoccupied lands furnished pasturage and fine range.

Colonel Lillington was nearly allied to the Moseleys of Moseley Hall, and came to reside on the Cape Fear about the same time with them. He was an ardent Whig and Patriot and taking up arms early in the revolution, he soon distinguished himself as a bold and sagacious leader. On the attempt of the Scotch settlers about Cross Creek to move on Wilmington for the purpose of co-operating with the British force intended to invade and subjugate North Carolina. General Lillington speedily organized the militia of New Hanover and Duplin and marched rapidly in the direction from which the enemy approached. Selecting a position on Moore's creek, where it was crossed by a bridge, he threw up intrenchments and awaited the approach of the Scots. On the arrival of General Caswell, the superior in command, he approved of Lillington's plans and arrangements for meeting the enemy. The result of the battle which ensued is well known to history, and its success was by his contemporaries mainly attributed to Lillington's prompt movements and skillful arrangements. The Lillington Hall mansion was a quaint old structure of ante-revolutionary date, and standing alone, there was no house that approached in size or appearance in that wild region. When the writer visited there while a youth, there was quite a library of rare old English books, which would be highly prized at this day. At that time it was owned and occupied by Mr. Samuel Black, a highly respectable and worthy gentleman who had married the widow of Mr. John Lillington, youngest son of the General. This

place like all the residences of the early gentry has gone out of the family, and into stranger hands.

As there is no other place of note on the East side of the River, we will recross the ferry at the Vats, and following the roads leading West to where it crosses the main county road we come to Moore's Fields. This was the residence of George Moore, Esq., one of the most prominent gentlemen of his day, both before and after the Revolution. I remember the old mansion as it stood, but much dilapidated. Not a vestige of it left now. There had been raised near the house two mounds for rabbit warrens, and a fish pond. Mr. Moore was the father of a numerous progeny. He was twice married. His first wife was a Miss Mary Ashe, a sister, I believe, of Governor Ashe. His second wife was a Miss Jones. There is extant an old copy of the church of England prayer book, in the possession of one of his descendants (Dr. Win. H. Moore) in which is recorded the births and names of his children by these marriages, and they were twenty-seven (27). From these or the survivors, for many of them must have died during infancy, have sprung many of the families of the Cape Fear region, some of whose descendants are still living there, among whom can be mentioned the Hon. George Davis who has no superior if any equal here or in any part of the state. Also the Hon. Thos. S. Ashe, one of the lineal descendants of this old stock. There was one of the grand-daughters, Miss Sallie Moore, who was reputed to be the greatest beauty of her day. Her father William Moore removed to the State of Tennessee where she was heard of, still living a few years since. George Moore, of Moore Fields, as he was familiarly called, was remarkable for his great energy and good management, a man of considerable wealth, owning many slaves. He had a summer residence on the sound to reach which he crossed the North East River at the Vats Ferry, and from a mile or two from the East of it he had made a perfectly straight road, ditched on each side twenty miles in length. This road, though no longer used, can still be traced. It is related that when corn was wanted at the summer place, one hundred negro fellows would be started, each with a bushel bag on his head. There is quite a deep ditch leading from some bay swamps lying to the West of the Country road. It used to be called the Devil's ditch and there was some mystery and idle tradition as to why and how the ditch was cut then. It was doubtless made to drain the water from these bays to flood some lands cultivated in rice, which was too low to be drained for corn.

Proceeding Westward, a mile or two along the road leading from Rocky Point to Long Creek and turning to the left after crossing Jumping Run, you come to Mount Gallant, where resided Col. John Pugh Williams, a prominent gentleman of his time during and after the Revolution. What may have been the improvements on the place I know not, as there was no appearance of any that are in my recollection. Colonel Williams had three daughters, each of whom married gentlemen of distinction. One of them married John Haywood, Esq., who so long held the office of Treasurer of North Carolina. Another, the late Alfred Moore, of Brunswick, a gentleman of fine talents and achievements. The third married Captain Hall, also of Brunswick. There are still living on the Cape Fear and about Raleigh many descendants of these three ladies. Passing by the main road, leading South from Rocky Point depot of the Wilmington and Weldon railroad, about two miles, there stood to the right of the road and in sight in the midst of a large clearing a brick house. This was Hymeham, built many years before the Revolutionary War by Henry Hyme. Mr. Hyme was a gentleman of high standing of his day. He died before the war and having never married, he left his Estate to his nephew, Mr. Henry Watters. This gentleman being a minor at the time of his Uncle's death, during the time intervening before his coming of age Hymeham was rented out, before and after the Revolution, and used as a roadside inn or tavern as they were called in those days, and kept by a German named Dr. Keiser. He was employed as trainer of horses of the neighboring gentlemen. Racing being a favorite pastime with them by which they exhibited their striking English characteristics. This man afterwards lived and kept an inn at Fayetteville, where his three daughters married gentlemen of good standing and position. Mr. Watters, after coming of age, settled at Hymeham, and married the daughter of William Hooper, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. When the writer was a boy at school, at Hillsboro, he knew this lady, as she took notice of and was kind to the down country boys, as we were called. The impression left on my mind is that she was the perfect ideal of a refined and elegant gentlewoman. Mr. Watters resided for several years at Hymeham until he and the writer's Father exchanged plantations. Mr. Watters taking in exchange for Hymeham, Forceput, a rice plantation two miles above Wilmington on the West side of the North East river. Mr. Watters’ only son, Henry, by the marriage with Miss Hooper died soon after completing

his course at University, where he displayed very promising talents and some essays of his on file in the archives of the Dialectic Society are said to be very excellent.

Colonel Hill, after the exchange with Mr. Watters removed to Hymeham and occupied it as a winter residence until his death which occurred in the year 1818 at Hillsboro in Chatham County his summer resort. At these two places were reared my father's family consisting of three sons and four daughters, and never had children happier homes, around them clustered all their early associations of happiness and affliction.

By the purchase of considerable tracts of land adjoining Hymeham, my father made a large estate of it and under his judicious management, it became very abundant and productive. Delighting in society, he saw and entertained a great deal of company and being especially fond of having his young relatives about him, the house was seldom without guests. At that time the range was very large and fine for stock, and the woods and fields abounded with game. Christmas with its festivities and pastimes was always observed, and was the season for the assembling of large numbers of friends and relatives. The days were passed by the gentlemen in hunting deer, with which the woods abounded, and dancing for the young people at night while the elder gentlemen had their game of whist. It was on the occasion of one of these Christmas hunts that a memorable and authenticated tradition is remembered of a famous shot that was made by one of the sportsmen, a friend and near neighbor of my father's, Mr. Samuel Swann. Among the invited guests was a Mr. Avery, a friend of my father's, and I think a merchant of Wilmington. He had having no experience in woodcraft, but quite anxious to see the game and have a shot, was put in charge of Mr. Swann, an experienced sportsman to place him at a stand and to stand with him. The hunt began by driving the Park drive, so named because of its near vicinity to Hymeham, and where game could almost always be found. Soon after reaching the old dogwood, Mr. Swann's favorite stand, the dogs were heard to give tongue and it was evident that the chase bore in the direction of the two standers. Presently they discovered five deer coming directly for them and when they got within easy range they stopped and stood with their heads turned back in the direction of the dogs. Mr. Avery with gun in hand, stood motionless with admiration. Mr. Swann whispered to him, “Why don't you shoot?” “Oh, they look so beautiful,” replied Mr. Avery. Mr. Swann could resist the temptation no longer but raising his gun, fired and brought down all five of them.

The occasions were attended with feasting and cheer, and were nowhere so agreeable as at Hymeham. The old house was built, I suppose, in Old English style with very thick walls and quite commodious with many conveniences about it. The purpose of those early settlers seemed to be for permanency and there were many such structures erected by them. But, alas! Their expectations have not been realized as not one of these estates remain in the hands of any of the descendants of their founders, and the old structures that they took pride in raising have either fallen to decay or been destroyed by fire, and the crumbling material carried away to be used in humble structures as though a ruthless fate had decreed that not a vestige should be left to remind succeeding generations of the former prosperity. And may it not be apprehended that such may be the fate of our social institutions since the tendency seems to be to ignore anything like pride of ancestry or place.

Colonel Thomas Hill, was the youngest of four brothers, the sons of William Hill and Margaret Moore, daughter of Nathaniel Moore, Esq. They were married at Orton in Brunswick County on the 29th of September 1757. The writer may, he hopes without the imputation of vanity, be indulged in making some allusions to his father as he remembers him. A gentleman of fine appearance, of dignified thorough genial deportment, of manly and courteous bearing, extremely sensitive. Fond of having his young kinspeople around him and ever ready to counsel and aid them when in the pursuits of honorable aims and enterprises. And Hymeham was the favorite home and resort of many young relatives. No man could ever have been more loved or revered by his immediate family, and in my visions of the past are always associated my noble father, and kind and indulgent mother with dear old Hymeham. The old place has long since passed into the hands of strangers, who have destroyed fine old avenues, and respected no ancient landmarks and the old house has been burned, and its very foundations torn up and removed. The sad fate of all these old places and the descendants of those who once loved them so fondly are all scattered abroad.

We will now pass on our way, visiting in memory and talking of these old places. About a mile to the South of Hymeham stands, or did stand, for it also has been destroyed

by fire, Pleasant Hall, a comfortable and convenient house of a story and a half with brick basement. This was in the times I write of, the residence of Mr. Will Davis, a first cousin of my father's, their mothers being sisters. Mr. Davis was a gentleman of ardent and rather fiery temperament, which as I have heard was sometimes displayed in the warm contests, with his friends in discussing the politics of the day, which ran high. He being a Republican of the Democratic order, while the majority of his friends and relatives were Federalists. Mr. Davis married Miss Margaret Moore, daughter of George Moore, Esq., of Moore's Fields. This lady survived Mr. Davis many years and continued to reside at Pleasant Hall, where she exercised the most unbounded benevolence and kindness to many relatives in reduced circumstances. Her house was always full and was proverbial as the home of the sick, the halt and the blind. The writer very well remembers two blind ladies who found a home and were kindly cared for by this excellent lady. One of them the widow of a deceased brother with five children. The other, the blind Mrs. Allen already mentioned, who mostly lived here, though frequently a guest at Hymeham.

At the death of Mrs. Davis, Pleasant Hall came into the possession of the writer, as a part of the inheritance left him by his father. Here he resided a few years most happily, until he felt the great calamity of life in the loss of his beloved wife. This property not being very productive, it was sold, and the writer purchased Lilliput, in Brunswick County in 1837, where he resided and planted rice until the close of the war. Leaving Pleasant Hall and going South about a mile, we come to the river again, near the banks of which and within less than a mile of each other, there was erected many years before the Revolutionary war, two large and massively built brick houses by two brothers, Messrs. Samuel and John Swann. These places were called respectively the Oak and Swann Point. The Oak was the residence of Mr. Samuel Swann, Swann Point of his brother John, who was commonly designated as Lawyer John Swann. The two mansions must have been, and probably were, the finest and most stately in the whole Cape Fear region, and seem to have been designed for the occupancy of large families or the entertainment of numerous guests. The two brothers Swann removed, I think from the Albemarle and Pamlico sections to the North East and were connected and associated with the Lillingtons and Ashes. Of Mr. Swann of the Oak, I don't remember to have heard any tradition. He left but one son, Colonel Samuel Swann, a high toned chivalric gentleman, very greatly admired and beloved by his friends, especially by the young men of his associates. Colonel Swann was killed in a duel fought with a person, whom he did not recognize as on a footing with him in society, but nevertheless, waived the distinction that he might vindicate the character of a person whom he had introduced into society as a gentleman and whose reputation had been assailed by his antagonist, a Mr. John Bradley. The place of combat was in the rear of the old St. James churchyard (the usual place of settling such affairs at that day) and resulted in Bradley shooting Swann through the head. I have heard a tradition that Colonel Swann had expressed a determination not to kill Bradley, but to shoot him, in some not vital spot (he being a very expert marksman, while Bradley was quite inexpert). Swann did shoot Bradley just where he had said he would, and as Bradley fell, he fired and the ball took effect as related. A number of Colonel Swann's friends had assembled to entertain him with a handsome collation, feeling no apprehension as to what might be the result. When his lifeless body was brought to them, there was great commotion. This affair created quite an excitement at the time, and it was a long time before the prejudice wore off against Bradley and his family, by Swann's numerous family connections. It was said of Colonel Swann, however, that he was apt to be rash and overbearing, and it was probable that the reputation of his supposed friend was not worthy of the sacrifice that had been made in its defense. Colonel Swann left but one son, Mr. Samuel Swann, who killed the five deer at one shot. I think there are none of his male descendants bearing his name. The old Oak's house was burned down about the year 1816, and the place was sold to Major Duncan Moore, who had the house rebuilt very handsomely, but he never occupied it, as he died in the year 1818.

In former times the main county road leading to Wilmington passed through the Oak plantation and the river was there crossed by a ferry. It was here that Cornwallis crossed with his army on his march towards Virginia. I will relate a little incident which occurred at the time, told me by an old gentleman, who was a boy then staying at the Oak. The advanced guard composed of part of Carlton's light horse crossed first. As soon as they got over, some of them were sent out to scout and forage. The troops in advance soon espied a couple of horsemen on one of the long reaches of the road, which will be remembered by anyone who has passed that way. The troopers immediately gave chase. The men seeing that they were pursued, turned

and fled as fast as their horses could carry them. One of them leaped his horse over the ditch and escaped in the woods. His companion, whose horse could not be made to take the leap was captured and sent back to the ferry. No sooner there, than he was dragged from his horse and relieved of his booty, which was forthwith appropriated by one of the troopers. This little incident reminds us of similar scenes related by our Confederates, as occurring on the capture of some well shod Yankees. About this time there was a British vessel lying at anchor in the stream, brought there probably to assist in transporting the army across the river. A shot was fired from her deck without any warning being given the family and passed entirely through the walls of the Oak house. This wanton act was hardly sanctioned by Lord Cornwallis, who was reported to have been quite humane towards private citizens. The writer remembers to have seen where the breach was made in the walls, which had been repaired.

We will pass now a short mile to the West and come to Swann Point. This was also a fine old house, built of brick, but somewhat smaller than the Oak. It had been abandoned as a residence when the writer first saw it, and had fallen greatly to decay. This was the residence of John Swann, Esq., a lawyer and standing high in his profession. He was employed to codify the laws of the Province. John Swann's father, Samuel Swann, was the Codifier of the laws of North Carolina. Swann's Point was a large and valuable estate. The old house was so located as to command a fine view of the river to the South, while a long avenue led from the North through a rich forest. There is a deep Neck called Belahaemea formed by the River on one side and Turkey Creek on the other, which was a fine outlet and range for stock of all kinds, and was a great resort for deer. It was the favorite place for driving of all the country round. With the river on one side, and creek on the other, bounded by swamps and the high land between interspersed with bays, the drives were short, and you could drive all day and not lose your dogs as they would quickly chase the deer, either to the river or to the creek, and return to you. It was to Belahaemea neck that those Christmas hunts from Hymeham were made and almost always good sport was found. Mr. Swann died, leaving no children and willed his property to his grand nephew, John Jones on condition that he should adopt the name of Swann. This gentleman who was noted for his enterprise and industry, did not reside at Swann Point many years, but removed to a fine rice plantation which he cleared on the North West called Lynas, a few miles above Wilmington, where he made the largest crop of any planter on the river. He left two sons, the late Messrs. John and Fred Swann, most estimable gentlemen and a daughter, the late Mrs. Judge Toomer, a most amiable and excellent lady.

We will now pass down the old Swann Point avenue to the county road, and traveling West, we soon reach and cross Turkey Creek, and come to that famous plantation Spring Garden, the residence of Frederick Jones, Esq., noted in his day as being the most industrious and successful farmer in all the country around. Mr. Jones was a Virginian, induced to settle on the Cape Fear by Mr. Swann, whose niece he had married. Besides the son, who had assumed the name of Swann, there were five daughters, one of whom married Mr. John Hill of Fair Fields. She was the mother of the late Drs. Fred J. and John Hill. Another married Michael Sampson, Esq., of Sampson Hall. The remaining three married three brothers, Scotch gentlemen by the name of Cutlar. Only one of these left children, Dr. Roger Cutlar, who was the father of the late Dr. Fred J. Cutlar of Wilmington, eminent in his profession and for his purity of character. From this good old Spring Garden stock also comes the writer's best esteemed and most worthy friend, DuBrutz Cutlar, Esq.

We will now retrace our steps across Turkey Creek, and pass over the river at the Oak, and going through what was called Lashiers Legeres Neck avenue, come to Castle Haynes. Lashieres Legeres, a deep neck formed by the river on one side and Prince George creek on the other was like Belahaema, another great resort for deer and famous hunting grounds. Castle Haynes was the residence of Mr. Haynes, of whose history the writer has heard but little, except that he was the ancestor of the Waddell family, among whom I have heard related the tradition of his sad death by drowning. It is that he was ill of a fever, and while in delirium, he arose from his bed and rushed to the creek which was near by, plunged in and was drowned before assistance could reach him. This Mr. Haynes left an only daughter who married Colonel Hugh Waddell. From that union sprung the family of that name, so long respectably known on the Cape Fear.

Turning East from Castle Haynes and crossing the county road, we come to the Hermitage, the residence of the Burgwin family. The founder of this family was

Mr. John Burgwin, an English gentleman, in olden times an opulent merchant, and between Wilmington and Bristol in England, he carried on an extensive commerce. He must have had fine taste, as displayed by the manner in which the grounds around the Hermitage were laid off and improved. Its fine avenues and handsomely arranged pleasure grounds surpassed every thing in the whole country round. Mr. George Burgwin, who occupied the Hermitage after his father's death, was also a gentleman of good taste and devoted much attention to the decoration of the place, and kept it up in a handsome condition.

Mr. George Burgwin reared a numerous and highly respectable family. His oldest son, Captain John Burgwin of the United States army was killed in battle in the Mexican war, and his grandson, General George B. Anderson, died of a wound received at the battle of Antietam. (This place has also passed out of the family and there is little left of it to tell of its former attractiveness.)

We will turn now Westward and crossing the County road at a short distance, come to Rocky Run, where lived Dr. Nathaniel Hill. In earlier times this place was the residence of Mr. Maurice Jones, whose daughter Dr. Hill married. Of the history of this gentleman, the writer never heard much. But a tradition worth relating will illustrate his firmness and self possession and presence of mind. He was a great woodsman, and in the habit of still hunting. On one occasion he was creeping to shoot a deer, which was feeding at a dogwood tree (the berries of which dogs are very fond), when feeling that something was dragging at one of his legs, turned his head and saw that it was a large rattle snake, which had struck and fastened his fangs in the buckskin leggings, which all huntsmen wore at that day. He deliberately crawled on, dragging the snake as he went, getting within proper range he fired and killed the deer, then turning killed the snake. Dr. Nathaniel Hill was sent to Scotland when he was quite young, where he was placed with an apothecary. Having completed a full term at this business, he entered the Medical College at Edinboro, where he remained until he had completed his medical course. Returning home before he was quite of age, he entered actively in the practice of his profession at Wilmington. Full of energy and earnestness, with remarkable sagacity and decision, he very soon acquired the confidence of the community. His reputation was established and not surpassed in the whole Cape Fear region. After a laborious and lucrative practice of twenty-five years, Dr. Hill retired with an independent estate at Rocky Run, where he had built a commodious and comfortable house before the prime of life was over, and in the full vigor of manhood he took up his abode, and for many years dispensed a liberal hospitality to a large circle of friends and relatives.

On the first day of January of each year, being Dr. Hill's birthday a numerous party of friends and relatives always assembled at Rocky Run to celebrate the event “with feasting and good cheer.” And then it was that those fine deer hunts came off, which were so skillfully conducted that they were invariably successful. The standers were judiciously placed, and the bringing down of the game depended on their skill as marksmen. In the management of these hunts, the guests whether old or young were invariably placed at the best stands, the doctor taking the chances as they might arise for himself. He always carried flint and steel single barrel, silver mounted gun, and it was not often that he failed to bring down the deer coming fairly by him within one hundred yards. Many a day of sport has the writer enjoyed with this noble old gentleman, at his fine old seat. Most systematic and punctual in his habits, invariably as we arose from the breakfast table (eight o'clock in winter), the driver was waiting with horses and dogs eager for the drive, and as punctually we returned by two o'clock, the dinner hour, as the family were never kept waiting.

The old Rocky Run mansion was destroyed by fire many years since and the place has shared the fate of all the others on the North East and fallen into stranger hands.

The next two places below on the river were Rose Hill, the residence of the Quince family and Rock Hill of the Davises, two rather inconsiderable and inferior rice plantations. The Quinces were among the earliest of the gentry settlers, on the Cape Fear. I have heard an old story related about a Mr. Parker Quince, somewhat characteristic I presume of himself and his times. It seems that he was a merchant and quite a trafficker. In sending an order for goods on one occasion to London, from whence most all importations were made, a dozen cheeses were included and several gross of black tacks. Instead the cheeses, were sent a dozen English chaises, and for the tacks there were sent an immense number of black jacks as they were called, a kind of small japanned tin drinking mug. His correspondent apologized for not completing the order as to the crops as he had bought all that could be found

in the shops of London. Mr. Quince either spelled very badly or wrote illegibly, probably a little of both.

There was one of the Quinces who for some family reason or other, adopted the name of Hazell. William Serninza Hazell. He was much esteemed and the intimate friend of many gentlemen of his day when party politics ran high between the old Federalists and Republicans, he edited a paper called The Minerva, advocating the principles of the Federal party, and was well sustained and caressed by his friends. He must have been a man of fine literary taste judging from the number of old volumes of the best English literature, with his name and coat of arms inscribed in them, which I have come across in the old libraries. Rock Hill was handsomely located on a bluff commanding a fine view of the river. It was in old times the residence of Mr. Jehu Davis, and more lately of Mr. Thomas J. Davis, his son. The name of Davis both in early and later times on the Cape Fear has always been associated with all that was highly respectable and honorable, and it has been most eminently sustained in the person of Hon. George Davis of Wilmington, and the late Bishop Davis of South Carolina.

Proceeding further down, but not immediately on the river, was once a place known as Nesces Creek, on a creek of that name, which before the Revolution was the residence of Arthur Mabson, Esq., a gentleman noted for his great energy and industry, by which he had accumulated a considerable estate, but died the first year of the war at the early age of forty. This place was long ago abandoned and I don't suppose there is a vestige of its improvement left.

Crossing Nesces Creek, and going on a mile or so farther, we come to where once stood Fairfields, also gone totally to ruin. Here lived Mr. John Hill, a gentleman of note in his day, frequently representing the County in the legislature. He had been a soldier in the Revolution. Entered the army while quite young and served with General Green in the Southern campaign.

Passing on, we come to Sans Sowei. Of the early history of this place the writer knows nothing. For many years past, it has been the residence of the late Mr. Arthur Hill.

Crossing Smith's Creek, we come to Hilton, the place named for the first adventurer who explored the river, Captain Hilton. This was the residence of Cornelius Harnett, Esq., and the old mansion erected by him is still standing, is the only one left of all the old places on the river. It is not surprising that this point should have attracted the admiration of those who first beheld it, and gave it its name. A fine bluff near the junction of Smith's Creek with the river, it has a commanding and extensive view up and down the stream. Although much out of repair, the grounds mutilated by the deep cut of a railroad passing through them, it is still the most attractive spot near the city of Wilmington.

Cornelius Harnett was about the most noted and conspicuous personage of his day in the whole Cape Fear region. No man more entirely commanded the confidence and admiration of the community in which he lived. Notwithstanding, that Hilton was not within the corporate limits of the town of Wilmington, yet in such high estimation was Mr. Harnett held that by a special ordinance he was invested with all the rights and privileges of a resident, and entitled to vote in their municipal and Borough elections. Either on account of feeble health or advanced life, Mr. Harnett was not an active participant as a soldier in the war of the Revolution, both heart and means were nevertheless enlisted in the cause and after Wilmington was occupied by the British, he was ousted from a sick bed and confined in their prison, where he died in consequence of their harsh and brutal treatment. Mr. Harnett, I believe left no descendants, and in after times, Hilton became the property and residence of Mr. William H. Hill, Esq. This gentleman was said to have possessed fine qualities of both head and heart. Genial of temper and fond of conviviality, he attracted many friends around him, and was always the life of his company. He was a leading spirit among the gentlemen of the Federal party when politics ran high, and represented the Wilmington district in Congress during the administration of the elder Adams.


(The following include the “Notes” of Captain Samuel A. Ashe on Dr. John Hampden Hill's “Stories of the Old Plantations,” and also is the property of Thomas W. Davis):


The patent for Stag Park was located after Burrington had been Governor, and he was out of office at the time; although, because of the tradition, it is probable that he and Moore had their trouble when he was surveying for the purpose preliminary to locating an old blank patent, issued in 1711, it is said, for 640 acres and changed by Burrington to 5000 acres. The tradition as I heard it was that when Burrington came to the land with his retinue of surveyors and chain bearers, Moore met him and told him that he had patented that land and warned him off; after some words they both drew swords and then “Colonel Swann who was the King's Officer,” remonstrated with them, saying, “For shame gentlemen, you who hold such high positions should set an example of this kind to the people,” and at his instance they put up their swords; and as Burrington turned off, Moore cried out to him, “Governor Burrington, I owe you nothing, but go up higher to Stag Park, and you will find there, a body of land not inferior to this.”

There was no “Colonel Swann a king's officer” at that time, and it would seem that the incident must have occurred while Moore was Speaker of the Assembly and Burrington Governor, and that having made their surveys, the patents for the land were subsequently obtained. It would seem that Colonel Moore was more familiar with the lands on the Cape Fear than Burrington was, although the latter had made considerable explorations. It would also seem that they were familiar with Hilton's report, and indeed Lawson in his History of 1708 embraced in it Hilton's report; and thus these early settlers re-applied the names of “Stag Park,” “Rocky Point,” “Turkey Creek,” etc., which Hawks with his usual want of careful accuracy located on the North West. Dr. Hill mentions that Hilton bestowed his name on the Bluff near the junction of the two branches. The report does not say so; but he named a river lower down Hilton. When that property was first taken up after Wilmington was settled, it does not seem to have been called Hilton. Mrs. Harnett conveyed it to Captain John Hill after the Revolution by the name of Maynard. After a year or two, Captain Hill sold it to his brother, William, and after the Hills owned it, it became known as Hilton.

Dr. Hill's inaccuracies about the original settlement having been made by Sir John Yeamans, I suppose you are aware; also as to his error as to the death of Burrington.


I think he misdescribes Moseley Hall, which in later times was the property of Mr. Sidbury; he putting it lower down the river than Green Hill. It was above Green Hill, next to the Neck. He says one of Governor Ashe's daughters married Governor Joseph Alston. It was Colonel Wm. Alston and their son was Governor Joseph.

When he comes to speak of John Swann at Swann's Point, he apparently is in error, in saying that it was John Swann's father who codified the laws; and I think he is in error in saying that Mr. Fred Jones at Turkey Creek, Spring Garden, was a Virginian, and induced to settle on the Cape Fear by Mr. Swann, whose niece he married. I have always thought that John Swann Jones, who changed his name was the son of Fred Jones, Jr., a son of Tom Jones (who had married Sarah Swann and himself the son of the Chief Justice, Fred Jones). So he was not a Virginian and married his first cousin, and it was their child that John Swann left his property to; named for him, John Swann Jones.


The Oaks that was destroyed by fire after it was bought by Mr. Duncan Moore and was rebuilt by him about 1816, was subsequently destroyed again. I visited the ruins in 1858 with a party of the Moore girls, and the traditions which they had about mahogany stair cases and other such splendors seemed to be justified by the ruins. Such parts as I saw recalled the finest residences of a city. They told me that the old house had a fish pond on top of it. I did not know that Major Duncan Moore had rebuilt it, but I now presume that as the original edifice had been destroyed by fire, he took that precaution of having a supply of water on the roof to prevent a similar

destruction, which however, befell it. The house was situated some 250 yards from the railroad where it immerges from the river swamp. To the East of that point about the same distance, the main road comes from the ferry, and along there are entrenchments thrown up by the patriot troops to hold the British in check; as also at Bannerman's Bridge on the East side of the river, some ten miles further up, and which are easily traced to this day. Dr. Hill mentions that it was by a particular ordinance that Cornelius Harnett was made eligible as representative of the borough of Wilmington. That is an error. In the original Charter any person living that side of Smith's Creek, possessed of a brick or stone or frame house, with one or more brick chimneys, was made a voter and also eligible to be a member from the Borough. (See Sprunt Monograph No. 4, Page 57, and original Charter see Page 9.)

Another one of Tom Martin's feats was this; the young men were displaying their agility and he beat them all—so that they thought him a circus actor; and finally, he bantered them to jump over the house they were at in three jumps. It was a house with a piazza in front and rear. He procured a long pole and landed in one jump on the front piazza, another with the pole carried him over the ridge, and from the rear piazza, he safely landed to the ground, much to the surprise of everyone.

Late one evening, the Colonel sent his two sons, William and Tom, to hunt for several lost sheep; the sheep were not to be found, and a storm coming up, the boys took refuge in the Clayton vault. It became very dark; presently the boys heard something move at the lower end of the vault, and peering down, saw something white there. Their fears of ghosts were at once aroused. Apprehensions and apparitions were in the ascendant. It was sometime before they mustered courage to explore, but nerving themselves, they groped down the vault hand in hand, and instead of Clayton's ghost, found the lost sheep they were in search of.

A narrow foot bridge, long and high crossed the creek by the new house, the pathway leading to Green Hill where General John Ashe's family burying ground was. The Colonel had in his old age a trick of his mind, as some others fond of talking have, of breaking off the topic and reverting to some subject that had previously been in mind. He was very much venerated. Once a visitor who had the highest reverence for him, was spending some days with him. The Colonel had told him of the havoc an old white hawk had made with his poultry, what trouble he had given, and despite every effort they had made, they had never been able to kill him. He was very much wrought up about the hawk. He was tall and in his old age had lost his flesh, and his arms were long and his fingers long and bony. Shortly after telling about the hawk, he and his guest strolled over to see the graveyard at Green Hill, and passing by the Clayton vault, old Clayton became the subject of his discourse. As he told of Clayton's life, they reached the bridge and were up high above the stream on the narrow planks, and the Colonel was telling about Clayton, who had at first been a leading patriot, then deserted the Cause and turned tory, and went back to England; and his indignation rising, he grew quite earnest and animated. When suddenly he stopped—and extending his long arm towards the sky and pointing with his bony finger, he exclaimed very earnestly, “Yonder goes that damned scoundrel now”. His companion in amazement, said “Where Colonel, where?” “Yonder, don't you see him?” With head thrown back and with great earnestness and gazing intently in the sky. “No,” said his friend, still more amazed and somewhat startled, lest the Colonel had gone stark mad. “Why there he is, don't you see him? look right there”, pointing and with his features rigid, “Right there, there's the damned rascal, right there!” Still looking and expecting to see old Clayton, his friend had to say that he could see nothing. “Why there he is, that old white hawk I was telling you about.” “Oh,” said the other, now much relieved; and no longer straining his eyes to see Clayton's disembodied spirit, he quickly found the white hawk, to whom the Colonel's mind had reverted on observing him, leaving Clayton in the lurch for the time being.

Old Mr. Hardin, the Grandfather of the Mr. Hardin, your Druggist, who lived to be very aged, was fond of the Colonel whom he knew intimately, and often related to me several anecdotes. Mr. Hardin told me that he together with some eight or ten young men being at Rocky Point, the Colonel took them to the Vatts and standing by the grave of Colonel Maurice Moore, told them what a wonderful man he was, and that everyone present except Mr. Hardin and another, was his descendant, and they should never forget about him. While Colonel Moore had interests elsewhere, his family resided at the Vatts, his wife being a Porter, near their Porter and Lillington kin, the Swanns, Moseleys and Ashes, and Jones, I think.

One of Mr. Hardin's anecdotes was this: Captain Maule was courting at the

house of Colonel John Porter, the Second, who was living on the Pamlico, courting the sister—when the Indian Massacre took place. Pompey, a slave, had an infant, John Porter, the Third (afterwards one of the incorporators of Wilmington), out in the yard. An Indian seized the child and was in the act of dashing out its brains against a tree, when Madam Porter (Sarah Lillington) ran out and so imperiously and resolutely faced the Indian and looked at him so fiercely, that she subdued him and rescued her child. Other savages rushing towards the house, Captain Maule said, “Colonel Porter there is no time to be lost between a bad situation and a worse,” and with their firearms, they beat off the Indians and protected the women and family to a boat and made their escape to a vessel. Their house was burned by the Indians.

Mr. Hardin was very fond of recalling that saying, “There is no time to be lost between a bad situation and a worse.” Colonel Ashe was very proud of his Porter blood; the father of his mother was that Mr. John Porter to whom Mr. Murray in 1738 wrote “I have observed in you a justness of thought and a generosity of temper that I would endeavor to imitate wherever I found it. (Sprunt Monograph No. 4, Page 83).

The Colonel caused his son afterwards, Dr. Richard Porter Ashe of California, to change his name to Porter, and by that name I think he entered West Point; but later he preferred to resume his father's own name.

Colonel Ashe and Ezkiel Lane after the Revolution started life on their own account with slender means. They were friends and associated together in business, making tar, getting out shingles and so on. Eventually they rented the Vatts and farmed there in partnership, perhaps for more than ten years. I have seen their account books, kept with unusual neatness and precision, reminding me of General Washington's farm book. They made money, and one purchased the Vatts from the Moores, and the other, Clayton Hall, the deed being made by one of the Prestons as executor of Clayton, I think. Mr. Walker Meares (married Claybrook Wright) had it for his brother, Dr. Buckey, I suppose, as Dr. Buckey was the owner of the place after Dr. McRee. The deed was composed of a half a dozen distinct pieces of paper, each eight inches wide; each part of the deed being written on a separate piece all fastened together with tape and wax and big seals; apparently prepared in England. Colonel Ashe bought Clayton Hall about 1800, about the time that he married. His wife was the sister of the wives of Wm. Bary Grove, Wm. Hay, and Sam Porter Ashe, all living at Fayetteville; and so Colonel Ashe later also moved to Fayetteville where he died in 1835. (See a remarkable obituary in the Wilmington newspaper of that date, Wilmington Library.)

Devil Ditch. Just before the railroad makes its curve and starts on a straight course of 45 miles, about a mile north of the depot, it crosses a trestle, which is the head of Devil Ditch—a ditch originally about 6 or 8 feet wide and 4 feet deep, running nearly to the main road, about a half a mile. The purpose of this ditch was evidently to conduct water from the upper part of the branch to a particular point, either in connection with rice fields, or to prevent too great an accumulation of water in a pond that was a little to the North of George Moore's residence. The tradition was that George Moore was rather hard on his negroes, and ordered that ditch to be cut in one day, and that night, the ditch was cut by the Devil himself—such a throwing up of earth, felling of trees and clearing away roots and rubbish never was seen before, and when the hands came out in the morning to do the work, it had all been finished by his Satanic Majesty the night before.

There was also a tradition that George Moore used to brand his Negroes as a punishment, and his wife after remonstrating with him about it in vain, took the irons and threw them into this pond.

The pond was called a fish pond; and perhaps it may have been stocked, but it was evidently used to flood the heavy ditch that surrounded the house on the North, the East and South sides. Whether this excavation was designed as a protection from insurrection or Indians, or whether in connection with rice culture, was uncertain, and it may have been designed as a means of promoting health to secure a better drainage. The house lot, Moore fields, after the late war on property owned by Bryan Brown, was just at the edge of the pine woods and second low ground. It was about a quarter of a mile south of where a branch crosses the main road near the end of Devil Ditch, and about sixteen miles from Wilmington, and it was about 250 yards east of the main road. Between the branch and the house was the fish pond, and there began this remarkable ditch, about 20 feet wide and about 20 feet deep. It ran south

to the house yard, then east some hundred feet, then South about 150 feet, then West a hundred feet or more; and in the enclosed area, was where the house had stood; there being two large artificial hillocks on the right and left of the approach to the house. It had the appearance of military outposts, but were probably rabbit warrens.

The Southern part of this ditch extended due East and was connected with the rice fields. Far to the North and South and East, lay the second low grounds, traversed by very extensive ditches and embankments, in some places 20 feet broad at the base and 10 or 15 feet high. They were the work of hundreds of laborers through several years, and they will remain monuments of George Moore's misdirected energies for a thousand years. All that low ground is more or less underlaid by limestone rock, too near the surface for the plough, and not eligible for rice fields; but here and there are considerable areas that are arable. The growth is heavy forest trees. Some of the rocks above the ground show indisputably that at no very remote period, that was an arm of the Sea, while the beds of sharks’ teeth at Clayton Hall were remarkable.

Across the Ditch to the North of the house, is the George Moore burying ground, with many gravestones in it, but I never visited it, though often saw it across the ditch.

I think Mount Gallant was in my day owned by Dr. S. S. Satchell, in right of his wife, who I think was a Miss Moore.


Colonel Maurice Moore, I think, gave the Hyrneham tract to his friend Colonel Hyrne. The date of the house was on the chimney. I have an indistinct impression that the date was 1752, but that is now hardly more than a mere conjecture. Indeed my impression has long been that Hyrneham was mentioned by a traveler at a much earlier date. As far back as 1845, I think Hyrneham belonged to Mr. Bordeaux. It was burned some twenty years ago, and the date on the chimney can doubtless be ascertained from some of the Bordeauxs. As Dr. Hill says, the walls were near three feet thick, and in my day, it was a very hospitable mansion. Mr. Bordeaux's liquors being always on the sideboard. As Harry Watters was Colonel Hyrne's nephew, then old Mr. Watters must have married Colonel Hyrne's sister. Watters’ name does not appear among the graduates of the University.

One of DeKiser's daughters was the mother or grandmother of Warren Winslow. DeKiser trained a horse belonging to the young men of the neighborhood that somebody told me Dr. Hill had said, was the fastest horse in America.

The following is condensed from a statement of Mrs. Donald Bain, who was born about 1765: “My grandmother by my mother's side was a French lady by name, Francis Pycarp DeLapite, who left France in the reign of Louis XIV on account of her religion, being a Huguenot, went to England, where my mother was educated and where my grandmother married a Dr. John Green, an Englishman, and from there they came to America. My grandfather Green died not long after the arrival and my grandmother married a second time to another doctor by the name of Adams, who was uncle to Ex-President John Q. Adams and brother to the first President, John Adams. By him she had one son who was sent to Scotland for his education and died at the age of sixteen. His name was Roger. My grandfather by my father's side was Dr. Thomas Hall, who also came from England and married Miss Elizabeth Beever, my father's mother, who also had a son named Thomas Hall, who was my father. My father married Lucy Ann Green, my mother; my father had a sister by name Elizabeth (Hall), who married Samuel Watters, grandfather to the present Joseph H. Watters, who also came from England. My brother Thomas Hall, had twelve children; my sister, Lucy Green Hall, married a Mr. Roger Moore, son of William Moore (the Moores also came from England).

My brother, John Hall, married Elizabeth Porter Grange, by whom he had three daughters, Lucy G., Sophie and Betsey Ann, and two sons, Thomas McLaine and William Roger. Thomas died in his 22nd year, and is buried at Pittsboro; William Roger married a Mrs. Anna Hall, widow of Captain William Hall (Miss Anna Laspier). Captain William Hall was my first cousin. Lucy married John Moore, who died soon afterwards. My brother William married Miss Lydia Daniel, by whom he had three sons and two daughters, John, William and Stephen, Julia, Mary Francis and Jane.

Julia married Joseph H. Watters; Mary Francis married Isham Blake; Jane married A. G. Steele, nephew of Blake, and both of Fayetteville. My brother Roger Hall, married Miss Mary Robeson of Fayetteville.

My father Thomas Hall, son of Dr. Thomas, and Elizabeth Beevers, had a brother William, who married a widow lady, Mrs. John Watters, who had a son by her first husband, William Watters. This William Watters married Mary Moore, a daughter of General James Moore.

My uncle, William Hall, had a son named William, whose first wife was Anna Ashe, daughter of General Ashe. She died and he married Phereby Williams, niece to Governor Williams. By this wife, he had three daughters; two died early and the other, Mildred, married Maurice Waddell, son of the late Hugh Waddell. His second wife died and for a third wife, he married Anna Laspier, by whom he left two sons and one daughter, Hamilton and Washington and Anna, the present Alfred Waddell's wife, and brother to Mr. Maurice Waddell.

My brother Thomas, was killed at Charleston in 1780. He was First Lieutenant in the North Carolina Brigade, age 20 years and six months.

(Note by S. A. Ashe.)

After the death of Captain William Hall, his last wife and widow, Anna Laspier, married William Roger Hall and had a large family. William Roger was her dead husband's nephew. It seems that whether the original Dr. Thomas Hall came to the Cape Fear or not, he had two sons to come, William Hall and Thomas, and they were on the Cape Fear before 1760. Governor Robert Daniel arrived in Charleston in 1690, Governor of North Carolina in 1703, of South Carolina 1716, died 1718, left two sons and three daughters; John Daniel, second son, moved to North Carolina, Lydia Daniel who married Wm. Hall and whose daughter Julia, married Joe Watters, was of that family, and I think that “old lady Robinson” as she was called, the Aunt of Caroline and Cornelia Jones, was of that family. One of these girls who married General Waddy Thompson, was one of the most beautiful women of the world. Judge Penn Meares was telling me about her the other day. General Thompson courted her at my father's house in 1850. Landgrave Smith came to South Carolina about 1688, and had a brother who went to New England. And from him the Adams descend.


Edwin A. Anderson

ADMIRAL EDWIN ALEXANDER ANDERSON, United States Navy, retired, one of the most distinguished men Wilmington ever produced, was born at Masonboro Sound, July 16, 1860. Suggestive of the fame which he has brought to Wilmington by reason of notable achievements, he is the only American Naval officer who has received Congressional recognition during three wars—the Spanish-American, the occupation of Vera Cruz, and the great World War. He, for a time, in 1918, in addition to his duties in command afloat, was governor of the Island of San Domingo. Also, by special order of the Cuban government, was in direct charge of the Cuban navy operating in the West Indian waters with the American fleet during the World War. Also, by reason of his masterful handling of the disastrous Japanese earthquake, in 1923, he was accorded special commendation by the President of the United States and the Nipponese government. Few men, even in the American Navy, have had a more illustrious career.

Admiral Anderson received his early education under private instruction at his home here, later attending the Cape Fear Academy, conducted by Professor Washington Catlett. Following his graduation from this institution, he enrolled in the school conducted in Wilmington during the 1870's by Rev. Daniel Morrell. At eighteen years of age, he received an appointment from Hon. Alfred M. Waddell as a cadet at the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, and entered that institution in 1878. He was graduated in 1882. Of that class, only one other, Mabry Johnson was selected as permanent Rear-Admiral in the active list, and only Admiral Anderson achieved the distinction of also becoming a Vice-Admiral and Admiral. In this year of 1882, begins one of the most notable careers in the annals of the Navy, an organization that has developed a greater number of American heroes than any division of the government; an organization that perhaps has written the most glorious history in the maritime records of the world; standing alone as the only undefeated Navy and whose exploits during America's century and a half of existence have challenged the admiration of civilization. Admiral Anderson's career, covering a period of thirty-five years and during which time the Spanish-American and the World Wars occurred is too varied and too important to understandingly review except in chronological order. And this may be briefly summarized as follows:

He was graduated in 1882 and promoted to Ensign in 1884. Ten years later, 1894, he was advanced to Lieutenant (Junior Grade) and to Commander in 1907. In 1917, at the beginning of the World War, he was commissioned a Rear Admiral (temporary) and the following year he was made a permanent Rear-Admiral. He held the rank of Vice-Admiral while commanding the United States Naval forces in European waters and the rank of Admiral while Commander-in-Chief of the Asiatic Fleet. He retired on March 23, 1924 with twenty-five years and five months sea service afloat. As Lieutenant, Lieutenant-Commander, Commander, Captain, Rear-Admiral, Vice-Admiral and Admiral most of his quarter of century service was in command afloat, and naturally, with historic events taking place, his position required that he perform many duties of tremendous importance. He served during the Spanish-American War on board the U. S. S. Marblehead, Commander B. H. McCalla, commanding. On July 9, 1898, he was placed in command of the captured British Steamer Adula and took her into Savannah, Georgia, where she was condemned. On June 13, 1898, he was commended by letter from the Commanding Officer of the Marblehead, to the Commander-in-Chief as a result of a night search for mines, laid in the channel leading from Guantanamo Bay to Caimanera, Cuba, as follows: “I desire to call your attention to the work done in this respect by Lieutenant Anderson, which required courage, coolness and great nerve and which, it seems to me, should be rewarded in some way.”

During this period, Admiral Anderson was promoted by Act of Congress five numbers on the list of Lieutenant for “Extraordinary Heroism in Action.” This was on the occasion of the cutting of the ocean cables from an open boat close to the shore off the harbor of Cienfuegos, Cuba, August 15, 1898, while exposed to the fire of a Spanish regiment nearby. Half of the boat's crew were killed, or wounded, before the work was completed. By direction of the Commander-in-Chief. Admiral William S. Sampson, he was assigned to the command of a Battery of Field Artillery, taken from the Fleet, with a mixed force of sailors and marines, with orders to co-operate with the Cuban General Perez in an attack against Guantanamo City, Cuba. This expedition never took place owing to the objections raised by General Shafter to such work on shore by the Navy. On September 2, 1898, he was placed in command of the small captured Spanish Gunboat Sandoval and took her north to Portsmouth, New Hampshire,

and safely weathered the same gale that wrecked the captured Spanish armored Crusier Marie Theresa. At the time of taking command, the Sandoval was in such bad condition from rust and neglect that her Spanish commanders had not risked taking her out from the harbor for many years. While Lieutenant-Commander Anderson was commanding the Second Torpedo Flotilla, at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, a terrible earthquake occurred at Kingston, Jamaica, January 16, 1907, which completely destroyed that city and many of the inhabitants were killed, or injured. By verbal order from the Commander-in-Chief, Admiral Robley D. Evans, he proceeded at full speed to Jamaica and entered the harbor of Kingston at night where all the light houses and other navigation aids had been destroyed. A German steamer attempting to enter a few hours afterwards ran aground and became a total loss. His (Admiral Anderson's) Flagship, the U. S. Destroyer Whipple, carried Naval Medical officers and supplies to the sufferers. For this work, he was commended, in writing, by Admiral Evans.

Four years later, 1911, while in command of the U. S. S. Yorktown, at the request of the President of Panama, he went to the rescue of the survivors of the Panama Steamer Taboga, wrecked on an uncharted, desolate coast at the southwest entrance of the Gulf of Panama. He succeeded in bringing back safely to the City of Panama all of the survivors of the wreck, among whom were two nieces of the President of Panama and members of other well known Panama families. For this service, Commander Anderson was given a Silver Service by the citizens and the Government of Panama. When Captain in command of the U. S. Battleship New Hampshire, he was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for “Extraordinary Heroism in Battle.” This engagement occurred at Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 22, 1914, while he was commanding the Second Seamen Regiment ashore when that city was seized under order of President Wilson. After the relief of the Naval forces ashore by the army, Admiral Anderson was given command of a Regiment of Field Artillery made up from units of the Battle Fleet to co-operate with the Army under General Funston in case of further operations against Mexico City.

At the outbreak of the World War, Admiral Anderson was supervisor of Naval auxiliaries. He was first assigned command of Squadron No. 1, Patrol Force, then Squadron No. 3, Patrol Force, and, afterwards, when Squadrons Nos. 1 and 3 were consolidated under the name of the “American Patrol Detachment” he was given command of that force. His district comprised the Gulf of Mexico, the waters around the Caribbean Islands and the Bahamas and the Eastern Coast of Central America and the Canal Zone. Shortly after his promotion to the rank of Rear-Admiral, he established the squadron base at Key West, Florida and started in training his force for anti-submarine warfare, special attention being given to the use of listening devices for locating and following submerged submarines. He also carried out exhaustive experiments in the co-operation of air and surface craft, determining the visibility of submarines submerged at various depths and the effect of different coloring of submarines on their visibility submerged. So skillful did the anti-submarine craft become that toward the end of the war, it was almost impossible for a submarine to escape after having been located. Admiral Anderson also drew up a plan for the routing and escorting of shipping from the Gulf of Mexico to European waters in case the German submarines appearing in force on the Atlantic or Gulf waters menaced commerce. This plan was approved by the American Commander-in-Chief and the Navy Department, but was objected to by both the British and French flag officers as “changing the existing arrangements” At a conference of British, French and American flag officers at Kingston, Jamaica, the plan was unanimously agreed to without modification. He also arranged a convoy system for merchant shipping from the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Coast ports by way of the Straits of Florida.

The Cuban Navy was placed under his operating orders by the Cuban government and he had the largest vessels of that force trained to a very creditable standard of gunnery efficiency. He also drew up an “Estimate of the Situation” and issued “Campaign Orders,” for the entire Cuban Navy. He likewise devised means for defending the Cuban Ports which were put into effect by that government. For the above mentioned service, he was awarded the Congressional “Distinguished Service Medal” with the following citation: “For exceptionally meritorious service in a duty of great responsibility in organizing and in the administration and operation of the American Patrol Detachment and the developing arrangements for the co-operation of air, submarine and surface craft. Also for your successful co-operation with the Cuban government in making available vessels of the Cuban navy efficient and ready for service.”

In 1919, Admiral Anderson was ordered to duty as Commander of the Seventh Naval District and Navy Yards, Charleston, South Carolina. He completely re-organized the administration of the Navy Yard on modern, industrial lines and brought up the spirit and morale of the civilian employes to a high state of efficiency. Instead of the work of the manufacturing and repairing departments being more expensive than at the other yards, as it was upon his taking command, similar work was done more cheaply at the Charleston Yard after the re-organization than at any other Navy Yard. In consideration of the above, he was ordered to Washington as “President of a Board for the Re-organization of the Navy Department and Shore Activities.” Most of the recommendations of this board were approved and the majority of them promptly put into effect. At this time, he was offered duty as second in command of the Atlantic Fleet with rank of Vice-Admiral. Although the acceptance of this duty would probably have resulted in his succeeding the Commander-in-Chief of command of the Fleet and eventually as commander of the United States Fleets, he declined the offer as the then Commander-in-Chief was Junior to him in lineal rank. His refusal was based on his belief that it was contrary to the best traditions of the service and bad for the morale for a Senior to serve afloat under a Junior in time of peace. In taking this stand, he was actuated solely by what he considered to be for the good of the service. His stand was appreciated by the Secretary of the Navy and approved by the ranking officers of the Navy. Since that time Seniors have not been assigned to duty afloat under their Juniors.

On June 19, 1922, he was appointed Commander of the United States Naval Forces operating in European waters, with the rank of Vice Admiral. He had been in command but a few weeks when he was promoted to the command of the Asiatic Fleet with the rank of Admiral. The work of organizing and training this fleet was vigorously begun. The Asiatic Fleet for years had a very low standing; well below that of the other United States Fleets. Due to constant training and exercises, toward the end of his term of command the Asiatic Fleet stood highest in all forms of gunnery and other exercises and the morale and the spirit of the Fleet's personnel were exceedingly good. On September 1, 1923, a terrible earthquake in Japan completely destroyed the City of Yokohama, and the modern section of Tokyo and towns and villages within a radius of thirty-five miles of Yokohama. Admiral Anderson, at the time of the earthquake was in Chefoo, China, and received news of the disaster at noon, September 2. He immediately issued orders to a division of Destroyers to proceed at high speed to Japan, offer the services and resources of the Asiatic Fleet to the Japanese governments through the American Ambassador and to establish a chain of radio communications. These vessels were the first foreign men-of-war to arrive after the earthquake and at once started the work of relief. He also issued orders to Fleet auxiliaries to proceed to the larger Chinese treaty ports and purchase and fill up all available space with supplies, such as foods, clothing, medical supplies, disinfectants and building materials. This was done on his own responsibility without waiting to communicate with Washington. The effect of these orders was to practically buy out all available supplies in the cities of Chefoo, Tsing, Tao, Shanghai, Hangkow, China, and Manila, P. I. In all about $750,000 worth of supplies were purchased and delivered to the Japanese authorities before any other foreign relief was received with the exception of the United States Army medical supplies. He then proceeded to Yokohama in his Flagship Huron, arriving September 7. On his way to Yokohama he received instructions from the Navy Department to proceed to the relief of the Japanese which he already had anticipated. The vessels of the United States Shipping Board were by order of the President, the late Warren G. Harding, placed under his orders for relief duty. He received from the President what virtually amounted to a check to draw an unlimited amount on the United States Treasury, an unprecedented mark of confidence. This came in a dispatch as follows: “From the Secretary of the Navy, by direction of the President, you are authorized to purchase whatever supplies and make whatever expenditures necessary for relief. Give all possible aid.”

The United States Embassy having been totally destroyed, the Ambassador and his family were quartered aboard the Flagship and remained there until the departing of the Fleet. Close relations were established with the Japanese Naval officials and the American Naval vessels were called upon for assistance by the Japanese Fleet. This was not true of any other Navies, although the British, French and Italian Navy vessels were present. The activities of the American Fleet were briefly described in a dispatch from Brigadier-General Frank R. McCoy, United States Army, to the Secretary of War, John W. Weeks, as follows:

“Admiral Anderson and the American Fleet sailed today, leaving behind two Destroyers and one mine layer. He assured me of quick arrival of Sacramento, which ship and tug will remain here as long as needed to assist Embassy and Army. From moment of my arrival, Admiral Anderson has given for relief work every assistance and all facilities of Fleet. Quick arrival of the Navy, first from outside, was God-send to Americans and other foreign refugees, furnishing facilities for their evacuation from earthquake zone and comfortable refuge aboard ship, until they could be despatched, including facilities for American Consulate and Amercian business men. Cleaned up American Consulate ashore and established it anew in camp. Searched for and buried American dead, cracked safes, securing valuables and securities for American and foreign firms. Furnished water for all American ships, touching at Yokohama, and for Americans and Army hospital ashore. Fought fire on one American ship, succored two others broken down and repaired machinery so that they would be able to proceed further. Furnished medical assistance and supplies to Tokyo, Yokohama, Kobe. Furnished supplies and food to Embassy and relief organizations at Tokyo until arrival of Army transports and assisted them in unloading and establishing Field hospital ashore. Above covers a part of their many activities. I am so proud of the Navy and spirit of service of officers and sailors which never fagged throughout three weeks of constant effort that I request foregoing be communicated to the Secretary of the Navy. (Signed) McCoy.”

The following endorsement was posted on this dispatch by the Secretary of War:

“1. It gives me great pleasure to transmit to you the attached copy of the radio message received from Brigadier-General Frank McCoy, the officer in charge of the Army relief activities in Japan.

“2. I heartily endorse the sentiment expressed by General McCoy. The work of the Navy in Japan is something we may well be proud of.

“Weeks, Secretary of War.”

The United States Ambassador sent the following dispatch to the Secretary of State, Charles Evans Hughes:

“Tokyo, September 22, 1923: The Honorable Secretary of State, Washington: I have the honor to report that the Asiatic Fleet sailed from Yokohama Bay yesterday. It arrived at the psychological time and it left at the psychological time in so far as the necessities and sentiment of the Japanese are concerned. It brought the first relief to the earthquake and fire victims of Japan and the promptness with which it came and the efficiency with which it met the emergency upon its arrival here not only made a great impression upon the Japanese but was an inspiration to them to meet the emergency with like promptness and efficiency. I am firmly convinced that the situation could not have been handled better than Admiral Anderson handled it. He not only brought the identical supplies needed but he saw to it that they went to the proper place. He did it all with great decision and tact and when his work was done he did not overstay his welcome but sailed away leaving the Japanese regretting his departure. His action reflected credit upon our Navy and upon our government and made a deep impression upon Japanese sentiment. I feel that it is due Admiral Anderson that the Secretary of Navy should be advised of the excellent work that he has done in this great emergency and I shall be glad if the department will forward a copy of this dispatch to him. I have the honor to be, Your Obedient Servant, (Signed) Cyrus B. Woods.”

The Japanese Ambassador to Washington sent the following note of appreciation to the State Department.

“Japanese Embassy, Washington, October 30, 1923. Sir: When the first news of the dreadful event in Japan was flashed abroad, Admiral Anderson at once despatched to the scene of disaster the ships under his command with all available equipment to meet the emergency. In the face of indescribable confusion and difficulties, the Admiral, as well as the officers and men under him, with unflagging zeal and enthusiasm set themselves to the task of carrying relief to the countless sufferers, both at sea and ashore. It was largely due to their prompt and gallant assistance that the situation was brought well under control in a short time. At the same time, General McCoy hastened to the scene from his Philippine post, and, as chief of the American relief agencies in Japan, devoted himself with his staff, day and night, to the performance of his mission and under very trying circumstances he directed and

encouraged the relief corps to such good effect that there was established within ten days American hospital stations in both Tokyo and Yokohama, which he referred to as the Japanese Red Cross. Both the Admiral and General, satisfied that their work was done, have lately left my country, leaving behind them a glow of admiration and gratitude that will live for years to come. I am entrusted by His Majesty's Minister of Foreign Affairs to carry to you and through you to all concerned the heartfelt thanks of the Japanese government and people for the splendid service rendered by Admiral Anderson and the Naval forces under his command and by General McCoy and the relief corps under him which so effectively demonstrated the particular sympathy of the United States government for the sufferers by the disaster. I accordingly have the honor to request that you will be so good as to cause this message to be transmitted to the proper quarters. Accept, Sir, the reverent assurance of my highest consideration. (Signed) M. Hanihara. Hon. Charles E. Hughes, Secretary of State.”

The following letter was received from the Secretary of the Navy, Edwin A. Denby, by Admiral Anderson:

“11 October, 1923.

“From: Secretary of the Navy.

“To: Admiral E. A. Anderson, U. S. Navy:

“Subject: Letter of Commendation.

“1. The Department notes with great satisfaction the promptness with which you proceeded with the vessels of your Fleet to the assistance of the stricken people in the area of the recent great earthquake disaster in Japan and with equal satisfaction the broad, comprehensive and effective steps taken by you to obtain and transport urgently needed supplies. The promptness and efficiency shown in your preliminary action were equaled by the work done by yourself and the officers and men of your command in the actual work of relief at the scene of disaster.

“2 The Department wishes to express to you its high appreciation of the ability, tact and leadership shown by yourself and its equally high appreciation of the efficiency of your Fleet and the readiness and devotion to duty of your officers and men.

“Heartiest Congratulations,

(Signed) Edwin Denby.”

On October 11, 1924, Admiral Anderson hauled down his flag for the last time and was relieved from the command of the Asiatic Fleet by Admiral Thomas Washington, also from North Carolina. He was ordered to Washington, D. C., and upon his arrival, was sent for by the President of the United States and was thanked by him for the services rendered by the Asiatic Fleet while he was in command. On March 23, 1924, Admiral Anderson retired at his own request, there being no available duty on shore which he considered dignified for him to accept.

Admiral Anderson, since his retirement from the Navy, has made his home at one of the most attractive areas on Masonboro Sound. His activities, social and civic, are those of the normal, healthy, progressive and influential citizen. His club memberships are limited to the Army and Navy Club, Washington, and to the Society of the Cincinnati. He is an honorary member of the Rotary Club of Wilmington and the Kiwanis Club of Philipsburg, Pennsylvania; also an honorary member of the Wilmington Chamber of Commerce and the Carolina Yacht Club. In religion, he is a communicant of St. James Episcopal Church. Politically, he is Independent. His home is most interesting by reason of a collection of unique relics. There are bolo knives and guns from the Philippines and from the pirate chieftains of China; machetes from Cuba; and priceless embroidered pictures from Japan. Two of this unusual collection probably stand out with most appeal to visitors. One of these is a series of three flags—Rear-Admiral, with its two stars. Vice-Admiral, with three stars, and Admiral, with its four stars, each of which flew above his flagship when in command of fleets. The other is a glass encased manuscript, in General George Washington's hand-writing, issuing the first commission, October 22, 1775, ever issued to an American armed schooner, the Harrison, to prey upon a foreign Navy—the British. The commission was issued to Captain Coit, of New London, Connecticut, a lineal ancestor of Admiral Anderson, and the man who acquired the first distinction of “turning the Union Jack (emblem of England) upside down.”

Admiral Anderson is of English descent and the genealogical table traces back to the Fifteenth century. His father was the late Dr. Edwin A. Anderson, native of Wilmington and one of the most highly respected and beloved men of his generation. His mother was Mary (Lillington) Anderson, also a native of Wilmington and daughter of General Alexander Lillington. The Anderson family lineage, beginning in the early part of the Fifteenth Century, may be briefly traced as follows: On October 26, 1407, John Anderson and three others, were made bailies of the Borough of Iverkeithing “and given all privileges pertaining thereto.” (Confirmed by Crown Charter at Sterling, Scotland, July 17, 1435). In the middle of the Sixteenth Century, Thomas Anderson and his wife, Elspet Anderson, were tenants in Hilton of Rosyth (Register of Deeds XVI, Edinburgh, Scotland). In the second half of the Seventeenth century, John Anderson was town clerk of Inverkeithing. On May 30, 1625, occur William Anderson and his wife, Christian Pearson; and also on August 10, 1661, William Anderson and his wife, Christiance Mather. There also appears of record on August 13, 1646, two brothers. John and Alexander Anderson, who were admitted Brethren of the Guildry of Inverkeithing. The Anderson family continued to reside at Inverkeithing and then, in February, 1774, James Anderson married Helen Gordon and had issue: Elizabeth, 1777; Jean, 1779; Helen, 1781; James, 1783; Alexander, March 2, 1785; and Margaret, 1787. James and Helen Anderson, with their family moved to Fairfax County, Virginia and at the solicitation of General George Washington, James Anderson moved his family to Mount Vernon and became manager of all of General Washington's estates. The General trusted him with all his affairs and always treated him as an honored friend. One year after General Washington's death, James Anderson and his family went to live at the “White House” (probably Arlington) the home of G. W. P. Curtis, the father of Mrs. Robert E. Lee. They resided there until they died, honored and mourned by the Curtis family. Alexander Anderson, the third son, was an especial favorite of General Washington and often rode with him. He lived for a while in Fairfax County and then moved, January 1, 1800, to Wilmington, North Carolina where he engaged in business. On November 21, 1811, he married Mary Howard, daughter of Colonel Thomas Howard, of Revolutionary fame. Alexander and Mary (Howard) Anderson had issue of James, Margaret Young and Edwin Alexander, all born in Wilmington. Edwin Alexander Anderson, the third child, was born June 17, 1815, lived all his life here and died March 11, 1894. After a brilliant career at Yale, he practiced medicine and was respected and beloved by the entire community. He married Mary Coit Lillington and they had issue as follows: Ellen, Mary (Minnie), Margaret Young, William, Eliza and Edwin Alexander (subject of this sketch).

On his mother's side (the Lillingtons) Admiral Anderson's lineage also is illustrious and traces into early history. The Lillington family originally moved from Norwich, England (Village of Lillington). George Lillington was master in the Earl of Leicester's hospital for retired soldiers, which was established in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. There are many names of Lillington in this section and many are buried in St. Mary's Churchyard where stands the tomb of Shakespere. Colonel George Lillington, an officer in the British service, after an expedition against the French, settled in the Island of Barbadoes and became a member of the Royal Council. In that capacity, he remained during the reign of William and Mary and the beginning of the reign of Queen Anne. His son, Alexander Lillington, attracted by the glowing accounts of Carolina, came thither, built a fine mansion, “Lillington Hall” on the northeast branch of the Cape Fear River, about thirty miles above Wilmington, within the present limits of New Hanover County. Alexander Lillington, one of the oldest names in the Province, was appointed, December 3, 1669, with four others, the records show, to hold the Precinct Courts of Berkley Precinct, now Perquimans County. In 1693, he was appointed Deputy Governor of North Carolina. He married Sarah Adams, of Massachusetts, and had issue of one son, John, and four daughters. John Lillington, his son, married Sarah Porter, daughter of John Porter, and of this marriage, was born John Alexander, who afterwards dropped the given name of “John” and became known as General Alexander Lillington of the Revolution. General Lillington married Sarah Watters, and of this marriage was born one son, George, who became the great-grandfather of Admiral Anderson. Alexander Lillington, the General, was a great patriot and at the beginning of preparations for the American Revolution, he was made a member of the Wilmington Committee of Safety and Colonel of Militia. On February 27, 1776, he fought and won the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge against the Highlanders, the first battle fought in the South for freedom from England. His services were recognized by promotion to the rank of Brigadier-General in which capacity he served throughout the war. He is buried in the family graveyard at

Lillington Hall. John Lillington, General Alexander Lillington's father, also served in the Revolution. Returning to the line of descent. George Lillington, son of General Lillington, married Miss Coit, who became the parents of John A. and Sarah. John A. married Mary Hill, and had two sons, John A. III, and George. George never married. John A. III (Major U. S. A), married Betty Williams and was survived by two sons, Nicholas Williams and John A. IV, and a daughter, Mary Coit Lillington, who married Dr. Edwin Alexander Anderson and became the mother of Admiral Anderson. Mary Coit (Lillington) Anderson was born September 8, 1823 and died September 13, 1897, nearly three years after the death of her husband.

On December 22, 1888, Admiral Anderson married Miss Mertie Mosely Lorain, of Baltimore, Maryland. Mrs. Anderson also is of most illustrious lineage. Her father was Major Lorenzo Lorain, United States Army, graduate of West Point in 1886, wounded at the first battle of Bull Run, later an instructor in the West Point Military Academy and the originator of photography in the Army. Her mother was Fannie (McDonald) Lorain, descended from six generations of Lorains who acted as clerks of the United States Senate, one of whom, William J. McDonald, took charge of and preserved the archives when the British General Ross captured Washington and burned the Capitol in the War of 1812. The Lorain family was founded in America by Thomas Lorain, commander of the Sloop Viper, home port in the Jamaicas. Thomas Lorain, the records show, was commissioned by letters of marque from George II of England “to sail the seas against the French” in 1759. He later settled in Chester Town (now Chester) Pennsylvania. John, his son, later became a merchant at Philipsburg and was the first potsmaster of that city. His son, Dr. Henry Lorain, practicing in medicine at Philipsburg and Clearfield, was the father of Major Lorenzo Lorain who married Fannie Moseley McDonald, and they became the parents of Mrs. Anderson. Fannie Moseley McDonald was the daughter of William Johnson McDonald, for many years chief clerk and parliamentarian of the United States Senate. The line begins with Andrew McDonald, Scotchman, and continues: John Gunn McDonald, who became chief clerk of the Senate, early in the Nineteenth century; his son William Johnson McDonald, who succeeded his father as chief clerk; Hubbard Bowyer McDonald succeeded W. J. McDonald as clerk and all died in office. W. J. McDonald was the father of Fannie Moseley (McDonald) Lorain, mother of Mrs. Anderson. Mrs. Anderson, on her grandmother's side (wife of Dr. Henry Lorain) is descended from Benjamin Johnson, son of Thomas Johnson, Calvert County, Maryland, and a brother of Thomas Johnson, Jr., first Governor of Maryland to be elected by the people and a Major commanding a Battalion under Washington.

Only one child, Lorain Anderson, now a Lieutenant-Commander, United States Navy, was born of the marriage of Admiral and Mrs. Anderson. Lieutenant-Commander Anderson was graduated from the United States Naval Academy in the Class of 1910. He served during the World War in command of a Destroyer operating out of Queenstown as a base. He was awarded the Congressional Navy Cross for his service and now is stationed at Pearl Harbor Naval Station, Hawaiian Islands. He shared with his father, in 1919, in one of the most unique and most appealing ceremonials (the only one of its kind of which there is any record), at Charleston, South Carolina, when acting as aide to Admiral Anderson, he pinned the Congressional “Distinguished Service Medal,” upon the breast of his father's uniform, who, in turn, pinned the “Navy Cross,” also a Congressional Medal, upon the coat of his son. Each was emblematic of distinguished service during the World War.


James Sprunt

DR. JAMES SPRUNT (born in Glasgow, Scotland, June 9, 1846; died in Wilmington, July 9, 1924) was known on two continents as “The Ideal Citizen.” It would be difficult to aspire to a greater distinction since it is a perfect honor when voluntarily accorded by friends and neighbors, chance acquaintances and by all the varied classes of peoples with whom he came in contact. “The Ideal Citizen” is a title, than which, when properly bestowed and entirely merited, as in this instance, there can be none more coveted.

Dr. Sprunt lived in Wilmington for more than a half century; became one of the South's most successful merchants; one of the state's most generous philanthropists; a citizen who was genuinely beloved by every resident of his home town and section; and whose civic, patriotic and religious influences will survive for centuries. Capt. Samuel A'Court Ashe, another distinguished North Carolinian and a personal friend of many years standing has succinctly described Dr. Sprunt as “a Patriot, Philanthropist and Man of God.” This trinity of human virtues begat the splendid appellation of “The Ideal Citizen.”

He was distinctly a product of Wilmington. Though born in Scotland, his parents, Alexander Sprunt and Jane Dalziel Sprunt, came to America and settled at Kenansville, Duplin county, in 1852. Two years later, or when Dr. Sprunt was a child eight years of age, the family moved to Wilmington. Prior to this removal, the son had received two years schooling, one year at Glasgow and the other under his uncle, Dr. James M. Sprunt, of Grove Academy at Kenansville. In Wilmington, he attended Jewett's Academy, four years; one year at Colonel Ratcliffe's Military Academy; and one year at Mengert's school. And, then at 14, “under pressure of imperative circumstances” he was put to work with a local firm—the modest weekly wage being turned over to his father as an aid to the general family fund.

This small beginning, through ability, industry and integrity, was destined to end in a career that has had few counterparts even in America, the vast alembic from which opportunities constantly drop to be developed by those capable and worthy.

Dr. Sprunt's life history would entertainingly and instructively fill a volume. The limited space here permits only the briefest abstract. This, though, will suffice to show his varied activities as merchant, “patriot, philanthropist and man of God.” At 17, he was serving the Confederacy aboard blockade runners, assigned the hazardous task of bringing in supplies for the Southern armies. During this period, he was associated with many men whose courage added luster to the fame of American seamanship, among whom was Capt. John Newland Maffitt.

His business life began in 1865-66, and the business which he jointly founded with his father and which was destined to become one of the oldest established firms of its kind in the United States, with branch offices in New York, Boston, Greenville, S. C., Houston, Bremen, Liverpool and other localities actually depended on five bales of cotton. The story is a tragedy with a happy ending; a business romance peculiarly American. Dr. Sprunt had saved enough money from his wages in the navy to buy a small quantity of sugar; this was sold and the proceeds invested in 24 bales of cotton. The cotton was stored at Fayetteville for safety, but Sherman and his incendiaries appeared in that city and 12 bales were burned; seven, later, were stolen. With the remaining five, the great firm of Alexander Sprunt & Son opened for business, in the early part of 1866, in a small building on South Water street, Wilmington.

From that humble start, the firm became a giant of progress and development and has occupied a unique position with the cotton mills and in banking circles throughout America and Europe. And for nearly seventy-five years it has continued under the same firm name. Also, there have been but three changes in the personnel of ownership and management. When Dr. Sprunt's father died, in 1884, he took his youngest brother, William H. Sprunt into partnership, and afterwards another brother, the late Thomas Edward Sprunt was taken into the firm. Integrity was and still is the backbone of the great Sprunt business. No paper issued by that firm ever has been dishonored by an individual, bank or firm. This was a matter of frank and genuine pride with Dr. Sprunt and, in 1884, when the company was re-organized, he issued a circular letter to the heads of the scores of departments instructing that this fine hundred percent record must continue through the ages.

Inevitably, Dr. Sprunt prospered. But he shared his wealth through philanthropies with such a lavish, but modest and intelligent hand that he became known as “Wilmington's Leading and Ideal Citizen.” Crippled children by the scores were provided

with surgical and medical attention. Unfortunate homes, both white and black, were constant recipients of his munificent solicitude; the slightest service received generous reward—it was a happy Christmas custom to substantially remember street car conductors, who had frequently stopped their cars at his Beach home that he might be saved a walk of a half block on account of his lameness. His larger benefactions ran into big figures. Numerous church congregations, here, at Chapel Hill, in the Far East and elsewhere, are worshipping in suitable buildings because of his help. Presbyterian missions, at home and abroad, have been endowed by him; personal friends, caught in a series of distressful circumstances, did not appeal to him in vain. Hospitals, lodges, civic organizations—all were aided. He was a patron of the arts and literature and every recent history of North Carolina and of the South is a testimonial to this—he was glad to lend to historians the pictures of Colonial notables and other distinguished North Carolinians which he had assembled at his Wilmington home. He purchased and has caused to be preserved historic Orton and Kendal Plantations, whose broad acres are the cradle of civilization in the Lower Cape Fear, dating back to the 1720's. He devoted many of his last years to assembling incidents which aided greatly in preserving the history of this interesting region and caused these to be printed into book form and which now are among the most prized volumes of the literature of the state.

In addition to all this, he had time to serve his city, his country and the country of his fathers. He always was active in furthering the development of Wilmington. He is the “father of the movement for a 30-foot channel” between Wilmington and the Ocean, which, at this time is showing evidences of tangible success. He served in myriad capacities on special committees, commissions and other bodies, seldom declining any of the innumerable tasks which all aspiring communities thrust upon successful and influential men. Upon the death of his father, he became British vice consul, and at the same time, had occasion to serve the German Imperial government in matters that affected this area, prior to the World War.

His high citizenship, sterling honesty and outstanding ability caused his services always to be in demand. He held many public and responsible positions, including British vice consul, German consul, chairman of the board of commissioners of navigation and pilotage, president of the Wilmington Produce Exchange, president of the Seamen's Friend Society, president of the State Literary and Historical Association of North Carolina, president of the North Carolina Folk Lore Society, trustee of the University of North Carolina and was a member of the Wilmington board of education. Numerous honors were conferred upon him, among those being Doctor of Laws, by University of North Carolina, election to membership in the Alpha chapter of the Phi Beta Kappa Society of William and Mary College and numerous other honors.

As a result of his activities in all lines—religion, civic improvement, patriotic endeavors, philanthropies, literature and art—because of all this, he became known, both nationally and internationally, as a great American. His personal friendships included the lowliest and the highest; from meager wage earners to American presidents. Viewed from every varied angle, his was a useful and splendid life. In the language of one of the hundreds of resolutions in tribute to his memory, passed immediately following his death, he was “first in citizenship, in intellect, in material achievements, in literary accomplishment, in constructive benevolences. He was unique and without a peer in this community.” And “with all his sagacity and skill and success in practical affairs, with all his concentration of energy, upon whatever enterprise he had in mind, he remained to the last an idealist, high-souled, broad-minded, sympathetic, benevolent, devout. We thank God for a man who was both a rock and a river, both a shelter and a source of fertility.” Truly he was an ideal citizen. It was in the fitness of things that a great city paused at his death to pay special tribute to his memory.

Dr. Sprunt was of old Covenanter stock. His grandfather was Laurence Sprunt, a farmer of Perthshire, Scotland, and endued with the spirit and the pluck that have made the Scots models of religious virtue and rock-ribbed defenders of right and justice. His father, Alexander Sprunt, handed down the heritage, and Dr. Sprunt, in his turn, has set the example to his own son, James Laurence, now associated with W. H. Sprunt and his sons in the management of the vast business which his father and grandfather started. Dr. Sprunt married Luola Murchison, daughter of Col. Kenneth McKenzie Murchison, November 27, 1883. Three children were born of the marriage, Kate, who died when a child; Marion, who died at the age of twelve; and a son, James Laurence, who upon his return at the close of the World War, in which he enlisted immediately after America's entry, continues to reside in Wilmington.


JUDGE GEORGE ROUNTREE, senior member of the law firm of Rountree & Carr, former legislator and responsible for the “Grandfather Clause” in the State Constitution, former judge of the Superior Court, former president of the State Bar Association; profoundly learned, charming of address, genuinely dignified and of strictest integrity, easily is among the most distinguished members of his profession in the South. One North Carolina historian properly defines Judge Rountree as a man of fine attainment and character and constructive deeds of achievements, adding: “In business, politics and the law, the name of Rountree has been one of honorable distinctions in this region for a long period of years.”

Judge Rountree was born at Kinston, Lenoir County, July 7, 1855. His father, Robert Hart Rountree, was one of the wealthiest business men of that section, with interests in North Carolina and New York, and who provided every possible educational opportunity for his son. His early education was received at private schools, and, at seventeen years of age, he entered Bethany College, West Virginia. This school was founded by Alexander Campbell, son of Thomas Campbell, founder of the Church of the Disciples (the Christian Church). It is of interest that the late Champ Clark once was president of Bethany College. Judge Rountree remained at Bethany one year and then matriculated at Harvard University from which he graduated, in 1877, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. About this time, he also was admitted to the practice of law in the Lenoir County Superior Court, but because of failing health temporarily abandoned that profession and engaged in business for the next four or five years. Business was uncongenial and, in 1882, he resumed law practice, becoming associated with his uncle, A. J. Loftin, under the firm name of Loftin & Rountree. He continued in this firm until 1890, when he removed to Wilmington, then the largest and busiest city in the state and promptly became one of the leading members of the New Hanover County Bar. In 1901, he became associated with J. O. Carr, a former member of the legislature from Duplin County and a lawyer of exceptional ability, under the firm name of Rountree & Carr. This partnership was destined to become one of the most notable and successful in the entire South. In 1913, however, the partnership was interrupted by Gov. Locke Craig's appointment of Judge Rountree as a judge of the Superior Court and the following year, 1914, he was re-elected for the full term of that position. Because the judgeship entailed an almost constant absence from home, he resigned, in 1916, and resumed his law practice, his associates being J. O. Carr and Thomas W. Davis, a nephew of Judge Rountree and a grandson of the late George Davis. The firm of Rountree, Davis & Carr, continued one year, when Mr. Carr withdrew to accept the appointment of United States District Attorney under President Woodrow Wilson and, three years later, Mr. Davis withdrew to accept the general solicitorship of the great Atlantic Coast Line System. Upon the withdrawal of Mr. Davis and the expiration of the term of J. O. Carr as Federal attorney, the old firm of Rountree & Carr, established in 1901, was resumed and still continues.

The above is a brief epitome of the career of Judge Rountree. During his nearly two score years residence in Wilmington, being possessed of superior talent, of strong and intelligent views upon public questions and with the unqualified courage to ably and fearlessly support his convictions, it is natural that he has appeared in many notable litigations and has attained to numerous important distinctions. Among the historic cases in which he has been identified, have been the receivership of the Cape Fear & Yadkin Valley Railroad and in the trials which resulted from the dispute between North Dakota and North Carolina, “in which,” again quoting from a North Carolina history published a decade ago, “he appeared as one of the counsel for North Carolina and although unsuccessful, his argument was adopted in the dissenting opinion of Justice (the late Chief Justice) White.” As a further evidence of his leadership in the community in which he makes his home, Judge Rountree was chairman of the committee on resolutions and a member of the committee which was in charge of affairs during the “Wilmington Revolution,” early in November, 1898, when, because of an intolerable political situation, the best citizenship of the city organized to resist a negro element that had been challenging the supremacy of the white people for several months. The resolutions adopted by that committee now are among the files of Hugh MacRae, one of the industrial leaders of this section and who served with Judge Rountree during that epochal event. The manner in which Judge Rountree performed every duty required of him at that time is attested by the quick and successful suppression of the riot, the abolishment of negro domination and by his election to the General Assembly in that same month in order that adequate legislation might be enacted to prevent a recurrence of such a condition. It was during this term

Geo. Rountree

of the legislature, 1899, that he became chairman of the committee on Constitutional Amendments; practically drafted and secured the passage of the amendment on suffrage, or elective franchise, known throughout the United States as the “Grandfather Clause.” It is of historic interest and proper to explain at this point that the suffrage amendment was adopted in 1900 and continues the basis of electoral qualifications in North Carolina; its primary purpose being to assure a reasonably educated electorate and that purpose has been realized, to a tremendous extent, by the stimulus it has given to public schools and popular education. Another feature of the legislation is that it requires the payment of poll tax as a qualification for voting, the benefits of which are immediately manifest. He was re-elected to the General Assembly in 1901 and served in the session of 1902 with characteristic ability and distinction.

His religious, civic, social, fraternal and associational activities are extensive and of a remarkably high character. He is a member of St. James’ Protestant Episcopal Church, of which he now is a vestryman and until his appointment as Superior Judge, in 1913, was chancelor of the East Carolina Diocese. He has served as a member of the board of education of New Hanover County and, during the World War, was chairman of the commission to review the acts of the selective draft board. He affiliates with the American Bar Association, the North Carolina Bar Association, of which he is a past-president, the New Hanover County Bar Association and the Association of the Bar of New York City. While a student at Bethany College he was a Beta Theta Pi and now is a member of the Wilmington Chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution. He is a member of the local Chamber of Commerce, and, socially, of the Cape Fear Club, the Cape Fear Country Club, the Carolina Yacht Club, all of Wilmington, and of the Harvard Club, New York City. Withal, he is a most remarkably well rounded, influential and useful citizen; courteous, constant in friendships and a magnificent examplar of the thoroughbred North Carolinian, a splendid scion of a splendid ancestry.

Judge Rountree's father, Robert Hart Rountree, was a native of Pitt County, as were the Rountrees for generations back into the pre-Revolutionary period. He was one of the most successful business men of his time in North Carolina and was engaged in cotton brokerage, banking, farming and in the various investments of a capitalist. His home office was located in Kinston with branches in Wilmington, New York and elsewhere. He married Miss Cynthia B. Loftin, who became the mother of Judge Rountree. She was a native of North Carolina, the daughter of William C. Loftin, a merchant of Kinston, and a member of a distinguished Lenoir County family. James Loftin, according to Wheeler's History of North Carolina, served in the House of Commons, 1812-13, and in the Senate, 1819-20. The Loftins were influential in Pitt, Johnston and other counties of that section. Judge Rountree's grandfather was Charles Jenkins Rountree, also born in Pitt County and who became a planter of much wealth. His father, Jesse Rountree, Judge Rountree's great-grandfather, was contemporary with the Revolutionary War, was active in that historic conflict and, later, was prominent in the public affairs of Pitt County, serving as sheriff. Jesse Rountree's father was Jesse Rountree, Sr., great-great-grandfather of Judge Rountree. Jesse Rountree, Sr., was the son of Francis Rountree. Francis Rountree was the son of Thomas Rountree, who in turn was the son of Robert Rountree. Thomas Rountree and his older children came to North Carolina from Nansemond County, Virginia. He was Justice of Peace for the Precinet of Chowan from 1712 to 1720. He was commissioned Assistant Judge of General Court, October 6, 1725. He died in 1746. Robert Rountree came to this country prior to 1700 and settled in Nansemond County, Virginia. He was a man of considerable prominence and much property.

On October 27, 1881, Judge Rountree married Miss Meta Alexander Davis, daughter of the late George Davis, Confederate Senator from North Carolina, member of President Jefferson Davis’ Cabinet as Attorney-General and a descendant of Sir John Yeamans, who discovered the Cape Fear River in 1663. The Davis family has been distinguished in the Lower Cape Fear Region and in the history of the Carolinas during every generation for the last 300 years. A detailed review of this fine old family appears in the biographical sketch of the late George Davis, in the frontispiece of this volume and also additional references are included in the sketch of the late Junius Davis and the history of Wilmington, written by Louis T. Moore, appearing in the early pages of this book. Five children have been born of the marriage of Judge and Mrs. Rountree. They are: Isabel D., who became the wife of Van Renssalear King, now deceased; Robert H., who died in infancy; Cynthia P., wife of Sidney G. MacMillan, Wilmington business man; Meta D., at home; and George Jr., now a student in the Harvard Law School.


Geo. B. Elliott

GEORGE BLOW ELLIOTT, President of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, was born at Norfolk, Va., March 22, 1873, but he has lived in Wilmington since early manhood, when his father, the late Warren G. Elliott, came here as President of the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad. Industrially, he easily is one of the leading citizens of the community and the state and is among the principal railroad chieftains of America.

Mr. Elliott's early education was acquired in private schools at Norfolk. He later attended the Norfolk Academy and graduated from the Virginia Military Institute. Class of ’92, with the degree of Civil Engineer. In 1896, he graduated from the Law School of Harvard University with the degree of Bachelor of Laws. It was in this latter year, also, that he actually began a railroad career that has carried him from special attorney of the great Coast Line System to its Presidency, together with the Presidencies of three other affiliated railways; the general counselship, advisory counselship, the chairmanship of boards or the directorship of still approximately a dozen others—the list of which will appear later in this sketch.

The name of Elliott has been prominent in American railroad organizations for the last half century, including such men as Warren G. Elliott, father of George B. Elliott and first president of the consolidated Atlantic Coast Line System; John M. Elliott, general counsel of the big Santa Fe, Rock Island and other large railroads, principally in the trans-Mississippi region; and Howard Elliott, chairman of the board of the Northern Pacific, but whose fame rests chiefly upon his accomplishments in helping to build the Burlington Route, now a part of the Hill group, into its present importance.

And George B. Elliott is adding new luster to the name. Beginning in September 1892, at the age of nineteen, as assistant resident engineer of the Chesapeake & Ohio, with headquarters at Gauley Bridge, West Virginia, he steadily climbed, by successive promotions to Special Attorney and Local Counsel, at Richmond, Va., Atlantic Coast Line, 1896 to 1906; to Assistant General Counsel, 1906 to 1916; General Counsel, 1916 to 1918; Vice President and General Counsel, 1918 to 1928; and, in 1928, President of the same road, in which capacity he now is serving. For several months, after his election to the Presidency, following the death of the late John R. Kenly, also of Wilmington, Mr. Elliott took care of the tremendous responsibilities of the system, both as General Counsel and as President. The following list of his present positions is copied from the “Directory of Railway Officials in America” and definitely establishes a proper basis for the boast of Wilmington citizens as contained in the last sentence of the first paragraph of this sketch:

Elliott, George B., President, Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, Office, Wilmington, North Carolina.

President Atlantic Land & Improvement Company, Wilmington Railway Bridge Company, the Belt Line Railway Company, Montgomery, Ala., and the South Carolina Pacific Railway Company.

Vice-President, Northwestern Railroad Company of South Carolina, Winston-Salem Southbound Company, Charleston & Western Carolina Railway Company and the North Charleston Terminal Company.

Chairman, The Executive Committee of the Charleston & Western Carolina and of the Board and of the Executive Committee of the Columbia, Newberry & Laurens Railroad Company.

General Counsel: The Atlantic Coast Line Company.

Advisory Counsel: Winston-Salem Southbound Railway Company and the Atlanta Birmingham & Coast Railroad Company.

Director of: Each of the above companies and the Louisville & Nashville Railroad Company, the Washington & Vandemere Railway Company and the Charleston Union Station Company.

That list is worth pondering. Especially so, since we, here in Wilmington, are accustomed to see Mr. Elliott sitting in the back rows at local Democratic political

meetings; appearing, with other citizens, before the city and county commissioners to discuss hospital appropriations; working with committees on Red Cross donations; taking an active, but in nowise, noticeably leading part in St. James Episcopal, or other, church movements; and, with equally fine and most appealing modesty, performing such other duties as might be expected of a leading citizen in a comparatively small town—seeing him in these varied and pretty much commonplace roles one is liable to forget (and that is exactly what he would wish) the remarkably important niche he occupies in the industrial life of the greatest industrial nation in all the history of the world.

The Atlantic Coast Line, when Mr. Elliott entered its service, in 1896, as special attorney, was a good railroad, then as now, “The Standard Railroad of the South,” but it tapped only a small area, lying along the main line through North Carolina and parts of Virginia and South Carolina, or between Richmond and Charleston. At this date, the Atlantic Coast Line System, proper, serves six Southern states, with trackage accumulating the total of 5,158 miles and, with its affiliated companies, the L. & N. and other lines, this total is increased to the aggregate of 14,477.

Viewed from another angle: The Coast Line, with general offices in Wilmington and employing nearly 2,000 local people, owns and operates more than 1,000 locomotives; more than 34,000 freight cars; more than 800 passenger cars; plus a miscellaneous rolling stock of closs to 2,000 cars. With the L. & N. and other affiliated roads, these totals may be tripled and the approximate figures of the whole obtained. The Santa Fe, running from Chicago into the Greater Southwest and thence to the Pacific Coast, has a mileage of only 8,966, and the Rock Island System but slightly more. The Coast Line and its associate companies employ around 150,000 men and women, certain classes of whom are the most skilled and highest paid of any wage earning group in the United States. The Pennsylvania and New York Central lines, serving the most densely populated sections on the continent, each employs about 220,000.

These figures are included merely to suggest the importance of the Coast Line and to show that it is one of the four or five largest railroad systems in the country, and to emphasize the fact that the President of the system is a resident of Wilmington. And, as a resident, he shoulders all the responsibilities of that residence, in civic, religious, educational and other matters. Just as Theodore Roosevelt was the most democratic of our Presidents, Mr. Elliott is one of the most democratic and unassuming of this nation's most important captains of industry, and, correspondingly, his personal friendship list is more numerous and genuine. As a member of the governing board of the James Walker Memorial Hospital, member of the Men's Club of St. James, of the Cape Fear and the Cape Fear Country Clubs and other organizations with which he is identified, he does his full share of the routine duties required to make these, or any organizations successful institutions.

Mr. Elliott is of English descent. The first of his American ancestors was Peter Elliott, who came here from England, in 1730, three years before Wilmington was founded, and settled in Albemarle County, Va. He later removed to Norfolk, and later to Camden County, in the Albemarle section of North Carolina. He married Tamer Burgess, daughter of Dempsey Burgess. Wheeler's History of Carolina records that Dempsey Burgess was a delegate to the Halifax Convention, or Provincial Congress, in April, 1776, serving with Cornelius Harnett and William Hooper from the Lower Cape Fear. He also was lieutenant-colonel of field officers during that historic period and later served several terms as congressman from North Carolina. Wheeler's History also states that Charles Elliott, who probably was a relative of Peter Elliott, was one of the judges during the regime of the Colonial Governor, Arthur Dobbs, appointed by George II, of England, and whose administration, chiefly was distinguished for the frequent rows between him and the Legislature.

Gilbert Elliott, grandfather of George B. Elliott, was born in Camden County, formed in 1777, from a part of Pasquotank, served as clerk of the superior court, practiced law and otherwise was prominent in that section. His son was Warren G. Elliott, late resident of Wilmington, second president of the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad, having been preceded by Col. R. R. Bridgers of Wilmington. As president of the Wilmington & Weldon, Warren G. Elliott became first president of consolidated roads which merged to compose the Atlantic Coast Line. A more detailed review of the Atlantic Coast Line appears in the Industrial Section in the back of this volume, and covers the period when he was president of the system.

The mother of George B. Elliott was Margaret (Blow) Elliott, daughter of George

Blow, for whom he was named. The Blows were early settlers in America, emigrating here in the early 1600's. George Blow was a native of Norfolk, but spent his young manhood in Texas where he assisted Gen. Sam Houston in the war for Texas Independence, 1836-37. He later returned to Virginia and became a circuit (superior) court judge.

On April 19, 1899, Mr. Elliott married Miss Mabel E. Green, of Fayetteville, N. C. Mrs. Elliott is the daughter of Colonel Wharton J. Green. The name of Green appears with distinguished prominence in North Carolina History. Thomas Jefferson Green, grandfather of Mrs. Elliott, was a native of Warren County, a graduate of West Point and a Brigadier-General with Sam Houston at San Jacinto in the Texas Revolution, 1836-37. He served in the legislatures of four states; First, in 1826, in North Carolina as a representative from Warren County; later, in the Florida legislature; next, in the Texas Congress and, finally, in the state senate of California, during the gold rush to that state. He introduced the bill in the Texas Congress fixing the Rio Grande as the international boundary line and this law became the basis of the boundary at the close of the Mexican War when Texas was annexed. In California, he laid out the towns of Oroville and Vallejo. He married the daughter of Jesse Wharton, of Nashville, Tenn., who represented that state in both branches of the Federal Congress. Col. Wharton J. Green, son of General Green and father of Mrs. Elliott, was distinguished as a Confederate soldier, planter, and legislator. He participated in many of the important battles of the Civil War and invariably with brilliant distinction. He served in Congress during the Eighties. The Greens are lineally descended from Sir John Hawkins, described as “one of the immortal quartet of mariners who were the preservators of English liberty, civil, religious and political, at the most critical juncture of English history, the other three being Howard of Effingham, Drake and Forbisher.”

Two children, both daughters, born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Elliott, are living. They are Margaret, now Mrs. John A. Hambleton, residing in New York City, and Esther E., at home.


COL. WALKER TAYLOR, as genuinely beloved and highly respected as any citizen who ever distinguished a community, was born on October 26, 1864. A native of North Carolina but the family were refugeeing in Marion, S. C., during the war and he was born there, but brought back to his own State at the age of three months.

John Douglas Taylor, father of Colonel Taylor, suffered in property losses, as all Southern planters and business men suffered in the dismal days following the Civil War, and, in consequence, the son early was trained to work, a philosophy in which he devoutly believes to this day. At the tender age of fourteen, he had taken his place among the wage earners and was performing tasks, which sent him on the high road toward his notable successes of a personal as well as philanthropic nature. His great achievement in boys work is outstanding and a monument which all might envy.

He was fourteen when he left school and became an office boy for the old deRosset & Northrop Insurance Agency. “The fairies that hovered over his baby cradle,” says a biographical sketch of him published recently on the occasion of his fiftieth anniversary in the Insurance business in a New York periodical, “were not generous with Colonel Taylor in worldly goods, but they gave him instead a strong body, a clear brain and a stout heart. In those days, the office boy literally ‘cleaned the windows and swept the floor and polished up the handle of the big front door.’ But meanwhile, he was making himself into a high type Insurance Agent and very early in life he established his own business. For fifty years, representing Association and non-Association Companies, he never accepted higher commissions from one Company than another. And it was hard, he says, for a struggling young man, around Christmas time, to get a contingent commission check of several hundred dollars, look it over, think what it could buy—and send it back.”

Colonel Taylor has prospered through the sheer force of work, uncompromising integrity and prudent living. He is a heavy property owner and one of the largest taxpayers in this section. He is a director in the Murchison National Bank, the Peoples Savings Bank, and the Tide Water Power Company, and is a stockholder in numerous other profitable enterprises. His interests are varied and successful. But he continues to cling to his Front Street Office and his business slogan is: “Insurance, That's All.” Colonel Taylor, however, is more, much more, than merely a successful business man. He is the unbearded patriarch of this glorious old town. It is a safe statement that hardly a day passes that he is not consulted by some boy, just starting life; by some mother, or father, planning a profession for the child; or by some business man, wrestling with problems requiring more experience and mature judgment than he possesses, and, to the everlasting credit of Colonel Taylor, he may be counted upon to give interested and sympathetic advice. Big of stature, he also is big of heart, understanding, sympathetic, and in love with all humanity, he gives encouragement while he tackles each difficulty with practical logic and seeks its correct solution.

Few local movements, religious, industrial, educational and even sports, are begun in which he is not identified, either directly or in an advisory capacity. This, though, is but a natural consequence of a life that has been spent largely in the interest of others, and a life that invariably has been centered upon the welfare of his hometown. For twenty years, he has been a ruling elder in the First Presbyterian Church of this City; for nearly forty years, he has taught a Sunday School class in one of the Presbyterian congregations; and for the last thirty years, or since 1896, when he founded the Boys Brigade, he virtually has been the “Father Confessor” of hundreds of boys, many of whom now are among the best known men in the State. The history of the Boys Brigade, Colonel Taylor's outstanding achievement, would require an ordinary volume in itself. This institution, which has properly influenced the lives of hundreds and now has an enrollment of more than 500 youths, between eight and eighteen years old, was organized February 14, 1896, from a Boys Sunday School class, taught by Colonel Taylor, in the Immanuel Presbyterian Church. There were only five members. But from this modest start, it was destined to develop into one of the finest accomplishments of his life, and easily one of the most praiseworthy and sublimely purposeful that might be accomplished by any man.

A more detailed account of this organization appears in its proper place in the back of this volume, and also an additional detailed reference is made to its management in the biographical sketch of William H. Montgomery, himself one of Colonel Taylor's “boys” who now is personally directing the institution. Suffice to explain

here, that the Boys Brigade was founded for the sole purpose of being helpful to Wilmington boys, whose opportunities were more or less circumscribed by reason of family circumstances or misfortune. Colonel Taylor subscribes unqualifiedly to the doctrine that all are created equal, but he goes further and takes practical recognition of the fact that all do not have equal, opportunities. From this Sunday School class of five boys, has grown an organization that is the laudable pride of this State and a model of similar organizations in all parts of the country. Among its “graduates” are listed ministers, railroad officials, bankers, lawyers, doctors, scores of successful business men and scores of good citizens. Suggestive of its influence, one who was trained at the Boys Brigade, now is Mayor of Wilmington; another is captain of infantry and provost marshal of the Panama Canal Zone—the list might be continued indefinitely. In May, 1928, nearly a hundred business and professional men of Wilmington and other cities of the State assembled here and organized the “Colonel Walker Taylor's Boys Brigade Club” composed wholly of members of the Brigade prior to 1917 when the war began.

During the summer of 1898, through an abortion of politics in the State, white supremacy was challenged in Wilmington. The situation became aggravatedly serious in August of that year and assumed, in October, the proportions of actual racial war, with all the horrors of such a conflict. The situation was of sufficient gravity to attract the official cognizance of the State and Federal authorities. Military Companies from Clinton, Lumberton, Maxton and Kinston were ordered here to reinforce the local company and, upon official order of Major Charles S. Davis, acting adjutant-general of the Eleventh United States Infantry, Colonel Taylor was placed in complete command. The manner in which he handled the problem, exceedingly delicate, is evidenced by the fact that less than twelve negroes and only two white persons had been killed when the disturbance finally was quieted and the city brought back to normalcy. There now are files in the records at the City Hall, the State House in Raleigh, and the War Department in Washington, letters from Mayor A. M. Waddell, high state officials and United States Army officers commendatory of Colonel Taylor's management in suppressing the riot—the revolution would be a more accurate term.

Colonel Taylor is a Presbyterian, but there probably is not a congregation of any denomination in the city, that has not frequently invited him to act as chief guest at important functions. In politics, he is a Democrat, having consistently supported the candidates of that party, and, although, he often has been urged to accept public office, he persistently has refused, except when at the solicitation of President Woodrow Wilson, a former Wilmington resident, he became United States Collector of Customs in 1913. The present magnificent Customs House Building was erected during Colonel Taylor's tenure of that office. He is a Knights of Pythias and has been a member of the Grand Lodge for many years. He also is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Red Men, the United States Chamber of Commerce, the local Chamber of Commerce, and the Rotary Club. Socially, he belongs to the Cape Fear Club, the Cape Fear Country Club, the Roaring Gap Club, and the Carolina Yacht Club. During recent years, Colonel Taylor has been able to leave his business in charge of his son, Walker Taylor, Jr., and take extensive trips, with Mrs. Taylor into various parts of the United States and in Europe. On one of his later trips to Europe, in 1928, he was able to achieve the much coveted distinction of American visitors of securing an interview with Premier Benito Mussolini, Dictator of Italy, and whom Colonel Taylor regards as a combination of Caesar and Napoleon.

Colonel Taylor is of English descent and traces his American ancestry back to Colonial times. His father, Colonel John Douglas Taylor, was born in Wilmington, and, prior to the Civil War, was a planter at The Oaks Plantation on the Cape Fear River, located in Brunswick County, South of Wilmington. He was a Confederate Veteran, serving with Gen. Joseph E. Johnson, and lost an arm in the Battle of Bentonville, one of the deadliest clashes of the war. For twenty-five years, before his death, he served as clerk of the New Hanover County Superior Court.

Colonel Taylor's mother was Elizabeth Walker, daughter of Daniel Walker, of Mississippi, and, although born in that State, she was reared at the home of her uncle, Daniel L. Russell in North Carolina, and was a first cousin of Gov. Daniel L. Russell, Colonel Taylor's grandfather, John Allan Taylor, was a native of Connecticut, but came to North Carolina at an early period. He was a Wilmington merchant and the records show he was a member of the City Council in 1870.

On April 19, 1893, Colonel Taylor was married to Miss Rosa Lilly Cumming, daughter of Preston Cumming of Wilmington. Mr. Cumming, like Colonel Taylor, was a Confederate Veteran and served with Johnson's army. Three children have been born of the marriage. The eldest daughter, Virginia, wife of David S. Oliver, insurance man in Wilmington; Walker, Jr., on his graduation from Princeton University and after having served in the United States Army in France and Germany two years entered business with his father. He married Fannie Grainger, daughter of J. V. Grainger of this city. The third child, Katherine, married John Bright Hill, prominent young lawyer and now representative in the Legislature from this county.

A brief characterization of Colonel Taylor might accurately read: He is a fitting examplar for every boy and young man in the community; modest, progressive, religious, his mental and moral faculties are perfectly adjusted and harmonized and his ideals are of the quality of which character and real manhood are compounded.



HUGH MACRAE (born at Carbonton, N. C., May 30, 1865) is popularly described as “Wilmington's Most Constructive Citizen.” And he merits the description. Dr. James Sprunt devotes a chapter to him in “The Chronicles of the Lower Cape Fear.”

Hugh MacRae's life has been one of notable achievement. His perseverance has reclaimed thousands of acres; he has promoted, organized and successfully managed and consolidated public utilities companies which have become among the principal assets of one of the fast growing regions in America, providing work for thousands of people and paying large totals into city, county, state and Federal tax funds for the support of government.

It was he, who originated, twenty years ago, the idea of draining the waste areas east of Wilmington, upon which now are located hundreds of attractive homes and from which idea the select suburban districts surrounding this city are a direct result. As far back as 1885, more than forty years ago, when only a young man, just graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mr. MacRae began his life's work of seeking to develop the resources of his native state. From 1886 to 1889, he was in the mountain fastnesses of Western North Carolina as a mining engineer. In the latter year, 1889, he became the president of the Linville Improvement Company operating in the mountain districts, and, for four years, battled with the tenacity that has characterized his various activities, in an effort to make the venture succeed. He now has the satisfaction of knowing that he helped to blaze the way into an area that has become one of the most popular resort sections of the South.

In 1895, he was in Wilmington as president of the Wilmington Cotton Mills. Five years later, or in 1900, he became head of the Wilmington Gas Light Company. In 1907, he consolidated the Gas and Light, the Wrightsville Street Railway and the Seacoast Railway companies into the Consolidated Railways Light & Power Company which grew into the present big Tide Water Power Company, with a capital stock of $1,200,000. He electrified the Wrightsville Beach line, brought Wrightsville into quick and easy distance of the city, built Lumina and laid the foundation for Wilmington's chief claim as a summer resort. This enterprise alone is worth hundreds of thousands annually to the city. Even during these operations, ample enough to occupy the entire attention of the average man, the city's civic records show, that he organized the Hugh MacRae Banking House, with headquarters here and a branch in New York. Also, in 1900, he started his biggest effort in water power development under the corporate name of the Rockingham Power Company. This entailed a four year battle with the Electric Bond and Share Company, a subsidiary of the General Electric Company. He eventually yielded to an antagonist of unlimited financial backing, but, he had the satisfaction of knowing that his difficulties came from the soundness and desirability of the project.

About this time, that is, during the 1900's, he started upon the chief work of his life—land settlement, building rural communities, bringing large territories into productivity and opening the way to prosperity and happiness for hundreds of families. His developments in New Hanover and other counties of Southeast North Carolina were directed and financed by him and are said to be the most successful ever individually promoted in the United States. He made a trip to Europe and, at various times, sent representatives. Colonists of good class and character were brought here. So successful was the enterprise that Castle Hayne, near Wilmington, once practically abandoned, now is one of the most productive sections in the country and has become a model of colonization methods—the Federal government has made motion pictures of the Castle Hayne district which have been shown throughout the southern states. His agricultural development, idea has been adopted by others. It has encouraged the Associated Committees on Reclamation of the southern states to urge the Federal Government to establish demonstration communities, one in each southern state, with a view to reclaiming rural life.

During his mature life, he has been embued with the idea that the South should become a rich industrial and agricultural empire. Dr. Sprunt's “Chronicles” states that “twenty-five years ago (now almost forty years ago) Mr. MacRae in a speech in New York forecast the present tremendous development in North Carolina.” And his constructive ability constantly has been engaged in making this prophecy come true. At this time, he is general chairman of the Southern States Associated Committees on Reclamation; president of the Black Bear Trail Association; and only recently,

organized the Guaranty Mortgage & Investment Company, with an authorized capitalization of approximately $1,000,000 for the promotion of greater prosperity in Wilmington and its vicinity.

Small wonder he is referred to as “Wilmington's Most Constructive Citizen”. Such enduring developments, to list only a few, as the Tide Water Power Company; Oleander, Audubon and Winter Park Suburban developments, Wrightsville Beach, Lumina, Castle Hayne, St. Helena, Marathon, New Berlin and Artesia are industries and settlements born of his courage, constancy of purpose and executive ability. Only a few hours trip by automobile will tangibly establish the value of his enterprise. Attractive homes in which hundreds of people live, wide areas upon which prosperous farmers help swell the wealth of this section—all is in large measure a result of the constructive effort of this Wilmington citizen. His success has been sufficient for scores of leading Southerners, accurately familiar with his ability and the results he has accomplished, to commend him, as one of the most competent men in the south for the portfolio of agriculture in President Herbert Hoover's cabinet. These facts are mentioned, not particularly to extol Mr. MacRae, but to remind that Wilmington continues to produce citizens of the first magnitude.

In business and socially, he is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, Cape Fear Club, Cape Fear Country Club, Carolina Yacht Club, all of Wilmington; National Arts Club, New York, and Chevy Chase Club, Washington. He is in the vanguard of local progress movements and always has taken an active part in the city's welfare. Dating as far back as 1898, the year of the “Revolution against Negro Dominance,” when he was one of the committee of safety, up to the present time, he has carried his full share of the responsibilities of citizenship. He was born and raised and by process of logic is a democrat, belonging to the Gold, or Sound, money wing, during the Bryan campaign, and since that time to the Independent wing of his party. It is a notable fact that he has been living in one home, 713 Market Street, 62 years, or since he was two years old.

Mr. MacRae is of Scotch and English descent. His grandfather was Gen. Alexander MacRae, civil engineer and son of Amelia Martin, daughter of William Evans, famous Revolutionary leader. General Alexander MacRae was one of the first presidents of the Wilmington & Weldon Railway and also famed in the lower Cape Fear as having organized a battalion of artillery and coast defense for activities in the Civil War. Incidentally, he had five sons, ranging from privates to a brigadier general, who served in that epochal conflict.

The father of Hugh MacRae was Donald MacRae, merchant, manufacturer and farmer. All the output of his iron mills was used by the Confederates during the war. Prior to the war, he was British vice consul in Wilmington, resigning to aid in “the Lost Cause.” Donald MacRae married Julia, daughter of Jethro and Jane Norton, New Englanders, October 1, 1857. Jethro Norton was the grandson of Sylvester Norton, Colonial soldier, who stood near General Wolfe when he fell mortally wounded on the Plains of Abraham during the stormy attack of the British against the French at Quebec; hearing General Wolfe say, “I die content.” Both the paternal and maternal ancestors were early American settlers. Roderick MacRae, called Ruari Doun (Brown Roderick), father of General MacRae came to America in 1770 and settled in the upper Cape Fear. A maternal ancestor, Thomas Mayhew, came in 1746, and, was the Royal governor of Martha's Vineyard, an important island off the coast of Massachusetts and now a part of that state.

Hugh MacRae married Miss Rena Nelson, February 4, 1891, at St. Louis, Missouri. Two children were born of the marriage. They are Nelson MacRae, who married Miss Marguerite Bellamy, now living in Wilmington, and Agnes MacRae, now Mrs. Julian W. Morton, residing in Linville, N. C.


GEORGE LUDWIG PESCUAU, for nearly thirty years one of the most prominent members of the New Hanover County Bar, was born in Wilmington, North Carolina, March 5, 1873, and he has resided in Wilmington throughout his life, with the exception of a few years spent in New York as an associate editor of a legal publication.

Mr. Peschau received his early education in Wilmington private schools, was prepared for college at the Cape Fear Academy, and then entered the University of North Carolina. In 1892, he began the study of law in the offices of the late George Davis, Wilmington's most distinguished citizen and one of the most successful lawyers and brilliant orators ever produced in the South. In 1894, he attended the Law School of the University of North Carolina, and was licensed to practice law at the September (1894) term of the North Carolina Supreme Court. Shortly after receiving his license, he went to New York as an associate editor of a standard professional publication, remaining in New York, in such capacity, until the spring of 1896, when he returned to Wilmington to practice law.

In 1898, during one of the most exciting periods of Wilmington's history, Mr. Peschau was nominated by the Democratic Convention of New Hanover County as a candidate for the State legislature. In the memorable campaign of that year, perhaps the most bitter in the history of the State, his vivid pen pictures of intolerable conditions in New Hanover County, and their apparent trend, appeared from time to time, in the Northern press, and his earnest and eloquent appeals to the white voters of the State to stand together and face the situation and settle it for all time were heard from the hustings in every nook and corner of this county. The campaign of 1898, designed by Democratic chieftains to unite the white voters of the State, was successful, but in New Hanover County they were in a minority, and a situation of deep concern, with racial bitterness, developed as the election approached. Race lines were tautly drawn and rioting and bloodshed were apprehended, as the grim determination of the whites grew. A short time before election day, a mass meeting of the business interests was held to find some manner in which to prevent an actual outbreak. The meeting advocated the placing of a ticket in the field, eminating with business interests, in the hope that the negro vote might thus be controlled, or influenced in part. Anxious to avoid bloodshed, or disorder at the polls, Mr. Peschau withdrew his candidacy in favor of a compromise ticket headed by Judge George Rountree. Judge Rountree was elected and became the author of the famous “Grandfather Clause” to the State Constitution, an amendment favored by Mr. Peschau.

In 1899, Mr. Peschau and John D. Bellamy, present dean of the New Hanover Bar, formed a partnership. Later, Mr. Peschau was associated with the late Colonel A. M. Waddell in the practice of law and this partnership continued until Colonel Waddell retired from active practice. Since, Mr. Peschau has practiced his profession alone.

In 1905, Mr. Peschau was defense counsel in probably the most famous wholesale murder trial in the local annals of the United States courts, known as the Berwind Mutiny Case. In this case, with public passion aflame, he appeared for Arthur Adams and Robert Sawyer, West Indians and British subjects, who, with one Henry Scott, an American negro, were charged with mutiny and murder on the high seas. The American schooner, Harry A. Berwind, partly disabled by storm, was towed into Southport, October 12, 1905, her captain, mate, cook and engineer, all white men, missing, a negro seaman dead aboard and her decks matted with blood. Scott was used as a state witness against Adams and Sawyer in the trials that followed and later, upon evidence given by Adams and Sawyer, was himself convicted and subsequently hanged in the New Hanover County jail. The cases of Adams and Sawyer, twice carried to the United States Supreme Court on writs of error, finally were disposed of through pardon issued by President William Howard Taft, now Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court.

In 1911, Mr. Peschau was appointed Assistant City Attorney for the prosecution of criminal cases and, in 1913, under an Act introduced in the General Assembly by Marsden Bellamy and Woodus Kellum, representatives from New Hanover County, he became New Hanover's first solicitor. In addition to other duties, he aided in compiling and edited the first county sanitary ordinances, which form the basis of the present county health and sanitary regulations. An able and resourceful lawyer, conscientious and fearless in the discharge of duty, whether for defense or in prosecution, his outstanding service as a lawyer to the community, perhaps was rendered

while he was county solicitor in the early days of state prohibition, when he was called upon to prosecute the so-called “Liquor Ring” and certain forms of organized vice, then too prevalent and seemingly firmly intrenched. That he did it well, in the face of almost open defiance, at first, the community knows; that he did it fairly, many of the bitter enemies he naturally made at the time, now openly affirm. During the World War, Mr. Peschau was an active worker. He was a member of the Ninth North Carolina Reserves, a Four-Minute Man and one of the speakers for the United States Treasury Department. His speaking appointments carried him into various parts of Eastern North Carolina where his eloquence and sincerity and his appeals, especially to naturalized citizens, were productive of remarkable results during these disturbing days. The articles over his signature during the World War, appearing in the local press, one addressed to “Patriots for Revenue, Seemingly,” and another to “Hyphenated Americans” one setting forth what patriotism and its duties involved and the other appealing for fair play for the naturalized citizens of German origin, published during a time of intense public excitement and when propaganda was rife were, probably for the purposes intended as effective as any articles published here during the war. With the exception of his membership at St. James Episcopal Church, of which congregation he is a vestryman, he is a member of no organizations. However, he formerly had membership with the Kiwanis Service Club, and, as a student in the University was a member of the Alpha Tauga Omega Greek Fraternity. He now is a member of the board of trustees of the City Library. Politically, he is a Democrat.

Mr. Peschau is of German descent. On his paternal side, his ancestors for many generations have been professional men—ministers, lawyers, educators and diplomats. His great-great-grandfather and his great-grandfather each made education his profession. His grandfather, George L. Preschau, for whom he was named, was a Lutheran minister with pastorates in some of the larger cities of Germany. His father, the late Hon. Eduard Peschau, highly educated, was in the German consular service and was stationed in Wilmington as German consul for about forty years. He also had business interests here prior to his death, March 2, 1904. Eduard Peschau married Johanna Bauman, a daughter of the late John G. Bauman, well known Wilmington merchant. She died March 2, 1926, exactly twenty years after the death of her husband. On November 22, 1904, Mr. Peschau married Miss Grayson Willingham, of Marietta, Georgia. Mrs. Peschau is the daughter of the late Charles Berien Willingham and Anna (Williams) Willingham. No children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Peschau.


DR. WILLIAM JAMES HARRISS BELLAMY, a distinguished physician and surgeon throughout his long and useful career was one of the outstanding figures in the professional, social, and civic life in this his native section. He was possessed of a wonderfully agreeable personality, was a man of unusually fine presence, who bore himself with admirable dignity and ease of the old school gentleman of the South.

He was a descendant of the earliest North Carolina, South Carolina and New Jersey stock, there being among his ancestry many of the most prominent members of the medical profession of this section.

Dr. Bellamy was born in Wilmington, N. C., September 16th, 1844, and died in his native city, November 18th, 1911. Through his veins coursed the best blood of the two Commonwealths. He began his education as a pupil at Guess School, Wilmington, N. C., later entering a local school, Mr. George Jewett's, where he was prepared for the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. He entered this instititution in 1860, and while there proved himself one of the brightest of the students. Fired by patriotic zeal, in his sixteenth year he left the University, 1861, to join the Confederate Army, volunteering as a private in Company I, Rifle Guards, of the bloody 18th North Carolina Regiment. This Regiment was early ordered to Virginia, where it immortalized itself in deeds of valor. The gallant young soldier took part in a number of battles centering around Richmond, Va., including the hot, desperate fight of Hanover Court House, and the fierce and sanguinary conflicts, continuing from day to day, at Seven Pines, in 1861. He later served in the hard fighting at Pocotaligo, Coosahatchie and other points in the vicinity of Charleston, South Carolina, in 1862. In 1863, he raised a Company of Volunteers in Brunswick County, North Carolina, serving as their captain until the end of the war.

Immediately after the war he began the study of medicine under his father, Dr. John Dillard Bellamy. Later, in 1866, he entered the University of New York, New York City, from which he graduated in 1867 at the head of a large class, winning the prize honor after a heated contest. He had a laudable ambition to succeed, and a healthy constitution and a retentive memory, with a virile, active brain, which kept him to the forefront in the upward sweep of progressive medicine. He, however, was not content to rest upon his laurels in the wide avenues of the healing and surgical art, but being a lover of books, delved in inviting fields, and stored his mind with useful information from the best authors.

For some five and forty consecutive years he practiced medicine in this, his native town, with a diligence and vigor that won the admiration of all. His ability, diagnostic skill, unflagging energy, promptness in the discharge of duty, and never failing urbanity, coupled with a character for truth, sobriety and integrity, soon brought him scores of friends and patients. Few here, if any, enjoyed a larger practice than he, and none was more respected and beloved, with both the laity and medical men his conduct was marked always by uprightness, patience, kindness and consideration.

Possessing fine mental attributes, loyalty to duty, deep absorbing love of his work, acute insight into things, a hearty readiness to respond to the call of the distressed, he did all he could for each man, woman and child who needed his service.

Dr. Bellamy was a valued member of the New Hanover Medical Society, holding almost every office within its gift, from the least to the greatest.

He was a member of the North Carolina Medical Society throughout his career, holding numerous positions in this organization, including that of membership on the Board of Medical Examiners, which he held for sixteen years. While on the Board he presided over the Department of Materia Medica.

In 1893 he was a delegate to the International Medical Congress, at Washington, D. C., and during the summer of 1911, his Alma Mater conferred upon him the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The James Walker Memorial Hospital, of Wilmington, was the magnificent gift of Mr. James Walker, but its inspiration came alone through the fruitful brain of Dr. William James Harriss Bellamy, who was made a life governor of the institution by its founder, no other officer receiving that distinction. The training school for nurses at the hospital, was likewise the happy suggestion of Dr. Bellamy, and he lent his energies to its establishment.

In addition to the fact that he was outstanding in his profession, he was possessed of keen business sagacity, as was evidenced by a number of financial dealings. He was also a great lover of flowers, and his botanical knowledge was recognized throughout a large circle of friends.

Dr. Bellamy was married on November 10th, 1869, to Mary Williams Russell, of Brunswick County, North Carolina, born January 13th, 1850, died November 30th, 1921, a daughter of Daniel Lindsay Russell and Olivia Grist Russell.

Dr. John Dillard Bellamy, father of the subject of this sketch, was born September 18th, 1817, in All-Saints Parish, South Carolina (now Horry County), died in Wilmington, N. C., August 31st, 1896. A wealthy planter, a polished, dignified, courtly gentleman of the old school, who was descended from sturdy Huguenot stock that settled between the confines of the Ashley and Cooper Rivers, near Charleston, S. C., soon after the religious persecutions in France in 1685. He began his education in the Marion Academy, Marion, S. C., 1831-35, later entering South Carolina College, Columbia, S. C., in 1836.

Coming to Wilmington, N. C., in 1837, he studied medicine for two years, under Dr. William James Harriss, one of the city's most distinguished physicians and surgeons. After this Dr. Bellamy entered the University of New York, from which he graduated in 1839.

Returning to Wilmington, N. C., he married on June 12th, 1839, Eliza McIlhenny Harriss, born August 6th, 1821, died October 18th, 1907, the eldest daughter of Dr. William James Harriss and Mary Priscilla Jennings.

Dr. John Dillard Bellamy was the son of John Bellamy, born April 12th, 1750, died February, 1826, and Mary Elizabeth Vaught, born 1795, died 1857, both of All-Saints Parish, S. C.

John Bellamy, son of John Bellamy of Prince George Parish, S. C., born 1720, and of Sarah Frink, of the same parish.

The ancestors of Dr. John Dillard Bellamy were among the first settlers of South Carolina, and closely connected with the early history of that State.

Through his mother, Dr. William James Harriss Bellamy had other distinguished ancestry. A grandson of Dr. William James Harriss, who was born April 10th, 1798, and married Mary Priscilla Jennings, October 25th, 1820. He was a citizen of great force and of the highest character, beloved of all classes in his native section, and was the Mayor of the city at the time of his death. Mary Priscilla Jennings was born February 27th, 1802, died December 3rd, 1879, and was a daughter of George Jennings, a member of a Noble English family, who came to America in 1790.

William James Harriss, M. D., son of William Harriss, M. D., born January 31st, 1769, in Quibbletown, N. J., who came to Wilmington, N. C., in 1779, died July 4th, 1842. He married October 28th, 1792, Elizabeth Barrett, born January 24th, 1776, died January 8th, 1844, daughter of Reverend John Barrett, Rector of St. Philip's Church, town of Brunswick, N. C., 1765, founded in the 1730's, and therefore the oldest in the lower Cape Fear section.


HENRY CLAY MACQUEEN, Confederate veteran, one of the leading bankers of the entire South, prominent in Wilmington history for the last three score years, and lineal descendant, being twenty-second in line, of King Robert Bruce of Scotland, was born in Lumberton, Robeson county, July 16, 1846. He has been a continuous resident of this city for sixty-three years.

He was educated in the Bingham school, one of the early standard educational institutions of North Carolina, and at the Hillsboro Military Academy. He left school, in 1863, when a boy, 17 years of age, to enlist as a Confederate soldier. He was one of the valiant band that defended Fort Fisher against the Federal hordes who poured into this section by land and sea. He was wounded during the Fort Fisher battle, taken prisoner and sent to Point Lookout where he was held until the close of the war, seven months later.

Mr. MacQueen came to Wilmington, in 1866, to engage in business. Then, as now, he planned before he acted. He had definitely decided upon business, in preference to one of the professions, and determined to start at the bottom. Consequently, he became a clerk in the employ of Petteway & Moore, factors and commission men. In 1869, he became associated, as an employe, with Williams & Murchison, commisssion and wholesale firm, and was admitted to partnership in this firm when it was reorganized, in 1882, as Murchison & Company, with offices here and in New York. And thus was begun one of the most remarkably successful business careers in the history of this part of the state.

In 1899, he organized the Murchison National bank with a capital stock of $200,000, which institution was destined to grow, under his direction, and that of his associates, into its present distinction of being among the largest in the state. The following year, he organized the Peoples Savings Bank, recognized as one of the strongest and most ably directed in North Carolina. For many years, he was president of both of these banks and now is chairman of the boards of directors. He also is chairman of the Board of Commissioners of Navigation & Pilotage, organized to improve the Cape Fear River from Wilmington to the bar. Also he is a director in the Carolina Insurance Company, Wilmington; the Security Life & Trust Company, Winston-Salem; the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company; the Tidewater Power Company; and various other firms and corporations of less comparative importance.

In addition to these strictly business responsibilities, Mr. MacQueen also assumes his full share of the responsibilities of citizenship. All his commercial institutions affiliate with the Chamber of Commerce and he takes more than a mere passive interest in church, civic, charitable and other local movements. He is a member of the First Presbyterian church and one of the controlling elders, or member of the session, of that congregation. He was the commissioner of the sinking fund for the City of Wilmington for many years and was also Chief of the Clan MacQueen, a family association whose membership is composed of descendants of the late Col. James MacQueen, of Queensdale, near Maxton. Socially, he is a member of the Cape Fear Club. Politically, he is a Democrat.

Mr. MacQueen is of pure Scotch stock and is in direct descent from Robert Bruce, whose valorous deeds in defense of freedom for the Scottish Highlands will live in song and story until the end of time. An official genealogical table of the MacQueens definitely establishes an ancestry back to this world-famous hero. Because of the prominence of numerous members of the family, and its branches, dating from the first American ancestor, Col. James MacQueen, grandfather of H. C. MacQueen and who came to this country in 1770, this genealogical table is reproduced here. Starting with Robert Bruce, it continues: Margary, his daughter, married Walter, High Steward; King Robert II, their son; Lady Margaret Stewart, his daughter, married John, Lord of the Isles; Donald, Lord of the Isles, her son; Alexander, Lord of the Isles, his son; Austin Moore, his son; Donald Gallich, his son; Donald Gruamach, his son; Donald Gorm Moore, his son; Donald Gorm Sassarrach, his son; Archibald, his son; Donald Gorm Oig, his son; Sir James, his son; Donald Oig, his son; Sir James Moore, his son; Sumerled, or Soirle, his son; Flora, his daughter; James MacQueen, founder of the American family, her son; Dr. Edmund MacQueen, his son; and Henry Clay MacQueen, his son.

The various branches of the family, in North Carolina, include such distinguished names in business, farming, law, medicine, ministry and statescraft as MacLean,

MacDonald, MacRae, MacInnis, MacLaurin, MacKinnon, Morrison, Moore, Whitlock, Thompson, Wade, Stanton, O'Neal, Olmstead and others. Former Governor Angus W. MacLean, a great-great-grandson of Col. James MacQueen and a second cousin, once removed, of H. C. MacQueen, has traced the family, for his individual satisfaction, and he is authority for the statement that “abundant evidence is obtainable from historical sources to the effect that the MacQueens have been prominent in Scottish Highlands for more than eight centuries.”

“Through their family connections,” says Governor MacLean, “they can trace their history to the earliest periods and, indeed, to the origin of the ancient Scottish kings. They derived their name probably from that ancient Highlander, ‘Conn of the Hundred Battles.’ Many members of the clan have been prominent in all walks of life. Old Roderick Dhu Revan MacQueen fought under MacIntosh at the Battle of Harlaw, in 1411, one of the bloodiest battles ever fought on Scottish soil, where Highlander crossed swords with Lowlander in a bitter civil war. Many MacQueens took a prominent part in many conflicts attending the Reformation; and the name is frequently found among the militant Presbyterian ecclesiastics of that day.

“* * * * * Malcolm MacQueen, of the MacQueens of Skye, fell at the battle of Culloden, in 1746, when gallantly fighting for ‘Bonnie Prince Charlie’; and in consequence of the part which he took in the rising of 1745, his estates were forfeited. His son, also named Malcolm, lived in England after the battle. He became a prominent medical man and married Maria Potter, grand-daughter of the Archbishop of Canterbury. They had two sons—Col. Potter MacQueen, who, in early life, served in a cavalry regiment, but afterwards commanded the Bedfordshire Yeomanry Cavalry, for which County of Bedford he served for fifteen years as a member of Parliament. His brother, Capt. John MacQueen, of the Royal Life Guards, received his first commission from His Majesty, King George, the Fourth.”

Concerning the beginning of the family in America, the records show that Col. James MacQueen, the founder, was born on the Isle of Skye, Scotland, about the year 1760 and probably came to this country in 1772, and there is a tradition in Moore county that Murdock MacQueen and Colin Bethune, came over in the same vessel. His parents were Archibald MacQueen and Flora (MacDonald) MacQueen, his mother being a half sister of the famous Scottish heroine, Flora MacDonald. Col. James MacQueen took an active part in the Revolution and, following that epochal war, he became a member of the legislature from Robeson county in 1794, 1802 and 1803. He was the founder of Queensdale, near Maxton, and one of the wealthiest planters of his period.

In 1790, he married Ann MacRae, native of Scotland and daughter of John MacRae, one of the members of the family of MacRaes, distinguished in North Carolina for nearly two centuries. One of the twelve children born of this marriage was Dr. Edmund MacQueen (1804-1858), who grew to manhood at Queensdale, married Susan Moore, of Robeson county, and removed to Lumberton, where he established a large practice and acquired the distinction of becoming the first mayor of that city. Susan Moore MacQueen's father was born in New York of English parentage. Her great-great-grandfather, Sir John Moore, was knighted by Charles, the First, in 1627; her grandmother was a French Huguenot.

Dr. MacQueen was the father of ten children, of whom Henry C. MacQueen was the Seventh. He (Henry C. MacQueen) married Miss Mary Agnes Hall, in Asheville, in November, 1871. She was the daughter of A. E. Hall, a well known, long established and prosperous merchant of that city. Four children were born of this marriage. They are Sue Moore MacQueen, at home; Agnes MacQueen, who married W. P. Emerson, of Wilmington; and Margaret and Jane Lippitt MacQueen, who died during their childhood.


THE RT. REV. DR. THOMAS CAMPBELL DARST, Bishop, Protestant Episcopal Church Diocese of East Carolina, is one of the most distinguished churchmen in the United States and a citizen whose influence in the religious, the civic and in the ordinary affairs of the people of this section is genuinely and outstandingly beneficial, both spiritually and practically. His rise from Deacon to the Bishopric of this historic Diocese, within a period of a little more than ten years is an evidence of native ability and consecration to service seldom duplicated in the long annals of that great denomination. His career is a magnificent illustration of the rewards of earnest, conscientious effort. As a minister and citizen, he is beloved by thousands; as a student and scholar, great colleges and universities have been pleased to do him honor.

Bishop Darst was born on a farm near Pulaski, Virginia, November 10, 1875, and received his early education in the public schools of that community and in Salem, Va. Later he enrolled as a student in Roanoke College, Salem, Virginia, and, upon graduation, entered the Virginia Theological Seminary, Richmond, from which institution, he graduated in 1902. He was ordained a Deacon in that year and in the following year, he was ordained a Priest. The first year of his ministry was served as assistant Rector of Christ Church in Fairmont, West Viriginia. At the end of this year, he was called to his native Virginia, in which state he served as Rector, successively, of Trinity Church, Upperville, 1903 to 1905; St. Mark's Church, Richmond, 1905 to 1909; St. Paul's Church, Newport News, 1909 to 1914; and St. James’ Church, Richmond, 1914 to 1915. He was consecrated as Bishop of East Carolina, January 6, 1915. This Diocese includes the eastern part of North Carolina and its Church history extends back to 1587 when “Governor” John White arrived to preside over the destinies of the Roanoke Island Colony. Many of its congregations, including St. James, in Wilmington, have continuous annals covering a period of nearly 200 years. St. Thomas Church, Bath, founded in 1734, and the oldest in the state, is in this Diocese, and, following a custom of several years standing, Bishop Darst is not only Bishop, but also Rector of that congregation, perhaps the only instance of its kind on record.

Naturally, one of his prominence, learning and influence, has been signally honored by institutions and invited into the membership of many organizations. Educational institutions have frequently formally recognized his services. He holds honorary degrees of Doctor of Divinity from four colleges and universities. They follow in order: Theological Seminary, Alexandria, Va., 1914; University of the South, Sewanee, Tenn., 1915; Roanoke College, Salem, Va., 1919; and the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1927. At the present time, he is serving as a trustee of St. Augustine College, Raleigh; St. Mary's School, Raleigh; the University of the South, Sewanee, Tenn.; the Pineland College, Salemburg; and the Bishop Payne Divinity School, Petersburg, Va. He also is chairman of the National Commission on Evangelism, with headquarters in Wilmington, and jurisdiction throughout the entire nation. Suggestive of his effective work in the high position he holds as a churchman, it may be stated that in 1915, when he became Bishop, this Diocese had thirty clergymen; it now has forty clergymen. Ten years ago, the total valuation of the property of the church was $644,051.95; at present $1,924,750. The insurance in 1929, totals $760,000, slightly more than $100,000 in excess of the total value of the property in 1919. There were eighty-four churches in the Diocese, ten years ago; there now are ninety-five with a total baptized membership of nearly 10,000 persons. The statistics show a tremendous increase over the same period in Hospital, Mission, Building and General church work. Bishop Darst is active in various lines of other work. His fraternal, or lodge, affiliations include membership in the Masons and the Knights of Pythias and Pi Kappa Alpha Greek Fraternity. He is a member of the Kiwanis Service Club and active in its councils, particularly with its boys work movements, one of which is the sponsoring of the Boys Brigade where 500 youths of the city are enrolled and receive expert training in religion, morals and athletics. Politically, he is a Democrat.

Bishop Darst is of English descent and comes of a long and distinguished line of ancestors. The Darsts first landed in Philadelphia in the latter part of the seventeenth century. One branch of the family came South, the other pioneered into the West. Their connections with the Colonial period and the Revolution invariably were on the side of the patriots. From the Revolutionary period, the family have been identified as prominent farmers in Rock Ridge County, Virginia. Benjamin Darst, son of Benjamin Darst, Revolutionary soldier, and grandfather of Bishop Darst, was an extensive landowner and planter and famed for the purebred horses, cattle and other livestock raised on his plantations. His son, Major Thomas Welsh Darst, father

Thomas C. Darst

of Bishop Darst, followed his father as a successful farmer. His title of major was acquired during the Civil War, in which he early enlisted in the Confederacy.

Major Darst's second wife, Margaret Glendy, was Bishop Darst's mother and through whom he is connected with some of the most notable families of Virginia, and West Virginia. She was the daughter of Robert Glendy, planter of Augusta County, Virginia, and a nephew of Rev. John Glendy, one of the most famous ministers of his generation and a brief sketch of whom will prove of historic interest at this point. He was a native of Londonderry, Ireland, and a Presbyterian minister in his native Erin until he became implicated in the Rebellion of 1798 and banished to America. He landed at Norfolk, remained there a short time and then went to Staunton. Afterwards, he went to Baltimore where he founded and became the first pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church of that City. He was a profound student and a brilliant orator and was chosen to deliver the funeral address of President Washington, in Philadelphia, in 1799. He was the chaplain of the National House of Representatives during the 1800's and, in 1810, became chaplain of the United States Senate. Through his grandmother's people, Bishop Darst is lineally descended from Col. John Grigsby, one of the leaders of the Colonial forces in the Revolution and collaterally connected with the Paxtons, Welshes, Chandlers, McCorkles and other distinguished families of the two Virginias.

Bishop Darst has been married twice. On November 5, 1902, he married Miss Florence Wise, daughter of George Wise, Alexandria, Va. Her death occurred on January 12, 1914; three children, George W. Darst, of Alexandria; Thomas C. Darst, Jr., now of Philadelphia; and Meade C. Darst, of Wilmington, were born of this marriage. On April 26, 1916, Bishop Darst married Miss Lauriston Hardin, daughter of Dr. John H. Hardin, of Wilmington. Of this marriage, one child has been born, Margaret G. Darst. Mrs. Darst is a member of an old and distinguished Wilmington family of French and English descent.


Junius Davis

JUNIUS DAVIS, son of the illustrious George Davis, patriot and statesman and with whom he was associated in law during the thirty years following the Civil War, was born in Wilmington, June 17, 1845. At the time of his death, April 9, 1916, his prominence as a lawyer was dimmed only by the transcendant luster of his father and he had achieved a high influence in the life of the community.

He received his education in the Cape Fear Military Academy, first conducted by Levin Meginney and, later, by George W. Jewett. At twelve years of age, he was enrolled in the famous Bingham School, at The Oaks, in Orange County, in preparation for enrollment in the University of North Carolina, from which institution his father had graduated with highest honors, when but eighteen years old. In 1862, the Civil War, then raging, the father moved the family to Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, that his wife, Mary Polk Davis, daughter of General Thomas G. Polk, might be near her parents. The son was placed in school at Charlotte for a few months, and the following year, during which year his mother died, he enlisted as a private in Moore's Battery. He was only seventeen years old at the time of his enlistment, but had risen to the commission of a corporal, although only a boy, at the close of the war.

“He left his books to enter the military service,” says Dr. James Sprunt of Junius Davis, in recording his Civil War record. “He cast his lot with the Confederate States and enlisted, in the spring of 1863, being nearly eighteen years of age, as a private in Battery C. Third Battalion, North Carolina Artillery, Captain J. G. Moore, and served until the close of the war. For nearly a year he was about Petersburg, and was in the battles of Drewry's Bluff and Bermuda Hundred, Fort Harrison's lines. In the last day's fight at Petersburg, he was slightly wounded but continued on duty during the retreat. The battery being a part of the rear guard was almost constantly engaged and roughly handled; but later, it became a part of the van, and at the end, Corporal Davis and a small squad escaped without surrendering.”

Following the war, he returned to Charlotte where he obtained employment, accompanying cotton caravans from that city to New Bern, as a guard. He worked at this for several months, and, in the latter part of 1865, returned to Wilmington. The situation here, as in all cities of the South, was most discouraging. He finally received employment, however, as a clerk in a drygoods store and continued in that capacity until his father was released from prison at Fort Hamilton and returned to Wilmington where he resumed the practice of law. In 1867, Junius Davis began reading law in his father's office, was admitted to the bar the following year, and became associated with his father in practice. This association continued until 1896 when the father died. He developed a wide and important clientele, including the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, as division counsel, and legal adviser for the Consolidated Railways, Light & Power Company (now the Tide Water Power Company) and other big corporations. He was successful in business and became an extensive property owner and, at the time of his death, he was president of the Wilmington Railway Bridge Company. He was active in religious, educational and civic work. His church membership was with the St. James Episcopal congregation. He was an honorary member of the North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati and, on behalf of that Society, he presented to the Supreme Court of the state the portraits of James Iredell and Alfred Moore, justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. He also was a member of the North Carolina Sons of the American Revolution. In politics, he was an active Democrat, but throughout his long and conspicuous career, he persistently refused to offer himself for public office. During the race riots here in 1898 and which assumed the proportions of a revolution, he was one of the committee selected to direct events. He gave his earnest attention to the duties of the committee and properly shares with the others the distinction of successfully adjusting the crisis within a few days.

On January 19, 1874, Mr. Davis was married to Mary Orme Walker, daughter of Thomas D. and Mary Vance Walker. Mrs. Davis died October 16, 1888. On November 6, 1893, he was married to Miss Mary Walker Cowan, daughter of Colonel Robert H. Cowan, of Wilmington.

The family lineage of Mr. Davis may be found in the succeeding page in the sketch of his son, Thomas W. Davis, and also of his father, the immortal George Davis, at the front of this volume.


Thomas Davis

THOMAS WALKER DAVIS, lawyer, member of the Executive Committee of the American Bar Association, General Solicitor of the great Atlantic Coast Line System, and a scion of a distinguished family of North Carolinians, was born in Wilmington, May 27, 1876.

He was given his early education in the public schools of this city and, later, attended the Cape Fear Academy, of Wilmington. His legal education was acquired in the law office and under the personal instruction of his father, the late Junius Davis, and at the University of North Carolina. Mr. Davis came to the bar in 1900. Endowed with the splendid talent and the strong characteristics that have caused the family to attain and to hold a notable prominence throughout the Cape Fear region in every generation for more than two hundred years, he has risen to distinctions in his profession. His career has been varied and is most interesting, and probably may be best understood by describing it in chronological order. After graduating from the Cape Fear Academy, at seventeen, he obtained employment. April 1, 1893, in the office of the General Superintendent of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, Wilmington. He was in this department, in various capacities, until 1895, when he entered the Traffic Department, and remained there until war was declared against Spain. He enlisted, becoming a sergeant-major, and served in that capacity until mustered out November 28, 1898. He then returned to the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad as Chief Rate Clerk in the Traffic Department.

Disliking the routine of railroad office work, he entered the law office of his father, applied himself industriously to the study of that science and entered into partnership with his father, January 1, 1902, under the firm name of Davis & Davis. This firm continued until January 1, 1916, when it consolidated with the firm of Rountree & Carr, composed of Judge George Rountree and J. O. Carr. In April of that year Mr. Davis’ father died and, on December 31, of the same year, Mr. Carr having accepted the appointment of United States Attorney for this district, withdrew from the firm. Judge Rountree and Mr. Davis continued the partnership, under the name of Rountree & Davis, until June 1, 1920. The United States having entered the World War Mr. Davis enlisted, was made a Judge-Advocate, with the rank of Major, and sent to Charleston, S. C. He was mustered out of service in May, 1919. One year later, May 1, 1920, he became Assistant General Counsel of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, dissolving the firm of Rountree & Davis. On March 24, 1922, he became General Solicitor of that railroad, in which position he has continued to the present time. On October 1, 1928, he formed a partnership with Louis J. Poisson, former Special Assistant Attorney General of the United States, and more recently associated with the firm of Rountree & Carr.

Because of his recognized ability, Mr. Davis rapidly rose into the high councils of the American Bar Association. He was a member of the General Council, of the Committee to Revise the Code of Ethics, and the Commerce Committee, during the years 1925 to 1927, and, at Seattle, Washington in 1928 he was elected to membership on the Executive Committee. Mr. Davis, always interested in judicial reform, uniform law enactment, and the elevation of the profession, has attended virtually all the conventions of the American Bar Association held in this country within the last ten years, and the London Convention of 1924. He is a life member of the American Institute of Law. He has been equally active in the North Carolina Bar Association, and in the New Hanover County Bar Association. He was Secretary and Treasurer of the State Association for fourteen consecutive years, 1906 to 1920, in the latter year being elected President. His practice requires almost constant appearance before the United States Supreme Court. His activities however, are not confined to his profession. He is a member of the Episcopal Church. He also is a Lieutenant-Colonel in the United States Officers Reserve Corps, and takes an active interest in the politics of the city and state.

Mr. Davis is a worthy son of a remarkably distinguished line of Carolina forbears. His earliest American ancestors were Sir John Yeamans, first governor of South Carolina, who sailed up the Cape Fear River in 1663, being the discoverer of that lordly stream, which he named the Charles, and James Moore, also a South Carolina governor, who married the daughter of Sir John Yeamans. Governor Moore, the son of the Irish patriot Roger Moore, who, in 1641, organized the first effort to expel the English from Ireland, came to America in 1700. He had four sons, Colonel James

Moore, Major Maurice Moore, Nathaniel Moore and Roger, known as “King” Roger Moore, all of whom came into the Cape Fear, in 1725, and established the first permanent settlements in this region. “King” Roger became the founder of historic Orton and is the direct ancestor of Thomas W. Davis. Four brothers, Jehu, John, William and Roger Davis, emigrated from Massachusetts and South Carolina and thence to the Cape Fear, in 1723. The head of this family was Jehu Davis. The Davis and Moore families became united when Thomas Davis, second son of Jehu, 2nd, married Mary Moore, daughter of George Moore, and granddaughter of “King” Roger Moore. Their son, Thomas F. Davis married Sarah Isabella Eagles, daughter of Joseph Eagles, influential Cape Fear planter, and she became the mother of Bishop Thomas F. Davis and George Davis, Confederate senator and attorney-general in President Jefferson Davis’ Cabinet. George Davis became the father of Junius Davis and grandfather of the subject of this sketch. In war, the Davises always have been famed for patroitism and, in peace, constructive leaders and useful citizens.

Mr. Davis was married to Miss Anna MacKay Peck, of Wilmington, November 14, 1905. Mrs. Davis is the daughter of the late George A. Peck and Elizabeth Parsley Peck. No children have been born of the marriage.


DR. JAMES FARISH ROBERTSON, physician and surgeon in general practice, past president of the New Hanover Medical Society, World War veteran with the rank of Captain in the Medical Corps and one of the best known citizens and professional men of the community is a native Virginian, born at Culpeper, July 27, 1888. He has been a North Carolinian virtually all his life, however, in that his parents removed to Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, when he was a child, four years of age.

Dr. Robertson's early education was received in the public schools at Charlotte until he entered Woodbury Forest School, in Virginia, to take a preparatory course for college. He later enrolled as a cadet in the Virginia Military Institute, at Lexington, Virginia and two years afterwards became a student at the University of Virginia. Charlottesville, where he graduated as President of his class. In 1909, he entered the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, from which institution he graduated in 1913. He spent the next three years as interne in the Episcopal and Kensington Hospitals in Philadelphia and in 1916, located in Wilmington for the practice of his profession. The following spring when the United States, declining to submit further to Germany's vicious submarine policies, declared war, he enlisted in Wilmington, was commissioned a First Lieutenant in the Medical Corps and was assigned to Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, to drill a Battalion of Medical officers. He remained at Fort Oglethorpe until March, 1918, when he was ordered to Bellevue Hospital, New York, for a special course in operative surgery.

From Bellevue, he was transferred to Fort McPherson, Georgia, and was attached to Base Hospital, No. 65, then mobilizing for overseas duty. He sailed from Hoboken, in August, and immediately upon arrival in France, was ordered, with an operating group, to join Evacuation Hospital No. 4, then stationed a few miles southwest of Verdun. He was attached to this unit through the historic Argonne campaign and remained in the sector until after the Armistice, November 11, 1918. Immediately after the Armistice he rejoined Base Hospital, No. 65, at Kerhuon, near Brest. While near Brest formal recognition of his services at Evacuation Hospital No. 4, during the Argonne drive, was taken by those in command and he was promoted to the rank of Captain and appointed Assistant Chief of the Surgical Service, a distinct distinction for a young man thirty years of age. The order to return home was issued the latter part of May and he arrived in Camp Dix, Maryland, June 13, 1919, receiving his discharge on the same day.

A digest of Dr. Robertson's record shows he is astonishingly free from fraternal or other affiliations except in the medical profession. He is a Deacon in the First Presbyterian Church congregation of this city, and a member of St. John's Lodge, No. 1, A. F. & A. M., also of Wilmington, and when a student in the University he joined the Sigma Alpha Epsilon Greek Fraternity. Professionally, his memberships are more numerous, including the New Hanover County Medical Society, of which he is a past president; the North Carolina State Medical Association, the Southern Medical Association, the American Medical Association and the American College of Surgeons, and the Alpha Omega Alpha honorary fraternity. Politically, he is Independent, nationally, and Democratic, locally.

Dr. Robertson is of Scotch and Irish stock, but the American ancestral line extends far back into early Colonial Virginia. His father was James Farish Robertson, born and reared on a plantation on the Rapidan River, near Mitchells, Virginia, and was the son of many generations of Robertsons, who also were born on the same plantation. He was twelve years of age at the outbreak of the Civil War and followed the Confederate troops to Gettysburg. He was a druggist by profession and began his business career at Culpeper, but, in 1892, removed to Charlotte, North Carolina, where he purchased a drug store, which he operated for about ten years. He was successful in business investments and for many years prior to his death, he had been a director and vice-president of the Charlotte National Bank. Dr. Robertson's mother was Mary Elizabeth (Grattan) Robertson. She was born in Harrisburg, Virginia, and was a lineal descendant of Henry Grattan, Irish patriot, whose statue now stands in the City of Dublin.

On November 15, 1916, Dr. Robertson married Miss Juliette Albright, of Wilmington. Five children have been born of the marriage of Dr. and Mrs. Robertson. They are, in order of ages, James F. Jr., Lillie, Mary Grattan, Juliette and Reece.


R R Bridgers

ROBERT RUFUS BRIDGERS, who laid the foundation for extensive railroad development in the Southeast, President of the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad Company, the Wilmington, Columbia and Augusta and other affiliated railroad units of the great Atlantic Coast Line System, North Carolina Legislator, Confederate Congressman, extensive planter, leading business man and manufacturer, lawyer, capitalist and whose genius as a railroad magnate probably has made possible the present commercial consequence of Eastern North Carolina to a larger extent than any other man, easily was one of the most constructive and distinguished citizens, of whose residence the long two hundred years annals of Wilmington can boast.

Mr. Bridgers, called Colonel Bridgers and by that title universally known, although he never was in the military, belongs to the Immortal Six of Local History—Carnelius Harnett, William Hooper, George Davis, R. R. Bridgers, Dr. James Sprunt and Admiral Anderson, “The Youth of North Carolina,” says Ashe's History, “can turn to no worthier character to emulate, and the honest, industrious young man to no more encouraging example for his life's work, than that of Robert Rufus Bridgers.” The limited space of this volume only permits the briefest outline of the life of this outstanding industrial chieftain, who, in a past generation, prepared the way for the accomplishments of a more recent period, which have placed North Carolina in the front ranks of development. His life and his achievements, particularly his directing participation in the affairs of the Wilmington & Weldon, mother railroad of the present Atlantic Coast Line, now grown into one of the four or five largest transportation systems in America—these achievements alone would make a most interesting and valuable volume and, some day, may be written.

Colonel Bridgers was born in Town Creek, Edgecombe County, November 28, 1819. Before he was five, he was started to school to Rev. Mark Bennett, who afterwards became his step-father. Later, he attended Stony Hill Academy, in Nash County, and afterwards he was placed in a preparatory school at Arcadia, Person County. In January, 1838, he enrolled as a student at the University of North Carolina. He graduated from that institution, in 1841, with the highest honors of his class. He was admitted to the bar one week after his graduation and began the practice of law at Tarboro, countyseat of Edgecombe. Wheeler's History of North Carolina shows he was a member of the House of Commons, three years later, or in 1844. He was the youngest member of that body, but regardless, he served on the important Judiciary Committee. Between 1845 and 1856, he withdrew from politics, devoting himself exclusively to law, to planting and to business investments. During this period he refused appointments as Attorney-General and to the Judgeship of the Circuit Court. Through his influence, in 1851, a branch bank of North Carolina was established at Tarboro of which he became President. In 1856, he again was sent to the state legislature, serving continuously until 1861, when he was elected to the Confederate Congress, where he served throughout its exsitence and was a leading member and frequent adviser of the Cabinet officers, particularly when matters of finance were under consideration.

The War over and the South prostrate, Colonel Bridgers returned to Tarboro, heavily in debt, and began his efforts to retrieve the fortune he had lost. As a nucleus, he still owned Strabane Plantation of 2500 acres, and which, prior to the war, had grown the largest single crop of cotton in the history of the state, growing a total of 509 bales on 500 acres. He also had retained his place on the board of directors of the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad which had been accorded him by reason of his efforts in behalf of the construction of the Tarboro branch. In the latter part of 1865, he was elected president of the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad and was assigned the tremendous task of placing it upon a paying basis. His work was of such notable success that he remained president for twenty-three years and was given the same office over other affiliated railroads. He acquired a National reputation and on two occasions, at least, he refused similar positions with larger and richer railroads at double the salary, declining because of a sense of loyalty to his associates. Suggestive of his efforts in behalf of the Wilmington & Weldon, he went to England, seeking to have the railroad debt refunded, or extended, and failing in this, he succeeded in interesting William T. Walters and Benjamin Newcomer, and it was the financial assistance extended by these gentlemen that later made it possible to develop the Atlantic Coast Line System of which H. Walters, son of William T. Walters, now is chairman of the board. He built the Wilmington & Weldon into a reasonably standard system and so

dynamic was his energy and so methodical his habits that he had time to act as President of the Wilmington, Columbia & Augusta and General Manager of the Charlotte, Columbia & Augusta, in South Carolina, and other branches of the Coast Line System. He paved the way for through service between the North and South along the Atlantic coast, was one of the leading advocates of the movement for Standard Time and for many years was President of the Southern Railway Time Convention. His business interests, outside of railroading, were extensive and numerous. He was prominent in the management of the Navassa Guano Company and in one of the Wilmington banks, besides owning large tracts of land in Florida and plantations on and adjacent to the Roanoke River. He was a member of the Masonic lodge, Episcopal Church, and in politics, was a Democrat.

Colonel Bridgers was of English descent and his paternal ancestry dates back to Colonial Virginia of 1632. A more detailed history, relative to his illustrous American and English ancestry, appears in the succeeding biographical sketch of his son, the late Preston Louis Bridgers. Colonel Bridgers married Miss Margaret Elizabeth Johnston, December 12, 1849. Ten children were born of the marriage. They were Emily, Henry, Robert, Preston, Mark, Luther, George, Mary, Frank and Elizabeth. Colonel Bridgers died of apoplexy, after an illness of less than two hours, December 10, 1888. He was stricken while discussing some proposed railroad legislation before a committee of the South Carolina legislature at Columbia.


PRESTON LOUIS BRIDGERS, merchant, manufacturer, banker, capitalist, consul in the diplomatic service, son of the illustrious Colonel R. R. Bridgers, and one of the most widely known and substantial citizens of Wilmington, was born at Tarboro, Edgecombe County, November 12, 1856. He was a resident of Wilmington, for nearly two score years, coming here as a child, nine years of age, when Colonel Bridgers assumed the Presidency of the old Wilmington & Weldon Railroad in 1865, and, at the time of his death, October 2, 1902, this city, perhaps, never had a citizen more variously interested in retail and wholesale trade, banking, railroading, manufacture of lumber, and other lines of business.

Mr. Bridgers received his early education at private and public schools, and later, at the Horner Military Academy, Oxford, North Carolina. After leaving school and while only twenty years of age he began his long and successful business career by going to Florence, South Carolina, and opening a general merchandise store for the convenience of the growing population of that city, then in the midst of a mild boom as a result of the erection there of the Atlantic Coast Line shops. It was a difficult assignment for a boy of twenty, but he made the venture a success, disposed of the stock at a profit and returned to Wilmington where, during the next quarter of a century, he was destined to make investments and to become a part of virtually every line of important commercial activity of the city. He organized and largely directed the Bridgers & Rankin Grocery Company, for years the largest institution of its kind in this section of the state; he founded and was the principal owner of the Bridgers & McKeithan Lumber Company (wholesale and retail) which owned and operated mills in South Carolina whose combined output in 1902, was the second largest in the entire state. He was a heavy stockholder in the Southern Railway, the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, the Atlantic Coast Line Company, of Connecticut; the Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company; and was also interested in the Delgado Cotton Mills; the Atlantic National Bank and other corporations, and for many years was on the board of directors of several of these companies.

In addition, he found time, to an astonishingly influential extent, to assume and to perform the civic, social and other duties that fall upon the responsible citizenship of all worthwhile communities. He took an active interest in social, fraternal and political affairs. He was a member of St. John's Masonic Lodge, oldest in the state, and a former president of the Cape Fear Club. His services for the Democratic party were so outstanding that he was offered and accepted the appointment as consul at Montevideo, Uruguay, South America, during President Grover Cleveland's second administration. During his residence there he was accompanied by his family. He was prominetly identified with the “Revolution of 1898” when the best citizenship of the city banded together to suppress negroes and sub-strata agitators, who, for several months, as a result of a dismal political situation, had challenged the supremacy of the white race. Mr. Bridgers’ name appears high in the official list of those who assembled in November of that year and issued an ultimatum resulting in the expulsion of the disturbers and the cleansing of the community of its viciously undersirable riff-raff.

Ashe's history states that the Bridgers family is of English descent. The first of the paternal ancestors in America was in the British army who superintended the building of the brick church, near Smithfield, Virginia, in 1632, being a vestryman of the congregation. William Bridgers, of Southampton, Virginia, married Fatha Ruffin, in 1738, and one of their sons, Britton, married Margaret Rice, also of Southampton, in 1761, and soon thereafter moved to Town Creek, in Edgecombe County, North Carolina. A part of the land then entered by him now is in the possession of a great-great-grand-daughter, it never having been out of the family. John, a son of Britton Bridgers, married Elizabeth Kettlewells Routh in 1814, and died nine years later, leaving a daughter, Amanda, and two sons, John and Robert Rufus, the latter becoming the father of Preston Louis Bridgers, the subject of this sketch. Preston Louis Bridgers married Miss Elizabeth Eagles Haywood, of Raleigh, January 5, 1880. Mrs. Bridgers was the daughter of the late Edmund Burke Haywood, A. M., M. D., one of the most distinguished physicians of his period. The Haywoods are of English origin. The family came to America the latter part of the Seventeenth century, by way of the Barbadoes, settling in Halifax County, later moving to Wake County. John Haywood, grandfather of Mrs. Bridgers, was a planter, the first Mayor of Raleigh and Treasurer of the State of North Carolina from 1787 to 1827. The county and town of Haywood


are named for him. Alfred Williams, maternal grandfather of Mrs. Bridgers, established the first book-store in Raleigh and the business has been in continuous existence for more than a hundred years.

Seven children were born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Bridgers. They are Burke Bridgers, well known local business man, sales manager with the Cement Products Company; Lucy, wife of Dr. R. H. Bellamy, Wilmington; Margaret, deceased; Elizabeth, wife of W. S. O. B. Robinson, General Counsel for the Southern Power Co., Charlotte; Robert Bridgers, deceased; Routh, wife of Commander J. F. Farley, U. S. C. G., New London, Conn.; and Ernestine, wife of Robert Clarke, in the real estate business at West Palm Beach, Florida. It is of local historic interest, that Carolina Heights, the first suburban development east of Seventeenth Street, was begun by the Bridgers family. Mary Bridgers, sister of Preston L. Bridgers, began the development, assured its success, and at her death, her nephew, Burke Bridgers completed it. This development, which only a comparatively short time ago, was an expanse of waste land now is one of the most attractive residence sections of Wilmington. Burke H. Bridgers, aside from his business interests, has devoted his efforts principally to extending and improving the Golf course of the Cape Fear Country Club. Recently, he was presented with a life membership in this organization in token of its appreciation of the successful outcome of this undertaking.


A. D. P. Gilmour

FEW MEN have risen to the intellectual prominence, spiritual influence and genuinely high esteem attained by Rev. Dr. Abram David Pollock Gilmour, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, of Wilmington. And none has carried distinction with more delightful and attractive modesty.

Dr. Gilmour was born in Helenburgh, Scotland, October 5, 1876, and comes of a sturdy stock, whose recorded genealogy, including collateral branches of the family, traces back through Scottish history to 1070, only four years after the Norman William conquered England. He came with his parents to this country when a child and, in consequence, he is wholly an American product and largely Virginian.

He was educated at the famous Norwood Private School, at Richmond, Va., and afterwards, at Nolley's in the same city. He then entered Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, a Colonial institution of which Patrick Henry, Revolutionary patriot, at one time was a member of the board of directors. He graduated at Hampden-Sydney with the degrees of A. B. and A. M. and became a sub-professor for one year, after which he taught at Pantops Academy, at Charlottesville, Va., for another year. He then entered the Union Theological Seminary, Richmond, from which he graduated with the degree of B. D., and later took post-graduate work at Princeton Theological Seminary and Princeton University, and later was a student at the University of Chicago. At Princeton, Dr. Gilmour studied under the late war president, Woodrow Wilson, then head of that University, and it is peculiarly pleasing to note that he now occupies the pulpit of the church of which President Wilson's father, Dr. Joseph R. Wilson, was pastor from 1873 to 1885.

Dr. Gilmour was licensed as a minister by the East Hanover Presbytery in the Synod of Virginia and ordained by the Cherokee Presbytery in the Synod of Georgia, in 1901. Since his ordination, he has been successively pastor of the Windsor Avenue Presbyterian Church, Bristol, Tenn; the Purity Presbyterian Church, Chester, S. C.; the First Presbyterian Church, Spartanburg, S. C., and the First Presbyterian Church here. On different occasions, for several months at a time, in his early ministry, he was associated with Miss Martha Berry and assisted in the early days with the Berry School at Rome, Ga., probably the greatest institution of its kind in the country.

Inevitably, his transcendant abilities have been recognized and his services drafted by various religious, educational and civic organizations, and especially those of his own Presbyterian denomination. Between 1905 and 1911, he was Financial Agent, Assistant Professor of Hebrew and Field Secretary and Associate Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament at the Union Theological Seminary, in which school he formerly was a student. Because of his effective work in this institution and his pronounced success in handling all duties which he was called upon to perform, the honorary degree of D. D. was conferred upon him, in 1909, by the historic Washington and Lee University.

In addition, Dr. Gilmour has had thrust upon him, has accepted and has given constructive attention to many other important duties. Among these have been the chairmanship of the Permanent Committee on Systematic Beneficence of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States; the chairmanship of the General Assembly's Ad Interim Committee on the Powers and Duties of the Systematic Beneficence and Stewardship Committees; and the chairmanship of the General Assembly's Ad Interim Committee on Revision of the Directory of Worship and Optional Forms. Also, he was chairman of the Synod of North Carolina's Ad Interim Committee on Co-ordination of the Synod's Work and now is the chairman of the Synod's Work Committee of this same Synod. He formerly was a member of the Board of Trustees of the Presbyterian College of South Carolina and now is one of the trustees of Peace Institute, Raleigh, N. C., and of the Mountain Retreat Association, of Montreat, N. C. Naturally, he has been offered other distinctions, including the presidency of several well-known schools and colleges, which honors he declined that he might continue to devote his time to the ministry. He has accepted, however, various duties outside the strictly religious class. During the World War, he was the chairman of the War Camp Community Service, at Camp Wadsworth, Spartanburg, S. C., and actively co-operated with other patriot citizens of that section in war movements. At one time, too, he was a member of the board of directors of the Spartanburg Chamber of Commerce.

Dr. Gilmour's ancestry is more than ordinarily distinguished. His father, Matthew Gilmour, came to this country from Scotland and settled at Richmond where he took an active part in the life of the community. His mother was Roberta Pollock, of Warrenton, Va., whose deeds of heroism during the Civil War, were then and continue to be the admiration of many and are permanently recorded in Alexander Hunter's book, “The Women of the Debatable Land,” as well as in other books descriptive of that epochal period.

On his mother's side, Dr. Gilmour is the grandson of Rev. A. D. Pollock, D.D., whose name he bears in full, and who was a cousin of the late Thomas A. Hendricks, running mate of Grover Cleveland and Vice President of the United States in the first administration of that great Democrat. Dr. Pollock was a native of Pennsylvania but removed to Virginia many years prior to the Civil War and held important pastorates in the Presbyterian Church at Richmond, Va., and Wilmington, Del. Through his mother, Dr. Gilmour also is a grandson of Elizabeth Gordon Lee, first cousin of Gen. Robert E. Lee and daughter of Charles Lee, Attorney-General of the United States under George Washington, in both of his administrations, and also under the elder Adams. Charles Lee was the younger brother of Harry Lee, the “Light Horse Harry” of Revolutionary fame and uncle of Robert E. Lee, and a nephew of Richard Henry Lee, mover of the Declaration of Independence, and of Francis Lightfoot Lee, both signers of the same Declaration and also a nephew of Arthur Lee, special commissioner of the American Colonies to France. Thus, through his mother, Dr. Gilmour is lineally connected with perhaps the most distinguished and honored name, with the exception of Washington, in American history.

On June 4, 1907, at Summerville, S. C., Dr. Gilmour married Miss Elizabeth Monroe Taylor, daughter of Rev. William Howell Taylor and Sarah Elizabeth Monroe, Mrs. Gilmour was directly descended from the Munroes of Fowlis Castle, Iverness, Scotland, the records of whose family are in existence continuously from the year 1058, and of which family, William Ewart Gladstone, Prime Minister, who made Victoria's reign one of the most illustrious in English annals, is a member. Both on her father's and her mother's side, Mrs. Gilmour's ancestors held offices under the Colonial government and also served with distinction in the Revolutionary War, her paternal great-grandfather having fought at Monmouth and her maternal great-grandfather having been killed in the first battle for American Independence at Lexington, which fact is permanently recorded on a monument on Lexington Green.

Three children have been born of the marriage of Dr. and Mrs. Gilmour. They are Monroe Taylor Gilmour, Matthew Pollock Gilmour, and Elizabeth Roberta Gilmour, all of this city.

Socially, Dr. Gilmour is a member of the Beta Theta Pi Fraternity and of the Friars Club, Princeton Seminary. He also is a member of the Society of the Lees of Virginia. His record appears in “Who's Who in America”. He is the author of two tracts, “The Denominational College—a Denominational Necessity” and “Woodrow Wilson, the Christian.”


ARTHUR BLUETHENTHAL, the first Wilmingtonian to lose his life in the World War, was born November 1, 1891; and killed in aerial combat near Marquelas (Oise) France, on June 5, 1918. Because of his achievements during war, and peace, he will, along with Johnston Blakely, Cornelius Harnett, William Hooper, Admiral Edwin A. Anderson and others, always occupy a glorified and distinguished place in the affections of the Wilmington community.

Words, however well handled, cannot so impressively relate the history of Arthur Bluethenthal, as the brief recitals of his military records, on file in the archives of the world's two greatest republics, the United States and France. These records show and preserve for all time, a career, which, though it covers a period of but a few years, has few counterparts for excellent service in all endeavors in which he participated. A copy of these records, with the cold brevity of the military, include the following:

Born: Wilmington, North Carolina, November 1, 1891.

Schooling: Wilmington schools until 15 years of age; Phillips Exeter, 1907-1909; Princeton University, 1909-1913 (played on University football team for three years and became an All-American center).

Business: From 1913 to 1916, with the Bluethenthal Co., Wilmington; tobacco commission broker, New York; and athletic supervisor and coach, University of North Carolina and Princeton.

Military Service (American and French Records): American Ambulance Field Service, May 6, 1916 to May 11, 1917 (First six months in France and during battle of Verdun was awarded Croix de Guerre. Second six months saw service in Greece around Salonica); service in French aviation, Lafayette Escadrille (date of enlistment, June 1, 1917); aviation schools, June 9, 1917, to March 15, 1918 (Avord, G. D. E.); breveted, September 27, 1917 (Caudron); at the front, Escadrille Breguet 227, March 17 to June 5, 1918; final rank, sergeant; killed in combat, June 5, 1918, near Maignelay (Oise); buried in France until after war his body was removed and buried in Wilmington.

Decorations: Croix de Guerre (With Star) Ambulance Corps; Medaille Militaire (Aviation); Croix de Guerre avec Palme, June 9, 1918.


A la Francaise et Carrement

M. Arthur Bluethenthal

A fait partie comme Volontaire de The American

Ambulance Field Service du 6, Mai 1916 au 11 Mai 1917.

Fidele a l'ancestrale amitie de la Frence et das

E'tats-Unis, il s'est voue dans

l'Armee Francaise

A portes secours sur la ligne de bataille

aux Blesses de la Guerre Pour Le Droit

Vien avant l'entree en guerre des Etat-Unis

il a fait campagne en Lorraine, a Verdun et

avec l’ Armes d'Orient, servant comme conducteur

d'Ambulance dans la Section

Sanitaire Americaine No. 3.

Il a ete cite a l'Ordre de la 57 cme Division.

(Signed) A. Piatt Andrew

Stephen Golatti

Medaille Militaire

Par arrete Ministeriel du 10 Juin, 1922, rendu en application des decrets des 13 Aout 1914 et lec October 1918.

Le Medaille Militaire a ete attribuce a la memoire Du Sergent Bluethenthal, Arthur du 2° Groupe d'Aviation Mort Pour La France

“Pilote Americain de premier ordre. S'est engage dans la Legion Etrangere, pourpouvoir servir en Frence dans l'Aviation. S'est fait remarquer des les debuts, par son esprit de discipline et son courage refleche. A voulo continuer a servir dans de passer cans une Escadrille Francaise, au couro de la bataille actuelle, avant de passer dans l'Aviation Americaine. Le 5 Juin 1918, pendant un reglage lointain, a ete tue en combat.”


(a ete cite)

June 9, 1918

Cette Citation comporte l'attribution de la Croix de Guerre avec Palme.

Ordre General No. 44 du 9 Juin 1918.

Bluethenthal, Arthur, Nle 12203, Corporal au 1st Regiment Etranger, Pilote a l'Escadrille, Br. 227.

“Pilote Americain de premier ordre.S'est engage dans la LegionEtrangere pour pouvoir servir enFrance, dans l'Aviation. S'est fait remarguer desles debuts par son esprit de discipline et son couragereflecte. A voules continuer a servir dans uneEscadrille Francaise, au cours de la batailleactuelle, avant de passer dans l'Aviation Americaine.Le 5 Juin 1918, pendant un reglage lointain, a ete tue en combat.”

On May 30, 1928, on the occasion of the dedication of the Bluethenthal Airport, Mr. J. O. Carr is quoted as saying:

“In dedicating this airport to the memory of Arthur Bluethenthal, no mean hero is being honored; on the contrary, we are doing homage to a soldier and patriot, the superior of whom has not been known in and around Wilmington. He early conceived that he had a duty to perform in that war, even though America at the time was neutral. He entertained a passionate love and fondness for France and had a strong conviction that the world should go to her rescue. Desiring to do his part, he enlisted. He was with the English in Macedonia, and around Salonica, with the French at Verdun and later joined the famous Lafayette Escadrille, composed of American flyers. Unhappily, on June 7, 1918, shortly before his transfer to the American flying corps, while directing artillery fire, a surprise German plane attacked him causing him and his plane to descend in flames. Arthur Bluethenthal was buried with tender care by the French near Amiens where the grave was devotedly preserved until the removal of the body to Wilmington in 1921.

“And thus France and her people had done all it was possible for them to do to show their appreciation and affection for an American hero who offered his life not only in defense of his own country but also in defense of a country not his own. The young man who offers his life in the defense of his own country is deemed to have met the highest test of patriotism; but he who goes a step further and offers his life in defense of a country not his own, is inspired not only by the highest patriotic impulses, but has conceived a duty in addition to that patriotism which he feels for his own country. This is what Arthur Bluethenthal did.”

Wilmington and New Hanover County have honored and perpetuated his memory. The local flying field, established and maintained by the county is named for him. The American Legion monument, standing at Thirteenth and Market streets, bears his name; and again he is listed in imperishable brass with other New Hanover County World War patriots on a tablet at the courthouse. In addition, his magnificent record as a pupil of the local schools, as a student, athlete and university coach and as a warrior in the greatest conflict in the military annals of the world, always will be an examplary tradition in the homes of the Lower Cape Fear.

Arthur Bluethenthal, as has been stated, was distinctly a Wilmington boy. He was a member of a family who has been among the leading citizens of this city for more than a half century. His father, Leopold Bluethenthal, was born in Germany in 1860 and came to America when a lad, 17 years of age. He entered the mercantile business with his uncle, Frederick Rheinstein, a highly respected citizen, a short time after his arrival and continued to live in Wilmington until his death in 1928. The young man's mother, Mrs. Johanna Bluethenthal, born in Germany in 1867, still resides here. Herbert Bluethenthal, a brother of Arthur Bluethenthal, and one year his senior, is head of the Bluethenthal Dry Goods Co. A sister, Mrs. Elsa Bluethenthal Strause (born in 1896) lives in Richmond, Virginia. The entire family are members of Temple of Israel, of which congregation Herbert Bluethenthal is President.


W. W. Harriss

DR. WILLIAM WHITE HARRISS, a distinguished physician and surgeon, and prominent in the business world, was a man of fine presence who bore himself with admirable dignity and ease of the Old School gentlemen of the South. He was the personification of urbanity and was a chivalrous, courtly, courteous man, whose genial, cordial greeting is a characteristic still remembered by many in this, his native section. He was the soul of honor, and a pattern of integrity and uprightness in his life, and by nature was high-minded and generous by impulse. Possessed of a fine intellect and extensive education, well read and widely informed, he was an exceptionally good conversationalist and most entertaining companion for the old and young.

Doctor Harriss received his early education at the then celebrated Donelson Academy, Fayetteville, North Carolina, 1836-1838. After graduating from this institution, he entered the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, in 1842, when only eighteen years of age, afterwards with the degree of Master of Arts. Following this, he returned to Wilmington, reading medicine, in the office of his brother-in-law, the late Dr. John Dillard Bellamy. Subsequently, he graduated, in 1854, from the famous Jefferson Medical College, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and later, in 1846, graduated from the medical department University of New York. Having completed his medical education, he returned to his native city, practicing medicine with Doctor John D. Bellamy, until the latter's retirement. He then formed a co-partnership with the late Dr. F. W. Potter, which continued for many years. In 1858, he acquired a partnership in the firm of Harriss & Howell, Ship Brokers and Commission Merchants, which was one of the largest establishments in Wilmington, at that time.

When the War for Southern Independence broke out in 1861, Doctor Harriss entered the Confederate Army, and was commissioned Assistant Surgeon, 61st Regiment, North Carolina Volunteers, October 10, 1862, and saw active service in the Battle of Kinston, December 14, 1862. After this, he was on duty chiefly around Charleston, South Carolina, until 1863, when General W. H. C. Whiting, C. S. A., appointed him Surgeon of the City Garrison in Wilmington, where he remained until the surrender. When Wilmington was evacuated February 22, 1865, he was appointed by General Braxton Bragg, C. S. A., to remain there as surgeon in charge of the sick and wounded Confederate soldiers. It will be of interest to quote here, from an article written by Doctor Harriss, for his family records, as follows:

“Wilmington and its Army Posts were evacuated on February 22nd, 1865. General Terry (U.S.A.) with his command marched in 8:00 A. M., from Fort Fisher and vicinity, entering our lines, Southern end of town, with a large body of cavalry, artillery and infantry troops, and the same afternoon, General Schofield, U. S. A., with his advance Corps entered from the Western side, fresh from his victorious march through Brunswick County, and battle at Town Creek where he met a rugged resistance, with his large, disciplined, well-fed forces. It was a sad but splendid sight, flower of the United States Army. The sand forts at the mouth of the Cape Fear had bid defiance for four long weary but active years, at last yielded to superior artillery from ship and shore. Blockading fleets had guarded entrance at New Inlet, joining in most galling, destructive shot and shell, with precision, hourly and daily. Confederate forces, reduced in number, ammunition and provisions, with unequal contest, the heaviest artillery duel that astounded the world, yielded at last, retreated, doggedly to defense of approaches to our doomed city.

“As Surgeon of the city Garrison, my Headquarters, were in the city, North-east corner Second and Princess streets, until fall of Fort Fisher. Position regarded impregnable—not so, however—by General Bragg, General in command and others who were in position to know the real status. About ten days previous to evacuation of city, message was sent me for an interview at office of Samuel Logan, Chief Surgeon, and, to my surprise and honor. I was informed of a feared early evacuation, but with positive instructions the fact not to be divulged. An arrangement had to be perfected to detail a Medical officer who would consent to remain in city, care for and take charge of Confederate sick and wounded, whose condition prevented their removal. Upon my acceptance of the tendered appointment, orders were issued by S. Logan, General Bragg's command as Chief Surgeon, and placed in my hands for use soon as the necessity arose—to me was a sacred trust—feeling its importance and responsibility

“Morning of February 22nd, opened on me with new and sad duties, yet conscious of my orders and the responsibility assumed, cheerfully entered on the mission. On appearance of the Federal troops I assumed citizen's apparel—the Confederates out of city—and my first duty was a visit to the wounded Confederate soldiers at temporary hospital, established few days previous at building on Southeast corner Dock and Front Streets (afterwards removed to old Hotel Edmundson, corner Front and Red Cross Streets, then again to Hyer House on Red Cross next to corner of Fourth, and remained to the close). There I found nineteen brave, young, gallant boys reported wounded by loss of arm or leg in the late actions at Town Creek, Brunswick County, with but one sick, and he, with continued malaria fever. Their conditions were simply pitiful—many had enjoyed all the comforts of home that wealth, or refinement, could afford, now deprived of even the necessities of life—without food, clothing or bedding, to rest their weary bodies. I immediately called on and reported with my orders to Shipman, Chief Federal Medical Officer, who had just arrived. (Office in Building 121 Market Street), and received me with most tender, cordial courtesy and sympathy—made known my wants and necessities, and to his enquiries asked for nineteen mattresses, towels, pillows, sheets, shirts, drawers, socks, soaps, and conveniences for water. Within three hours all supplies made, nurses detailed and guard furnished, to be obedient only to my orders, and were most cheerfully obeyed. Animosity of the past was temporarily buried between the Grey and the Blue. Soup, bread, coffee and other necessary food were furnished at my request, and immediate compliance was promptly, freely given. Felt I had met a Good Samaritan in person of Shipman, the kind, humane, sympathetic, honorable Chief Surgeon of Corp Federal Army—our position ripened into most friendly, vauable intercourse—all my requests granted and supplies funished.

“So great was the animosity between the Rebs and Yanks—rank and file—a guard was necessary to prevent gratification of Yankee curiosity and the indulgence of their gibes. Our boys were a different people, but as time went on hatred partially disappeared, only to be revived and intensified when the sad news of Lincoln's assassination, March 14th, was whispered. What a change—the very Demons of Hell, with quiet, sullen, dogged determination, were ready to resent any levity or allusion to his death. Gentlemen, as our boys were, received the news in silence. With proper nursing and nourishing food our boys rapidly improved, and as their physical condition would justify and opportunity offered, transportation by steamer to Norfolk, for Eastern North Carolina and for Southern points—to Charleston, where friends advised of their expected arrival, invariably met them, and were distributed to their respective homes. In this way the Confederate hospital was relieved. All the sick and wounded were removed before 1st of May. Roster was kept, but in the moving and confusion, lost, mislaid, and not since found. No one can ever know—no tongue can ever tell—sufferings of the Confederate Soldier.”

After the war, Dr. Harriss remained in the firm of Harriss & Howell, moving to New York City, in 1866, as representative of the firm, later returning to Wilmington, when he again took an active part in civic and business affairs. He was Alderman of the city for several years, during the administrations of John Dawson, and O. G. Parsley. He was the Third President of the Chamber of Commerce, 1874 and 1875, and his picture now may be seen in the assembly room of this organization, Dr. Harriss being one of the founders of that institution, the oldest in the state. Retiring from the firm of Harriss & Howell, and continuing up to the time of his death, he engaged in business as an Insurance Underwriter and was President of the Local Board of Underwriters. He was a member of St. John's Lodge No. 1, A. F. & A. M., oldest in North Carolina, having become a Mason in 1845, also of the Cornelius Harnett Council, Royal Arcanum and of the Clarendon Lodge, Knights of Pythias and the American Legion of Honor, and was a member of the famous Thalian Association 1846-1847-1848, and the Carolina Yacht Club, Wrightsville Beach. He was a devoted member for many years of St. James Episcopal Church.

William White Harriss was born in Wilmington, January 13, 1824, died December 7, 1901, and was married on December 6, 1848, to Caroline Matilda Brown, born October 10, 1831, died August 24, 1891, a daughter of Thomas William Brown, a prominent business man of this city, born January 21, 1803, and died October 15, 1872, and his wife, Caroline Amelia Marshall, born December 31, 1812, died July 10, 1844, married January 31, 1828, and a granddaughter of James Brown of Bladen County, born April 5, 1768, died February 20, 1813, married September 17, 1793 to Elizabeth Adair also of Bladen County, born September 21, 1774, died August, 19, 1844. James

Brown was a nephew of Major-General Thomas Brown, of the American Revolution. She also was a granddaughter of James Marshall of Bladen County, born August 9, 1779, died in Wilmington, June 26, 1830; who married Lucy Jones Brown, Bladen County, born September 30, 1790, died in Wilmington, October 7, 1818.

William White Harriss, M. D., was the son of Dr. William James Harriss, also of splendid renown in the annals of Wilmington and Mayor of the City at his death, July 9, 1839. Doctor William James Harriss, was born April 10, 1798, married Mary Priscilla Jennings, October 25, 1820. He was considered a gentleman of great force and of the highest character, beloved by all classes in his native section. Mary Priscilla Jennings was born February 27, 1802, died December 3, 1879, and was the daughter of George Jennings, a member of a Noble English family, who came to America in 1790. William James Harriss, M. D., was the son of Dr. William Harriss, born January 31, 1769 in Quibbletown, New Jersey, who came to Wilmington, in 1779, died July 4, 1842. Dr. William Harriss was married October 28, 1792, to Elizabeth Barrett, born January 24, 1776, died January 8, 1844, daughter of Rev. John Barrett, Rector of St. Philips’ Church, town of Brunswick, North Carolina, 1765, founded in the 1730's and, therefore, the oldest in the Lower Cape Fear.


Frank G. Harriss

FRANK GREEN HARRISS, descendant of the earliest North Carolina and New England stock, active in church, civic club work, agricultural development and one of the most progressive young business men in the State, was born in Wilmington, N. C., December 9th, 1883. Of exceptional natural ability, pleasant, affable and capable, he has added to these qualifications a wide variety of important experience and, as a result, he easily is among the most useful and substantial citizens of the community. His principal professional business is real estate, loans and insurance, being the senior member of the well known firm of Harriss & Cowan.

Mr. Harriss received his early education in the public schools of Wilmington and later, under the special tutelage of Prof. Washington Catlett, instructor and head of the Cape Fear Academy. He also took a special traffic course, LaSalle Extension University, Chicago, Ill. In 1897, when only a youth, fourteen years of age, he entered the traffic department of the Seaboard Air Line Railway, and by close application and marked persistency advanced through the various divisions of the local freight service within three years, including the supervision of the large importing fertilizer materials for numerous agencies under contract with the Seaboard Air Line Railway, whose general agent was Thomas D. Meares. For the next ten years, he was employed in the office of the Auditor of Freight Receipts, Atlantic Coast Line, acquiring a complete knowledge of freight rates and general auditing which placed him among the best authorities on the subject in the State. From this department, he was selected in May, 1911, by the Winston-Salem Southbound Railway to hold the position of Commercial Agent, with headquarters at Winston-Salem. The duties of this position required him to cover a large territory throughout the Eastern section of the United States. Following another promotion, he was transferred to Lynchburg, Virginia, where he remained until 1917.

In the latter year when the United States declared war against Germany, Mr. Harriss obtained leave for the duration of the war from the railroad service and promptly offered to enlist, applying for a commission as an officer in the transportation division of Army Overseas. He successfully passed the mental examinations, in Washington, D. C., but to his great disappointment, failed to pass the physical examination, due to a serious operation, from the effects of which he did not recover for several years. Desiring to serve his country, he later accepted a position with the United States Shipping Board, Emergency Fleet Corporation, Concrete Division, and was assigned to Wilmington where he remained until peace was declared. In the latter part of 1918, he was appointed Traffic Manager of the Aladdin Company (manufacturers of ready-cut houses), Wilmington branch. He held this position for three years and a half, or until 1922, when he resigned to establish a business of his own, including real estate, insurance, loans, bonds and similar lines. After several years of successful operation he formed a partnership, in 1925, with Charles G. Cowan, operating under the firm name of Harriss & Cowan. This firm continues, and is one of the leading of its kind in Southeastern North Carolina.

His activities, aside from his straight professional business duties, are extensive. Inheriting the taste of his maternal grandfather, Col. Thomas D. Meares, for agricultural pursuits and realizing the possibilities of this section, while yet in his teens, he purchased a tract of land near Castle Hayne, N. C. From time to time he has added to these holdings, until now he is the possessor of a large acreage, part of which is under cultivation, especial attention being given to the growing of grapes and berries. He has been constant and valuable in his efforts to make the Lower Cape Fear one of the greatest producing areas in the country. His religious, civic, social and fraternal affiliations include the usual classifications of a good citizen. He is a member of St. James Episcopal Church and prominent in the Men's Club of that congregation. Fraternally and professionally, he affiliates with the Elks Lodge, No. 449, Winston-Salem; the local Board of Fire Underwriters; the National Association of Real Estate Boards, the Wilmington Real Estate Board; and he is a member of the Executive Committee of the Wilmington Chamber of Commerce. He is also a member of the Carolina Yacht Club, Wrightsville Beach, N. C., and of The Exchange Club of Wilmington, in which organization he is identified with several leading committees and otherwise high in its councils. In politics he is a Democrat, state and locally, and a Republican, nationally.

Mr. Harriss’ American ancestral lines date to the first settlements in New England, New Jersey and in North Carolina. A brief sketch of his lineage discloses names intimately

familiar to all students of North Carolina history and to every one familiar with American literature. John Alden, Priscilla Mullins, Bishop Seabury, Governor James Iredell and, in the Cape Fear region, Rev. John Barrett, Dr. William White Harriss, are all in his direct ancestral lines. He is a descendant of Rt. Rev. Samuel Seabury, first Episcopal Bishop of America and also is a great-great-grandson of General Thomas Davis, 1765-1822, who at the age of sixteen years was a Lieutenant in the Revolutionary War, and later, a General in the War of 1812. The genealogy runs as follows:

George Nehemiah Harriss, father of the subject of this sketch, was born August 10, 1851, in Wilmington, N. C., and died September 7, 1907. He married, January 28, 1875, Katherine Grady Meares, born July 29, 1853, died May 11, 1925. He was one of the most highly respected and best beloved citizens of this his native city, received his early education at Jewett's School. Immediately after the Civil War he was sent to preparatory schools in Elizabeth, New Jersey and Stamford, Conn. In 1866 and 1867 he was a cadet at the North Carolina Military and Polytechnic Academy, Hillsboro, N. C. This institution owned by General Robert E. Colston, was later in 1868 moved to Wilmington and was then known as the Cape Fear Military Academy. Mr. Harriss graduated from this Academy, ranking as Cadet Captain during the sessions of 1869-1870. Completing his education by a course in journalism, Mr. Harriss first was attached to a local newspaper, later connecting himself with the Auditing Department of the Atlantic Coast Line, where he continued until his death.

George Nehemiah Harriss was the son of Dr. William White Harriss, born January 13, 1824, died December 7, 1901. He married Caroline Matilda Brown, December 6, 1848. Caroline Matilda (Brown) Harriss was born October 10, 1831 and died August 24, 1891. Doctor Harriss was one of the most celebrated physicians of his period, a Confederate veteran, one of the founders of the local Chamber of Commerce, the oldest in the state and otherwise prominent in the affairs of Wilmington. He graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, from the University of North Carolina in 1842, when only eighteen years of age. He later became a student at the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, from which he graduated with honors, and later, from the Bellevue Medical College, New York. He was practicing in Wilmington when the Civil War broke out and he immediately enlisted in the Confederacy, being commissioned Assistant Surgeon, 61st Regiment, North Carolina Volunteers. In 1863, he was appointed surgeon and continued in that capacity for the remainder of the war. He was one of the gallant defenders at Fort Fisher, in January 1865. He served as a private citizen with great ability and value. He was the third president of the Chamber of Commerce, 1874 and 1875 and his picture now may be seen in the Assembly Room of that institution. He was a member of St. John's Lodge No. 1, A. F. & A. M., oldest in the State; also of the Cornelius Harnett Council, Royal Arcanum and of the Clarendon Lodge, Knights of Pythias and the American Legion of Honor. Dr. William White Harriss was the son of Dr. William James Harriss, also of splendid renown in the annals of Wilmington and Mayor of the city at his death, July 9, 1839. William James Harriss was born April 10, 1798 and married Mary Priscilla Jennings, October 25, 1820. He was a citizen of great force and of the highest character, beloved of all classes in his native section. Mary Priscilla Jennings, born February 27, 1802, died December 3, 1879, daughter of George Jennings, a member of a noble English family who came to America in 1790. Dr. William James Harriss was the son of Dr. William Harriss, born January 31, 1769, in Quibbletown, New Jersey, who came to Wilmington in 1779, died July 4, 1842. He married Elizabeth Barrett, October 28, 1792. She was the daughter of Rev. John Barrett, Rector of St. Philips Church, 1765, founded in the 1730's at old Brunswick and the oldest in the Lower Cape Fear.

The mother of the subject of this sketch, Katherine Grady Meares, was the daughter of Colonel Thomas Davis Meares, of Wilmington. Colonel Meares was born July 27, 1818, and died December 20, 1871. He was one of the most brilliant members of the North Carolina Bar. An effective orator, bold, earnest and ardent by nature, he commanded attention with his eloquence as an advocate at the bar, on the hustings or in the legislative halls of the State. Bred to the profession of the law and endowed with intellectual vigor of a high order, he pursued its practice for some years with that zeal and energy which most certainly would have attained eminence, had he continued to devote himself to the law with that exclusiveness which it demands of its votaries. But though a lawyer by profession, he was a planter from taste and his fondness for agricultural pursuits (as is usual in like cases) weaned from him his profession and ultimately induced him to regard it as secondary to the business of the farm

and few men, if any, in the State exhibited in a greater degree of that energy and practical good sense so necessary in conducting successfully the varied operations incident of this, his favorite pursuit. He was the owner of one of the richest and largest rice plantations on the Lower Cape Fear River, “Meares’ Bluff” (now Navassa) and of plantations in Sampson, Rowan and Iredell Counties, N. C. He also was aide-de-camp on Governor William Alexander Graham's staff, 1844; a member of the State Legislature, 1856-57; and again he was a member from Brunswick County to the Constitutional Convention, May 20, 1861, at Raleigh, which passed the Ordinance of Secession. This was after Lincoln's call for troops and left no other course open. Wheeler's History comments upon the extraordinary array of men present, in this convention, constituting a body of great dignity and ability. Colonel Meares’ wife, Jane Moore Iredell, of Raleigh, born April 7, 1826, died March, 13, 1888, was a daughter of James Iredell, 2nd, who was a Captain of a Company of Volunteers at Norfolk, Va., in the War of 1812. He was a member of the House of Commons, 1816; Speaker, 1817; Judge of the Superior Court, 1819; Governor, 1827; and United States Senator, 1828-31. His father, James Iredell, 1st, was born in Lewes, England, October 5, 1751, and died at Edenton, North Carolina, October 20, 1799. He is buried at “Hayes Plantation,” near Edenton. He was Attorney-General of North Carolina, 1779; appointed by President George Washington, February 10, 1790, one of the Justices of the first United States Supreme Court. He died while still in that office.

On the maternal side, Mr. Harriss had other distinguished ancestry, being descended from two children of John Alden and Priscilla Mullins, Elizabeth, their eldest child, born 1624, died May 31, 1717, married December 26, 1644 to William Peabody of Plymouth, Mass., and from their son David Alden, born 1649, died 1719, married Mary Southworth, of Plymouth, Mass. From Samuel Johnston, Surveyer General of the Province of North Carolina, 1735, a younger brother of Gabriel Johnston, Colonial Governor of North Carolina from November 2, 1734, to his death in July 1752. Also from Samuel Johnston 2nd, born December 15, 1733, died 1816, elected Governor 1789, member of Continental Congress 1780 to 1782, owner of “Hayes Plantation” near Edenton, North Carolina, where he is buried.


R. A. Brand

ROBERT ALFRED BRAND, than whom there is no more experienced railroad man or more lovable citizen, began his career as a warehouse messenger boy, in 1875, at Sumter, South Carolina, and retired, last December 12, on his seventieth birthday anniversary, as vice-president of the great Atlantic Coast Line System, after more than a half century of continuous and notably competent and meritorious service.

Mr. Brand was born in Clarendon County, South Carolina, December 12, 1858. He attended private schools in that county, and St. Stephens, a preparatory school, in Timmonsville. Because of the death of his father, he was compelled to go to work at an early age and such other scholastic education as he received was at a night school in Sumter, S. C., to which town he went, at 17 years of age, to obtain employment.

He was not particular as to the class of work he secured and accepted the first opportunity, which happened to be a messenger in a railroad warehouse. And from that lowly, but entirely honorable job, began a railroad career that has few equals for consistent advancement to the high goal of vice-president of easily one of the leading railroad systems in the world. Too, he filled every position with such outstanding ability as to make his promotion to the next higher rung on the ladder, the inevitable consequence of merit.

In 1878, he became a clerk and telegraph operator for the Atlantic Coast Line at Sumter. His happy faculty of developing friendships, a most valuable asset in any business, was quickly recognized by higher officials and, in August of the next year, 1881, he was sent to Marion, S. C., as agent. Apparently, his transfer to Marion was merely for a try-out as an agent, the most important contact a railroad has with the general public. It is apparent, too, that he satisfied, because five months later, or in December of that same year, he was returned to Sumter as agent at that point, in which position he continued for about eleven years, or until 1892, when he was advanced to soliciting agent. His headquarters continued in Sumter but his territory covered the thickly settled and enterprising area between Columbia and Florence and Florence and Wadesboro.

His next step upward in the big Coast Line Organization came in August, 1894, when he was appointed a commercial agent. This promotion carried a tinge of the proverbial fly in amber, in that it required him to make his headquarters in Augusta, Georgia, thus compelling him to leave his beloved Sumter. The manner in which he performed the duties of this position is evidenced by the fact that, in the following year, he was appointed general agent, covering all of Georgia and parts of Alabama and Tennessee. His headquarters remained in Augusta.

Eight years later, July 1, 1902, he was promoted to general freight agent, in charge of all Atlantic Coast Line freight traffic, north of Charleston, S. C., and with headquarters in Wilmington, general headquarters of the Coast Line System. In January, 1903, he was promoted to freight traffic manager for the entire system; and three years later, in 1906, he was appointed vice-president, in charge of freight and passenger traffic in which position he served until last December, when in conformity to the rules of the company, he retired on his seventieth birthday.

Although in constant railroad service and occupying positions of importance, he always found time to develop his social nature, mingle with the public and acquire friends, and of friendships, few men can claim a more numerous and steadfast list, composed of all classes of people. He was identified with all civic and religious movements of his home town of Sumter and, later, in Augusta and in Wilmington. For seven years, he was captain of the Sumter Light Infantry and upon his retirement was elected to perpetual honorary membership, the only distinction of the kind ever conferred by that old and dignified organization. He is a member of the First Presbyterian Church of this city and has been a ruling elder, or member of the Session, in that denomination for twenty-six years, being first elected while a member of the First Church at Augusta. He also is a member of the Masonic Lodge (the Claremont at Sumter) and was a junior warden for five years. His membership in the Knights of Pythias also is at Sumter. Locally, he is a member of the Cape Fear Club, Cape Fear Country Club, Carolina Yacht Club and the Chamber of Commerce. He has been a life-long Democrat and was a member of the City Council in Sumter, South Carolina.

Unquestionably, a most remarkably successful and useful career. And one that is possible only to those who are particularly generously endowed in intellect, in possessing a happily balanced temperament and a rock-ribbed stability of character Naturally, many delightful experiences have been his lot and peculiarly pleasing distinctions have befallen him. He received literally hundreds of congratulatory telegrams and letters from friends in Wilmington and elsewhere upon his seventieth birthday and his retirement from active railroad duty. But probably the most personal—the one that caused the heart to beat the fastest—was the cognizance taken by his friends and former neighbors in Sumter. The City Council of that splendid old town formally passed a resolution cordially commendatory of his services as a railroad official and citizen and the community actually sent a delegation to Wilmington to personally request him to return and make his home there. When it is recalled that he left Sumter in 1894, thirty-four years previously, this action on the part of the officials and residents of Sumter perhaps has no parallel as a proof of the sincere affection of a community for an individual, who is wholly a private citizen. However, it is proper to assert that residents of Wilmington would have met the invitation with earnest protests had Mr. Brand decided to leave here, even though he were going back to his old home.

Mr. Brand's American ancestral line begins in the pre-Revolutionary period when William Frank Brand arrived from England and settled in South Carolina, on a grant of land from King George III. He later removed to North Carolina, where his son, William Brand, grandfather of R. A. Brand, was born. The Brands, however, remained in North Carolina but a short time returning to Clarendon County, South Carolina where the late Captain William S. Brand, father of the subject of this sketch, was born. Captain Brand was an extensive property owner prior to the Civil War in which conflict he served with the historic Kershaw Brigade. He became a contractor following the war, and, in association with others, constructed the first railroad between Sumter and Columbia in 1870. He married Susan A. C. Pierson, daughter of Rev. Phillip Pierson, Presbyterian minister and well known throughout the Carolinas during the early middle period of the eighteenth century.

Mr. Brand married Miss Margaret E. Blanding, February 12, 1885. She is the daughter of Colonel James D. Blanding, native of Columbia, and distinguished for his services in the Mexican War and as Colonel of Kershaw's Sixth South Carolina Regiment during the Civil War. Abram Blanding, grandfather of Mrs. Brand, once owned the plantation on which Columbia, present state capital is located. He laid out and largely was the founder of that city. Her great-grandfather removed from Massachusetts to South Carolina immediately following the Revolutionary War, and, beyond that time, her family traces to the Plymouth colony, in 1640, to which they emigrated from England where they had sought refuge, a century earlier when exiled from France. The Blandings have been identified, for nearly three centuries, with leading Americans in all lines—as planters, soldiers, ministers, lawyers and doctors.

Six children, three of whom are living, have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Brand. Those now living are Etta Sloan, now Mrs. L. A. Adams, of Charlotte, North Carolina; Margaret E., now Mrs. T. C. Taliaferro, Cranford, New Jersey, and Robert A. Jr., associated with the Aetna Fire Insurance Company, Hartford, Connecticutt. Lenora died at seven years of age; Cora Hewitt was one year old at the time of her death; and Sue C., died in 1921, aged 38 years.


JAMES NEVELAND BRAND, SR., General Manager of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, with headquarters in Wilmington, was born in Clarendon County, South Carolina, December 16, 1871. He first was a resident of Wilmington, 1894 to 1902, transferred to Savannah, Georgia, and Jacksonville, Florida, successively, and, in 1915, returned to Wilmington and since has made his home here.

Mr. Brand was educated in private and public schools of Sumter County, until he was thirteen years of age, when, through force of family circumstances, he left school and obtained employment. He completed his education by enrolling in night school at Sumter, countyseat of Sumter County, and studying during the infrequent hours when he was not at work. The vastly greater portion of his education, however, was received in the hard, but thorough and valuable, school of experience.

The career of Mr. Brand has been generally typical of those of most executives of big railroad systems and the chieftains of other outstanding American industrials. That is, he started at taw, at the bottom, and by dint of strict attention to business, thorough competency and by reason of his ability to dispose of problems quickly and accurately, an indispensable qualification of a railroad executive, he has risen, step by step, to his present position of general manager of one of the four or five largest railroads in the United States, which is equivalent to saying, in the entire world.

A brief, statistical summary of his life discloses a constant series of promotions, but each advancement sufficiently widely separated from the other, to indicate he had mastered every detail of every position and was advanced strictly on merit. He was a messenger boy in Sumter railroad offices at twelve years of age and two years later, the manager of the Western Union in the same town. He accepted a position as telegraph operator with the Charleston, Sumter & Northern Railroad, a few years later. From the position of operator, he was advanced to chief clerk, to the general manager, and thence in 1889 and only a boy of eighteen years old, he was selected as train dispatcher, and, a short time afterwards to trainmaster.

He was serving in this latter position up to a few months prior to the time when the Atlantic Coast Line absorbed the C. S. & N. and it became a part of the system now constituting the Bennettsville and Pregnalls branches. He continued as trainmaster with headquarters in Sumter until October 1, 1894, when he went to Wilmington as chief clerk to the superintendent of transportation of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. On November 1, 1902, he was appointed assistant superintendent of transportation of the First Division (lines north of Savannah). Six months later, or May 1, 1903, he became Superintendent of Transportation of the Second Division, with offices at Savannah, Georgia, in which position he remained for about four years, when, on February 10, 1907, he was advanced to the General Superintendency of the Division. Almost exactly seven years later, February 1, 1914, his promotion to General Superintendent of the Jacksonville Division was announced. On November 16, 1915, he was chosen as assistant general manager and returned to Wilmington to reside after a thirteen years’ absence. On April 17, 1928, he was elected to his present position of general manager, which also carries with it the general managership of the Belt Line Railway Company, Montgomery, Alabama. From messenger boy in a small town to general manager of a railroad system of more than 5,000 miles and the parent company of a system of affiliated lines, totaling almost 15,000 miles and serving one of the richest and most progressive areas on earth, manifestly is a long and tedious climb. But it is peculiarly American.

In religion, Mr. Brand, following family tradition, is a Presbyterian and is a communicant of the First Church of this city. Socially, he is a member of the Cape Fear Club, the Cape Fear Country Club and the Carolina Yacht Club, all of Wilmington. He also is a member of the American Railway Engineering Association and of the local Chamber of Commerce. In politics, true to the heritage of virtually every South Carolinian, he is a Democrat. He has no fraternal, or lodge affiliations. Mr. Brand's ancestral line may be found in the sketch of his brother, R. A. Brand, on the preceding pages.

On November 14, 1900, Mr. Brand was married to Miss Maud Allison McLeod, of Wilmington. Mrs. Brand is the daughter of I. H. McLeod and Maria Borden McLeod. The McLeods are Scotch and originally settled in Canada. Two children, both sons, have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Brand. They are James Neveland Brand, Jr., now with the Atlantic Coast Line, and Herbert Borden Brand, also with the Atlantic Coast Line in Wilmington. The former married Miss Edith Pratt, of Mount Vernon, New York, the latter, Miss Eunice Williams, of Wilmington.


F. sr. Fechtig

FREDERICK HART FECHTIG, Purchasing Agent for the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company and the Charleston & Western Carolina Railway Company, was born at Hagerstown, Maryland, July 10, 1865. He has been with the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad since November 7, 1887 and a resident of Wilmington for thirty-five years, or since he was a young man, 28 years of age.

After leaving school, at sixteen, he entered the railroad service as a messenger boy, July 26, 1881, with the Shenandoah Valley Railroad, now Norfolk & Western. A short time later, he was promoted to clerk and timekeeper (at Roanoke, Va.), in which capacity he served until June 1, 1883, when he became chief clerk to the superintendent of the Washington, Ohio & Western (at Alexandria, Va.), now the Old Dominion Electric Line, and continued in that position until November 6, 1886, when he moved to Richmond, Va., and became chief clerk of transportation in the office of the general superintendent of the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad. He was there exactly one year, or until November 7, 1887, when his association with the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company began. He accepted the place of secretary to the first vice-president. After moving to Richmond, in his spare time he had the opportunity of studying law under the Virginia Attorney General, Hon. Rufus A. Ayers and John Howard, Esq. He was admitted to the bar on January 10, 1890. He was transferred to Wilmington July 1, 1894, and appointed purchasing agent, which position he holds to date. On March 13, 1918, he was appointed a member of the Central Advisory Purchasing Committee, Washington, D. C., and chairman of the Regional Purchasing Committee of the United States Railroad Administration, Atlanta, Ga. He continued in these positions until March 1, 1920, when the government relinquished its control of the railroads. During July and August, 1922, he represented the railroads, south of the Potomac and Ohio rivers and east of the Mississippi, on the Coal Committee during the critical period of the strike of that year.

His selection for leadership in troublous times has not been confined to recent years, nor to strictly railroad affairs. In 1898, when the supremacy of the white race was challenged in Wilmington and the community met the challenge with the studied thoroughness of preparation for a serious racial war, he was one of the committee of twenty-five chosen to decide upon the best methods to pursue. Hon. A. M. Waddell, mayor, acted as chairman of the mass meeting. How promptly and efficiently the committee acted is evidenced by the fact that within less than 48 hours the situation, which had been smouldering for months, had been successfully adjusted. Mr. Fechtig is interested in religious, professional and social organizations and associations. In religion, he is a member of the Protestant Episcopal church and, in politics, he is Independent. He is a member of the American Railway Engineering Association, the Southern & Southwestern Railway Club and the Railway Purchases and Stores Association. He is a member of the contract committee of the American Railway Engineering Association, the largest scientific association in the world. Locally, he belongs to the Cape Fear Club, the Cape Fear Country Club and the Carolina Yacht Club. He is a Past Master of St. John's Lodge No. 1, A. F. & A. M., Wilmington, N. C.

He comes of a long line of American ancestry, including planters, manufacturers, merchants and professional men, largely in Maryland and Virginia. His father was Benjamin Y. Fechtig, dry goods and cloak merchant of Hagerstown, of which city he was a native. His mother was Sophronia A. (Morriss) Fechtig, a native of Richmond County, Virginia. She was a daughter of John F. Morriss, a prominent lawyer and planter of that section. Mr. Fechtig's grandfather was George Fechtig, born and bred in Hagerstown, Md. He was the first president of the Mutual Insurance Company of Washington County, Maryland, which is today one of the most flourishing insurance companies in Maryland. He was also the proprietor of a large cloak manufacturing plant of that city. George Fechtig married Mary Yoe, a native of Baltimore. George Fechtig's father, Christian Fechtig, and F. H. Fechtig's great-grandfather, was the founder of the family in that section of Maryland. He was a manufacturer of hats and was among the first in America to manufacture felt hats for men. His factory was in Hagerstown. He amassed a considerable fortune and this was added to by his son, George Fechtig, who died one of the wealthy men in that section of that period.

F. H. Fechtig married Miss Allie Crutchfield Allen, of Henrico County, Virginia, October 15, 1890. She was the daughter of Joseph H. Allen, a Virginia planter, and Maria Lipscomb Allen, and is descended from pre-Revolutionary stock. Two children have been born of their marriage, Dr. Allen G. Fechtig, now practicing in New York, and Miss Allie Morriss Fechtig, at home.


W. Catlett

PROFESSOR WASHINGTON CATLETT, associated with Wilmington and New Hanover County Schools for the last fifty-one years and genuinely beloved by hundreds as teacher, friend and citizen, was born in Port Royal, Virginia, October 9, 1852. By reason of his long service as President of the old Cape Fear Academy, his later connections as Superintendent of County Schools and because of his extremely lovable disposition and ability to make and to hold friendships, he probably is the most intimately known resident of this community.

Professor Catlett received his early education in private schools and in the grades of the village schools provided at Port Royal, immediately following the Civil War. He later attended a preparatory school and matriculated, in 1869, at the Kenmore College, Fredericksburg, Virginia, from which institution he graduated in 1872. In the fall of that year, he was offered and accepted the assistant-principalship of Rockville Academy, Rockville, Maryland. Three years afterwards, 1877, he arrived in Wilmington to accept the position of assistant instructor in the Cape Fear Academy, then conducted by the late General Raleigh Colston.

In 1879, Professor Catlett became Principal and proprietor of the Cape Fear Academy. At this point begins an educational career in this community perhaps unparalled in the United States. Present day local railroad officials, successful merchants, banking chieftains and scores of other men prominent in business and the professions “went to school to Professor Catlett” and these men, nearly of all of whom are fathers and some, grandfathers, are affectionately referred to as “My Boys” by this venerable educator. Professor Catlett continued to conduct the Cape Fear Academy for a period of 39 years, or until 1916. He was elected County Superintendent of Schools in 1900. In 1916, he gave up his work in the Cape Fear Academy, giving his entire time to the public school work. In 1920, the County and City schools were consolidated under one jurisdiction and he became assistant superintendent, and at the present time, although nearly four-score years old, he still is a valuable member of the official organization.

Professor Catlett has been active in virtually every movement for the advancement of education in North Carolina during the last half century and has taken a prominent part in the proceedings of the National, Regional and State associational work. Naturally calm of temperament, always rational and cautious, possessed of that fortunate faculty of looking forward and envisioning results, good or bad, his views constantly have been sought, particularly in matters of schools. His interest in young men and young women just entering the profession of teaching is proverbial and many of the most successful educators of this section of the state had the benefit of his encouragement and his advice in their early careers at a time when proper advice and encouragement were the most essential. He is peculiarly free from fraternal, civic or social club affiliations. His record shows he is a member of but two organizations. They are the Knights of Pythias and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. For many years, he was an official of each of these lodges. In religion, he is a member of St. John's Protestant Episcopal Church. In politics, he is a Democrat.

Professor Catlett is of Scotch and English descent. His father was George Washington Catlett. His mother was Elizabeth Fitzhugh Catlett, daughter of Doctor William Fitzhugh and Rosalie Taliaferro. The Catlett family trace back to early Colonial Virginia when Colonel John Catlett arrived in the lower section of the Rappahannock Valley from Kent County, near Canterbury, England, in 1650. Colonel Catlett was killed at Port Royal in defending the little colony from the attack of Indians. Captain John Catlett of the Virginia troops, was killed 1781 in the battle of the Waxhaw settlement, North Carolina, in the Revolutionary War.

On December 23, 1879, Professor Catlett married Miss Margaret McIlhenny, of Wilmington. Mrs. Catlett is the daughter of Col. T. C. McIlhenny, one of the most prominent men of his generation in Wilmington. Mrs. Catlett's mother was Maggie Dudley, daughter of Governor E. B. Dudley also of Wilmington. Four children have been born of the marriage of Professor and Mrs. Catlett. They are Margaret McIlhenny, wife of C. L. Rowe, Charlotte; George Fitzhugh Catlett, who married Lillian Styron of Wilmington and now connected with the State Board of Health in Raleigh; Sara C., wife of Paul Cantwell, local railroad man; and Sue Howard, wife of Commander John J. Hutson, United States Coast Guard Service.


Marsden Bellamy

MARSDEN BELLAMY, JR., descendant of one of the oldest of the notable families of the Carolinas, a lawyer of wide reputation, former legislator in both the House and Senate, successful business man, former trustee of the State University, and, at present, member of the law firm of Bellamy & Bellamy, who are counselors to the Board of County Commissioners, was born in Wilmington, December 4, 1878. As a high class and useful citizen, he ranks with the best in the community and as a lawyer he has consistently maintained the high standard fixed by his father, the late Marsden Bellamy, whose full name he bears.

Senator Bellamy received his early education at the Cape Fear Academy, Wilmington, North Carolina (1893-94) and the Horner Military School (1894-95), at Oxford, North Carolina. In the fall of 1895, he matriculated at the University of North Carolina and graduated, magna cum laude, from that institution, in 1899, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The following year, he took a post-graduate course in the law department of the University, was admitted to the bar and became a member of his father's law firm of Bellamy & Bellamy. During the next four years, he industriously applied himself to building up a select elientele and took only an incidental interest in matters outside his profession. In 1905, he was appointed as City Attorney, and served in that capacity for four years, and, from 1909 to the present time his law firm has acted as County Attorneys, with the exception of two years. In 1913, he was elected to the State Senate from this district and served with conspicuous ability, but declined a renomination. He refused other public offices until 1925 when he was elected representative from New Hanover County in the General Assembly.

His activities as a citizen have covered a varied and prominent field. While at the University, he was Editor-in-Chief of the Tar Heel and a member of the Greek letter scholarship society, Phi Beta Kappa and the Sigma Alpha Epsilon college fraternity. During the World War he was the lawyer-member of the Soldiers Business Aid committee for New Hanover County which functioned under the direction of the North Carolina Council of Defense. This appointment was made by former Governor Thomas W. Bickett. During that historic period, he also was chosen to act as Appeal Agent for the New Hanover County Selective Draft Board and took a leading part in the various war movements. As a further indication of his wide activities, he has been a member of the County Democratic Central committee many times and is a former chairman of that body. He was a member of the Rotary Club and an ex-president of that great service organization. He was appointed a trustee of the University of North Carolina in 1925 and served two years. He is a member of the North Carolina Bar Association and among his other affiliations, religious, fraternal and in business, may be mentioned the following: St. James Protestant Episcopal Church, counsel and director of the Rural Building & Loan Association, counsel and director of the Hanover Building & Loan and Citizens Building & Loan Associations, secretary-treasurer of the Victory Home Company, a member of Orient Lodge No. 375, A. F. & A. M., Junior Order United American Mechanics, Improved Order of Red Men, and socially, the Carolina Yacht Club and the Cape Fear Country Club. In politics, he is a Democrat, and his activities in behalf of sports extend to the vice-presidency and directorship of the Wilmington Baseball Association, which provided professional baseball for Wilmington in 1928 for the first time in a generation; and is chairman of the New Hanover County Boxing Commission. Manifestly, he is a well rounded and consequential citizen.

Senator Bellamy is of English descent and his American ancestry traces back to early South Carolina. The family came to South Carolina in the latter part of the Seventeenth century and into the Cape Fear region during the early part of the Nineteenth century. He is of the eighth generation of American Bellamys. His lineal descent is given in detail in the biographical history of his father, the late Marsden Bellamy, and which appears immediately following this sketch. On November 14, 1906, Senator Bellamy married Miss Sue Clark, of Tarboro. Mrs. Bellamy is the daughter of William S. Clark, successful merchant of Tarboro, and a lineal descendant of Abram Clark, one of the immortal signers of the Declaration of Independence, history's greatest political document. The Clark family, which removed into North Carolina shortly after the Revolutionary War, has been prominent in every generation from Colonial to the present time, particularly in Bertie, Edgecombe and Pitt Counties.

Three children have been born of the marriage of Senator and Mrs. Bellamy They are Marsden III, Virginia C., and William Clark Bellamy.


MARSDEN BELLAMY, SR. (born in Wilmington, January 14, 1843; died December 1, 1909), was one of the most brilliant orators, successful lawyers and genuinely beloved citizens ever produced in the long two hundred years history of Wilmington. Throughout his mature life, he was recognized as one of the best lawyers in North Carolina and that is equivalent to saying in the South and, as a man, his character was outstandingly fine and his sympathies and understanding and helpful influences extended to every class of people, especially to those who most needed it. He was a kindly and substantial friend of those in distress, he acquired National prominence in Fraternal orders, he appeared as defense counsel in a half hundred first degree murder cases and never lost one, he was of sufficient prominence to decline an appointment to the judgeship, and he was a Confederate veteran with a splendid record.

Mr. Bellamy was sent to private schools and later he was placed in the well known Jewett School. In 1859, he entered the University of North Carolina and was a student in that institution when the Civil War broke out, in which he enlisted in the Confederacy and served throughout that historic conflict. He returned to Wilmington at the close of the war, devoted himself with characteristic energy to the study of law and was admitted to practice in 1866. He quickly rose to the heights of his profession and, during the next thirty years became identified with some of the most important civil litigation in this section and with every notable criminal case. Naturally possessed of a clear, analytical mind, he added to this an ability as a pleader which had few equals, if any, in the State. He was pre-eminently effective as an orator and swayed juries and courtroom crowds into accord with his own emotions with astonishing ease. His record of never losing, during a long and busy career, a first degree murder case perhaps stands unapproached in the annals of North Carolina courts. His eloquence and brilliancy of intellect continue to be the chief subject wherever groups of Cape Fear lawyers are assembled in reminiscent conversation. He held but one public office, that of county attorney for a short time. He preferred private practice and when Governor Alfred M. Scales, in the early 1880's, offered him a judgeship, he declined as he declined other public appointments and elective offices. His only partnership attachments were with his sons, first John D. Bellamy, Jr., and later Marsden Bellamy, who entered the firm following his graduation from the University. He took, however, a most laudable and progressive interest in the affairs of the community and especially was active in fraternal work, for two years, 1894-96, acting as National Supreme Dictator, Knights of Honor. He also affiliated with the Improved Order of Red Men and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He was a communicant of the First Presbyterian Church.

The Bellamy family lineage extends from England of more than 400 years ago and the American branch has been illustrious in the history of the two Carolinas since the latter part of the seventeenth century. They have been lawyers, doctors, outstanding business men and patriots. Marsden Bellamy the subject of this sketch, was the son of Dr. John D. Bellamy, born in All Saints Parish, South Carolina, in 1817, and who married Eliza M. Harriss, daughter of Dr. William James Harriss, Mayor of Wilmington at the time of his death in 1839. Dr. Bellamy was a physician of much prominence and at the outbreak of the Civil War was one of the wealthiest men in the state. He was a director of the old Wilmington & Weldon Railroad, owned several plantations, more than a thousand slaves and otherwise was a leading citizen to an extraordinary degree. He was public spirited, but although chairman of the County Democratic Executive Committee for twenty-five consecutive years, he never accepted an office. Dr. Bellamy's father was John Bellamy, native of South Carolina, and one of the wealthiest planters of that section during the Revolutionary period. The history of the Bellamys in America goes back to 1670, when the great-grandfather of the John Bellamy of the Revolutionary period, came here from the Barbadoes and settled in the Charleston Colony with St. John Yeamens. His son, John Bellamy, a given name that frequents the family annals, was the first to be born in America, in the early part of the Eighteenth century. They came into the Cape Fear about a hundred years later.

Marsden Bellamy, the subject of this sketch, married Miss Harriet Harllee, of Marion County, South Carolina. Mrs. Bellamy was the daughter of Dr. Robert Harllee, native of South Carolina, and whose family was of Colonial stock. Eight children were born of this marriage, all living and residing in, or near Wilmington. They are Amelia B., who married Thomas McDonald; John D. Jr., local attorney; Hattie B., wife of Warren S. Johnson; Marsden II, associated with John D., Jr., in the law firm of Bellamy & Bellamy; Robert Harllee, Wilmington physician; Louise B., wife of Dr. E. J. Wood; and Chesley C., Wilmington attorney, farmer and newspaper publisher.


WILLIAM B. CAMPBELL, prominent and successful member of the New Hanover County Bar, and who, as a member of the Legislature, in 1927, introduced the bill providing for the construction of the great Cape Fear River bridge at Wilmington, is a native of Beaufort County and was born November 29, 1888. He received his early education in the Beaufort County schools and, in 1906, he enrolled as a student in Oak Ridge Institute, Oak Ridge, N. C., from which institution he graduated the following year. He graduated from the school of law of the University of North Carolina in 1914. During his college days, he was active in various auxiliary organizations, including societies and debating teams, and had the distinction of winning two medals in competitive student contests.

He began the practice of law in the fall of 1914, coming to Wilmington, and opening an office. In January, 1916, he became associated with Robert Ruark, well known member of the local bar and now successfully practicing his profession at Raleigh, capital of the state. Following Mr. Ruark's removal to Raleigh, Mr. Campbell again practiced without partnership connections until August, 1925, when he became associated with Judge E. K. Bryan, former judge of the state court and easily one of the best lawyers in the state. This association has continued to the present time and the firm has been identified with some of the most important litigation of this section. It is recognized as one of the outstanding legal firms in North Carolina, and its clientele is among the largest and most substantial, including individuals and corporations.

Mr. Campbell was elected to the legislature as a representative of New Hanover County in 1926 and served in the assembly of 1927. As author of the bill providing funds for the construction of the Cape Fear River bridge, he became, by reason of that act alone, one of the most valuable representatives this county has chosen during its annals. The bridge, now in course of construction and which will be ready for traffic by August 1, this year (1929), is the realization of a dream of two centuries in Southeastern North Carolina. The bridge, in fact, is two bridges, one spanning the Cape Fear proper and the other the Northeast branch, or fork, of that great stream. Although many efforts have been made during the last 150 years to have a vehicular bridge erected at Wilmington, each attempt was unsuccessful until the funds for the one now building were provided by legislative enactment. Mr. Campbell, during the 1927 session, also was jointly interested with Hon. John Bright Hill, associate New Hanover County representative, in the enactment of the Inland Waterway bill, providing a fund of $75,000 for state aid in providing right-of-ways for the Federal government's construction of the North Carolina section of the Inland Waterways system, extending from Morehead City to the Cape Fear. The enterprise now is in process of building and the cost in this immediate area will approximate $5,000,000. In addition to his professional activities, he also is identified with various local fraternal, civic and social organizations. He is a member of the Junior Order United American Mechanics, the Lions Service Club, of which he is a past president, the Cape Fear Country Club and the Carolina Yacht Club. He is a director of the City and Suburban Building Association and counsel for the company, as also he is associate counsel for the Peoples Building & Loan Association. He is a member of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, having served during the last fifteen years as a member of the vestry, and at present Junior Warden of the Parish. Politically he is a Democrat and prominent in the party councils.

Mr. Campbell is of Scotch and English stock and dates his American ancestry back for four generations in Beaufort County, one of the earliest settlements in North Carolina. His father is Charles A. Campbell, formerly a merchant at Washington, countyseat of Beaufort, and one of the substantial citizens of the community. His mother is Martha V. (Wilkinson) Campbell, native of Beaufort County and daughter of John A. Wilkinson, farmer of that immediate section. Mr. Campbell's grandfather was William B. Campbell, for whom he was named. The grandfather also was a native of Beaufort County, a successful planter, a former sheriff and member of the Board of County Commissioners for many years. The great-grandfather was Vincent Campbell, founder of the family in America, who came to Beaufort County from Scotland. He was a successful and highly respected citizen.

On July 31, 1917, Mr. Campbell was married to Miss Jeanette Robbins, of Brunswick County. Mrs. Campbell is of English descent and is the daughter of Gaston V. Robbins, a merchant, and Melissa V. (Chinnis) Robbins, both natives of Brunswick. One child William B. Jr., has been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Campbell.


Jas. W. Jackson

JAMES WILLIAM JACKSON, long identified with the business and civic life of Wilmington, died at the age of 78 years on January 7, 1928, at his home in this city. He was a native of Fayetteville, born in 1850 the son of Mr. and Mrs. Cornelius Jackson. His parents moved to Wilmington while he was a mere youth, and he spent the remainder of a long and useful life as one of the most progressive citizens of his adopted home. Shortly after coming to Wilmington, the youthful Jackson determined that he would take up the printer's trade. He entered the service of the Wilmington Journal, which was the first daily published in North Carolina. He learned the typographic art in the composing rooms of the Journal, while it was in the hands of the paper's founders, Messrs. Fulton and Price, and became foreman of the plant. Later, after the Journal had been sold to Messrs. Englehard and Saunders, Mr. Jackson was transferred to the newspaper office as business manager and book-keeper and he assumed a type of duties and responsibilities which he carried throughout the remainder of his working life, with ever-growing ability and thoroughness.

It was while in the employ of the Wilmington Journal that Mr. Jackson had his first contact with Benjamin Bell, later his partner for nearly half a century and until Mr. Bell's death in 1923. Mr. Bell was employed in the composing room of the Journal. These two ambitious young men decided they would join efforts toward the end of establishing their own printing business and they worked and studied with that purpose in view. In 1877, they started their own partnership, known then as now as Jackson & Bell, and there was no change in the principals of the business until after Mr. Bell's death, when the sons of the two partners were taken into the firm. In the early days of the Jackson and Bell printing firm, it published the North Carolina Presbyterian, whose editor was the late Rev. Joseph R. Wilson, D. D., pastor of the First Presbyterian Church and father of the late Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States.

On the death, in 1892, of the late Julius A. Bonitz, then publisher of the Wilmington Messenger, at that time the only state-wide paper in North Carolina, Jackson & Bell purchased the newspaper and they gave many years of diligent effort toward building it up into a worthy and successful publication. The Messenger played a prominent part in the life of the community for many years. It took the lead in furnishing food and supplies for the poor and unemployed in one dark winter in the city's history, and it played a conspicuous part in returning the control of local and State governments to white, Democratic domination after a period of miserable misrule. But there was no permanent room in a town of Wilmington's size for two morning papers, and having carried on the Messenger for a number of years at the expense of their still growing job printing plant, they decided, in 1908, to discontinue its publication, and overnight it was suspended. With renewed energy and freshened spirits then the principals gave all their abilities to the development of the job printing business. It grew and prospered steadily. Several times the business outgrew its quarters and there were moves to new and larger buildings. Early in the present century the firm occupied a new building erected for its needs at the northwest corner of Second and Princess streets and it remained there until 1921 when it moved to its own more spacious and more modernly equipped quarters to the north of the former location, on Second Street, the present home of the business.

In 1874, Mr. Jackson married Miss Sarah E. Bell, the sister of Benjamin Bell, and there began a singularly devoted companionship that was closed only by death. In 1924, Mr. and Mrs. Jackson celebrated their golden wedding anniversary, and there surrounded by their five children, grandchildren, relatives and friends, they sat as the living examplars of the perfectly mated couple. Mr. Jackson's last three years were spent as an invalid in his home. During this long, pitiful period he revealed such a spirit of cheerful self-forgetfulness and Christian resignation that a visit to his room was almost a benediction to those privileged to enter it. He was a member of the First Presbyterian Church from the time of the pastorate of Rev. Dr. Joseph R. Wilson, and he lived a life that was just and upright and in entire harmony with the teachings of his accepted religion. Mr. Jackson was a valued trustee of his church, a Mason, Past Master of Orient Lodge, No. 395, A. F. & A. M., a Knight Templar of Plantagenet Commandery, also member of Sudan Temple. He was modest in his demeanor, but was a man of decided opinions and firm convictions, who was not swayed by popular clamor. He had a group of warm friends who rarely missed a day without seeing him.


Benj Bell.

BENJAMIN BELL, a lifelong resident of Wilmington and one of the city's most loyal and devoted sons, was born in 1852, the only son of Ivy Prescott and Rebecca S. Bell. He died at the age of seventy-one on December 15, 1923. His career, like that of many of the youths of the South after the close of the War between the States, was marked by a long period of hard work and diligent application that was rewarded with increasing prosperity and success, that came slowly but steadily.

Starting in young manhood in the printing business with James W. Jackson, who was still his close friend and partner at the time of his death, Mr. Bell saw his firm grow to be one of the largest and most prosperous of any in this section of the country. It was in 1877 that these two young men, both employees of the old Wilmington Journal, decided to branch out for themselves, and they formed the printing firm of Jackson & Bell, which continued as originally organized and without change of principals until the death of Mr. Bell in 1923. At that time it was stated that this firm probably was the oldest in the entire country in which the founders remained together for such length of service. It is of interest to state, as an evidence of their fairness toward their employees and of personal concern in their welfare that there are men now on the firm's payrolls who entered its employ within a few years of its establishment, and that many others of its employees have never been with any other concern.

Mr. Bell was the outside member of the firm, whose friendly contacts were increasingly of lasting benefit and advantage. After the purchase of the Wilmington Messenger in 1891, as a part of this firm's business enterprise, Mr. Bell shared with his partner in seriously attempting to give Wilmington a creditable and modern newspaper. He loved his touch with the newspaper profession and was profoundly moved years after the paper had been discontinued in 1908 by his election to honorary membership in the North Carolina Press Association. For many years he was an ardent member of the order of Elks and was regularly in charge of that order's Christmas distribution of baskets to the poor of the city. In this work he gave unstinted labor, without thought of his own time or comfort. Mr. Bell was also a member of the I. O. O. F. and at the time of his death was the oldest member in point of service in Wilmington. A happy occasion during his long illness was the visit to his sickroom of a committee from Cape Fear Lodge which formally presented the Odd Fellows’ 50-year diamond pin to him.

Benjamin Bell as a boy attended a small private school and the public schools, afterwards working at his trade in the daytime and paying his own tuition at a well-known night school of that period, taught by Professor Hinton. His father passed away when he was only sixteen years of age, and from that time he cheerfully assumed, with his widowed mother, the maintenance of the home and the care of his two sisters. It was a source of great happiness to him in the declining years of his mother's life that he was able to surround her with such comforts and luxuries as he had always desired to do. The eldest of his sisters married his partner, Mr. J. W. Jackson, and they established a home which was very close to his own in the interest and affection that he felt for those within the family circle. His other sister remained in his home. In January, 1879, he was married to Miss Henrietta Kershaw, of Florence, S. C., who after ten years of happy wedded life, passed away, leaving three small children, two sons and a daughter.

His home was always the center of Mr. Bell's deepest devotions. He was never happier than when friends and kindred were around his fireside and table. He had a sunny disposition that shed a radiant light on those who came within the range of his personality. He loved little children, and was known by face and form to scores whom he had won with a smile and word of endearment in the course of his daily duties. Besides his own nephews and nieces, to whom he gave a love second to that only of his own sons and daughter, he was affectionately greeted by numbers of young people as “Uncle”. Reared in a Christian home, he there imbibed those sterling traits that ever influenced his life. He was a devoted member of the First Presbyterian Church and was regular in his attendance on the services in the sanctuary. Progressive in his civic and religious life, he gave unreservedly of his time and means to the betterment and upbuilding of his fellowman.

It is of interest to recount that the firm to which he gave the working interest of his life remains as one of Wilmington's best known printing establishments and business enterprises, and that its conduct is in the hands of one of his sons with two of the sons of his long-time partner, who are conducting the concern with the same harmony of plan and purpose as always marked the relations between their fathers.


J. O. Carr

JAMES OZBORN CARR was born near Kenansville, in Duplin County, North Carolina, on September 6, 1869. His father was Joseph H. Carr and his mother Mary Susan Dickson Carr. He became a member of the firm of Rountree & Carr and began his residence in Wilmington on the 7th of April, 1899, since which time he has been a continuous resident of Wilmington.

Mr. Carr's elementary education was received in the public schools of Duplin County, and he was prepared for college in the school of the late S. W. Clement, at Wallace, North Carolina. He entered the freshman class of the University of North Carolina in September 1891, and graduated from that institution in the class of 1895, cum laude, earning membership in the Phi Beta Kappa Society. He intermittently taught school while acquiring his education. After graduating he returned to the University entering the Law School of Dr. John M. Manning, receiving his certificate of having passed the law course in September 1896, when he stood the examination of the Supreme Court and was admitted to the bar.

While studying law at the University in 1896, he was nominated by the Democratic party in Duplin County as a candidate for membership in the General Assembly of the State. After receiving his license to practice law in September he returned to Duplin County and entered the campaign against the Populist and Republican Fusion candidate for the same position, and was defeated in the general election in November. In January, 1897, he began the practice of law at Kenansville as the junior member of the firm of Allen, Dortch and Carr, the two senior members of the firm maintaining their office at Goldsboro. In 1898 he was elected chairman of the Democratic Executive Committee of Duplin County, and was again nominated as Democratic candidate for the legislature. He thoroughly organized the county, and beginning early in the spring made a continuous campaign until election day, resulting in the election of himself and the entire Democratic ticket over the Fusion ticket, and served as a member of the legislature of 1899, which enacted legislation restoring white supremacy in North Carolina.

On the last day of the legislature he and Judge George Rountree, who was a member of the same body from New Hanover County, agreed upon a partnership for the practice of law in Wilmington, and on April 7th thereafter the partnership was organized and began its existence. During the past thirty years this firm has been one of the leading law firms of the state. From 1913 to 1915 this partnership was temporarily interrupted because of Judge Rountree's appointment to the bench, and was also temporarily interrupted from 1916 to 1920 because of Mr. Carr's appointment as United States Attorney.

Mr. Carr has always taken an active part in educational matters. Beginning in 1899 he was for twenty years president of the board of trustees of the James Sprunt Institute, a girls school at Kenansville, North Carolina, which finally gave way to the state public high school system. He was chairman of the Board of Education of New Hanover County from July 1, 1909, to August 18, 1916, when he qualified as United States Attorney. It was during his administration that the first extensive building plan of the public school system of New Hanover County was put into execution, and that the Hemenway, Tileston front annex, William Hooper, Isaac Bear, Cornelius Harnett, Delgado and Winter Park Schools were constructed and the lot for the present High School was purchased. The General Assembly of 1925 enacted a law providing for the appointment of an Education Commission by the Governor of the State to study the public school system of the state in relation to the cost of operation and the burdens of taxation. Mr. Carr was appointed a member of this Commission and at the first meeting was elected chairman. The Commission spent two years studying the public school system of the state and reported to the Legislature of 1927. This report represents a most exhaustive study of the school system in relation to the burdens of the taxpayer, and comprises a volume of 657 pages which contains complete minute detailed information concerning the internal management of the schools and the financial burdens thereof in every county in the state. In March 1927 Mr. Carr resigned as a member of the State Educational Commission, which had about completed its work, to accept appointment as a member of the Board of Education of New Hanover County, and in April 1927 was elected Chairman of the Board, which position he now holds.

Politically Mr. Carr has always been an ardent Democrat, always supporting the Democratic nominees. He has always taken an active part in the state conventions, frequently serving as a member of the platform committee. He was for twelve years a member of the state advisory committee, and is now a member of the state executive committee. In 1920 he was a delegate at large from the state of North Carolina to the National Democratic convention at San Francisco, where he represented North Carolina on the platform committee. He has always maintained that the Democracy had given the best government, especially in the State of North Carolina, and though it may have made mistakes, and may have its faults, still the best results may always be obtained by following the will of the majority, and he has consistently adhered to this policy. He is willing to make his fight inside of the party, but after the party has spoken the matter is settled with him. He is recognized throughout the State as a liberal political thinker, though “regular” in his party affiliations.

Mr. Carr's activities as a citizen as distinguished from his strictly professional duties cover a wide range. For many years he was a director of the Wilmington Star Company, and from 1919 to 1927, when he disposed of his interest, he was president of that corporation. He has been an active director of the Carolina Building & Loan Association since it was organized, and is also a director of The Peoples Savings Bank. He is a member of the State Judicial Conference from the Eighth Judicial District, and has served on that conference since it was organized in 1925. He has taken much interest in historical and literary matters, especially pertaining to his community and his state. He is the author of the “Dickson Letters”, a volume descriptive of the period of the Revolution in this section of the state, and of “The Carr Family”. He is a collector of historical data and probably has the most complete collection of data pertaining to the War between the States as waged in North Carolina, in existence, comprising newspaper stories and pictures which appeared in Northern newspapers during the Civil War, as well as much other data of historical importance.

Mr. Carr is of Scotch-Irish descent. Both sides of his family settled in Duplin County prior to 1750. He was married to Miss Susan Parsley June 18, 1907, and three children have been born of this marriage, Katherine, Susan and James Dickson.


FRED E. LITTLE, President of the Wilmington Stamp & Printing Company, a World War veteran with the rank of Captain, President of the Kiwanis Service Club, and a most examplary young business man, was born March 4, 1891, in historic Mecklenburg County. He was reared on his father's farm about six and a half miles north of Charlotte and received his first years of schooling in “the Little Red School House” near Williams Chapel. After attaining the bicycle age, he attended the Charlotte public school for one year and the Charlotte University School, a private school conducted by Professor Glasgow, for two years riding on his bicycle daily to and from Charlotte. His next and final year (1907-08) in school was at Oxford where he attended the Horner Military School, operated by Colonel Jerome Horner.

Captain Little's early life up to the fall of 1908 was similar to that of most any other country lad's. His family, being of moderate means, it was necessary for him to take his place in the fields at an early age. He served his apprenticeship with a hoe and plow, the only chore not required of him being “pulling fodder” from corn. On October 8, 1908, he followed his brothers, William Arthur and Joseph W. Little, to Wilmington and began his career as office boy-clerk at the Bellwill Cotton Mills. The next year, he worked as cash clerk in the Treasurer's office of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. His next position, early in 1911, was with the Wilmington Stamp & Printing Company, owned by his brother, Joseph W. Little, his present associate in business, W. R. Yopp, and Edward Register.

In 1912, it became a part of his duties to check up and assist in the operation of five country weekly newspapers in which his brother, Joe, and his company were interested. Late that year, while on an inspection trip to the Whiteville (N. C.) News-Reporter, finding the editor incapacitated, he stayed over to get out the paper and remained in Whiteville for the next eleven months, making occasional trips to assist with the other papers of the chain. He edited and issued the Southport (N. C.) News for two months in the summer of 1913, in addition to his duties with the News-Reporter, spending the early part of the week in Whiteville and the latter part in Southport. In late 1913, the newspaper interests were disposed of and he returned to Wilmington, assuming the duties of assistant secretary and treasurer after the firm name had been changed to the Wilmington Printing Company. He continued in this capacity until 1922, when he became active vice-president of the Progressive Building & Loan Association. He was in this position only a short time, resigning to go back into the printing business. Early after this, the company was reorganized under the name of The National Press, the plant having been moved, in 1921, and its main business being work of a large nature. It was on Thanksgiving Day, 1923, when he purchased machinery for job printing from the parent company and began business for himself under the name of the Wilmington Printing Company, Inc. This company prospered under his leadership and in the summer of 1925 consolidated with the Service Printing Company, owned by W. R. Yopp, a former associate in the old concern and took over the Harriss Printing & Advertising Company, again changing its name to the Wilmington Stamp & Printing Company, with Mr. Little remaining as its president, which position he now occupies.

Captain Little's business career after entering the firm as an official and only twenty-four years of age, was destined for an early interruption. The German submarine policy in the World War had become intolerable and war was declared in April, 1917, and on the thirteenth of that month, he enlisted and went to the First Officers’ Training Camp, Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia. He was commissioned a Second Lieutenant and transferred to Camp Jackson, Columbia, South Carolina. In January, 1918, he again was transferred, this time to Camp Wadsworth, Spartanburg, South Carolina. On July 6, 1918, he was commissioned a First Lieutenant and sailed out of Hoboken, August 6, aboard the U. S. S. Mongolia for France, as a part of the Fifty-Third Pioneer Infantry. Six weeks later, his company was near the fighting zone, at Neuf Chateau, near Aulnois. The next two months, his identity was merged into the pawn of millions and he became a part of the great St. Mihiel offensive and other movements of the American army which crumbled Germany during that historic period. Following the Armistice, his regiment variously was stationed at Cornay, Fleville, Rarecourt, Chablis, in the Department of Yonne, and eventually, the latter part of April, 1919, to Brest, and thence to America. Captain Little's promotion from the rank of First Lieutenant to the commission of Captain came nine days, November 2, 1918, before the Armistice. Following his discharge, May 18, 1919, at Camp Stuart, Virginia, Captain Little returned to Wilmington and resumed the routine of the

Fred E. Little

business man where he had left it slightly more than two years earlier. In peace he has assumed the responsibilities of citizenship with the same earnest patriotism that caused him to enlist and serve with fine distinction in unquestionably the greatest army ever mobilized in the military annals of the world. He is a member of the First Presbyterian Church, a deacon of the congregation and a former president of the Men of the Church. He now is president of the Wilmington Kiwanis Club and prior to that served on important committees, taking a special interest in the accomplishments of the Boys Brigade, which with its 520 youthful members, is sponsored by the local Kiwanis. He also is a member of St. John's Lodge, No. 1, A. F. & A. M., is a Pythian and a member of the Junior Order United American Mechanics. Socially, he is a member of the Cape Fear Country Club. Politically, he is a Democrat. In business he affiliates with the Chamber of Commerce, and is a member of the United Typothetae of America.

Captain Little is of English descent and his American ancestry dates back many generations into Colonial Mecklenburg County, when his great-great-grandfather, Archibald Lytle, came over from England in the early days of the colony. Archibald Lytle was a leader in the Revolutionary War and his descendants have been prominent in civic life. His father is J. W. Little, native of Mecklenburg County, where he farmed for many years and later became a merchant at Charlotte. Captain Little's mother was Elizabeth S. (McKenzie) Little, daughter of A. A. McKenzie.

On June 19, 1919, almost exactly one month after his return from the World War, Captain Little married Miss Elizabeth Price Albright, of Wilmington. Mrs. Little is a native of Greensboro, and the daughter of P. R. and Lillie Price Albright.

Two children have been born of the marriage of Captain and Mrs. Little. They are Fred E., Jr., and Robert Albright.


George E Kidder

GEORGE EVERARD KIDDER, President and General Manager of the Cement Products Company, President of the Wilmington Iron Works, Mayor of Wrightsville Beach, World War veteran, and a prominent and successful young business man in this section of North Carolina, was born in Wilmington, June 4, 1887.

Mr. Kidder received his early education in the schools of this city, attending among others, the Cape Fear Academy, conducted by Professor Washington Catlett. He later attended St. Paul's School of Concord, New Hampshire, and after five years at this well-known preparatory school he entered the University of Virginia, graduating from that institution in 1909. In the fall of that year he went to New York and engaged in the banking and brokerage business until early in 1911, when he returned to Wilmington to assume the management of the Cement Products Company, which had just been organized by his father, the late George Wilson Kidder, one of the outstanding business men of the community of his time.

When the United States entered the World War in 1917, Mr. Kidder volunteered for service in the Navy. He was ordered to Charleston, South Carolina for training, and was commissioned an Ensign in March 1918. Shortly thereafter he was sent to Southhampton, England, where he served as aide to the American Naval Port Officer at that place during the trying times of getting American troops across the English Channel. His recommendation for promotion had gone in just before the Armistice was signed. He returned to this country in January 1919, and upon his discharge at Charleston in March, he came back to Wilmington and resumed the direction of the Cement Products Company, and his other interests.

Mr. Kidder was elected Mayor of Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina's principal ocean resort, and one of the most popular on the South Atlantic Coast, in 1924, and again in 1927. During his administration the town has purchased and rebuilt the water works system, reconstructed and enlarged the system of jetties for the protection of the beach front against erosion and improved and extended the board walks. He has assisted in the organization of an efficient volunteer fire department, which has been the means of saving the town from serious fire losses on several occasions.

His other activities as a citizen have been varied and useful. He was one of the organizers, and is a director, of the American Shore & Beach Preservation Association, a national organization, founded at Asbury Park, New Jersey, in 1926. The membership is composed of leading scientific men on this subject, who are devoting much time and thought to this problem, in an effort to reduce the appalling annual loss of valuable shore front. Mr. Kidder invited this Association to Wilmington in 1928, and the conference brought together a notable group of men in this city. His other affiliations include the Rotary Club, of which he is a past vice-president; Chamber of Commerce, of which he is also a past vice-president; the American Legion; DKE Fraternity, and membership in the leading social clubs of the city.

Mr. Kidder is of English stock, his early ancestors having coming to this country in about 1650 from England, and settled at what is now Cambridge, Massachusetts. His grandfather, the late Edward Kidder, came to Wilmington from New Hampshire, in 1825, and established what was for many years, one of the largest lumber businesses in the South, under the firm name of Edward Kidder & Sons. This business was carried on by Mr. Kidder's father, the late George W. Kidder, until his death in 1915. The family has been closely identified with the history and upbuilding of Wilmington for over a hundred years, and has stood for all that went for honor, integrity and the highest ideals of business ethics. On his mother's side he is also descended from distinguished ancestors. His mother was Florence Hill, daughter of the late Thomas Hill of Hillsboro, North Carolina, who was one of the leaders in the development of that section of the State. He was a brilliant officer in the Confederate Army, and was killed in action during the early part of the Civil War.

Mr. Kidder was married in 1918 to Frances Fielding Lewis Bailey, daughter of the late Edward P. Bailey and Annie Empie. Mr. Bailey was one of the founders of the Wilmington Iron Works, and a prominent business man. Mrs. Bailey was the daughter of the late Adam Empie, for many years rector of St. James Church of Wilmington, and one of the outstanding divines of the Episcopal Church. Mrs. Kidder, on her mother's side, is a collateral descendant of George Washington. Mr. and Mrs. Kidder have two children, Anne Empie and George Everard, Jr.


Geo. Harrifs

MAJOR WILLIAM NEHEMIAH HARRISS, clerk of the New Hanover County Superior Court and former Mayor of the city, was born in Wilmington, February 4, 1865. He was educated in his early age at private schools and, later, became a student in the Cape Fear Military Academy, then conducted by Professor Washington Catlett, connected with local schools for more than fifty consecutive years.

Major Harriss holds two outstanding distinctions—distinctions that perhaps are unparalleled in the entire country and certainly, in North Carolina. One is that he has served for twenty-five years, six and a half years as deputy and the remainder as clerk of the New Hanover County Superior court. The other is that he served for an equal number of years (twenty-seven), as a member of the Wilmington Light Infantry, oldest of its kind in the state, and at the end of his twenty-fifth year or service was presented by Adjutant General Johnston Jones, acting for the State, with a gold medal, handsomely engraved, and, by special order, promoted from the rank of Captain to that of Major. It is worthy of note, also, that he volunteered for service in the World War, and all details preliminary to enlistment had been completed when the war department discovered his age, and, while commending his patriotism, by the rules and regulations, it was forced to decline his services.

He left school when fifteen years of age and entered the store of his father, the late George Harriss, as clerk and book-keeper. His father was engaged in the ship brokerage business and the son continued his association in the firm until 1905. In that year, he was appointed deputy clerk of the superior court by the late Colonel John D. Taylor, father of Colonel Walker Taylor and who served as clerk of the court for nearly a quarter of a century. Major Harriss remained as deputy until the death of Colonel Taylor, March 4, 1912, when he was appointed clerk to fill out the unexpired term. At the following election, in 1914, he was chosen as clerk in his own name and has been continuously re-elected without opposition, except once.

Genial, efficient, of pleasing appearance and constant in friendship, he easily is one of the most capable public officials in the state and popular alike with courts, lawyers, jury veniremen, litigants and people in general. He has been reasonably successful in business and is president of the Progressive Building & Loan Association. He also is a member of the local lodges of the Knights of Pythias, Woodmen of the World, and Junior Order United American Mechanics. He served several terms on the board of managers of the Chamber of Commerce and is now chairman of the legislative committee of the North Carolina Court Clerks Association, of which organization, he served as vice-president for two terms, declining its presidency because of the press of other duties. He was Mayor of Wilmington, 1892-1893, and is judge of the County Juvenile Court. In religion, he is a Protestant Episcopal, being a communicant of St. James, and, in politics, he is a Democrat.

George Harriss, Sr., father of Major Harriss was born in Wilmington July 27, 1827, and entered business as a merchant and ship broker in 1847, when only twenty years old. He continued uninterruptedly in this business for more than fifty years, except during the period of the Civil War when he allied himself with the Confederacy and, with other daring patriots of that period, engaged in blockade running. He was the son of Dr. William James Harriss, native Wilmingtonian, a prominent physician and one of the best known citizens in this section of the state. Dr. Harriss was Mayor of Wilmington at the time of his death, in July, 1839. Dr. Harriss’ father was William Harriss, great-grandfather of Major Harriss, who came to Wilmington with his parents when a child, about ten years old. Major Harriss’ mother was Julia Sanders (Nixon) Harriss, daughter of John A. Nixon. The Nixons are an early Cape Fear family, Richard Nixon having served in the State Senate as far back as 1816 and Jeremiah Nixon was a member of the House of Commons in 1842-44.

On January 24, 1887, Major Harriss married Miss Frances M. Latham, at Washington, D. C. Mrs. Harriss was the daughter of Thomas J. Latham, wealthy banker and planter of Clark County, Virginia, and whose ancestry traces into Colonial period. Two children, both sons and most promising young men, have been born of the marriage. They are: Marion S. Harriss, graduate of the University of the South, Suwanee, Tenn., and now associated with his father in the Superior Court clerk's office; and G. Latham Harriss, graduate of Annapolis and now Lieutenant-Commander, United States Navy.


George Harriss.

JUDGE GEORGE HARRISS, native of Wilmington and with an ancestral nativity in this city dating back five generations, was born June 26, 1863. He has been presiding judge of the New Hanover County Recorder's Court for fifteen years, having been first elected in 1914 and re-elected at stated times, usually without serious opposition.

He received his early education at private schools. After finishing the equivalent of the grade course, he enrolled as a student in the Cape Fear Military Academy, first under the presidency of General Raleigh E. Closton, and later, Professor Washington Catlett. He continued his studies, after leaving school, and has become one of the best informed men in this section. In 1880, at seventeen years of age, he started upon his own career by becoming associated with his father, the late George Harriss, merchant and shipping broker. In 1887, when still a mere boy, in age, he was sent to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by his father who had opened a branch office and store in that city. Judge Harriss conducted the Philadelphia branch as manager for a period of ten years, or until 1897, when he returned to Wilmington and re-entered business with his father at the home offices.

Shortly afterwards, he was appointed Justice of the Peace for Cape Fear (Wilmington) township and, in 1900, he was offered and accepted the appointment of United States commissioner. He held this position until 1907, when he resigned. In 1914, he offered himself as a candidate for Judge of the Recorder's Court, was elected and has been occupying that position from that date to the present time. About two years ago, he also accepted the appointment of presiding officer of the Juvenile court, which institution he conducts in connection with his duties as Judge of the Recorder's court. Always an active and progressive citizen, he is identified with various religious, fraternal, civic and other organizations of the city. He is a regular communicant of the First Presbyterian Church, a congregation with which the family has worshipped for more than a hundred years.

He constantly has taken part in movements to maintain high ideals in government. In 1901-03, he was a member of the City Council from the Third Ward and, during Mayor Alfred M. Waddell's administration he acted as chairman of the police and fire committee and also that of public safety. He was an active member of the Home Guards, an organization acting in co-operation with the Wilmington Light Infantry, during the recent World War. During the “Revolution of 1898” when, by reason of an unfortunate political situation, the supremacy of the white race in Wilmington was challenged, Judge Harriss, as an officer of the W. L. I., was called upon to take a most prominent part in the incident.

Judge Harriss’ chief fame, however, rests upon the manner in which he conducts his court. He recognizes the virtually unlimited power of the position and zealously guards against abusing that power. Exact justice is distributed among all classes, regardless of color, property possessions, or political influence. Students of sociology and those engaged in criminal research have visited his court and consulted him. Accused prisoners have declared, in open court, that they needed no counsel because they knew Judge Harriss would give them every consideration to which they were entitled; parents appeal to him for advisory help; and appeal court justices, practically uniformly, sustain his rulings. The criminal division of the superior court of this county probably has the smallest dockets of any court of similar jurisdiction in any county of equal size in America, because of the manifest fairness with which he disposes of the cases on original hearing.

Judge Harriss is of English stock. His father, George Harriss, Sr., was the son of Dr. William James Harriss, a prominent physician, a graduate of the University of North Carolina, and mayor of Wilmington at the time of his death, in 1839. The family, in direct descent, traces back to the pre-Revolutionary period and each generation has been famed for good and substantial citizenship, including merchants, manufacturers, lawyers, doctors and high public officials. Judge Harriss’ mother was Julia Sanders Harriss, daughter of John A. and Eleanor Sanders, natives of Wilmington.

On June 26, 1888, Judge Harriss married Miss Eugenia Hill Williams, daughter of James Williams, a Fayetteville, North Carolina merchant and a Confederate veteran with the commission of captain. Three children have been born of the marriage. They are James William Harriss, of the traffic department of the Atlantic Coast Line, Wilmington; Eugenia Harriss, now the wife of Howard Harlan, Jr., insurance man of Fayetteville; and Andrew Jennings Harriss, in the signal department of the Coast Line, with headquarters at Fayetteville.


A.H. Harriss M.D.

DR. ANDREW HOWELL HARRISS, a leading physician and surgeon of Wilmington for the last thirty-six years, a veteran of two wars, with the rank of Captain in the Medical Corps, heavy taxpayer, civic leader, a practically generous friend of those in distress and a most admirable all-round citizen, is a native of Wilmington, and was born March 7, 1872. He is the grandson and great-grandson of two of the most celebrated physicians this city ever boasted and is the fourth generation of Harrisses who have ministered as physicians to Wilmington people.

Dr. Harriss’ early education was received in the Wilmington public schools and under prviate instruction. Later, he attended the Cape Fear Academy, then conducted in Wilmington by Professor Washington Catlett, after which he matriculated at Davidson College, famous Southern Presbyterian school. In 1889, he enrolled as a student in the Medico-Chirurgical College, Philadelphia, from which he graduated in 1893. After the usual period of interne work at the College hospital, he returned to Wilmington and began the practice of his profession. Prior to his last year at school, in 1892, he had successfully passed the examination of the North Carolina State Board of Medical Examiners. Since that time, during the period of his practice, he has taken post-graduate and special courses, attended lectures and otherwise continued to qualify himself.

Dr. Harriss’ military record began as a youth. When thirteen years of age, he became flag boy, or “marker” for the historic Wilmington Light Infantry, an organization of illustrious annals to which he has belonged for nearly a half century and is now on the Reserve Officers’ list. In 1898, when the United States declared war against Spain because of that kingdom's intolerable treatment of Cuba, he enlisted in the navy and was assigned to service on the Nantucket, and later to special duty. When Germany's murderous submarine policy forced the United States to enter the World War in 1917, Dr. Harriss again enlisted and was given a commission with the rank of Captain in the Medical Reserve Corps, February 6, 1918, and was post surgeon at Fort Caswell. He was discharged at Fort McPherson, Georgia. It is a properly prideful fact that two stars, emblematic of individual service in that great humanitarian conflict, were suspended from the window of Dr. Harriss’ home—one for himself and the other for his son, Andrew, Junior, a young man, nineteen years old, who served with the American Expeditionary Forces in France and is now Regimental Adjutant and Captain. Also, Dr. Harriss was a member of the North Carolina National Guard for sixteen years, and retired with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. He now is a member and takes a normally active interest in Wilmington Post of the American Legion. His religious, fraternal and social affiliations are those of the usual leading citizen. He is a communicant of St. James Episcopal Church; a member of Orient Lodge, 395, Royal Arch Masons and a Knights Templar; a member of the American Medical Society; North Carolina Medical Association; the New Hanover County Medical Society, of which he is a past president; and the Carolina Yacht Club.

Dr. Harriss is of English descent, but with an American ancestry tracing back to the early part of the Seventeenth Century (nine generations) into New England of the time of John Alden and Priscilla Mullins, and into South Carolina in the period of the first Governor Smith. He is the son of George and Julia (Sanders) Harriss, both natives of Wilmington. A more detailed review of the life and lineage of Dr. Harriss’ parents may be found in the biographical sketches of Judge George Harriss, and Major W. N. Harriss, brothers of Dr. Harriss.

On October 14, 1896, Dr. Harriss married Mary Montgomery Bolles. Mrs. Harriss is the daughter of Major Charles Patterson and Mary Louise (DuBrutz) Bolles, and was born at Southport, Brunswick County. Major Bolles was born in Rhode Island and Mary Louise (DuBrutz) Bolles in Alabama. During the Civil War he served with the rank of Major in the Confederate Army and built the first (Bolles) Battery at Fort Fisher. A marker now stands there in his honor. The DuBrutz family, of which Mrs. Harriss’ mother was a lineal descendant came to America in 1771, the founder of the family, Gabriel DuBrutz being a native of France. He was an officer in Count DeGrasse's fleet and was wounded in the battle of Yorktown. He died in 1814 at Fayetteville. Five children have been born of the marriage of Dr. and Mrs. Harriss. They are Andrew Howell, Jr., local business man, who, in 1917, enlisted in the World War while a student at Woodbury College, Virginia, and served overseas with the rank of Sergeant; Mary (Mrs. H. M. Symmes), Evelyn (Mrs. J. C. Christian), Julia (Mrs. A. B. Cromartie) and David Sanders, all of Wilmington.


L.J. Poisson

LOUIS JULIEN POISSON, junior member of the law firm of Davis & Poisson, former special Attorney General of the United States under the late President Woodrow Wilson, Division Counsel of the great Atlantic Coast Line System, former representative from the Wilmington district in the General Assembly and recognized as one of the learned lawyers in the state, was born in Wilmington, July 24, 1887. He is distinctly a Wilmington product, in that one branch of his line extends back to Thomas F. Davis and Isabella Eagles, which makes him a lineal descendant of the Moores and the Davises, who actually led the vanguard of civilization into the lower Cape Fear Region in the first years of the Eighteenth Century.

Mr. Poisson's early education was received in the public schools of this city, in the Cape Fear Academy and, later, he attended the Woodbury Forest School, in Virginia. In 1904, he matriculated at the North Carolina State College, Raleigh. In the fall of 1908, he enrolled as a student in the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, from which he graduated in law in 1910. Immediately after graduation, he was admitted to practice in the courts of North Carolina and also in the Federal courts. He continued to practice, constantly increasing his reputation and extending beyond the bounds of the merely local and, in 1913, he was offered and accepted the appointment of Special Assistant Attorney General, with headquarters at San Francisco, California. He remained in this capacity until 1915, when he returned to Wilmington to resume private practice. In 1916, he became associated with the law firm of Rountree, Davis & Carr, composed of Judge George Rountree, Thomas W. Davis and James O. Carr, Mr. Davis being his present partner and one of the executive committee of the American Bar Association. About a year later Mr. Carr withdrew and with Mr. Poisson and R. D. Dickson, established the firm of Carr, Poisson & Dickson. He remained in this partnership until its dissolution, when he, Mr. Poisson, returned to his former association with Judge Rountree. He continued this association in 1920 when the old firm of Rountree & Carr was re-established and remained with that firm until October 1, 1928, when the present firm of Davis & Poisson was established.

Mr. Poisson's entire life has been devoted to the study and to the practice of law. His civic and other public activities have been numerous and, in many instances, unusually prominent. He was president, in 1926-27, of the Wilmington Club of Kiwanis International and prior to that had been chairman of the Boys Brigade committee of the Kiwanis Club which sponsors a boys’ institution, now with an enrollment of 520 and one of the most successful of its kind in the United States. In 1927-28, he was chairman of the committee on the under privilege child of the Carolinas District and last year, 1928, he was unanimously chosen Kiwanis Lieutenant-Governor for the two Carolinas. He is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, takes an active interest in the Feast of Pirates and affiliates with the American Bar Association, the North Carolina Bar Association and the New Hanover County Bar Association. While at the University, he was a member of the Sigma Nu Fraternity. Religiously, he is a member of St. James Episcopal Church. Politically, he is a Democrat and served a term, 1923-25, as representative in the Legislature from New Hanover County.

Mr. Poisson is of French stock on his father's side and English and Dutch on his mother's branch of the family. The paternal line of American ancestry extends of record back to Dr. Louis Julien Poisson, court physician to Louis XIV, who fled France before the Reign of Terror. On the maternal side, the line extends to Mary Davis, who married John Julien Poisson, in 1804, and through previous and subsequent marriages, he is connected with the celebrated Cape Fear families of Davises, Moores, Cutlars and Eagles, and, through his mother, Mary (Allen) Poisson, with General Ethan Allen, Revolutionary hero, who commanded the White Mountain troops at Ticonderoga, and whose phrase, “Surrender in the name of Jehovah and the Continental Congress” will endure as long as American history. A brief genealogical record shows that the first Poisson to come to America was Dr. Louis Julien Poisson and his wife, Jean Ann (Gigaud) Poisson. Dr. Poisson was a native of Parish Grande Champs, Diocese de Natisen, formerly Province of Bretogne. He was court physician to Louis XIV and, upon the death of the king, Dr. Poisson fled with his wife and children, to San Domingo. Apparently destiny had prescribed a career of dangerous adventures for him. He was still a resident of San Domingo when the negro Revolution, with all its horrors, broke out in that Island and he escaped only through the loyalty of a slave. His oldest son, who was a student in college was massacred by the blacks. Upon arriving in America, Dr. Poisson settled at Augusta, Georgia,

making his home with the foreign colony. Three children were born of the marriage of Dr. Poisson and Jean Ann Gigaud. Two of these children lived to maturity: Mary, who married Lord Francis Stanislaus Medier Mondeville, and John Julien Poisson, who became the great-great-grandfather of Louis J. Poisson, subject of this sketch. John Julien, who was born in France, September 17, 1774, arrived in America with his parents and came to Wilmington from Augusta, Georgia, as a young man. He married Ann Quince, May 23, 1798, and after her death, he married, in May, 1804, Mary Davis, daughter of John Davis and Jane (Quince) Davis. This John Davis was a brother of Thomas I. Davis and Elizabeth Watters (see biographical sketches of the late George Davis and Junius Davis in this volume). John Julien Poisson died November 6, 1811, leaving issue only by Mary Davis and all the children of this marriage died without issue except Jehu Davis Poisson and Louis Gigaud Poisson. Jehu Davis Poisson married Sarah Julia Toomer, the children born of this marriage dying childless. Louis Gigaud, usually referred to as Louis Julien Poisson, was born July 10, 1809, in Wilmington, became a physician and, April 23, 1835, he married Eliza Davis, daughter of Thomas F. Davis and Isabella (Eagles) Davis, sister of George Davis, probably Wilmington's most distinguished citizen (see biography, Frontispiece, this volume). Dr. Poisson died October 26, 1843, survived by his two children Marianna Poisson and Frederick Davis Poisson. Marianna married DuBrutz Cutlar and Frederick Davis married Lucy Ann Cutlar, brother and sister. The Cutlars were children of Dr. Frederick J. Cutlar and Louisa de Bourdasoule DuBrutz. Dr. Cutlar was the son of Roger Cutlar, who with two brothers, Archibald and William, married three Jones sisters: Roger to Ann; William to Rebecca; and Archibald to Lucy. They were the daughters of Frederick Jones of Spring Garden, and all grand-daughters of Chief Justice Frederick Jones and Chief Justice William Cocke. Through this marriage (Frederick Davis Poisson to Lucy Ann Cutlar), the Poisson family becomes connected with the Swanns, Lillingtons, Ashes, Moores, Waddells, Claypools and Strongs, all prominent in North Carolina history. Louisa de Bourdasoule DuBrutz was the daughter of Gabriel DuBrutz and Deborah Montgomery. Gabriel was born in Bordeaux, France, December 25, 1761 and died, at fifty-three years of age, in Fayetteville, 1814. He was wounded in the Battle of Yorktown while serving as an officer of Count DeGrasse's fleet, assisting Washington in blockading Lord Cornwallis and ending the Revolutionary War. Deborah Montgomery (born May 3, 1771; died June 1, 1825) was the daughter of John Montgomery and Mary Wilcox. Returning to Frederick Davis Poisson, grandfather of Louis J. Poisson. He was born March 29, 1836, and died August 29, 1881. He was a lawyer by profession and distinguished throughout this section. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he was Brigade Inspector of the Third Brigade, with the rank of Major. He later was transferred from combat service to legal work for the Confederacy. He received his formal pardon from President Andrew Johnson under the Act of 1865. Four children were born of the marriage of Frederick Davis Poisson and Lucy Ann (DuBrutz) Poisson. They were Roger, who died in infancy; DuBrutz, who died unmarried; Fred, who married Fannie Empie Latimer; and Louis Julien. The latter, Louis Julien, became the father of Louis J., of this sketch. He was born January 4, 1860, and died July 11, 1891, when only thirty-one years of age. He was engaged in the real estate business. On October 28, 1886, he married Mary Allen, daughter of James and Mary Allen, of Brockville, Canada, lineal descendant of General Ethan Allen. Mary Allen was a Weller and a direct descendant of Jacob Weller, one of the earliest settlers of New Amsterdam, in 1723, later captured by the English and its name changed to New York. Louis J. Poisson and Mary (Allen) Poisson became the parents of four children: Louis Julien, the fourth to bear that name during the last six generations; Lucianna Cutlar (now Mrs. John Pickerill, Virginia); Fred Davis and DuBrutz, living in Wilmington.

On June 6, 1920, Louis J. Poisson married Miss Gethyn Ball Ruggen, of New Orleans. Mrs. Poisson is a native of Louisiana and the daughter of Henry Fisler Ruggen and Nellie Anderson (Ball) Ruggen. Henry Fisler Ruggen, father of Mrs. Poisson, was professor of Mechanical Arts and Engineering at Tulane University, New Orleans; a Royal Fellow of Victoria University, Manchester, England; and otherwise notable during his lifetime. He was the son of George Ruggen and Elizabeth Stahl (Fisler) Ruggen, who married March 24, 1846; he being the son of George Ruggen (born July 9, 1821; died in 1873), a native of Pennsylvania; his grandfather was George, Senior, also a native of Pennsylvania, who in turn, was the son of John Ruggen, born in Germany in 1750 and came to the United States in 1774. Three children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Poisson. They are Louis J. Jr., Gethyn Ruggen and Frederick Davis.


KENNETH OGDEN BURGWIN, direct descendant of John Burgwin, original owner of The Hermitage, historic Cape Fear plantation home, built in the early 1730's, and the great grandson of Abner Nash, second Governor of North Carolina, was born at Tarboro, March 23, 1890. He began the practice of law in Wilmington when only twenty-two years of age, was a state senator at thirty and now is legal advisor to the City Commissioners and counsel for numerous big corporations.

Senator Burgwin received his early education in private schools. Later, he attended the Woodbury Forest Preparatory College, Orange, Virginia, and matriculated at St. Luke's School, Wayne, Pennsylvania, from which institution he graduated in 1907. In the fall of that year he enrolled as a student in the academic department of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and graduated in 1911. The following year he completed his law course, obtaining his license in 1912, and became associated with the law firm of Davis & Davis, composed of the late Junius Davis and his son, Thomas W. Davis, now General Solicitor of the Atlantic Coast Line and member of the executive committee of the American Bar Association. He remained with this firm until September, 1913, when he began to practice alone. In June, 1917, he effected a partnership with Herbert McClammy, which continued until June, 1921, when the firm was dissolved and he again resumed individual practice.

His activities, professionally, politically and civicly, have been notably varied and important. He represented this district, then composed of New Hanover and Brunswick Counties, in the Senate, 1921-23, and was high in the councils of the administration during that period. While in the senate he introduced the necessary legislation for transforming the government of the City of Wilmington from the old Aldermanic into the present modern Commission form. He became legal adviser of the commissioners in 1921, upon the advent of the administration of Mayor James H. Cowan and has continued in that capacity to the present time. Among his business and other affiliations, he is a director and counsel for the Co-operative Building & Loan Association, director of the Chamber of Commerce, a member and past-president of the Lions Club, one of the most active service organizations in the city, and fraternally, he is a member of the Knights of Pythias and the local lodge of Red Men. Socially, he belongs to the Cape Fear Club, the Cape Fear Country Club, and the Alpha Tau Omega Greek Fraternity. In religion, he is a communicant of St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church and a vestryman of that congregation.

Mr. Burgwin is of Welsh descent and a worthy scion of a most distinguished line of North Carolina ancestry, decidedly prominent in the early building of a great colony and, later, an even greater state. John Burgwin, his great-grandfather, came to the Lower Cape Fear about 1735. He built The Hermitage shortly afterwards. George W. B. Burgwin, grandfather of Senator Burgwin, succeeded to the ownership of The Hermitage upon the death of his father, John Burgwin. His son, Hill Burgwin, father of Kenneth O. Burgwin, was born at The Hermitage and adopted law as a profession. He married Susan Nash, of Hillsboro, and they made their home principally in Pittsburgh, Pa., where he was counsel for some of the large corporations of that city. At the time of his death, 1898, he was chancellor of the Diocese of Pennsylvania, having succeeded the late Chief Justice Melville W. Fuller, of the United States Supreme Court, to that position. At this point it is of historic interest to note that Captain J. H. K. Burgwin, of Craven County, West Point graduate and a leader in the Mexican War, was a brother of Hill Burgwin. Reverting to the maternal connections of Senator Burgwin, the same authority states that Abner Nash, great-grandfather of Susan Nash, was first Speaker of the Senate and second Governor of North Carolina, in 1779, and was a brother of General Francis Nash, who was killed in the battle of Germantown. Governor Nash was born in Virginia of Welsh parents. His son, Frederick Nash, grandfather of Susan (Nash) Burgwin, was born in New Bern, practiced law in Hillsboro, was elected judge of the Superior Courts of Law and Equity, in 1818, and became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1844.

Senator Burgwin married Miss Marie Faison, of Faison, Duplin County, November 8, 1921. Mrs. Burgwin is the daughter of H. J. and Fannie (Sutton) Faison. The Faison family traces back into the Colonial period in North Carolina, as do the Suttons, who early settled in that section of Duplin from which Sampson County later was erected. It is worthy of note that Faison, in Duplin, was named for the Faison family and Suttontown, in Sampson, was named for Mrs. Burgwin's maternal ancestry. Two children have been born of the marriage of Senator and Mrs. Burgwin. They are: Marie Francis and Eleanor Faison Burgwin.


Emmett H. Bellamy

EMMETT HARGROVE BELLAMY, though a young man, is one of the outstanding lawyers of the state, a World War veteran with a distinguished record, a former state senator and representative in the legislature, active in civic club work and identified with all local progressive movements, was born in Wilmington, February 12, 1891.

Few young men of the South have had equal educational opportunity and none has embraced this opportunity with more thorough results. He received his early education in the Wilmington public schools, and the Cape Fear Academy, also of this city. Later, he successively attended the Horner Military School, Oxford; Davidson College, Davidson; and the University of North Carolina. He graduated from the University, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, in 1912. In the fall of that year, he enrolled as a student in the Harvard University School of Law, and the following year, 1913, he entered the Law Department of Columbia University, New York, from which he graduated, in 1916, with the degree of Bachelor of Laws.

Immediately upon returning to Wilmington from Columbia University, he opened an office and entered upon the practice of law. But not for long, in that, in April of 1917, the United States was hurtled into the World War by reason of the German submarine atrocities. He promptly enlisted and organized Troop C, First Separate Squadron, North Carolina Cavalry, with the commission of second-lieutenant. He later was transferred to the Field Artillery branch and was at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, when ordered overseas, in August, 1918, attached to the 7th Ammunition Train. He served in France until the Armistice when he was promoted to first lieutenant and sent with the Army of Occupation, with headquarters at Coblenz, Germany. The following year, he returned to the United States and was mustered out of service, October 9, at Camp Meade, Maryland.

Upon his return home from the army, he became a member of the law firm of John D. Bellamy & Sons, composed of his father and his brother, William Bellamy, of which firm he now is associated. Two years afterwards, he was urged by his friends and became a candidate for the legislature from New Hanover County, was elected and served in the General Assembly of 1921. He made a brilliant record and was elected to the senate in 1923. While in the House, he was the author of the Eugenics Marriage Law, now known as “the Bellamy Law.” In 1923, while in the Senate, he was the author and sponsored the passage of a resolution providing for the appointment of a commission to study the development of the North Carolina ports situation, resulting in the referendum vote of the people as to the establishment of a State Port at Wilmington. Also, while in the Senate he was the author and introduced the resolution creating a commission to investigate the feasibility and advisability of the establishment of a state police force, or constabulary. The commission reported favorably in 1925 and, in 1929, a law creating a Highway constabulary, was passed. In both the House and the Senate, he was one of the recognized official spokesmen of the Governor, Cameron Morrison, and otherwise was an important figure and powerful influence in the administration.

Aside from his extensive professional duties and those attendant upon his service in the legislature, he has been most laudably active in securing compensation for veterans and in his constantly advocating the need of Federal legislation for the benefit of disabled soldiers of the World War. He has given personal attention and advice to scores of veterans, has been appointed and has industriously served upon various important committees and commissions with the view of giving practical aid to these veterans. In 1926-27, Senator Bellamy was elected commander of the Wilmington Post No. 10, American Legion, and at all times since its organization, he has been a member of the executive committee and identified with its more prominent committees. In addition to these more or less public and semi-public activities, he also has found time to interest himself in civic, social, religious and other affairs. He is a member of the local congregation of St. James Episcopal Church, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Lions Service Club, Sigma Alpha Epsilon Greek Fraternity, the Chamber of Commerce, and the New Hanover County, the North Carolina and the American Bar Associations. He also is a member of the Board of Trustees of the North Carolina Agricultural & Technical College, was a member of the State Ports commission in 1923-24, and a deputy district governor in 1923, of the Lions Club in this state. In business, among other interests, he is a director in the Progressive Building & Loan Association. In politics, he is a Democrat and a member of the executive committee.

Mr. Bellamy is of English stock and traces back, on the Bellamy side, to the Twelfth century. The American Bellamys trace back to 1650, when Sir John Yeamans, first governor of the Carolinas, landed in Charleston. John Bellamy, a native of London accompanied this expedition. From that time, a John Bellamy has been prominent in the annals of the two Carolinas. John Bellamy, son of the John Bellamy who accompanied Sir John Yeamans, settled on the Santee River and was a large planter. His son, also named John, was born in St. George's Parish in 1750, and became the grandfather of Dr. John Dillard Bellamy, great-grandfather of Senator Emmett Bellamy and founder of the Bellamy family in North Carolina, by coming to Wilmington from South Carolina, in 1835, as a practicing physician.

Dr. Bellamy married Miss Eliza M. Harriss, daughter of Dr. William James Harriss, one of the most famous men of his period and Mayor of the city at the time of his death in 1839. The children born of this marriage, became the first native born family of Bellamys in the state. John D. Bellamy, father of Senator Bellamy and senior member of the law firm with which he is associated, easily is one of the first citizens of North Carolina, a former congressman, a former President of the North Carolina Bar Association, dean of the local bar and a capitalist, and manufacturer, ranking with the most successful in the South. In 1876, he married Miss Emma May Hargrove, who became the mother of Emmett H. Bellamy.

Senator Bellamy was married to Miss Lillian Frances Maxwell, in New York City, March 26, 1924. She is a native of Rhode Island and the daughter of Joseph R. Maxwell, a manufacturer. Two children have been born of the marriage. They are: Lillian Maxwell Bellamy, four years old and Mary Hargrove Bellamy, two years of age.


DR. THOMAS MEARES GREEN, scion of a long line of North Carolina ancestry on both the paternal and maternal branches of the family, one of the most celebrated surgeons in this section of the Southeast and easily one of the most successful in the state, was born in Wilmington, March 28, 1879. He has been practicing in this city since 1903 and his quarter century of experience, combined with college, university and hospital training, qualifies him in every particular and causes him to merit the high distinction he has attained in his profession.

Dr. Green received his early education in Wilmington under the supervision of private instructors and, later, in the Tileston Normal School, the Union School and the Cape Fear Academy. Upon leaving the latter institution in 1895, then being only seventeen years of age, he began preparing for the practice of medicine. His professional record, which is a most notable one, may be summarized as follows: Entered Medical Department, University of North Carolina, 1895, and remained a student there until 1897; as a result of instructions from his father, William Henry Green, Wilmington druggist, was licensed in pharmacy, in the same year, 1897, in North Carolina, Maryland and Virigina; matriculated at the University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, in 1898 and graduated in 1900, receiving prize in surgery; during this period, he was pharmacist and resident student at the University Hospital; assistant surgeon, University Hospital, 1900-01; resident surgeon (competitive), St. Joseph Hospital, Baltimore, 1901-03; Professor of Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Operative Surgery, St. Joseph Hospital and Training School for Nurses, 1901-03; licensed in Maryland by State Board of Medical Examiners, 1901; licensed to practice in North Carolina, same year; elected superintendent of James Walker Memorial Hospital, Wilmington, also in 1901 which he declined in order to pursue surgical training in Baltimore under Dr. L. McLane Tiffany, whose chief of clinic he was, both at St. Joseph Hospital and the School of Medicine, of the University of Maryland; began practice in Wilmington, in June, 1903. In addition, he served as acting assistant surgeon to the Marine Hospital Service, Wilmington; as a member of the surgical staffs of the James Walker Memorial Hospital, Bullucks and Babies Hospitals and the North Carolina Hospital for the Insane, Raleigh; and as surgeon for the Wilmington district of the Seaboard Air Line Railway Company, the Southern Bell Telephone Company and the Western Union Telegraph Company. All this, plus his general practice. It is decidedly a remarkable record. But to the list may be added other activities. He is a member of the American Medical Association, the North Carolina Medical Society and the New Hanover County Medical Society; the Tri-State and Southern Medical Societies. He was elected a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons in 1918; chosen chairman of the Surgical Section, North Carolina State Medical Society, 1923; and has contributed many valuable articles to the leading medical publications. Besides he takes a reasonably active interest in civic, welfare and educational movements. He is a Chapter Mason, a member of the Knights of Pythias, the Sigma Alpha Epsilon College Fraternity and, socially, of the Cape Fear Country Club and the Carolina Yacht Club.

Dr. Green is of English descent, his forebears having settled in Craven County, of which New Bern, one of the three oldest cities in the state, is the countyseat. His father was William Henry Green, a native of Craven, but who was a druggist in Wilmington for fully a half century, having established the firm of Green & Fonvielle in 1870. The Greens were colonist settlers in Craven and the name is distinguished in North Carolina history. Roger Green was the leader of the band that came into North Carolina from Virginia and settled along the Chowan in 1653. William Green, according to Wheeler's History, was a Captain in the First North Carolina Regiment, in 1775, and a James Green was clerk of the Colonial Conference, held in Johnston County, in October, 1775, and over which Cornelius Harnett, of Wilmington, presided. Since the Revolutionary period, Dr. Green's ancestral line continues: John S. Green, great-grandfather of Dr. Green, was born July 13, 1791, and was the son of John and Elizabeth Green. He married Elizabeth Latham (born April 18, 1794), daughter of John and Susan Latham, June 20, 1811. John S. Green died November 14, 1838. Of the marriage of John S. Green and Elizabeth (Latham) Green, eleven children were born, Susan A., born October 16, 1812, died about 1891; Henry J., born August 10, 1815, died December 28, 1855, in New York and buried in Trinity Cemetery in that city; John L., born December 7, 1818, died December 22, 1819; Maria Lucy, born January 22, 1821, died November 10, 1822; Mary Elizabeth and Sarah Catherine, born July 10, 1824, died (Mary Elizabeth), September 24, 1824, and (Sarah Catherine) June 27, 1826; Julia Elizabeth, born October 2, 1826, died October 10, 1827, Sarah Latham, born February 1,

Thomas M Green

1829, married October 28, 1847; Jonah MacFarlane, died —: Richard Dobb Speight, born February 24, 1831, died January 5, 1870; John S. Jr., born October 4, 1833, died November 18, 1874, in Mobile, Alabama; and Wiley Latham, born January 27, 1839, Henry J., second child, married Mary Frances Perkins, who became the grandparents of Dr. Green. Mary Frances Perkins was the daughter of John and Jane Perkins and was born August 18, 1815, and died November 6, 1847. Three children were born of this marriage. They were Frederick Bennett, born August 10, 1840; William Henry (father of Dr. Green), born March 25, 1845; and Charles Chapman, born March 25, 1845. On his mother's side, Dr. Green is lineally descended from the Iredells and the Meares. His mother, Frances Iredell (Meares) Green, was the daughter of Colonel Thomas Davis Meares (born July 27, 1818, died December 20, 1871), one of the most celebrated lawyers and orators in the Cape Fear region. Colonel Meares married Jane Moore Iredell, of Raleigh, a daughter of James Iredell, II, a veteran of the War of 1812; member of the House of Commons of which he was Speaker in 1817; Judge of the Superior Court, Governor of the State, and United States Senator. His father, James Iredell, was a native of England, came to America and settled at Edenton. He was one of the Associate Justices of the first United States Supreme Court, appointed by President Washington. The history of this notable North Carolinian appears in direct line in the biographical sketch of Frank Green Harriss in this volume.

On November 16, 1905, two years after his return to Wilmington from Baltimore, Dr. Green married Miss Emma Perrin West, thus uniting another old Cape Fear family with the Greens, Iredells, Harrisses and Meares. Mrs. Green is the daughter of Henry P. West, wholesale merchant. Her grandfather was S. M. West, also a native of Wilmington and Civil War veteran and the son of James West. Her grandmother was Emma (Perrin) West, daughter of Henry R. and Elizabeth (Jennings) Perrin. Mrs. Green's mother was Rebecca (Love) West, daughter of John D. and Mary Orme (Nutt) Love; the former the son of William James and Marie Teresa Love; the latter, the daughter of J. D. and Rebecca Vance (Dickinson) Nutt. The Wests and the Loves have been residents of this part of North Carolina since pre-Revolutionary times and largely have been engaged in business or farming in preference to the professions. John D. Love, maternal grandfather of Mrs. Green, was a planter and farmer and a large section of the northeast part of Wilmington once was a portion of the John D. Love plantation.

Two children have been born of the marriage of Dr. and Mrs. Green. They are Emma West Green and Mary West Green, both at home.


Robert B. Slocum

DR. ROBERT BARNARD SLOCUM, chief surgeon, superintendent and medical director of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, is a native of Reading, Pennsylvania, and was born February 7, 1877. He has been a resident of Wilmington since 1906, coming here from Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, to take charge of the James Walker Memorial Hospital.

Dr. Slocum secured his early education in the public schools of Angelica, New York, to which city his parents removed when he was a child. He later entered Wilson Academy, Angelica, and upon graduation from Wilson Academy, he enrolled in the University of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y., from which institution he graduated, in 1900, with the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy. After graduating at Rochester, he took one year in post-graduate work at the same institution. In 1901, he entered Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, graduating in 1905, with the degree of Doctor of Medicines.

His abilities as a physician were recognized even during his student years by the faculty of the famous Johns Hopkins and immediately upon graduation he was offered and accepted a place on the staff of Johns Hopkins Hospital. He remained on the staff, however, for but one year when he accepted the directing management of the James Walker Memorial Hospital of this city. He left the James Walker Hospital in 1908 and engaged in private practice in Wilmington until February, 1921, when he was offered the position of superintendent and medical director of the great Atlantic Coast Line System. He has occupied his present position with the Coast Line for the last eight years, or since February, 1921. When America entered the World War, Dr. Slocum enlisted as a surgeon and was commissioned a captain. By request of the War department, however, he was stationed here and assigned to duties on the selective draft board. His enlistment in the World War was his second national military experience. When a young man, 21 years of age, the Spanish-American War broke out and he enlisted as a private, serving throughout the period in the 2nd Division Hospital Corps, 2nd Army Corps, United States Army.

He is of English descent and his paternal American ancestry traces through a notably distinguished line to the original group of Quakers, who fled the persecutions in England and found refuge in Roger Williams’ Baptist colony at Providence, Rhode Island, in 1637. There were two Slocum (then spelled Slocombe) brothers in the Quaker group who came to America. They were Anthony and Giles Slocombe and from these have descended a numerous family, many of whom became famous, especially in New York and North Carolina, for outstanding courage and patriotism during periods of crises in American history. Ezekiel Slocumb, of Wayne County and Colonial patriot in the Revolution, was a descendant of this New England Quaker family. It was his young wife, Mary Hooks Slocumb, who became one of the heroines of the War of Independence as a result of a wild, midnight ride from the Slocumb plantation, in Wayne, to the scene of Moore's Creek battle, in which her husband was participating as a Colonel. She arrived in time to give valuable service as a nurse to the wounded who fell during that epochal battle—a battle that saved North Carolina to the colonies.

Dr. Slocum's father was John Payson Slocum, native of Syracuse, New York, and for many years a member of the State Education Department, at Albany, capital of the state. He married Anna S. Davis, who was a native of Connecticut. John Payson Slocum was the son of Charles C. Slocum, born in Syracuse and a merchant of that city. He married a Hale, who was a lineal descendant of Nathan Hale, Revolutionary patriot and hero. Gen. H. W. Slocum, with Sherman's army in the Civil War, was a brother of Charles C. Slocum. John Ostrander Slocum, great-grandfather, was a native of Syracuse and a physician, and his father, Dr. Slocum's great-great-grandfather, was Matthew Barnard Slocum, from whom he gets his middle name.

On April 6, 1910, Dr. Slocum married Miss Annie Hill Holmes, of Wilmington, daughter of the late Arthur Holmes, local merchant. Mrs. Slocum, through the Holmes and Hill families, is directly descended from the earliest people of the Lower Cape Fear. Her father was born at Kendal, one of the historic Lower Cape Fear plantations, owned by his father, Owen Holmes. Owen Holmes was a distinguished lawyer and statesman. He was elector of the Senate in 1836 and cast his vote for Martin VanBuren as President. He was elected a Judge of the Superior Court of Law in this state by the General Assembly, in 1836, but he declined. He died in 1841.

Five children have been born of the marriage of Dr. and Mrs. Slocum. They are Ann H., Caroline D., Mary E., Elizabeth B., and Grace P. Slocum, all at home.


J F Port

JAMES FRANCIS POST, assistant secretary of the Atlantic Coast Line System, was born in Wilmington, June 12, 1881. He is wholly a Wilmington product and one of the best rounded and most enterprising and valuable citizens in the community.

Mr. Post's early education was received in the public schools of Wilmington. After finishing in the city schools, he entered the Cape Fear Academy, preparatory, from which institution he graduated and then enrolled, in 1897, as a student in the University of North Carolina. He was a student at the University for three years, and was a member of the Kappa Alpha Fraternity.

He entered the railroad service, in 1900, as secretary to the late Horace Emerson, general freight and passenger agent of the Atlantic Coast Line, with headquarters here. He remained in this position for five years when he became secretary to the late T. M. Emerson, who had become president of the Coast Line upon the death of Warren G. Elliott, father of the present president. George B. Elliott. In 1913, Mr. Post was elected assistant secretary of the company. Four years later, in 1917, he was elected secretary of the Winston-Salem Southbound Railway Company, an affiliated Coast Line road, and, in April, 1919, he was elected secretary and later a member of the board of directors of the Goldsboro Union Station Company.

He is a past-president of the Rotary Club and his administration was described by marked progress and notable accomplishment. For the last four years, he has represented the local organization at the International Rotary conventions held in Los Angeles, St. Louis, Cleveland and Minneapolis. He also is vice-president of the Salvation Army Council and a member of the board of the Feast of Pirates, Inc., organized to direct the great mid-summer festival held annually in Wilmington. In addition, he is a member of the Board of the local chapter of the American Red Cross, an active member of the Grace Methodist Episcopal Church and one of the stewards of that congregation, a member of Orient Lodge, No. 395, A. F. & A. M., a Knights Templar and a Shriner. He affiliates with the Chamber of Commerce, is on the board of the Carolina Building & Loan Association and a director of the Peoples Savings Bank. Socially he is enrolled at the Cape Fear Club, and the Cape Fear Country Club, having served a number of years on its Board of Governors.

Mr. Post is of Holland-English stock, but his American ancestry extends back into the Revolutionary period. His father was James F. Post, Sr., and was a native of Wilmington. His mother is Sarah Virginia (Jacobs) Post, daughter of Benjamin Jacobs, prosperous Wilmington merchant. James F. Post, Sr., was with the Atlantic Coast Line for a period of 46 years and treasurer of the company for more than 30 years. He was occupying the position of treasurer at the time of his death, in 1918. He also had served as a member of the board of aldermen and for twelve years was chairman of the school committee, District No. 2. He particularly was active in school affairs. The grandfather of Mr. Post also was named James F. Post. He was born in New Jersey but removed to Wilmington prior to the Civil War, enlisted here and served through that historic conflict as a lieutenant and had in charge all the fortifications of the Cape Fear harbor. He was an architect by profession and drew the plans of the City Hall, St. Paul's Lutheran Church and the Bellamy mansion home on Market Street, owned by the late Dr. John D. Bellamy.

On June 6, 1925, Mr. Post married Miss Sarah Anderson Whitaker. She is the daughter of John Richard Whitaker and Sally (Bryan) Whitaker of Nash County. Mrs. Post comes from the family of Whitakers of English stock, who settled in Nash County before the Revolutionary War, being a direct descendant of Colonel John Whitaker, of Revolutionary fame, and a lineal descendant of Rev. Alexander Whitaker, the first Episcopal minister to come to Virginia from England. He was Rector of the first church in Jamestown and “fashioned to piety and civility” the Indian Princess Pocahontas. He baptized Pocahontas and the baptismal bowl used in the ceremony still is in possession of Mrs. Post's relatives, being handed down from Whitaker fathers to Whitaker sons.

One child born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Post died in infancy.


John T. Hoggard

DR. JOHN THOMAS HOGGARD, native North Carolinian and the scion of North Carolinians for ten generations, veteran of the Spanish-American and World Wars and one of the outstanding physicians and surgeons of this section of the state, was born at Aulander, in historic Bertie County, December 27, 1879. He has been a resident of Wilmington since November, 1921, and has attained a high rank in his profession.

Dr. Hoggard received his early education in the public schools of Bertie County. Later, he attended Wake Forest College, standard Baptist denominational institution, and then matriculated at the University of North Carolina where he took both the academic and the medical courses for one year. Upon leaving the University, he enrolled as a student in the Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, from which he graduated in the Class of 1907. His next training as a physician and surgeon came the following year when he entered St. Luke's Hospital, Richmond, as an interne, in which he stayed but a short time before going to the famous Bellevue Hospital New York, as an interne, where he remained one year. Leaving Bellevue, he located in Atkinson, Pender County, and practiced until 1921, except for a two years interval during which time he served in the World War. In February, 1921, he came to Wilmington.

For patriotic services, Dr. Hoggard has an exceptionally fine record. When the war with Spain, whose tyrannies in Cuba became intolerable to the civilization of the Western Hemisphere, and President William McKinley called for volunteers, he, although only eighteen, promptly responded. He was assigned to Light Battery C. Third Artillery and attached to Col. Theodore Roosevelt's division. After a short training period at Tampa, Florida, the division was ordered into Cuba where he served throughout the remainder of the war, taking part in the skirmishes at Santiago and the Battle at San Juan. Nearly twenty years later, the United States again became involved in war. This time, against Germany. Dr. Hoggard, responding to a patriotism that has come down through the family since earliest Colonial days, offered his services and was accepted with the commission of captain. He was sent overseas and was commanding officer of Hospital No. 72, in France. He served two years and during the period was advanced from the rank of captain to that of major, a commission he still holds as an officer in the Reserve Corps. He is a member of various social, civic, fraternal and professional associations.

Dr. Hoggard is of English descent and his American lineage goes back to John White, commissioned by Sir Walter Raleigh, in January, 1587, as “Governor of the City of Raleigh,” and to Dr. John White, captain of the Second Regiment, raised in 1775, by the Provincial Congress, to resist British arrogance. In the Albemarle section, the Second Regiment was identical in organization to the First Regiment composed of Cape Fear patriots and captained by Caleb Granger, Alfred Moore and other well-known names of this section. Dr. Hoggard's great-great-grandfather, Jesse Hoggard, was a Virginian and served in the Revolution and also in the War of 1812, as his father had served in the Colonial wars. His great-grandfather, John Thomas Hoggard, for whom he was named, was a planter in Virginia and a veteran of the Mexican War. His son, John O. Hoggard, grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was a Bertie County planter and born near Aulander. America, true to its habit of furnishing a war for every generation, became involved in the great fraticidal strife of 1861-65, during the later years of John O. Hoggard and he enlisted in the Confederacy, serving with Lee in the Virginia campaigns. His son, William David Hoggard, father of Dr. Hoggard and native of Aulander was a manufacturer and prominent business man of that community for many years. He married Frances E. White, who became Dr. Hoggard's mother and through whose family he traces his American ancestry back into the sixteenth century. She was the daughter of Joshua White, native of Aulander and a Bertie County planter.

On December 23, 1909, Dr. Hoggard married Miss Virginia E. Hawes, of Atkinson. Mrs. Hoggard is the daughter of Alexander Hawes, native of New Hanover County. Her grandfather was Dr. John Hawes; her great-grandfather, Sandy Hawes; and her great-great-grandfather, John R. Hawes, all born and reared and well known during their generation in Wilmington. Three children have been born of the marriage of Dr. and Mrs. Hoggard. They are Frances Elizabeth, John T. Jr., and Edmund Alexander.


W. D. McCaig

WILLIAM DOUGAL MCCAIG, Comptroller of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, was born in Mount Carmel, Pennsylvania, January 18, 1874. He came to Wilmington in 1902 and since that time has made this city his home.

Mr. McCaig's early education was acquired in the Savannah public and high schools. He later attended the Richmond Business College. Savannah, Ga., from which institution he graduated in 1891. While attending business college he entered the railway service as office boy in the office of the Freight Claim Agent of the Central of Georgia, which company has general headquarters in Savannah.

His rise from office boy to his present official position in the big Atlantic Coast Line organization is typical of many railroad officials. From office boy, he became a stenographer to the Freight Claim Agent of the same railroad, 1892 to 1893. In 1893, he accepted a position as stenographer in the Auditor's office of the Brunswick & Western Railroad Company. The following year, 1894, he became a clerk in the office of Auditor of Receipts of the Plant System with headquarters in Savannah, Georgia. In 1899, he was promoted to Traveling Auditor of the same system. Two years later, 1902, when the Coast Line bought the Plant System he was appointed Chief Traveling Auditor and his headquarters were transferred to Wilmington. Since his association with the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad he has been successively: Auditor of Station Accounts, 1906 to 1911; Assistant Auditor of Freight Receipts, 1911 to 1917; Assistant Comptroller 1917 to 1924; and, on October 16, 1924, he was promoted to Comptroller, which position he now holds.

Mr. McCaig has taken an active part in the religious, civic and educational affairs of his adopted city. In religion he is a member of the Presbyterian Church of the Covenant of which he is an Elder. He also is Treasurer of the Home Missions Committee of the Wilmington Presbytery, a position he has occupied for the last six years. Politically, he is a Democrat and now is a member of the New Hanover County Democratic Executive Committee, and 1917 to 1921, was Commissioner in charge of Finances and Accounts of the City. In addition, he is Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Fireman's Relief and Pension Fund, City of Wilmington, and President of the Rural Building & Loan Association. Socially, Mr. McCaig is affiliated with Wilmington Lodge, No. 319, Free and Accepted Masons, the Cape Fear Country Club, The Cape Fear Club and the Carolina Yacht Club.

Mr. McCaig is of Scotch-Irish ancestry. The family is numerous in the north of Ireland, and particularly in County Antrim, now a part of Ulster, famed for its Orangemen. His father, Arthur McCaig, came to America in 1859, and landed at Savannah. Two years later the Civil War broke out and he, in sympathy with the South, allied himself with the Confederacy and took part in the struggle as a blockade runner. Following the war, he went to Canada, where he refugeed from the Federal authorities until 1868 when he removed to Mount Carmel, Penn., where he died in 1892. He was a telegraph operator by profession and during his residence at Mount Carmel was a train dispatcher for the Reading Railroad. He was married in New York City to Jean McIlwayne, also a native of County Antrim, Ireland, whose parents removed to Canada when she was a child.

Mr. McCaig was married to Miss Henrie Walker, in Wilmington, October 16, 1906. Mrs. McCaig is the daughter of Henry Fulton and Emma (Mercer) Walker, of English descent and, as were her parents, is a native of Brunswick County, N. C. Mrs. McCaig's ancestry, on both the paternal and maternal sides, traces back to the pre-Revolutionary period. She is a lineal descendant, through the Walker family, of Colonel Edward Ward, who was born in England, March 22, 1694, and died in Onslow County, North Carolina, on September 18, 1766. Her grandmother, Hancy Walker, was a cousin of the late Governor Daniel L. Russell, of Brunswick County. She also is a descendant of the Burns family, of which Captain Otway Burns was a member. Mrs. McCaig's maternal ancestors trace back to Solomon Mercer, killed in the Revolutionary war, and to the Aiken and Smith families of Charleston, S. C., descendants of Thomas Smith, First Landgrave of his name in South Carolina. Governor Benjamin Smith, early North Carolina Governor, was also a member of the Aiken and Smith families of Charleston.

Five children, three girls and two boys, have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. McCaig. They are: Emma, now a student at Converse College, Spartanburg, S. C., W. D. Jr., who died in infancy, Jean, Walker and Martha.


Robert Scott

ROBERT SCOTT, head of the Department of Insurance and Safety of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, was born in Fifeshire, Scotland, February 15, 1877. He came to the United States with his parents, Alexander F. Scott and wife, in 1884, when a child only seven years of age.

The family landed in New York from Scotland and young Robert immediately was put into school. The family, however, removed to North Carolina the following year and the son was placed in private schools and then sent to the Davis Military College, Winston-Salem, at which institution he finished his education.

His life has been most useful and more than the usual lot of distinctions, in business and in sectional and national organizations, have been accorded him because of the thoroughness with which he handles all duties and also because of an exceptionally genial and pleasant disposition. A review of his record in varied lines discloses a decidedly numerous list of honors: He assisted in organizing the Railway Fire Protection Association, national in scope, in 1912, and served as its president, 1918-1919, during which time he removed its headquarters to Wilmington. He served as chairman of the Steam Railroad Section, National Safety Council, headquarters in Chicago, during the years of 1919 and 1920. In 1925 and 1926, he served as chairman of the Safety Section, American Railway Association, the largest of its kind in the world, totaling more than 5,000 members. And he was elected to membership in the American Railway Guild, in 1925, for outstanding services in safety work of a National influence—merit only obtains membership in this guild.

The above organizations and associations are largely affiliated with the railroad service. But Robert Scott has also laudably interested himself in other movements. He helped organize and now is a member of the advisory board of the Babies Hospital, near Wilmington. Also, he assisted in organizing and now is vice president of the Peoples Building and Loan Association, of this city. He was elected several years ago to the board of directors of the Home Savings Bank and still is serving in that capacity. He served as president for a period of five years, 1913 to 1918, of the United Society of St. George and St. Andrew, a charitable and social organization of British born subjects, or sons of Britishers, founded in 1871. And he has found time to be a valuable member of his congregation of the Presbyterian Church, being a member of the Board of Trustees of that church; to perform the usual tasks of a member of the Cape Fear Club; and to take such interest, as good citizens should, in political affairs.

Mr. Scott entered the railroad service, June 26, 1893, when only sixteen years of age, starting in the office of the general auditor of the then just recently re-organized Atlantic Coast Line. He continued in the auditing department for eleven years, or until June 1, 1904, when he was promoted to the head of the insurance department. He became director of insurance and safety, in 1918, and his duties were enlarged two years later, in May, 1920, by his accepting the appointment of editor of the Atlantic Coast Line News, a publication issued monthly and of special interest to employes over the entire System. Aside from these many duties, Mr. Scott is also chairman of what is known as the Service Emblem Committee, and holds a place on the Advisory Board of the Atlantic Coast Line Relief Department. Among the outside activities of Mr. Scott might also be included membership on Board of Directors of the Transportation Mutual Insurance Company of Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation with a surplus of several millions of dollars.

Mr. Scott is of Scotch descent. His father, Alexander Scott, was a manufacturer of jute and hemp products in Scotland before he decided in the early eighties, to remove to America. The elder Scott came to America to start a pine fiber factory for the manufacture of baggings, carpets, fillers for mattresses and similar products. He held patent rights on the machinery used in the process and had them recorded in America and abroad. He devoted approximately twenty years to the work, but with only moderate success because of the heavy expense attached to the process. He eventually sold out to the Whitneys, the father of Harry Payne Whitney, and his associates. Alexander F. Scott died several years ago, but his widow, Mrs. Catherine (Stirton) Scott, also a native of Scotland, is still living, her home being in Muncie, Indiana.

On February 22, 1899, Mr. Scott was married to Miss Mary Florence Hall. She

was the daughter of the late Samuel G. Hall, well-known Wilmington business man and founder of the Commercial Printing Company, which he operated until his death, about sixteen years ago. Mrs. Scott was educated at the Salem Female College, Winston-Salem, as was her mother, Mrs. Hall, and her daughter, Florence Greene Scott, making three generations to enroll at that fine old college. Mrs. Scott, then Mary Florence Hall, was a student at Salem when Mr. Scott was a dapper cadet at the Davis Military College, in the same city, and their marriage was a happy culmination of a college romance. Two children have been born of their marriage; Florence Greene Scott, who became the wife of Ralph G. Hengeveld, one of the best known young business men of Wilmington, and Robert Kenneth Scott, graduate of the University of North Carolina, and later, June 1928, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology at Boston. Indicative of the young man's energy and caliber, he went to work the day following his graduation and now is in the Engineering department of the Southeastern Underwriters Association, headquarters in Atlanta, Ga., and the oldest organization of its kind in the United States.


THOMAS FRANCIS DARDEN, Vice-President of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, is a native North Carolinian and was born at Hamilton, July 11, 1870. He has been a resident of Wilmington since 1891, except for the period between 1897 and 1913, when he was in Brooklyn, New York City and Washington, D. C.

His early education was received in private schools. After finishing the elementary grades he enrolled at Hamilton Academy, in Hamilton, and there completed a course equivalent to the modern graded high school. During the period, 1885 to 1888, he clerked in a local drug store and performed other tasks common to a boy in a comparatively small town. At eighteen years of age he had qualified himself to hold a job as a telegrapher, and in 1888 he started a career that was to lead him to the vice-presidency of one of the important railroad systems of the South. He was for three years, 1888 to 1891, a telegraph operator and clerk for the Atlantic Coast Line. In the latter year he became agent, and afterwards chief clerk, and acted in various other capacities in the accounting and traffic departments of the general offices of the Wilmington, New Bern & Norfolk Railway Company, now a part of the Atlantic Coast Line.

In accepting a place with the Wilmington, New Bern & Norfolk Railway Company, in 1891, his headquarters were transferred to Wilmington. He remained here with that Company until 1897, when he went to New York City as cashier, and afterwards manager, of the New York Dock Company Terminal Railway. Six years afterwards, in 1903, he became chief clerk and subsequently assistant auditor of the Old Dominion Steamship Company, with offices in New York City. He was occupying this position when he was offered in 1909 a position as Examiner in the Bureau of Accounts, Interstate Commerce Commission, Washington, D. C., and had risen to Assistant Chief Examiner in 1913, when he returned to the railroad of his first choice, the Atlantic Coast Line, and to Wilmington, as special accountant. After returning to the Coast Line as special accountant, he was appointed, in 1914, Assistant to the President, the late Mr. John R. Kenly, whose death occurred recently in Wilmington. Four years after his appointment to this position the United States, at war with Germany and other Central European powers, took over the railroads and Mr. Darden became assistant to Mr. Lyman Delano, Federal Manager, Atlantic Coast Line, with his headquarters continuing in Wilmington. Mr. Darden was promoted to the vice-presidency of the road in 1923.

In addition to his duties as Vice-President of the Atlantic Coast Line, he has other railroad responsibilities entailed by that Company's control of various public service corporations. Among these duties are those as Vice-President and Director of the Moore Haven & Clewiston Railway Company, and Director of the following: The Augusta Union Station Company, the Fort Myers Southern Railroad Company and the Wilmington Railway Bridge Company. These railroads, of which he is an official or director, serve six southern states, with a total mileage of more than 5,000 miles. He is a director of Wilmington Savings & Trust Company.

Outside of business, and wholly as a matter of good citizenship, Mr. Darden takes a creditably active part in the religious, civic and social life of the city. He is a member of St. John's Episcopal Church and Vice-President and Director of the local Y. M. C. A. He is a member of the Cape Fear Club, the Cape Fear Country Club and the Carolina Yacht Club. Politically, he is Independent.

Mr. Darden is of English and Scotch-Irish descent. His great grand-parents, John McCausland Boyle and Hannah Maria (Dickson), of Ballymena, County Antrim, Ireland, coming to America in 1816, settled in Petersburg, Viriginia. His grandfather, John McCausland Boyle, Jr., after coming to America with his parents in 1816, married Mary Anne Plumbe of Neath Wales and became a lumber manufacturer in North Carolina. His mother, Mary Anne (Boyle) married Thomas E. Darden, a native of Virginia, who had come to North Carolina prior to the War between the States, and who after serving throughout the war as a Confederate soldier in Mahone's Brigade, became a leading merchant in Hamilton, North Carolina.

On October 20, 1896, Mr. Darden married Miss Bessie Coles Davis of Wilmington. Mrs. Darden is the daughter of Robert B. Davis and Cornelia J. (Nixon) Davis, and grand-daughter of N. N. Nixon and Elizabeth Ann (Morris) Nixon. Three children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Darden. They are: Mary Nixon Darden; Thomas F. Darden, Jr., an officer in the United States Navy; and Robert D. Darden, Columbia, S. C.


J. L. Fairly

REV. DR. JOHN L. FAIRLY, pastor of St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, in Wilmington, was born in Laurinburg, Scotland County, July 9, 1888. He was called to the pastorate of St. Andrews in 1924.

He received his early education in a private school of his native town and, in 1905, entered Davidson College, a standard Presbyterian school, at Davidson, N. C., from which institution he graduated in 1909, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. He was employed as a teacher in the Red Springs and Atkinson High School, 1909-1911. In 1911, he entered the Union Theological Seminary, Richmond, Va., as a student, and graduated in the Class of ’14, with the degree of Bachelor of Divinity. He earned the degree of Doctor of Divinity, in May, 1922, following a four year course in the same Seminary.

Doctor Fairly has held but one assistant pastorate and two full pastorates during his ministry of fifteen years. In 1914, following his graduation from the Union Theological Seminary, he became assistant pastor of the First Church at Fayetteville, N. C. He was at Fayetteville until 1918, when he accepted a call to the pastorate of the Mount Carmel Presbyterian Church at Steele's Tavern, Virginia. Six years later, or in 1924, he accepted a call to St. Andrews. Locally, he was urged to accept the presidency of the Associated Charities and within two years he placed that institution on a basis equal to any of its kind in the South. He continues as a member of the Board of that organization. He also is chairman of the committee of Religious Education in the New Hanover High School and one of the instructors in that school.

Other service distinctions may be listed as follows: Member of the Executive Committee and a Trustee of Flora MacDonald College, Red Springs, N. C.; teacher in the Young People's Conference of the Synod of Virginia, Massannetta Springs, Va.; teacher in the School of Religious Education at the same place; instructor in Summer Session Assembly Training School, Richmond, Va.; chairman of the sub-committee on Men's Work of the Synod of North Carolina; and editor of the Department of Men's work of the Southern Presbyterian Church.

In addition to these services of a religious and semi-religious character, Dr. Fairly has found time to co-operate with local civic clubs and committees in various movements. For a time, he was an active member of the Lions Service Club, sharing such duties as his membership entailed. Also, he has been identified with Citizen's committees in campaigns to provide funds for the Red Cross, the Salvation Army and similar organizations. Fraternally, he is a member of St. John's Lodge No. 1, A. F. & A. M. He also affiliates with the Ministerial Association, the Cape Fear Country Club and the Carolina Yacht Club. In politics, he is an Independent-Democrat.

Dr. Fairly is of Scotch descent and his American ancestry, wholly North Carolinian, traces back to John Fairly, is great-great-grandfather, who came here from Scotland shortly before the Revolutionary War and settled near Laurinburg in what then was Robeson, but now Scotland County. John Fairly was a farmer and his son, Alexander Fairly, native of Scotland, then Anson County, continued to farm in the same county. Alexander's son, John L. Fairly, grandfather of Dr. Fairly and for whom he was named, was born in Laurinburg, graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1827, returned home and became a surveyor.

Dr. Fairly's father, Angus Fairly, son of John L. Fairly, was born in Laurinburg and followed farming as a vocation. His mother was Nancy (McIntyre) Fairly, daughter of John McIntyre, a Laurinburg business man and connected with the McIntyres, MacDonalds, McLaurins, and other Scotch families of that section of North Carolina—more facetiously referred to as the “Land of the God A'Mighty Macs,” a name probably first applied by the late Joseph Pearson Caldwell, distinguished North Carolina editor and himself of Scotch-Irish ancestry. John Fairly, grandfather of Dr. Fairly, represented Richmond County in the State Senate in 1834.

On November 8, 1916, Dr. Fairly was married to Miss Arleene Gilmer, of Statesville. Mrs. Fairly is a native of Statesville and the daughter of Edgar Gilmer of that city, and a niece of former Attorney-General Robert Gilmer. She is a lineal descendant of Jesse Franklin, soldier, Congressman, United States Senator, and in 1820, Governor. He refused a second election and retired in 1821. According to Hill's History of North Carolina, Governor Franklin was intensely interested in schools and “While Governor Franklin was in office many private schools and academies were begun.”

Two children have been born of the marriage of Dr. and Mrs. Fairly. They are: Mary Lillian, aged eleven, and John L., Jr., six.


J. Harry Whitmore

REV. JACOB HARRY WHITMORE, D. D., pastor of the Church of the Covenant (Presbyterian), Wilmington, North Carolina, one of the strongest and most progressive congregations in the state, is a native of Virginia, having been born at Charlottesville, October 17, 1881. Of pleasing address, effective as a preacher, genuinely earnest, a constant and careful student of the Bible, and a systematic worker, his success as a pastor inevitably has been marked and his influence in the community most useful. He has degrees from three outstanding educational institutions, is a trustee of two colleges, and, suggestive of the mutual affection which he develops between himself and his parishioners, he has held, during his nearly twenty years in the ministry, but three pastorates, eleven years at Radford, in Virginia, at the first church to which he was called after ordination; six years in Covington, Virginia, and the present church to which he was called two years ago.

Dr. Whitmore's early education was received in the public schools of Albemarle County, in which, at Charlottesville, is located the University of Virginia. In 1897, he entered Cove Academy, Coveville, where he spent one year in preparatory study, which he completed in a private school, in Charlottesville 1898-99, and the Hoge Military Academy, Blackstone, Virginia, 1899-1900. At eighteen years of age, he matriculated at the University of Virginia from which institution he graduated in 1905, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. During the period between 1900 and 1905, he was one year, 1902-03, out of the University as teacher and principal of the Prince Edward County High School, the only graded school in that county. Following his graduation from the University, he became a member of the faculty of the High School at Staunton, Virginia, where he remained for two years. The summers 1907-08 he taught mathematics in the Farmville State Normal School.

Dr. Whitmore received his theological education at the Union Theological Seminary, Richmond, Va., where he was a student from 1907 to 1910. These were busy years for him for in addition to his regular studies he was, during this period, an assistant in the Seminary library, editor for one year of the Seminary Review and, during the summer months, student assistant at the Second Presbyterian Church, Petersburg, Virginia. He graduated from the Seminary in May, 1910, with the degree of Bachelor of Divinity and in June became pastor of the Radford and Radford Central Churches, being ordained by Montgomery Presbytery the following October. In April, 1921, he accepted a call to the First Presbyterian Church, Covington, Virginia, where he remained until February, 1927, when he resigned to become the pastor of the Church of the Covenant, Wilmington, North Carolina, succeeding Rev. Oscar J. Mann.

In addition to his regular ministerial duties Dr. Whitmore takes an active interest in the larger work of the church and in movements for the welfare of the community. Before coming to Wilmington he was a trustee of Stonewall Jackson College, Abington, Virginia and the Harris Mountain Schools. He is now a member of the boards of trustees of Hampden-Sidney College in Virginia and Flora MacDonald College, Red Springs, North Carolina. He served for several years as stated clerk of Montgomery Presbytery and is at present chairman of the Home Mission Committee of Wilmington Presbytery. During the recent World War he served as chairman of the Radford Chapter of the American Red Cross and was active in other forms of war work. He is this year president of the Ministerial Association of Wilmington. In recognition of his services in church and educational work and as a scholar, Hampden-Sidney College, in 1925, conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity. He was a former member of the Kiwanis Club, Covington, Virginia, and locally is a member of the Carolina Yacht Club. Politically, he is a Democrat.

Dr. Whitmore is the son of Jacob Henry and Naomi Elizabeth Whitmore. His father was a native of Augusta County, Virginia and during the Civil War served in the cavalry under the gallant General J. E. B. Stuart. On October 6, 1910, Dr. Whitmore married Miss Kate Dudley Staples of Richmond, Virginia. Mrs. Whitmore is the daughter of Henry Lee and Sarah Norwood Dudley Staples, natives of Richmond. Two children have been born to this marriage: They are Sarah Dudley, now a student in the New Hanover County High School, and Elizabeth Blessing.


Thos H Wright

THOMAS HENRY WRIGHT, real estate, loans, capitalist, manufacturer, leader in civic, church, educational and progress movements and one of the substantial business men of North Carolina, is a native of Wilmington, and was born December 18, 1876. His ancestry have been distinguished for patriotism, in business, and the professions in the Lower Cape Fear since the 1720's and for another generation, prior to that, in South Carolina. A Wright and a Granger, both direct ancestors of Thomas H. Wright, were of the early band of settlers who founded Wilmington, in 1733, and Newton and New Liverpool, a few years earlier. And a Wright and a Granger have been prominent in the life of the community in every succeeding generation. Thomas Henry Wright is a splendid scion of these fine old families.

Mr. Wright received his early education at the Tileston school, in Wilmington, and from the private school of Prof. Daniel Morrell. He left school in 1890, and became associated with his father, Joshua G. Wright, under the firm name of J. G. Wright & Son, real estate, and that firm now is approaching its fortieth year of continuous existence. As years passed, his success developed and with an abiding faith in the soundness of home institutions, he became interested in many local enterprises. The corporations in which he is heavily interested and which employ hundreds of people and represent among the largest taxable properties in the southeastern section of the state include the following: President, J. G. Wright & Son; president, Chipley Motor Company, Inc.; president Auto Finance Company, Inc.; secretary-treasurer, Co-operative Building & Loan Association; secretary-treasurer and managing director, Acme Manufacturing Company; and director in the Peoples Savings Bank and the President of Carolina Apartment Company. His real estate holdings are correspondingly heavy. It is probable he is among the three heaviest taxpayers in the county and the payrolls of his companies, perhaps, are the largest of any exclusively local institutions. In addition, he finds time to do his full share in the church, civic and social life of the community. He is a member of St. James Episcopal Church, trustee of the Kiwanis Service Club, chairman of the Boys Brigade, in which are enrolled more than 500 boys; member of the Cape Fear Club, the Cape Fear Country Club, the Carolina Yacht Club, the Real Estate Board, and the Chamber of Commerce, of which latter organization, he was secretary and treasurer of the ship building committee during the World War. Also he was mayor of Wrightsville Beach (Wilmington's choice resort city) for fifteen consecutive years. His developments have added vast valuations to the property wealth of the county. As a forward looking and accomplishing citizen, he unqualifiedly belongs to the progressive, accomplishing and patriotic element.

The Wrights were an old English family and belonged to the nobility for many centuries. The family emigrated to America in the early part of the eighteenth century, around the 1720's, and promptly became distinguished in the Cape Fear and throughout the Carolinas for their intelligence, wealth and high personal and civic virtues. One of these early colonists was Thomas Wright, who married Anne Granger and that introduces another old and distinguished colonist family of the Lower Cape Fear. Anne Granger was the daughter of Joshua and Catherine Granger, this Joshua being the son of Joshua and Elizabeth (Toomer) Granger. The Grangers, like the Wrights, came from England, first settling in Charleston, South Carolina, and afterwards coming to the Cape Fear district where they likewise were people of distinction and wealth. The original Joshua Granger was one of the founders of Wilmington, which then was known as Newton, or New Town, where Hilton now is located. He was a friend and patron of Gov. Gabriel Johnston and served as justice of the quorum. Major Caleb Granger, intrepid and gallant patriot soldier of the Revolution was a son of this Joshua and a brother of Anne Granger, who became the wife of Thomas Wright. Caleb Granger, it may be noted at this time, served in the North Carolina General Assembly, 1782-83, having served the previous year with Thomas Bloodworth, in the House of Commons.

Of direct interest to this sketch, however, is the fact that the marriage of Thomas Wright and Anne Granger marked the time when the two families became united and from these two begins the lines of descent, covering a period of nearly two hundred years: Judge Joshua Granger Wright who married Susan Bradley, for whose family Bradley's Creek, this county, is named; Dr. Thomas Henry Wright, whose name Thomas H. Wright bears in full, who married Mary Allan; and Joshua Granger Wright, father of Thomas H. Wright, who married Florence Maffitt, daughter of Capt. John Newland Maffitt, who gained marked distinction as a Confederate naval officer during the Civil

war. As a matter of interesting history it should be recorded here that Wrightsville and Wrightsville Beach, were named for Judge Joshua Wright who was one of the outstanding figures in North Carolina during the post-Revolutionary period, having served seventeen consecutive years, 1792 to 1809, in the House of Commons from New Hanover County and was speaker of the House when elected in 1808, a Judge of the Superior Courts of Law and Equity in which capacity he served until his death, in June, 1811. It was he who built and made his home in the big white house, at corner of Market and Third streets, now known as the Cornwallis House, in that that British general made his headquarters during the occupation of Wilmington by his troops during the Revolutionary War. This house has been owned by the Wrights for more than 100 years. Dr. Thomas Wright, son of Judge Joshua Wright, became a prominent physician and an able financier. He served as president of the Bank of Cape Fear from 1847, to his death, September 21, 1861. Dr. Wright was married to Mary Allan, a most charming lady and one of the reigning belles of that period. The third son of Dr. Wright and Mary (Allan) Wright was Joshua G. Wright, father of the subject of this sketch. He was the last of the Wrights to be born in the old historic Cornwallis House. He prepared for college in the Wilmington schools, completing his education at the University of North Carolina, graduating with the degree of Bachelor of Arts in the class of 1861. While in the University he was a member of the Dialectic Society. He later married Florence Maffitt, daughter of Captain Maffitt, of Civil War fame, and who became the mother of Thomas H. Wright. Mr. Wright enlisted in the Confederacy when a young men and served with outstanding gallantry throughout that struggle and later became one of the leading business men and citizens in Wilmington. He died at his home in this city December 30, 1900.

On January 28, 1914, Thomas H. Wright married Miss Eleanor Gilchrist of Wilmington, Mrs. Wright is the daughter of William Gilchrist, who was born near Gilchrist Bridge, Scotland County, and who was the son of John and Effie (Fairley) Gilchrist. The Gilchrist family were of distinguished Scotch ancestry and were among the early settlers of that section of North Carolina. William Gilchrist, father of Mrs. Wright, married Miss Ella Frances Lilly, of Wilmington, daughter of Catherine Elizabeth (Buchanan) and Edmund Lilly. The Lilly family are of English ancestry and trace back to Colonial Virginia. Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Wright. They are Eleanor Gilchrist Wright and Thomas Henry Wright, Jr.


OSCAR PEARSALL (born in Duplin County, April 9, 1819, died September 24, 1925) was one of the leading merchants, manufacturers, capitalists and civic chieftains of Wilmington for nearly a half century and left to the family and the community a heritage of business integrity and good citizenship that will continue in precept and example for generations. He was active in many worthwhile lines assuming all the responsibilities and performing all the duties that men of his character and wealth are called upon to perform for the church, the schools and for the general welfare of his home town. In summary, he was a citizen of outstanding consequence; of the class that makes progress and enlightenment possible; upon whose shoulders the actual burden of civilization rests.

Mr. Pearsall received his early education in the public schools of Kenansville, Duplin County. During his boyhood, until he was twenty years of age, he lived at home, doing the usual work of the son of a prosperous planter and forming the habits of industry and integrity. In 1869, he left the farm and came to Wilmington, secured a job as clerk and settled down to the routine of a salesman, bookkeeper and to such other work as falls to the lot of a clerk in a comparatively small establishment. He remained in this position for five years, mastering every detail of the business and obtaining an experience that laid the foundation for one of the most notable mercantile successes in the annals of the city. In 1874, then only twenty-five years of age, he formed a partnership with B. F. Hall, and launched a wholesale grocery and jobbing firm under the name of Hall & Pearsall. This firm continued for more than a quarter of a century, or until 1906, becoming one of the best known in all the Southeastern part of the state. In the latter year, Mr. Pearsall withdrew and established the firm of Pearsall & Company, Inc., of which he was President, his associates being his two sons, Frederick L. Pearsall and Horace Pearsall, the former acting as Vice-President and Treasurer, and the latter, Secretary. This firm continued to the time of his death under his leadership and still is actively operating under the Presidency of his son, F. L. Pearsall.

While the wholesale grocery business was the key to his success and he preferred to be classified as a wholesale merchant, his interests were varied and included all the numerous lines of the capitalist. He organized and with the assistance of his sons and outside interests operated the Wilmington Oil & Fertilizer Company, one of the largest plants of its kind in North Carolina. The capacity of the fertilizer plant alone is more than 20,000 tons per year and the Cotton Oil division is modern in every detail. Both branches of this institution continue to operate under the management of the sons whom he had carefully trained to the business. Horace Pearsall is President of this company. He also was interested in suburban developments and gave substantial encouragement to such progressive movements and industrial ventures as all ambitious cities call upon their wealthier ciitzens to encourage and help finance. His activities in civic welfare extended to the usual Chamber of Commerce work and at one time, he yieded to importunity and became a member of the City Council from his ward, serving two terms, but declining a third. His participation in school affairs was untiring and invariably constructive and his religious activities were both generous and genuinely devout. He was a communicant and an elder in St. Andrews Presbyterian Church for many years but after building the “Pearsall Memorial Church” near his home in East Wilmington, he transferred his membership to that congregation and acted as elder there until his death.

Mr. Pearsall was of Scotch-Irish and English descent dating back to the Fifteenth century. His American ancestry on the father's side traces to Duplin County prior to the Revolution and on his mother's side, through the Dickson and Whitaker families, into Colonial New England. His father was William Dickson Pearsall, named for his maternal great uncle, William Dickson, Duplin County Revolutionary patriot and one of the signers of the immortal Oath of Allegiance, passed in 1775, and which solemnly declared for freedom from British tryanny, or death. James Pearsall I, great-grandfather of Oscar Pearsall, was contemporary with William Dickson and was a native of Duplin County, being the son of the founder of the family in America. His son, James Pearsall II, grandfather of the subject of this sketch, married Anne Dickson, daughter of Joseph Dickson, thus uniting the two families. At this point, when the Pearsall and Dickson families are become joined by marriage, it is appropriate to state as a matter of genuine historical interest, that James Pearsall I gave the grant of land for the historic old Court House and the famous spring of pure water at Kenansville, and, also, it is interesting to note, that Alexander Dickson, great-uncle of

Oscar Pearsall

Oscar Pearsall being the brother of Anne (Dickson) Pearsall, left $10,000 in trust to the Duplin County Charity School (The Dickson Charity Fund), thus laying the foundation for the public school system of Duplin and becoming one of the first public schools in North Carolina. Returning to the genealogical line of descent. Among the children born of the marriage of James Pearsall II and Anne Dickson, was William Dickson Pearsall, who married Sarah Whitaker, a daughter of Wesley Whitaker, a Raleigh manufacturer and a member of a notable family. Wesley Whitaker made the first piano in North Carolina and the instrument, for many years, was in the State Museum, at Raleigh. Other members of the family were composers, directors and musical instructors in colleges and universities. William Dickson Pearsall and Sarah (Whitaker) Pearsall became the parents of Oscar Pearsall. The Pearsalls and the Dicksons were active in public life. William Dickson, in addition to being one of the signers, with his brother, Richard, of the historic Oath of Allegiance, also was a delegate from Duplin County to both the Hillsboro Convention, August, 1775, and the Halifax Convention, in November of the following year. His brother, Richard, was a Major in the Second Regiment of North Carolina Colonial Troops. James Pearsall, following the Revolution, served two terms, 1791-93, as a member of the House of Commons, while his son, Jeremiah, husband of Anne Dickson, served two terms, 1823-24, in the Senate. Incidentally, it may be stated, that John Pearsall, a brother of Jeremiah, served in the House of Commons from 1816 to 1819. The Pearsalls, while Scotch in ancestral line, came to America from the north of Ireland, while the Dicksons and Whitakers came into North Carolina from the Providence Colony in New England.

Oscar Pearsall, by his marriage to Rachel Whitfield Herring, May 21, 1872, united the Pearsalls, Whitakers and Dicksons with the Whitfields of Lenoir and the Herrings of Sampson County. Rachel Whitfield Herring was the daughter of Joshua Herring, of Kinston, and Nancy (Bryan) Herring, native of Mississippi. The Herrings, although original settlers in Lenoir, later removed into Sampson County (erected from Duplin in 1784) and at the present time are a numerous and influential family. Joseph Herring, member of the Legislature from Sampson County in 1840-42, was a member of the family. The Whitfields were especially prominent. They originally came from Lancashire, England, and settled in North Carolina, in 1713. William Whitfield I, the founder of the American line, married Elizabeth Goodman. They first settled in Nansemond County, Virginia, but later removed to Rockford, Lenoir County. This William was the great-great-great-great-grandfather of Rachel Whitfield Herring, wife of Oscar Pearsall. The direct descent then continues: William II married Rachel Bryan, November 6, 1741. He served through the Revolution and died in 1795. Among the children born of this marriage was Bryan Whitfield, February 9, 1754, who became the great-great-grandfather of Rachel Whitfield Herring. He married Nancy Bryan, daughter of Colonel Needham Bryan. Bryan Whitfield's daughter, Rachel (born 1782; died June 30, 1850), married first her cousin, Nathan Bryan and upon his death, William Herring, son of Matchette and Elizabeth (Whitfield) Herring. Of this marriage Nancy Bryan Herring was born, July 27, 1826. She was married, December 16, 1845, to her cousin, Joshua Herring, of Kinston, and they became the parents of Rachel Whitfield Herring, born on her mother's twenty-fifth birthday, July 27, 1851, and became the wife of Oscar Pearsall, May 21, 1872. Rachel Whitfield Pearsall died March 18, 1901.

Twelve children were born of the marriage of Oscar Pearsall and Rachel Whitfield Herring. They were Anne Dickson, now Mrs. Anne D. Pearsall; Frederick Leonidas, Elizabeth (Mrs. H. L. Hunt), Sallie Virginia (deceased), Florence (Mrs. R. M. Sheppard), Grace Vaiden (deceased), Norwood Davis (deceased), Horace H., Melzar Love, Oscar, Jr., William Victor, all of Wilmington; and Martha Rachel (Mrs. Dozier Latta) of New Bern.


Jus Bright Hill

FEW YOUNG MEN of this state have profited by their opportunities and acquired the success, influence, and prominence of John Bright Hill, Wilmington lawyer, World War veteran, high in the councils of the American Legion, attended two famous universities; now serving his second term as Representative from New Hanover County, in the General Assembly of North Carolina and otherwise a young man of splendid attainments.

The following, copied from the North Carolina Legislative Manual, although only in epitome, will give a quick suggestion of his ability and success; commercially, professionally, and as a civic leader. “John Bright Hill, Democrat, Representative from New Hanover County, was born in Warsaw, Duplin County, August 25, 1897. Son of William L. and Mary Lou Hill. Graduated Warrenton High School; received A. B. degree from University of North Carolina in 1917. Attended University of North Carolina Law School and Harvard University Law School and obtained license to practice law in 1920. Commander Wilmington Post No. 10, American Legion, and held commission 1st Lieutenant Judge Advocate General's Department. Kappa Sigma Fraternity and Phi Delta Phi Legal Fraternity. President Exchange Club of Wilmington; Carolina Yacht Club. Attended United States Military Academy, West Point, N. Y. Member North Carolina Bar Association, American Bar Association, Commercial Law League, and New Hanover County Bar Association. Representative from New Hanover County in General Assembly 1926-28 and 1929-30. President Atlantic Investment Company; President Home Building & Loan Association; President Mechanics Home Association; Member International Lawyers Bureau, B. P. O. Elks, Thirty-Second degree Mason, Shriner, Sudan Temple, Presbyterian. Married Katherine Taylor, November 9, 1926. Address: Wilmington, N. C.”

Upon securing his license to practice law in 1920 he came to Wilmington and went in the offices of Kenan & Stacy and later with Judge W. P. Stacy (now Chief Justice of North Carolina). Thoroughly qualified, of genuinely pleasant address, and constant in friendships, he quickly developed a lucrative practice and has appeared in many of the most important cases of this section during the past eight years. Of a progressive spirit, he immediately became indentified with the forward looking element of the city and rose quickly in the esteem of the citizens of Wilmington. His ability as a speaker, his earnestness in any enterprise which he adopts and his enviable record of securing results has caused him to become easily one of the most valued citizens of the community.

Mr. Hill's record as a Legislator has been decidedly constructive. Although his first term in the Legislature of 1927, he introduced and piloted through successfully the Inland Waterway Bill which provided that the State of North Carolina provide a right of way for the Intra-Coastal Waterway and the Government made an appropriation of $5,800,000 to construct this canal with $150,000 annual appropriation for maintenance. Work on this waterway has already started and although it was estimated that it would take five years to construct it, yet it is hoped that this work can be completed in three years.

Mr. Hill helped to secure the passage of the bill appropriating $1,250,000 for the construction of the Cape Fear River Bridges, which, when opened to traffic in a few months will realize a dream of a century for eastern North Carolina. The citizens of New Hanover County re-elected him to the Legislature of 1929 and he took an active part in the passage of the Workmen's Compensation Act, The Australian Ballot bill, and Legislation tending to reduce the ad valorem tax on land. He introduced and passed the World War Veterans Loan Bill providing for an appropriation of $2,000,000 to be used as a loan fund so veterans of the World War could own their own homes. He also introduced and passed additional legislation to speed up the work of the Inland Waterway Act of 1927 and passed bills calling on Congress to rebuild certain dykes on the Cape Fear River. It can always be said that he had the interest of New Hanover County and eastern North Carolina at heart and he gave his best efforts to protect the interest of his people.

The Hill ancestry dates back into Colonial North Carolina and into early Scotland and England. Members of the family have achieved prominence in all the epochal crises of America since Virginia and North Carolina were settled. His father is William Lanier Hill, a farmer, lawyer, banker and leading citizen of Duplin County. His mother was Mary Lou Brown, daughter of John Bright Brown, prominent citizen

of Bladen County. His grandfather, Colonel Christopher Dudley Hill, was the son of General William Lanier Hill and nephew of Governor Edward B. Dudley of North Carolina and his grandmother, Mary Faison (Hicks) Hill, was the great-grand-daughter of Thomas Hicks, Colonial Congressman and also a great-grand-daughter of George Miller, who served with the rank of Captain in the Revolution. On his mother's side his descent may be lineally traced from such patriots as Major General Thomas Brown, Bladen County; General James Kenan and Col. Richard Clinton. His mother was the great-grand-daughter of General Thomas Brown, who was a member of the Provincial Congress, at Halifax, in November, 1776, and was in command at the Battle of Elizabethtown, in 1781, also with his command at Moore's Creek Bridge; at the Battle of Alamance; in the defense of Norfolk, in December, 1775; at Fort Johnson, May 1775, and was in practically all of the important battles of the Revolution in this section. Mr. Hill can trace one branch of his mother's ancestry back in an unbroken line to 1320.

Mr. Hill married Miss Katherine Grandison Taylor, of Wilmington, November 9, 1926. She is the daughter of Col. Walker Taylor, one of the best known citizens, not only of this county, but of the State and the entire southeast. Of the Taylor family, a notable one throughout this section, a more detailed sketch may be found in the biography of Colonel Taylor himself in the front pages of this volume. One child, a son, John Bright Hill, Jr., was born of this marriage on November 19, 1928.


REV. RALPH CLAYTON CLONTZ, one of the best known young ministers of North Carolina and now superintendent of Home Missions for the Wilmington Presbytery, was born at Unionville, N. C., September 13, 1891. He has made his home and ministerial headquarters in Wilmington for the last five years.

Rev. Mr. Clontz was reared to young manhood on a farm in the Piedmont section of North Carolina, and, for several years afterwards, was a public school teacher, a most valuable experience in preparing for a successful life's work. He attended Rutherford College, later Davidson College, and completed his education at the University of South Carolina, Columbia, and at the Columbia Theological Seminary, South Carolina.

He originally planned to become a physician, but yielded that ambition upon uniting with the Presbyterian Church and receiving the call to the ministry. A summary of his alternating experiences as school teacher and college student, the former to obtain funds to prepare himself to properly preach the gospel, indicates his determination and sincerity of purpose. And his present position in the Prtesbyterian Church, and the constant demand for his services show how thoroughly and successfully he equipped himself.

A brief summary shows that, at 19 years of age, he had saved enough money by his work on the farm to attend Rutherford College during the term of 1911-12. For the next four years he taught school and, in the fall of 1917, he returned to Rutherford. The following year, he was a student at Davidson and in the succeeding three years at the South Carolina University and the Columbia Seminary, from which latter institution he graduated in 1921. Immediately after graduation, or on June 5, 1921, he was ordained in Bethel Presbyterian Church, near Davidson College, and became pastor of the Bethel congregation and that of Cornelius, in the same county, both of the Mecklenburg Presbytery. He had acted, however, as supply pastor of these congregations four years prior to his ordination and while he yet was a student at the Seminary. In all, he served Bethel and Cornelius for seven years. In 1924, he was selected by the Home Missions Committee as Superintendent of Home Missions for the Wilmington Presbytery and assigned to this city as headquarters.

Rev. Mr. Clontz's results in the ministry have been most satisfactory and, in many instances, most remarkable. During his pastorate at Cornelius, a modern and attractive church was erected and fully equipped. The membership of the congregation tripled and the Sunday school and other auxiliary organizations had corresponding increases and grew in spiritual health and activities. With the exception of the erection of a new church building, the results at Bethel were virtually the same. As Superintendent of Home Missions, he has applied the same splendid zeal and achieved the same fine results. The Wilmington Presbytery is composed of all or parts of ten southeastern North Carolina counties, sixty-nine churches and nearly 8,000 communicants. During his incumbency, he has preached in every community and the increase in membership has averaged 100 annually. That totals around 475 new members. In addition, he has supervised the expenditure of more than $100,000 for new churches in the Presbytery, some of which are among the best equipped in the state. Small wonder his services are in demand and his administration of that department earnestly approved by the Synod. Many calls have come to Rev. Mr. Clontz since he has been in Wilmington to return to the pastorate.

Rev. Mr. Clontz is the son of Isaac C. Clontz, native of Unionville and a farmer of Union County. His mother, Martha L. (Love) Clontz, also was born in Union County and is the daughter of the late W. A. Love, a farmer of that section and Confederate veteran, serving with Lee and Jackson in the Army of Northern Virginia. His grandfather, James Clontz, Union County native and planter, married Miss Serene Long, a kinswoman of President James K. Polk. He served four years in the Confederacy and was with Pickett in the heroic charge at Gettysburg. The great-grand-father, John Adams Clontz and his father before him, were North Carolinians and born in Union then Mecklengurg County. John Adams was a Ruling Elder in the Presbyterian Church and each succeeding generation has furnished one or more officers.

The Clontz family is of German and Scotch-Irish stock and came to America in 1740, coming from Ireland and settling in that portion of Mecklenburg, which now is Cabarrus County. The first native son was Jeremiah, born in 1756. As a general

Ralph C. Clontz

vocation, they, one generation after another, have pursued farming and in all instances endued with that good citizenship and industry which constitute the principal bulwark of the American nation. In time of national crisis, they have proved themselves patriots by enlisting, doing their full part and returning unostentatiously to their homes and resuming their regular home routine. The records show that a Clontz has been in every American war, from the French and Indian, shortly after the original American Clontz arrived, the Revolution, War of 1812, with the Confederacy in the Civil War, the Spanish American and, lastly, the World War.

On September 15, 1912, Rev. Mr. Clontz and Miss Carrie Russell were married at Unionville, and of this marriage, one child, Hilda Louise, now a student in the local High School, was born. Mrs. Clontz died in May, 1915. On May 21, 1919, he married Miss Vena L. Wilson. Of the second marriage, a son, Ralph Clayton, Jr., was born. Miss Russell was the daughter of the late John A. Russell, a farmer of Union County and North Carolinians for many generations. The present Mrs. Clontz is the daughter of Rev. Beverly Wilson, a native of Lincoln County, North Carolina, and now pastor at Catawba, in the western North Carolina Methodist conference.

Rev. Mr. Clontz takes an active part in civic and school affairs. He is a member of St. John's Lodge No. 1, A. F. & A. M., and identified with the Y. M. C. A., Ministerial Association and other organizations. In politics, he is a Democrat.


W E Yopp

WALTER EDWARD YOPP, SR., a member of the Board of County Commissioners for New Hanover County and prominent in the business and civic life of Wilmington for nearly two score years, was born in Wilmington, June 20, 1860. He was educated in the public schools of this city and early became associated with his father, Samuel L. Yopp, as an undertaker. In 1893, he entered into business for himself and established funeral parlors at 210 Princess Street, remaining there until 1914 when he purchased the building directly across the street, at 211 Princess, and remodeled it into one of the most modern and attractive institutions of its kind in this section of the state. He has been doing buisness in virtually the same location for thirty-six years. He was the first to build and operate an exclusively undertaking establishment in Wilmington.

Commissioner Yopp's activities as a business man and as a citizen have been prominent. He was secretary-treasurer of the Belleview Cemetery Association for twenty years, resigning a few years ago because of the press of other business affairs and turning the duties of that position over to his son, Walter E. Yopp, Jr. He was one of the organizers of the Co-operative Building & Loan Association and has been vice-president and director of that semi-banking institution for thirty-two years. He is a regular communicant of the Fifth Avenue Methodist Church and a member of the board of trustees of that congregation. Other affiliations include membership in Wilmington Lodge A. F. & A. M., the Consistory (Thirty-second Degree Scottish Rite Mason), the Masonic Shrine, the Woodmen of the World, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Improved Order of Red Men and the Junior Order United American Mechanics. He was principally interested in the founding of the first council of the latter organization in this city, frequently has represented it as a delegate to the Grand Lodge, and twice has been the accredited representative from North Carolina to the Supreme Council, or Convention. He also has the added distinction of having affiliated with the Chamber of Commerce since entering into business. Politically, he is a Democrat.

It is a matter of laudable pride with Mr. Yopp and his friends that he has represented his ward on the City Council and his district on the board of County Commissioners for a total period of more than twenty-five years, but never has requested any constituent to vote for him. He was an alderman from the Fourth ward of the city for four terms, eight consecutive years, being a member of the Council when the municipal government changed from the aldermanic into the commission. But he even has exceeded that record as a county official, first having been elected to the commission in 1912 and constantly succeeding himself at each election up to the present time. When his current term expires in 1932 he will have served the public in that one important position for twenty straight years. A most remarkable record and perfect evidence of the care and the thorough manner in which he attends to the business of that office. During his tenure of office, as alderman and later as county commissioner, he has observed and taken an official part in the transformation of an old, satisfied, and colonial town into a modern, wide awake and rapidly developing city, and has helped to place New Hanover County in the front ranks for public buildings, improved highways and educational facilities.

Commissioner Yopp is of German and English stock and his American ancestry dates back to the first of the eighteenth century. The family first arrived in America shortly before the War of 1812 and John Yopp, great-uncle of Walter E. Yopp, served in that conflict with the commission of captain. They came to Wilmington from Savannah, Georgia, several years prior to the Civil War. Commissioner Yopp's father was Samuel Larkins Yopp, native of Wilmington and an undertaker in this city for probably half a century, being one of the founders of the old firm of Yopp & Woolvin. He was the son of John Yopp, for many years in the tailoring business here and the founder of the family in Wilmington. Samuel Yopp married Georgiana Reeves, daughter of George Reeves, native North Carolinian, a pilot on blockade runners during the Civil War and, following that struggle, proprietor of a hotel in Southport.

Mr. Yopp was married to Miss Emma H. Donnelly, of Wilmington, April 29, 1891. Mrs. Yopp is of Scotch-Irish descent, and the daughter of Samuel James Donnelly, a native of Brunswick County and engaged for many years in Engineering, and during the Civil War ran the blockade as Engineer. Three children have been born of the marriage. They are: Varina A., wife of Albert H. Elmer, of Wilmington; Emma Donnelly, wife of George T. Musselman, Wilmington; and Walter Edward, Jr., associated with his father in the undertaking business.


W R Yopp

WILLIAM ROY YOPP, secretary-treasurer of the Wilmington Stamp & Printing Company, leader in civic club movements, active in religious affairs and otherwise a prominent and useful citizen, was born in Florence, South Carolina, January 27, 1886. He has been living in Wilmington, the home of his ancestors, for exactly twenty years and his rise from street car motorman to an official of one of the largest commercial printing establishments in the Southeast is an evidence of his constancy of purpose, his high ideals and his business ability.

Mr. Yopp, like many other successful business men, early acquired the habit of, and became thoroughly familiar with the merits of the philosophy of work. At thirteen years of age, circumstances required that he leave school which he then was attending in Florence and begin work on a farm in Pee Dee County, South Carolina. He continued on a farm until he was twenty-one years of age, or until 1906, when he went to Savannah, Georgia, and secured a job in a garage, from which he resigned two years later, in 1908, to return to Florence and engage in the monument business. This enterprise did not prove to his inclinations, and he came to Wilmington. The year 1908 was not a prosperous period. The country still was suffering from the consequences of the panic of 1907. Payrolls were scarce. Mr. Yopp, however, finally secured employment as a motorman on the street car lines operated by the Tide Water Power Company. He continued with the Tide Water until 1911, when he determined to learn the printing business. In that year a company was organized and incorporated under the firm name of the Regwill Printing Company, with Mr. Yopp, J. W. Little and Edward Register as owners.

It was during this year, 1911, that Mr. Yopp and his present associate in the ownership of the Wilmington Stamp & Printing Company, Captain Fred E. Little, became associated in business, Captain Little having become an employe of the Wilmington Stamp & Printing Company. That fact is interesting only in that it marks the beginning of an association that already has stood the test of eighteen years and gives splendid promise of continuing indefinitely. In 1913, W. R. Yopp and his associates purchased the Wilmington Stamp Works, owned by Thomas H. Bagley and two years later, the company was reorganized into the Wilmington Printing Company, with Mr. Yopp as President. In 1924, he established the Service Printing Company, which two years afterwards, in 1926, under another reorganization process, became the present Wilmington Stamp & Printing Company and of which he became Secretary-Treasurer. The company employs about twenty skilled persons, handles all lines of commercial printing and has a clientele extending throughout the Southeast.

Mr. Yopp's activities aside from the strictly business are those of the usual progressive and prosperous business man. His religious membership is with the Trinity Methodist Church, of which congregation he is one of the trustees. He displays a healthy interest in sports and was one of the guarantors of the Wilmington Baseball Association, in 1928, which assured professional baseball for this city for the first time in nearly thirty years. He also is chairman of the Athletic Committee of the Exchange Service Club, one of the accomplishing civic organizations of the city and otherwise is identified with public movements including membership in the Feast of Pirates, Wilmington's mid-summer carnival, and the Chamber of Commerce. Professionally, he affiliates with the United Typothetae of America, an association devoted to the science of printing. In politics, he adheres to the tenets of the party of his forefathers, being a Democrat.

Mr. Yopp is of German stock on his father's and English on his mother's side of the family. His father was C. M. Yopp, a native of Wilmington and for many years in the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad service. His mother was Mary E. (Morse) Yopp, C. M. Yopp was the son of J. W. Yopp, W. R. Yopp's grandfather. J. W. Yopp was a native of Wilmington, engaged in the railroad service. He married Jane Elizabeth Warren.

On February 22, 1911, Mr. Yopp married Miss Esther Naomi Mintz, of Wilmington. Mrs. Yopp is the daughter of S. H. Mintz, a native of Wilmington and for many years engaged in the Naval Stores business here. Her mother was Josephine Mintz. Four children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Yopp. They are William Roy, Jr., deceased, Esther Naomi, Elizabeth Vivian and Glenwood Houston, all at home.


A. H. Yopp.

ALFRED HARDING YOPP, lineal descendant of Virginia Colonists, and through his grandmother's people, in direct descent from Lord William Howard of the “Western Marshes,” second son of Thomas Howard, fourth Duke of Norfolk, England, was born in Wilmington, North Carolina, November 6, 1876. He has become notable throughout this section as a music merchant, pianist, composer, director of choirs and as church organist for some of the wealthiest congregations in the state.

Mr. Yopp received his early education in the Wilmington public schools but left school at the age of fifteen and clerked in a store. The following year, 1893, because of his distinct tendency toward music he began the study of piano and harmony under Miss Cannie Chasten, well known Wilmington artist. He studied under Miss Chasten for three years and in September, 1896, when nineteen years of age, he entered the New England Conservatory of Music at Boston, Mass., and studied piano under Carl Stasny, probably the best known teacher in America at that time. Carl Stasny and the world renowed pianist, Paderewski, both studied piano under Leschetizky, the celebrated teacher. Mr. Yopp also studied pipe organ under George Whiting, recognized genius; advanced harmony under George W. Chadwick, one of the best American composers and later Director of the New England Conservatory; Theory under Louis C. Elson, who is recognized as an authority on theory of music.

Upon Mr. Yopp's return to Wilmington, he accepted a position as organist of the Temple of Israel, a position he held for about twenty-five years. During this period, he also was organist for various other churches, successively at the First Baptist, St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal, the First Presbyterian, the Fifth Avenue Methodist and the Presbyterian Church of the Covenant.

In October, 1915, he formed a copartership with Thomas K. Woody (clerk to the County Commissioners), under the firm name of the Yopp-Woody Music Company. The following year, however, he purchased his partner's interest and since has been conducting the business as the A. H. Yopp Piano Company. He has a large custom in all lines of musical instruments and his sales cover virtually every community in the southeastern part of the State. He is normally active in religious and associational affairs. His church membership is with the First Baptist congregation and his principal business affiliation is with the Chamber of Commerce.

Mr. Yopp is of English descent. He is the only son of the late Alfred Price Yopp, who married Laura Ann Brown, daughter of Kilby Brown, and a niece of Captain Jack Watson, North Carolinian and famous Confederate Naval officer. Alfred Price Yopp was an expert machinist and held several responsible positions in this city. He was foreman of the Wilmington Iron Works, foreman of the Cape Fear Machine Works, superintendent of the Hydraulic White Press Brick Company, and superintendent of Acme Fertilizer Works at Acme N. C., and master mechanic of the old Wilmington, Onslow & East Carolina Railroad, now the Wilmington & New Bern Railroad, a branch of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company. He was the actual inventor of the twin screw pipe coupler and the grooved pulley which prevented belts from slipping off the pulley. Both inventions are used over the entire world. His father, A. H. Yopp's grandfather, was Andrew Jackson Yopp, a native of Wilmington, a staunch Democrat and, for many years, business manager of the old Wilmington Journal. According to Dr. James L. Sprunt, The Journal “exercised a controlling influence for many years upon the questions of the day” and became a power in the State. One of the associate publishers was Alfred Price, for whom Alfred Price Yopp was named.

Andrew Jackson Yopp married Sarah Elizabeth Sellers, who became the grandmother of A. H. Yopp. She was connected with the McIlhenny and Harriss families and was a lineal descendant of Lord William Howard of the “Western Marshes.” Lord William was the second son of Thomas Howard, the fourth Duke of Norfolk and famous in English history. Reverting to the Yopp family. Andrew Jackson Yopp was the son of John C. Yopp, great-grandfather of A. H. Yopp. He was a native Virginian, a planter and the grandson of Jeremiah Yopp, of Northumberland County, Virginia, an extensive land owner and planter and owner of scores of slaves. The first American Yopp was a native of England.

A. H. Yopp is unmarried and the last of his branch of the Yopp family. He has one sister, Ida Langdon Yopp, who married John Austin Best of Whiteville, N. C., formerly purchasing agent of the Georgia Railroad and assistant to the General Manager and President with headquarters in Augusta, Ga.


F. a matthes

FRED ALBERT MATTHES, executive vice-president of the Tide Water Power Company and Wilmington progress leader, was born on a farm, near Illinois Grove, Marshall County, Iowa, February 8, 1871. He came to Wilmington from Laredo, Texas, in May, 1922, as the chief executive of the largest and most rapidly developing public utility company in this section of the state, which has grown from a twenty mile transmission line into twenty times that length, or 400 miles within the last seven years and, instead of serving a single city, now stretches into a wide territory carrying power and light to seventy-five towns and communities.

Only a summary of Mr. Matthes’ biographical history can be included in this sketch, hence it is best to take it chronologically from the time he left the graded schools in Iowa and New Mexico, or at the age of seventeen years. This shows: October, 1888, to September, 1892, machinist apprentice, Raton and Albuquerque, New Mexico; September, 1892, to January, 1895, student in University of New Mexico and Leland Stanford, Jr. University, Palo Alto, California; January, 1895, to April, 1899, machinest, Santa Fe Pacific, Albuquerque, N. M.; April, 1899, to September, 1899, stationary engineer, Cochiti Mining Company, Bland, N. M.; September, 1899, to January, 1900, machinest, Santa Fe Pacific, Albuquerque, N. M; January, 1900, to July, 1901, farmer in Vernon County, Missouri; August, 1901, to February, 1902, machinest in Missouri Pacific Railway Shops. Fort Scott, Kansas; February, 1902, to July, 1903, farmer, Vernon County, Missouri; July, 1903, to August, 1909, machinist, machine erection foreman, foreman of manufacturing toolsroom, Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway Shops, Parsons, Kansas; August, 1909, to March, 1911, master mechanic, Choctaw Railway & Light Company, McAllister, Oklahoma; March, 1911, to February, 1916, manager Longview Ice & Light Company, Longview, Texas; February, 1916, to June 1, 1918, Manager of the Abilene Gas & Electric Company, the Abilene Water Company and the Abilene Ice Company, Abilene, Texas; June 1, 1918, to May, 1922, Manager, Laredo Water Company and the Consumers Ice Company, Laredo, Texas; and May, 1922, to the present time, executive vice-president of the Tide Water Power Company, Wilmington.

But that only tells a part of Mr. Matthes’ activities. He is known here as “The Perfect Progressive” because no worthwhile movement, tending to develop any phase of Wilmington, industrially, civicly, or otherwise, fails to receive his active personal support, both as a generous contributor and in committee service. Suggestive of his wide interest, he now is president of the Rotary Service Club, vice-president of the local Baseball Association, high in the councils of the Feast of Pirates, the Chamber of Commerce, regular communicant of the First Presbyterian Church, a member of the Blue Lodge and Royal Arch in Masonry, plus the Thirty-second Degree, Scottish Rite Consistory, and socially he affiliates with the Cape Fear Club, the Cape Fear Country Club the Frying Pan Boat Club and the Carolina Yacht Club. Also, he is a member of the National Electric Light Association and the Southern Gas Association, of which latter, he served as director for several years. Politically, he is Independent.

The Matthes family is of German stock. The American ancestry dates back three generations, when, in 1841, Albert Matthes, who won a Medal of Merit for courage serving under Blucher at Waterloo and, prior to that epochal battle, accompanied Napoleon's march into Moscow, was driven out of Germany in the political upheavals of the 1840's. Albert Matthes, like Carl Schurz and the elder Pulitzer, sacrificed country rather than passively yield to the Metternichian tyrannies of that period. His son, Charles Matthes, father of F. A. Matthes, was born in Germany, reared in Wisconsin, became an Iowa farmer and a Civil War veteran. Mr. Matthes’ mother was Amanda (Striker) Matthes and native of Pennsylvania, of pioneer stock, which followed the “tide of empire” westward to Wisconsin where she married.

Mr. Matthes married Miss Edna Cornell, November 12, 1896, at Albuquerque, N. M. Mrs. Matthes was born at Waterloo, N. Y., and is the daughter of Isaac and Carrie Cornell. Four children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Matthes. They are: Louis H., who married Marian Wright, and now is an electrical engineer in Beaumont, Texas; Frederick A. Jr., married Helen Burgen, now a clothing merchant in Laredo, Texas; Cecil L., married Mildred Johnson, assistant superintendent of the Electrical Department, Tide Water Power Company, Wilmington; and Ralph K., manager of the Washington Light & Water Company, Washington, Ga. The three older sons served during the World War, and Louis H., Cecil L., and Ralph K., are lieutenants in Officers Reserve Corps.


Graham K. Hobbs

MAJOR GRAHAM KERR HOBBS was born March 28, 1887, near Clinton in historic Sampson County, and was educated in the public schools, the Salemburg Academy (a preparatory college), and the University of North Carolina.

And although still a comparatively young man, his career has been varied, important and filled with distinctions and honors. He has met every service as a civic leader, a military chieftain and a statesman, representing his adopted county of New Hanover in the halls of the state legislature. As a business man, he now is a partner of his brother, Julius C. Hobbs, in the Electric Maintenance Company, of which firm he is secretary-treasurer. As a generally useful citizen, he is a deacon of the Presbyterian Church of the Covenant; a member of St. John's Masonic Lodge and of the Scottish Rite Consistory (Thirty-second Degree); also a charter member of the Kiwanis Club; Carolina Yacht Club; a member of the American Legion and a former commander of the Wilmington Post of the American Legion; a member of Gov. A. W. McLean's staff; and for the last six years Team Captain of the North Carolina Rifle Team (National Guards).

Feature facts, descriptive of Major Hobbs’ career, central about his military record, which is most illustrious in that he twice was cited for exceptional bravery in action during the World War, was twice wounded in action, and led a battalion of the regiment of North Carolinians, who as part of the famous Thirtieth Division, was the first to penetrate and break through the Hindenburg Line. His record throughout, not only has been unblemished, but has been distinctly fine. Until 1916, or until the age of 23, his life was that of the usual boy and young man on the farm, except that he had taken a more than ordinary interest in military affairs, and, as early as 1912, had been commissioned a captain in Company H, 2nd North Carolina Infantry. In 1916, his company was ordered to service on the Mexican border, where it remained until 1917, when America declared war against Germany. After a short period of guarding bridges and other work of that character, Company H was sent to Camp Sevier, near Greenville, S. C., added to the 119th Infantry, Thirtieth Division, and ordered to France in the spring of 1918.

Major Hobbs preceded his company overseas by about three months and became an instructor in military at Langres, until July 1, when he joined his Division in Belgium and was placed in command of the Second Battalion. The history of the 119th Infantry, in Northern France, Belgium and Flanders, is known to every school child—its courage and brilliant successes in the heroic attacks at Quentein and Cambrai and the penetration of the Hindenburg Line (until then believed invulnerable), September 29, 1918, constitute a glorious chapter in military annals. Because of Major Hobbs’ conduct in these terrific assaults, he twice was cited for exceptional bravery. After the Armistice, November 11, 1918, he was transferred to the Coblenz area with the Army of Occupation. Thence to General Pershing's headquarters at Chaumount. While here, he was chosen as one of a commission of twelve American army officers to visit the various battlefields in which American troops were present and collect historical data, and as a further distinction he was appointed as one of the officials of the Allied Athletic tournament in Paris, in the early summer of 1919.

Upon his return home, he was discharged, August 15, at Camp Jackson, S. C. Once more a civilian, he went to his home in Sampson County, spent a few months in recuperative visiting and, in the latter part of 1919, accepted a position in the Federal income tax department, headquarters in Wilmington. Two years, 1921 to 1923, he spent in the real estate and insurance business and, in 1923, became associated with his brother in the Electric Maintenance Company. In 1928, he was elected to represent New Hanover County for a two year term, 1929-31, in the legislature over a strong field of other candidates. His record as a legislator has been characteristic of his other endeavors. He successfully introduced a resolution requesting Congress to appropriate sufficient funds for a 30-foot channel in the Cape Fear River, between Wilmington and the ocean; a bill empowering New Hanover County Commissioners to issue bonds without an election; and gave effective service in securing the passage of the Inland Waterways bill, the veterans $2,000,000 Loan bill, Workmen's Compensation bill, a bill providing a bureau and freight rates department in the corporation commission and a bill to adequately pension police officers. His services as a citizen have been notable. He responds to all calls for co-operation in civic progress, is active in Boys’ work of the Kiwanis Club; assumed responsible duties in the Feast of Pirates, Wilmington's great mid-summer carnival classic; and otherwise is most valuable to

the community. He has been a member of the National Guard since 1921; was a major on the Governor's staff throughout the McLean administration; attended General Military Service school, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 1924; and has commanded the North Carolina Rifle Team in its matches at Camp Perry, Ohio, since 1923.

Major Hobbs is of English and Scotch-Irish descent, and his ancestry, both paternal and maternal are of Colonial stock. His father, Julius C. Hobbs, was a native of Sampson County and a sergeant in the Civil War, serving for a time with Stonewall Jackson in the Army of Northern Virginia. His mother, Mary E. (Kerr) Hobbs, was the daughter of James Kerr, planter and one time member of the state legislature, and whose three sons fought valiantly for the Confederacy. One of the sons, John D. Kerr, became a captain, and all served with distinction. The North Carolina town of Kerr is named for the family. The Hobbs family settled in Virginia prior to the Revolution, removing to North Carolina during the early part of the last century. The Kerr family came from Aaron, Scotland and settled in the Cape Fear section.

Major Hobbs was married to Miss Hattie Borden Pemberton, in Wilmington, June 2, 1920. They have three children: Graham K., Jr., William Pemberton, and Alfred Scales Hobbs. Mrs. Hobbs is the daughter of William H. Pemberton, prominent railroad official, and grand-daughter of late Col. John A. Pemberton, of Fayetteville. On her mother's side, she is the grand-daughter of the late Colonel John D. Taylor, who commanded a regiment in the Civil War, losing an arm in action at Bentonville, N. C., and a niece of Col. Walker Taylor, one of the best known residents of the Lower Cape Fear.


CHARLES B. NEWCOMB, lawyer and secretary of the Scottish Rite Masonic bodies of Wilmington, was born in Florence, South Carolina, September 15, 1887. He has been a resident of this city since 1907 and is an examplary product of the community.

His early education was received in the local public schools and the high school. He received his legal education at the Wilmington Law School from which institution he graduated in 1917. He was admitted to practice at the September Term of the New Hanover County Superior court in the same year of his graduation. Upon leaving school at the age of sixteen, Mr. Newcomb accepted employment with the Boinest Hardware Co., at Florence, S. C., and remained in that position until 1905, when he accepted employment with the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, remaining with that company until 1910. In 1910 he accepted employment with the firm of Einstein Brothers, Wilmington, N. C., and soon was made assistant to the manager of that firm, remaining in that position until 1917 when he accepted the duties he now performs.

Although a successful attorney, he probably is best known throughout this section as an official of the Masonic bodies, in which he has risen to enviable heights. At this time, and since 1917, he has been secretary of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Free Masonry, with offices in the Masonic Temple. These bodies include the Johnston Blakely Lodge of Perfection, the Cape Fear Chapter Rose Croix, the Liberty Council Knights Kadosh and the Wilmington Consistory. He also is a Thirty-third Degree Mason and honorary member of the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, being one of only five residents of Wilmington to reach that distinction. Other Masonic connections include the following: Past Master, St. John's Lodge No. 1, A. F. & A. M.; and in the York Rite bodies, Past High Priest, Concord Chapter, No. 1, R. A. M.; Past Illustrious Master, Munson Council, No. 4, R. A. M., and Eminent Commander of Plantagenet Commandery, No. 1, Knights Templars, all in Wilmington. He is a member of the Oasis Shrine Temple, Charlotte, N. C.; the Royal Order of Scotland, Washington, D. C.; the St. Nicholas Conclave, No. 43, Order of the Red Cross of Constantine; and is Grand Sword Bearer of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, A. F. & A. M. Fraternally, he likewise holds membership in the George Washington Council, Junior Order United American Mechanics.

Regardless of the vast detail duties of his Masonic lodge connections and the large volume of work resulting from his profession as a lawyer, he recognizes his responsibilities as a citizen in the religious and civic life of the community and assumes these obligations. He is a member of the Temple Baptist Church, a deacon of that congregation and a teacher of the Men's Bible Class in its Sunday school; he is a director and secretary-treasurer of the local Rotary Club; executive secretary of the North Carolina Educational League, Inc.; a member of the committee on Legal Ethics of the New Hanover County Bar Association; and also a member of the North Carolina and the American Bar associations. He was a member of the Board of Education, 1917 to 1922, and chairman of that body when the present handsome New Hanover High School building was erected, a property that now is valued at more than $500,000 and one of the most thoroughly equipped educational institutions of its kind in the state.

Mr. Newcomb is of English ancestry and traces his direct family connections to Colonial Virginia. His forebears were generally farmers, but active in politics, some of them serving in the Virginia legislature. His grand-father was a Civil War veteran and was with General Robert E. Lee's army of Northern Virginia throughout that struggle. His father, George Baily Newcomb, for whom he was named, was born in Virginia, entered the railroad service in that state and at the time of his death was superintendent of maintenance and way. His mother was Camilla Horne Bickings, native of Norristown, Pennsylvania, but reared in Virginia to which state the family removed when she was a child.

On Christmas Day, 1909, Mr. Newcomb married Miss Hattie Sue Hale, at Dallas, Texas. Mrs. Newcomb was born at Louisville, Kentucky, and is the daughter of a long and distinguished line of Baptist ministers. Her father was the Rev. Dr. Frederick D. Hale, native of Alabama, and for many years, 1904 to 1909, pastor of the First Baptist Church congregation in Wilmington. Her grandfather was Dr. Phillip Perry Hale, a physician, also a native of Alabama and a veteran of the Civil War. Three children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Newcomb. They are Amy Virginia Newcomb, George Douglas Newcomb and Frederick Douglas Newcomb, all at home.


W H Montgomery

WILLIAM HENRY MONTGOMERY, executive secretary of the famous Brigade Boys Club and whose achievements in that institution are a magnificent illustration of the value of sincerity of effort, purity of life and constancy of purpose, was born in Wilmington, July 20, 1896. His native ability and natural inclinations caused him to adopt high ideals early in life and his rock-ribbed stability of character caused him to adhere to these ideals with the result that he has attained to the unqualifiedly high esteem of every resident of the city and has acquired the enviable position of being one of the most remarkably successful boys work executives in the South.

At fourteen years of age, Mr. Montgomery obtained employment with the Progressive Building & Loan Association as office boy. In 1911, when fifteen, he became associated with his uncle, the late Captain Joseph J. Loughlin, World War hero, killed two days before the Armistice, in the American offensive at Metz, but who, in 1911, was in the Engineering Department of the Atlantic Coast Line. The following year, he was transferred to the office of the late T. L. Morton, principal Assistant Engineer of the same railroad company. While with the railroad he became interested in boys work as a result of his consistent attendance at the Brigade and as a Scoutmaster, between 1915 and 1920. Consequently, in 1921, when the Boys Brigade, which was suspended at the outbreak of the war, was reorganized under the auspices of the Kiwanis Club, Mr. Montgomery was selected as the executive secretary. He also is secretary-treasurer of the Kiwanis Club because of its necessarily close connection with the Brigade Boys Club.

The notable achievements of his work at the Brigade inevitably attracted wide attention—more than five hundred youths are enrolled at that institution. It was a logical sequence that he became identified with larger movements in that field. In 1927, at Birmingham, Ala., he was elected secretary-treasurer and a director of the Southern Division of the Boys Club Federation (International in scope) and now is a member of a number of important committees of national influence, including physical programs and Boys club programs. In addition, he was chosen, in 1928, as secretary of Colonel Walker Taylor's Boys Brigade, a social organization composed of business men, bankers, lawyers, ministers, doctors and others who had belonged to the Brigade prior to 1914. His church, lodge and similar affiliations, in which he is reasonably active, add to his usefulness as a citizen. Among these are his membership in the Fifth Avenue Methodist Church, of which congregation he is vice-chairman of the board of stewards, and for three years superintendent of the Sunday School; St. John's Lodge No. 1, A. F. & A. M., and the Scottish Rite Consistory; Brigade Senior Fraternity and others of less comparative importance. He also has been acting for the last several years as an advisory juvenile court officer, upon solicitation of Judge George Harriss, of the New Hanover County Recorder's Court.

Mr. Montgomery is of Scotch ancestry. His father, William H. Montgomery, for whom he was named in full, was born in Wilmington and during his mature life engaged in the real estate business, being associated with J. G. Wright & Son. His mother was Miss Mary Loughlin, whose family has a most distinguished military record. She was the daughter of Captain James J. Loughlin, native of Long Island, New York, and a veteran of the Civil War, who first came into North Carolina with the Federal armies, decided to remain and settled in Onslow County, where Mrs. Montgomery was born. He later removed to Wilmington. Two of his sons, brothers of Mrs. Montgomery and uncles of W. H. Montgomery, became heroes of the World War. One of these was Captain Joseph J. Loughlin, killed at Metz and referred to in an earlier part of this sketch; the other is Captain Charles C. Loughlin, Infantry Division of the United States Army and now provost marshal of the Panama Canal Zone. Captain Charles Loughlin, before enlisting in the World War, was a practicing attorney in Wilmington and prior to that was secretary of the Boys Brigade. Francis A. Montgomery, grandfather of W. H. Montgomery, was born in Wilmington and was a successful merchant here for many years. His father, James Montgomery, was a native of Scotland and the founder of the family in America.

On March 17, 1924, Mr. Montgomery married Miss Lucy King, native of Wilmington and daughter of E. B. King, who, for the last fifty-two years, has been associated as a cabinet maker at the local shops of Atlantic Coast Line. The Kings are an old Cape Fear family, many of whom are of special prominence. One child has been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Montgomery: William H. Montgomery, Jr., third generation to carry that name.


J E L Wade

JAMES EDWARD LEE WADE, commissioner of the city of Wilmington, former member of the Legislature, originator and chiefly responsible for Wilmington's present magnificent system of parks, active in civic and progress work and otherwise identified with the best interests of the community, is a native of Union County, having been born at Monroe, August 27, 1889. He is a native North Carolinian for five generations and is a lineal descendant of Colonel Thomas Wade, leader of the Revolutionary patriots in Anson County and for whom Wadesboro, countyseat of that county is named. He became commissioner in 1925 and was re-elected in the spring of 1929 by one of the most creditably decisive majorities in the political history of the city.

Commissioner Wade received his early education in the public schools of Wilmington, to which city his parents removed when he was a child. He later attended the Cape Fear Academy, but did not remain until graduation. His first employment was as an office boy for the George L. Morton Company, Naval Stores, on Water Street. He then was twelve years old. At fourteen, or in 1903, he became a bell, or messenger boy for the Atlantic Coast Line, attached to the general office. From there, he was advanced to the way bill desk where he remained only a short time when the spirit of wanderlust, to which all strong, healthy boys are subjected, caused him to leave home. He found employment with a carnival company playing at Goldsboro. He continued with this amusement organization for five weeks, eventually landing in Tarboro with the proverbial single dime as his sole financial possession. He rode a coal car to Rocky Mount and obtained a job with the Union News Company, as a newsboy, running between Norfolk and Charleston, S. C. He continued as a newsboy for nine months and resigned, April 10, 1907, to become a flagman on the Norfolk division of the Coast Line. Shortly afterwards, he was promoted to freight checker between Wilmington and Rocky Mount, and a short time later he was advanced to baggage master between Wilmington and Norfolk.

During the next fifteen years, he occupied many associational and fraternal positions, all tending to accurately qualify him for his later membership in the old city council, the state legislature and his present position of city commissioner in charge of public works. In 1907, he assisted in the organization of the Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen and in 1910, he was elected chairman of the local Board of Adjustment and later served as vice-chairman of the Adjustment Board of the entire Atlantic Coast Line System. It is an interesting fact that he continued on these boards until June 1, 1925, and still holds his card as a member in the Brotherhood. In 1920-21, he was a member of the New Hanover County Advisory Board, a body of business men chosen to advise with the Board of Education. In these same years he represented his ward in the City Council and his services were so outstandingly constructive that he was chosen, in 1923, and again, in 1925, to represent New Hanover County in the General Assembly. In 1925, he was elected city commissioner, which position he now holds.

As a state legislator and as a city official his services have been remarkably valuable and notable. The legislation for which he was directly responsible, either as author of the bill or in association with his colleague, may be listed as follows: Empowering the city to provide a $25,000 annual industrial fund; prohibiting children, under sixteen from attending public amusement places unattended; a bill providing for a fund of $1,250,000 for the Cape Fear river bridge (he was the first to introduce this bill, which eventually passed in 1927); bill requiring that semi-monthly reports of municipal expenditures and disbursements be published; a bill authorizing the city to acquire sites for athletic and recreational centers; a bill providing for a boxing commission (the first in the state); amendments applying to the Civil service system for both Police and Fire Departments; a state wide game law (passed in 1927); a bill providing for the Australian ballot system; State Wide stop law at grade crossings (recently repealed); free text books and a bill to provide an income tax law to correspond with the Federal act, and much other constructive legislation. As a city commissioner, he has been equally constructive. Greenfield Lake, which now challenges the famous Magnolia Gardens, of Charleston, was developed under his genius. He established the plan of extending water mains into suburban developments, under a double rate system, protecting the city against loss. And during his regime of the past four years, nearly six miles of hard surface streets have been constructed, including the 36-foot roadway at Greenfield Lake; a public golf course has been started; 1000 water oaks have been planted in various parts of the city; and more than 25,000 plants and flowers (1500 of which are crepe myrtles) have been set out in the plazas and parks of the city.

In addition to these official duties, he has had time to accept and properly attend to the duties of an officer of various semi-public associations. Among these positions are: president of the local Baseball Association (the first time Wilmington has enjoyed professional baseball in a generation); president of the New Hanover Fishing Club; president, Wilmington Male Quartet; president, Wilmington area, Boy Scouts of America; member, Industrial Committee of the Chamber of Commerce; and distinctly active in the Lions Service Club. He also is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Junior Order United American Mechanics, Modern Woodmen of America, Improved Order of Red Men, a Thirty-second Degree Scottish Rite Mason and Sudan Temple Shriner. He is a member of the Board of Directors of the Co-operative Building & Loan Association of Wilmington and also of the Commonwealth Bond & Mortgage Company, Durham, N. C. He is a communicant of St. Paul's Episcopal Church and a member of the Business Men's Bible Class of the First Baptist Church. Politically, he is a Democrat and prominent in the councils of the party, having been a delegate to nearly every state convention since arriving at his majority. He has been on the Legislative Committee of the Brotherhood since he first became affiliated with that organization.

Commissioner Wade is of Scotch ancestry and is of distinguished North Carolina lineage dating back to the pre-Revolutionary period. Colonel Thomas Wade, his great-great-great-grandfather was a leader of the patriots in Anson County in 1775 and throughout the Revolution. According to Wheeler's History, Colonel Wade was the chieftain of the Minute Men, a member of the Provincial Congress and his services were of such high character that a grateful people named Anson's countyseat, Wadesboro, in his honor. He at one time was a Justice of the Peace and member of the North Carolina House of Commons, dying while occupying the latter office. His son, Captain George Wade, a great-great-grandfather of Commissioner Wade, was equally as patriotic. He also was a Revolutionary soldier and organized the company that went to the relief of Charleston, S. C., and his plantation home became a source of supplies for the patriot soldiers. In a skirmish, near Savannah, Georgia, he was wounded and taken prisoner by Tarleton. Through the marriage of Colonel Thomas Wade to Jane Boggan, and the marriage of Captain George Wade to Mary McDonald, Commissioner Wade also is lineally connected with the Boggan and McDonald families of that section of the state. James Taylor Wade, son of Captain Wade, great-grandfather of Commissioner Wade, was a native of Anson County and a wealthy planter. He married Martha Rives, and of this marriage, James Turner Wade was born and became the grandfather of the subject of this sketch. James Turner Wade also married a Rives, Martha Priscilla. Their son, Edward Timothy Wade married Virginia Caldwell Whitfield, daughter of James Wesley Whitfield, a well known North Carolina name. James Turner Wade and Virginia Caldwell (Whitfield) Wade, parents of Commissioner Wade, married at Monroe, Union County, and shortly after their marriage removed to Wilmington. The Whitfields, maternal ancestors of James E. L. Wade, are of Colonial stock and assisted in establishing American Independence. Thomas Whitfield, the first of the family born in America, was a Virginian. His son, William, born in 1759, was a resident of Nansemond County. His son, William, Jr., was the first to leave the Old Dominion and settle in North Carolina. He lived near Weldon in Halifax County. He had three sons who became conductors on the old Wilmington & Weldon Railroad, now part of the Atlantic Coast Line, and Wesley, grandfather of Commissioner Wade, was depot agent at Maxton (then Shoe Heel), from 1860's to 1874, when he was transferred as agent to Monroe, Union County.

On December 23, 1911, Commissioner Wade married Miss Alberta Thurman Dickerson, of Fairmont, West Virginia. Mrs. Wade is the daughter of N. C. and E. M. Dickerson, natives of Louisa County, Virginia, who removed to Fairmont, West Virginia to engage in the manufacture of builders supplies under the firm name of the Dickerson Building Supply Company, one of the largest manufacturing concerns in that state. Mrs. Wade's ancestral line traces back to that section of Colonial Virginia now included in the boundaries of West Virginia. One child, James E. L. Wade, Jr., now deceased, was born of the marriage of Commissioner and Mrs. Wade.


JAMES OWEN REILLY, active in banking, building and loan, real estate and insurance; a civic chieftan, and a leader in the religious and fraternal life of the city, was born in Wilmington, N. C., July 12, 1879. His services as a responsible and progressive citizen have been outstanding, and at present time (1929) he is chairman of the great Feast of Pirates, mid-summer classic, and on the governing board of lodges, banking institutions, hospitals and otherwise identified with the high class element who carry the burdens of the educational, community and commercial welfare of this section.

Mr. Reilly received his preparatory education in Saint Mary's (formerly St. Thomas’) Parochial School, later from Miss Mamie Alderman's School and later matriculated from the Cape Fear Academy, conducted by Prof. Washington Catlett in this city, and in which institution scores of Wilmington's present day successful business and professional men once were enrolled as students. As early as 1892, when a youth only thirteen years of age. Mr. Reilly began his training for a business career by acting as clerk in the office of his uncle, Major Daniel O'Connor, a pioneer real estate agent, which firm was established in 1869. Upon finishing school, he entered that office as a permanent attache and in 1902, became agent for the Royal Exchange, Carolina and London Assurance fire insurance companies, later adding several of the larger fire and casualty companies. His success was immediate and the following year, 1903, together with the late William A. Dick, purchased his uncle's business. Two years afterwards, or in 1905, he purchased the entire business and since has conducted a busy real estate and insurance office without partnerships. From the beginning, he has developed into one of the most successful men in his line in the state until now he is a heavy property owner, being one of the principal taxpayers of New Hanover County, a director in the Peoples Savings Bank, and director and vice-president of the Morris Plan Bank, a director and secretary and treasurer of the North Carolina Home Building Association, and the Rural Building and Loan Association, president of the Hinton Hotel Company, and interested in various other investments. His interests, however, are not confined to personal business affairs. Few men of the community are drafted for community progress work as frequently as he, and none respond with more genuine civic pride and patriotism. He recognizes the fact that good citizenship entails certain duties and he, like other good citizens, declines to dodge the duties, though occasionally they become an irksome and costly service. He has been a member of the Board of Managers of the James Walker Memorial Hospital, for the past fifteen years, and has acted as secretary to the Board for the past three years. He has been a member of the Feast of Pirates, Wilmington's big summer carnival institution and destined to challenge the fame of the historic Mardi Gras, since its organization and now is president of the association, having succeeded the redoubtable Francis P. O'Crowley, whose progressive genius inspired the great annual celebration. The Feast of Pirates was first named the Carnival and Regatta Association, but Mr. Reilly suggested the name of the “Feast of Pirates,” which was adopted. Mr. Reilly was a former president of the Real Estate Board, was president during 1924 and 1925 of the North Carolina Association of Insurance Agents, and is now president of the Wilmington Board of Fire Underwriters, one of the oldest boards in the United States. He is a member of the Chamber of Commerce. Politicially, he is a Democrat.

In 1898, Mr. Reilly was a member of the Wilmington Light Infantry, formerly Company C, 2nd Regiment, and when the call went out for volunteers for the Spanish-American War, Mr. Reilly volunteered, and joined Company K, Second Regiment, North Carolina Infantry, and served full time during the conflict, first as a Corporal and finally as a Sergeant. Fraternally, he is Grand Knight of Wilmington Council No. 1074, Knights of Columbus, Past Exalted Ruler, serving two terms, of the Wilmington Lodge No. 532, B. P. O. Elks. He was secretary of the Elks Lodge for sixteen years, and served as District Deputy Grand Exalted Ruler for Eastern Carolina during 1928. In religion, he is a staunch Catholie, and is a communicant of St. Mary's pro-Cathedral, of which congregation he has acted as organist since the church was built in 1911, and was formerly organist in St. Thomas's Church, on Dock Street. Mr. Reilly is an ardent lover of good music, and has been identified with all movements for good music, and is a member of the Wilmington Male Glee Club, which is directed by William G. Robertson, one of the finest musicians in the South, Mr. Reilly is especially interested in flowers, and every available foot of his back yard is planted

J.O. Reilly.

with flowers, and at his country home, at Santa Maria, on Middle Sound, he has quite a collection of wild flowers and cultivated flowers.

Mr. Reilly is of pure Irish descent, on both sides of the family. His parents were John William Reilly and Catherine (Scott) Reilly. The former was born at Fort Moultrie, S. C., April 27, 1851 and for years was superintendent of the Wilmington Gas and Electric Light Company and built the first electric light plant in the city of Wilmington. He died May 3, 1904. Catherine Scott Reilly, born at Douglastown, Long Island, New York, was the daughter of Owen Scott and Catherine McCabe, both from Athalone, Ireland. The family came to America in the early part of the nineteenth century. Mr. Reilly's grandfather was Major James Reilly. Commander of the Tenth North Carolina Regiment, in the Confederate Army and one of the out-standing heroes in the defense of Fort Fisher, the last stronghold of the Confederacy to be captured. Dr. James Sprunt in his “Chronicles of the Cape Fear” specifically mentions Major James Reilly as an officer of much military genius, daring and courageous, tracing his career from private to Ordnance Sergeant to Captain of Reilly's Battery and thence to Major in command of the historic Tenth North Carolina Regiment, and the last officer in command of Fort Fisher, when it was captured. His gallantry at Fort Fisher, according to Dr. Sprunt, received special commendation from General Whiting (who was mortally wounded). Colonel Lamb (wounded) and other superior officers. He was equally gallant in other battles, and also served in the Indian Wars and the Mexican Wars, as a soldier of the United States Army. Major Reilly was born in Athalone, Roscommon County, Ireland.

On June 21, 1906, Mr. Reilly married Miss Minnia Irene Smithers of Alexandria, Va. Mrs. Reilly is a daughter of Howard Sale Smithers who was a train dispatcher on the C. & O. Railroad. Two children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Reilly, a son having died in infancy, and Miss Helen Scott Reilly, at home.


J. Holmes Davis

JOSEPH HOLMES DAVIS, president of the Peoples Savings Bank, one of the strongest and most reliably progressive financial institutions in Southeastern North Carolina, is a native of Brunswick County, having been born at Southport, August 4, 1883. His rise into the upper group of North Carolina bankers is a splendid illustration of the rewards of merit and the assurance of success which await those who combine qualification with dignified common sense and uncompromising integrity. He was a clerk in a railroad office at sixteen years of age; at twenty-two he was a bank cashier; seven years later, he was cashier and also a director; and at forty-four, he was president—the position he now occupies. And sheer ability, plus a pleasing personality, is the sole reason.

Mr. Davis received his early education in the public schools of Wilmington, his parents having removed here from Southport when he was a child. He later enrolled at the Cape Fear Academy, a most thorough school for boys, conducted here for many years by Professor Washington Catlett, and from which some of the most examplary and successful citizens of the present mature generation graduated. Upon leaving the Cape Fear Academy, in 1899, he sought and obtained a position in the local general offices of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company. Two years afterwards, he became a clerk in the Atlantic National Bank. His initiative, his consistent accuracy and, no doubt, his charming personal magnetism, that peculiarly indefinable natural attraction with which only the specially favored are endowed, appealed to the substantial business men with whom he came in contact. Consequently, in 1905, by happy co-incidence, on August 4, his twenty-second birthday, he was offered and accepted the cashiership of the recently organized Carolina Savings & Trust Company. At that time, he perhaps, was the youngest cashier of any bank of importance, in the South. In 1908, the Carolina Savings & Trust Company was merged into the larger and stronger Peoples Savings Bank, which, in 1900, had been organized by Henry C. McQueen, who, previously had founded the Murchison National Bank, among the strongest in the state, and of which two institutions he was, in 1905, president, and now is chairman of their boards of directors. But to return to Mr. Davis of whom this sketch concerns. Upon the absorption of the Carolina by the Peoples, he became assistant cashier, the only instance in the record of his life where he lost a step in his upward climb. But the merged banks constituted one big institution and Mr. Davis, in 1908, was only twenty-five years old. Three years later, in October, 1911, however, he became the cashier and early in the following year, a director. He continued as cashier for sixteen years, or until 1927, at which time he was elected President.

Mr. Davis’ activities are not confined exclusively to banking, as he is also interested and is also a director in other corporations. He takes a progressive, but normal and balanced interest in the religious, civic, political and fraternal affairs of the community. He is a communicant of the Presbyterian Church of the Covenant and chairman of that congregation's board of Deacons. He affiliates with Orient Lodge, No. 395, A. F. & A. M., is a Knights Templar and belongs to the Shrine, Sudan Temple. He also has membership in the Junior Order United American Mechanics, the Chamber of Commerce and, socially, the Cape Fear Club, the Cape Fear Country Club and the Carolina Yacht Club. In 1906, he was on the Major's staff, Coast Artillery Corps, North Carolina National Guard, and now is in Reserve Corps, Wilmington Light Infantry. He was secretary of the local committee during each of the Liberty Bonds campaigns during the World War period. Politically he is a Democrat.

Mr. Davis is of Scotch and English descent, and his ancestry traces back through several generations in the Lower Cape Fear and thence into South Carolina. His father, Julius D. Davis, was a native of Brunswick County and married Mary C. Swain, also a native of Brunswick, and who became the mother of J. Holmes Davis. The father, when a young man removed to Wilmington, became associated with the United States engineering department and in that way became connected with many government improvements throughout this section. Mary C. (Swain) Davis was the daughter of George Washington Swain and Eliza (Galloway) Swain, both of old Cape Fear families. George Washington Swain was one of the largest landowners in Brunswick County in his day. His wife, Eliza Swain, was a grand-daughter of John Swain and Amelia Galloway Swain and a great-granddaughter of Luke Swain and Rebecca Peyton Swain, who were married in old St. Phillip's Church, Charleston, S. C., September 4, 1774, later removing to Brunswick County and establishing a home near Smithville (now Southport). Among other descendants of Luke Swain and Rebecca Peyton Swain was their daughter, Rebecca Peyton Swain (Mrs. John Brown) of Wilmington,

who lived to the age of 103 years and was one of the most prominent women of her time in this community. The Swains and Peytons, who first settled in Virginia and the Carolinas were prominent in the political and military life of the Colonies, North Carolina honoring the Swain name by calling one of the counties “Swain”, named for David Lowrey Swain, former Governor and President of the University of North Carolina and who married Eleanor H. White, daughter of William White, Secretary of State, and granddaughter of Governor Caswell. The Peytons also were notable as patriots and were successful and influential. The Swains and Peytons both have coats-of-arms showing their early status. Wilson R. Davis, grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was the first of the family to leave South Carolina and come into the Cape Fear region. He settled at Southport and married Emily Galloway, December 11, 1839. The Galloway family were of Scotch origin and trace their lineage back to the House of Stuarts. They also have a coat-of-arms denoting the family's early prominence. The name is known in many parts of North Carolina and is connected prominently with Colonial history. John Davis, great-grandfather of J. Holmes Davis was the founder of the family in America. He was born in Scotland and came to this country in the early part of the last century, landing in Charleston, S. C.

On December 28, 1906 Mr. Davis married Miss Aloma Brewer, daughter of William F. Brewer, Louisville, Kentucky. Two children were born of this marriage. They are J. Holmes Davis, Jr., now a student in the University of North Carolina, and Ruth B. Davis, student in the local High School. Mrs. Davis died August 3, 1916. On September 3, 1919, Mr. Davis married Miss Sue Kingsbury, of which union two children have been born. Margaret Stedman, now eight, and Mary, five. Mrs. Davis is the daughter of the late Roger Kingsbury and the grand-daughter of Theodore Bryant Kingsbury, native of Virginia, and, according to the histories of Dr. James Sprunt and Samuel A. Ashe, was the most brilliant and distinguished editor in North Carolina during his generation. Mrs. Davis, on her mother's side, also is connected with the Stedman family, many of whom were distinguished Confederate chieftains, business men and statesmen. She is a grand-niece of Charles M. Stedman, now a member of Congress and the only surviving Confederate serving in that body.


COLONEL ROYCE STANLEY MCCELLAND, member of the prominent law firm of Burney & McClelland, was born in Portland, Michigan, September 22, 1888. He came to Wilmington from Richmond, Virginia, as a young man, eighteen years of age, having lived here continuously since that time, except for the two years interval of the World War when he was in France with the American Expeditionary Forces.

Colonel McClelland's early education was received in the public schools of his native city, but the family removed to Richmond, Virginia, and his education was completed in the Virginia capital. Upon coming to Wilmington, in 1907, he started with the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, and in 1910 with the Sprunt Company in a clerical capacity and, after several years, was transferred to the New York offices. He was there when the United States declared war against Germany and entered the service from that state. Following the war, he returned to Wilmington and again entered the service of the Sprunt Company at the home offices. He read law at home and, August 23, 1926, he was admitted to the practice of law. Almost exactly a year later, August 1, 1927, he became associated with J. J. Burney, easily one of the most successful lawyers in the state, under the firm name of Burney & McClelland. This partnership continues to the present and is recognized as one of the leading legal firms of this entire section. In addition to his professional duties, he is active in the usual lines of a good citizen. He is a member of the Methodist Church, belongs to the Masonic Lodge, and is vice-president of the New Hanover County Bar Association. He also is active in the American Legion. Politically, he is a Democrat.

The military record of Colonel McClelland is interesting, varied and exceptionally brilliant for one who has made the military but an incidental phase of his life. He enlisted in the historic Wilmington Light Infantry, June 1, 1910, receiving numerous promotions, until January 1, 1916, when he was transferred to the New York offices of the Sprunt Company, at which time he received his discharge from the W. L. I. When war was declared, he enlisted and was sent to the Second Plattsburg Training Camp, where he remained until August 25, 1917, when he was assigned to Fortress Monroe, Virginia, remaining there until November 26, 1917. On the following day, November 27, he was commissioned a First Lieutenant, Coast Artillery Corps, and ordered to Fort Hamilton, New York. On June 1, 1918, he was assigned to Battery D, 70th Artillery, C. A. C., then mobilizing for overseas duty, at Fort Wadsworth. After his arrival in France, July 17, 1918, he was sent on detached duty from the 70th Artillery to the Tank Corps, A. E. F. as machine gun instructor, with the rank of First Lieutenant. Subsequently, January 11, 1919, he was transferred to the tank corps with the rank of First Lieutenant. His several headquarters in France included: Battery duty at LaMembrolle, Department of Main et Loire and Tank duty at 302nd Tank Center, Camp Chamberlain at Bourg, Department of Haute Marne, or Upper Marne. Colonel McClelland returned to the United States in April, 1919. He was discharged from the Tanks Corps, at Camp Meade, Maryland, May 28, 1919, and returned to Wilmington. Joseph W. Viner, Lieutenant-Colonel, Tank Corps, commanding officer, made the following notation on the discharge papers of Colonel McClelland:

“Lieutenant McClelland is a most excellent officer. He is well versed in his profession; gives hearty co-operation and has intelligent initiative. His good work in Machine Guns at this center has made him appreciated and he would have been made a Captain had it not been for the Armistice and the “No Promotion” order. He is a sober and very loyal officer and is a thorough gentleman. I would be pleased to have this officer in my command.”

In July, 1919, as recommended by the discharge from the regular service, he was commissioned a Captain in the Tank Corps Reserve. Later, this commission was changed to Captain in the Infantry, with the notation “Specially Qualified as Captain in Tank Tactics.” Back in Wilmington and again with W. L. I., he was made Captain, January 4, 1921 and officially assigned to the 422nd Coast Artillery. He was promoted to the rank of Major, March 14, 1923, First Separate Battalion, C. A. N. C. N. G., and to Lieutenant-Colonel, June 9, 1924, when the 252nd Coast Artillery (Harbor Defense) was organized. These rapid promotions have been the result of his thorough qualifications, which include military experience in actual war, graduation from the Coast Artillery School, Fortress Monroe, Tank and Mechanical School A. E. F., and also the Command and General Staff School, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

Colonel McClelland is of Scotch-Irish stock on the paternal side and English on the

R. S McClelland

maternal side of the family. His father's people largely have been pioneers and farmers with the American line extending back into Colonial Pennsylvania. His mother's people have been identified principally with the professions and trace back to pre-Revolutionary Virginia. Hugh McClelland, great-grandfather of Colonel McClelland, married Elizabeth Boyd, daughter of Thomas Boyd, member of the Continental Congress from Northampton County, Pennsylvania, and a Colonel in the Revolution. Thomas Boyd was a devout Presbyterian and has the distinction of being the first to ban liquor in his Regiment and to enforce the ban. Hugh McClelland and family, with other families, including Boyds, Watsons and Donalds, all related by marriage, composed a colony that moved, about 1823, to Seneca County, Ohio, and were the first to establish a church in that section of the Northwest territory. S. A. B. McClelland, son of Hugh McClelland and grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was born in Seneca, as was his son, S. C. McClelland, father of Colonel McClelland. S. C. McClelland married Adella Brown, who became the mother of Colonel McClelland. She was the daughter of a Virginia physician who had moved into Ohio shortly before the Civil War, and although he was not compelled to join the Federal army, he virtually was interned during the period of that struggle. In 1885, the McClellands moved to Portland, Michigan, and there, three years later, Colonel McClelland was born. The family removed to Virginia in 1902.

On January 18, 1913, Colonel McClelland married Miss Georgia E. Orrell, daughter of R. C. and Virginia Orrell, early Lower Cape Fear settlers. R. C. Orrell served in the Confederate navy during the greater part of the War between the States in and around Charleston, South Carolina Harbor. No children have been born of the marriage of Colonel and Mrs. McClelland.


W.H. Blair

WALTER HUTCHINSON BLAIR, present mayor of Wilmington, World War veteran, effectively active in civic affairs and a young man of fine attainments and high ideals, was born in Wilmington, May 6, 1890. He was educated in the local public and private schools and is singularly an examplary product of this splendid old city.

Because of the astonishingly varied lines in which Mayor Blair has been engaged and the unusual record he has achieved, some of which are of a most appealing character, as, for example, his election to the office of Register of Deeds of New Hanover County while he yet was in France as a soldier, require that his life be reviewed in chronological order, if readily comprehended. In 1911, he was offered and accepted the cashiership of the Wilmington district of the Southern Bell Telephone Company. His rise in that big corporation was immediate, in that, in a few months, he was sent to Florence, Alabama, as manager of the Bell Telephone Company's branch, which included not only Florence, but Tuscumbia, Sheffield and other communities which, during recent years have gained wide publicity because of their proximity to Muscle Shoals and the vast power possibilities of that part of the Tennessee River.

At this point, 1914, begins his career as public official and soldier. He sought and obtained an appointment with the city as Tax Collector. He was in this office when America entered the World War. Naturally, one of his temperament, preferring change and excitement and endowed with a genuine patriotism, became a part of that great conflict. He volunteered and was sent to the Officers Training Camp at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia. A series of circumstances developed which precluded his acceptance for service at that time and he returned to Wilmington, became chief time-keeper at the Liberty Shipyards, located here, and in the following spring became a candidate and was nominated for Register of Deeds. At this time, he again entered the army as a buck private and on July 19, 1918, he landed in France, attached to Company E, 56th Pioneer Infantry, Third Army Corps Engineers. He was with this company throughout the remainder of the war and participated in the historic Argonne and other drives which helped to demoralize Germany and end the struggle. Following the Armistice and Peace, he returned to America, was discharged at Camp Meade, Maryland, and in early February, 1919, assumed the duties of Register of Deeds to which office he had been elected, in November, while he still was in France. He served as Register one term, was re-elected in the fall of 1923, served a short time and resigned to enter the furniture business. In 1925, he yielded to the suggestion of his friends, entered as a candidate for Mayor and was elected, and was re-elected in 1929.

As mayor of the city, he has made a notable record. The police department has been developed to an exceptionally high standard and is distinctively efficient; the fire departments have been modernly equipped and the personnels placed under expert training supervision; the public parks program, streets, water works and other divisions have received an attention that secures for Wilmington the coveted reputation of being easily one of the most thoroughly up-to-date cities, of equal population, in the entire country. He has been able to secure an accurate idea of the desires of his constituency through his reasonably active participation in the civic, fraternal and social life of the community. He is a member of the Fifth Avenue Methodist Church, member of Orient Lodge A. F. & A. M., a Scottish Rite Thirty-second Degree Mason; associate member of the Eastern Star and is affiliated with the Jeff Davis Council, Junior Order United American Mechanics; Cherokee Tribe, Improved Order of Red Men, Seminole Tribe, Degree of Pocahontas; the American Legion, in which he takes a most laudably active part; and the Colonel Walker Taylor's Boys Brigade Club. He is a past president of the Lions Service Club and, officially and individually, co-operates with the Feast of Pirates and other civic organizations and movements. He also is an honorary member of the North Carolina Police Chiefs Association and acts on two of its principal committees, legislative and education. In politics, he is a Democrat.

Mayor Blair is of Scotch descent. His father, Andrew Blair, was born in Greenock, Scotland, ran away to sea at twelve years of age, landed in Wilmington and became a member of the family of the late Captain Whiteford Beery, who slipped the young adventurer off the ship while in the local harbor. Andrew Blair became a marine engineer and still follows that profession. Mayor Blair's mother was Miss Mary Wilson. She was born in Onslow County and is the daughter of Basil and Mary (Ennett) Wilson, who come of a long line of Onslow County planters. Mayor Blair is unmarried; he lives at the home of his mother.


Harry Zachary Holmes.

HARRY ZACHARY HOLMES, lawyer and only twenty-eight years of age when this is written, 1929, has acquired a prominence in the community and achieved distinctions, here and abroad, that seldom are acquired during the course of a lifetime. He was born in Wilmington, August 1, 1901.

His early education was received in the Goldsboro I. O. O. F. School and at Wake Forest College, a denominational institution in Wake County, from which he graduated at nineteen years of age, with the degree of Bachelor of Laws. During the fall of that year, he entered Columbia University, New York City, and, in 1923, he received from that famous school his second degree of Bachelor of Laws. The following three years were spent as a student at the University of London, London, England, from which he graduated, in 1926, with the degree of Master of Laws. While there, he was a student under Lord Justice Scrutton, world authority on Commercial and Maritime Law.

Mr. Holmes entered the profession as a practitioner in London, in 1925, when he was appointed assistant legal advisor to the United States Shipping Board. The duties of this position, which supervised and adjusted legal technicalities arising from the movements of over 700 ships, required long trips into various parts of the world. During the time he was attached to the London offices, he visited virtually all the ports of Europe, Asia, Africa and in Australasia. It also was during this period that he represented the University of London at The Hague Peace Tribunal, a distinction accorded by reason of his high standing in the class rooms and in examinations. In 1926, he was selected from the legal staff of the United States Shipping Board in London to assist Judge L. E. Anderson, of California, counselor of the American Shipping Board, in settling the naval claims arising out of the World War. These hearings were held in London and Paris during 1926. He returned to the United States upon his twenty-sixth birthday, August 1, 1927. On the following September 21, he opened offices in Wilmington for the general practice of law, and has developed a numerous and influential clientele.

Mr. Holmes is normally active in church, lodge, civic, political and associational affairs. He is a communicant of the Presbyterian Church of the Covenant, a director in the local Young Men's Christian Association, and assists, with other citizens, in Red Cross and similar publicly-maintained movements. Fraternally, he affiliates with the Masonic Lodge and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Socially, he is a member of the Cape Fear Club, Wilmington, and the Authors Club and the Constitutional Club, both of London. He is a member and high in the councils of the Wilmington Rotary Service Club; the New Hanover County Bar Association; the North Carolina Bar Association; the American Bar Association; and the International Law Association. In the latter organization, he now is, or has been, a member of the Committees on Bills of Lading and Charter Parties; Conflict of Laws; Criminal Law; and the committee to Codify Laws for Courts of Justice. In politics, he is a Democrat.

Mr. Holmes is of Irish lineage and his family connections in that historic Isle are most distinguished. Most of his people now are living over there. A relative, on his great-grandmother's side, was Lord Mayor of Dublin during the middle part of the last century. The great-grandfather of Mr. Holmes was George Holmes (and, incidentally, the given name, George, appears in six successive generations), Lord Mayor of Dublin, elected in 1834 for a six year administration. His son, who became the founder of the family in America, also was named George Holmes and was educated in King's College, Dublin, for the priesthood. He changed his religious belief to Calvinism and a violent quarrel with his father, the former Lord Mayor, followed, resulting in the son's disinheritance and his subsequent departure for America, at the age of 22 years. He landed in Wilmington shortly before the Civil War, in which struggle he enlisted and served with a North Carolina company.

Rufus George Holmes (deceased), father of Harry Z. Holmes was a resident of this city, and was the son of the Irish expatriate and Confederate veteran. He was born in Wilmington and is the first native-born American of the family. He was educated in the local public schools and was associated with the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company for many years and was a most highly respected citizen. He married Miss Katie Matthews, who became the mother of the subject of this sketch. Mrs. Holmes is the daughter of John Matthews, who for a long period of time, was connected with the big cotton firm of Alex Sprunt & Son, Wilmington.

Harry Zachary Holmes is unmarried.


Harriss Newman

HARRISS NEWMAN, senior member of the law firm of Newman & Sinclair, is one of the most thoroughly educationally equipped members of the legal profession in North Carolina and, although one of the youngest members of the New Hanover County Bar, already is definitely rated among those in the highest ranks of prominence and success. His activities as a good citizen extend into various and high class lines and as a civic leader his services invariably are in support of all worthwhile movements.

Mr. Newman is a native of New Hanover County and was born in Wilmington, October 2, 1898. He received his early education in the public schools of Wilmington and at the Cape Fear Academy, then conducted by the venerable Professor Washington Catlett. Completing his preparatory course at the Academy, he matriculated, with a scholarship, at Trinity College (now Duke University) from which he graduated, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. While at Trinity College he won both the Freshman and the Hesperian Medals for Oratory and Scholarship. He was an Inter-Collegiate debater and a member of the Tau Kappa Alpha. After graduating from Trinity, he enrolled in the Law Department of the University of North Carolina. Chapel Hill, from which institution, he graduated in June, 1919, with the degree of Bachelor of Laws. He opened an office in the summer of that year for the practice of his profession, and continued to practice law without partnership association until January 1, 1926, when he joined with David Sinclair under the firm name of Newman & Sinclair. As individuals and as a firm they have appeared as counsel in some of the most notable trials, civil and criminal, in the annals of the courts of this section for the last ten years.

Suggestive of Mr. Newman's laudable desire to assume the responsibilities of good citizenship, a partial list of his affiliations will suffice. He is a member and high in the councils of the congregation of the Temple of Israel; he is a Thirty-second Degree Mason, a Shriner, an Elk, a member of the Kiwanis Service Club, the North State Lodge, I. O. O. B., of which he is a past president, the Tau Kappa Alpha Greek Fraternity, the Chamber of Commerce, the New Hanover County Bar Association, the North Carolina Bar Association, and the Cape Fear Country Club. In addition, he is chairman of the Wilmington Chapter of the American Red Cross and twice has been chosen by Wilmington citizens to direct the Annual Red Cross Roll Call. His splendid interest in behalf of the Red Cross has attracted favorable attention throughout this section and enthusiastic commendation from the national officials of the organization at Washington. In this connection, it also is appropriate to mention that he is a member of the Board of Directors of the Travelers Aid Society, the Advisory Committee of the Babies Hospital. Wilmington, and a Director of the National Jewish Hospital in Denver, Colorado. He also is Chairman of the committee on Aid to Prisoners and a member of the Boys Brigade Committee of the Kiwanis Club. Because of these activities, he is listed in “Who's Who in American Jewry”, being one of only three North Carolinians in that book. Other associations include membership on the New Hanover County High School Committee and a Director in the Morris Plan Bank of this city.

Mr. Newman's ancestry are Jewish, of which two generations are American and, beyond that, German. His father, Joseph Newman, was born in Wilmington and was an influential and public spirited merchant of this city throughout the period of his business life. His mother was Rolinda (Jacobs) Newman. She was the daughter of Solomon Jacobs, a manufacturer of Cleveland, Ohio, and was born in that Ohio metropolis. The Jacobs family, like the Newman family, came to America from Germany, and were prominent and substantial citizens in that country. The wife of the original Krupp, founder of the famous arms and ammunition factory, married a sister of Solomon Jacobs, Mr. Newman's grandfather. Returning to the paternal ancestry, Mr. Newman's grandfather was Phillip Newman and was born in Frankfort, Germany. He was only a child, ten years of age, however, when his family came to America in the 1840's, and settled in Wilmington, being among the first of the Jewish people to settle in the Cape Fear section. The great-grandfather fled to America during the political disturbances in Germany which arose as a result of the policies of Metternich. During that period thousands of Germans, unfriendly to the ruling ministers of the time, fled to this country. Among these were the Newmans who settled in Wilmington and who since that date, nearly a hundred years ago, have been identified with the business affairs and progress movements of the community.


O A DuRant

CAPT. OSCAR ANDREW DURANT, splendid product of the Lower Cape Fear Region, with an ancestry dating back to George DuRant, who nearly three hundred years ago helped lay the foundation of civilization in North Carolina, was born at Town Creek, ancient Brunswick County settlement, October 2, 1862.

He received his education in the public and private schools of his native community. Upon leaving school, he became associated with his father, the late Thomas A. DuRant, in the operation of a public grain mill at Town Creek. In 1892, then a young man, only thirty years of age, he became a candidate and was elected to the office of treasurer of Brunswick County, serving in that capacity for a term of two years. The following year, 1897, he was chosen to represent his district on the board of Brunswick County commissioners and was serving in this capacity when he accepted the management of the old Brunswick Bridge and Ferry Company and shortly afterwards, in 1905, removed to Wilmington.

Captain DuRant's connection with the ferry transportation here during the last twenty-eight years constitutes the history of that organization. He assumed the general management on November 10, 1901. His supervision not only included the operation of the boats, but also the roads and bridges leading to the docks. Later, when the company merged into a publicly-owned institution, the New Hanover-Brunswick Ferry, he continued in charge. In 1908, Captain DuRant improved the service by putting on one gas boat, the sputtering little “May”, a craft thirty-two feet long and carrying a 20-horse power engine. This was followed, five years later, with the second gas boat, “The Oscar D.” These two gasoline boats handled the ferry traffic for the next six years, when the Steamer “John Knox,” now in service, was added. In 1923, the “Menantic” also in operation at the present time was commissioned. The “John Knox” was specially designed for the local service and was built at Morehead City at a cost of $42,000. It was delivered to Captain DuRant at Southport immediately after its completion. The “Menantic” was built in Connecticut. Its cost was $22,500. Suggestive of the business ability applied to the Ferry service, the old company was $1100 in debt in 1901, when Captain DuRant assumed control; the $1100 was paid off the following year and the company has paid dividends every year since. The stock, in 1901, was worth sixty cents on the dollar; when the property was sold in 1918, the same stock was worth $1.60. The receipts in 1901 totaled $3,500 a year; its earnings now are $100,000 annually.

Captain DuRant has been prominently active in the public and civic affairs of Wilmington and Brunswick for two score years. He was one of the stockholders in the old Ferry company and the American Bank & Trust Company and a director in the Cape Fear Oil Company, now the National Oil Company. He was one of the committee of twenty-five appointed for the reception of former President, now Chief Justice, William Howard Taft, upon his visit to Wilmington, November 9, 1909, and was one of the committee, who previously had gone to Washington to extend the invitation. In fraternal affairs, he has been equally notable and for one term acted as state representative for the Junior Order United American Mechanics. He also affiliates with Cape Fear Lodge, No. 2, Independent Order of Odd Fellows and is high in its councils. His religious connections are with the Fifth Avenue Methodist Church.

Captain DuRant is a member of the family that traces to George DuRant, who first appears prominently in Carolina history about 1653. Shortly after the Revolution, Thomas DuRant, a great-great grandson of the Lord of DuRant's Neck, Albemarle, became a planter in the vicinity of what now is Conway, South Carolina. His son, Thomas A. DuRant, father of Captain DuRant, was born in South Carolina but came to the Cape Fear and settled at Town Creek long prior to the Civil War, in which struggle he took part as a Home Guard, and his son, Henry M. DuRant, as one of the defenders of Fort Fisher. Captain DuRant, on November 26, 1890, married Miss Carrie Russell, daughter of Daniel W. Russell, wealthy Onslow County planter and a first cousin of former Gov. Daniel L. Russell, of Brunswick County. Mrs. DuRant's mother was Margaret Duffy, of the family of that name, who were among the first settlers at New Bern and distinguished in succeeding generations as business men, planters, lawyers and doctors. Four children have been born of the marriage. They are: O. E. DuRant, who married Mamie Williams; Leon M. DuRant, who married Grace Blackwell, of Pageland, S. C.; Hattie G. DuRant, wife of J. J. Fowler, all of Wilmington; and Kate Russell DuRant, wife of Dr. H. G. Dickie, Roseland, Virginia.


M.G. Welsh

MILFORD GORDON WELSH, superintendent of the gas department of the Tide Water Power Company, with general offices in Wilmington, was born in Owensboro, Kentucky, on Christmas Day, 1886. By education and successful experience he has become one of the best qualified commercial gas authorities in the Southeast. He was trained as a mechanical engineer and a farmer and his occupations now are listed in that way.

Mr. Welsh received his early education in the graded and high school at Owensboro. Later, he enrolled at Owensboro College, from which he graduated in 1907. From Owensboro College, he matriculated at the Rose Polytechnic Institute, Terra Haute, Indiana, and graduated in the Class of 1911. He completed his technical training with a course in Modern Business at the Alexander Hamilton Institute, in New York City.

His career, since arriving at young manhood, has been varied but constantly upward. Upon leaving the Rose Polytechnic Institute, in 1911, he obtained a place as special apprentice in the system shops of the Lehigh Valley Railroad Company, at Sayre, Pennsylvania. He remained at Sayre until January, 1912, when he went to Rochester, New York, and taught mechanical engineering in the vocational department of the Rochester Shop School, operated as a part of the city schools. In June of that year, he was offered and accepted the position of cadet engineer in the gas department of the New York Power & Light Corporation, at Schenectady. At that time, he was only twenty-six years of age and among the youngest who ever occupied that position. He stayed four years, or until September, 1916, as cadet engineer and was promoted to the superintendency of the company. He stayed with that corporation for nearly ten years, resigning in January, 1923, to become general manager of the Citizens Gas Company, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. Three years afterwards, or in 1926, he came to Wilmington as superintendent of the gas department of the big Tide Water Power Company.

Mr. Welsh has numerous business, civic, social and similar interests outside the duties of his position with the Tide Water. He is a stock holder in that corporation, a part owner of the Turley Hardware Company, at Owensboro, and owns and operates through an overseer, a large farm in Kentucky. He is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Gas Association and the North Carolina Engineers Club. Locally, he has membership in the Kiwanis Service Club, the Chamber of Commerce, the Cape Fear Country Club and takes an active interest in the Boy Scouts, being a member of the board of directors. In the Kiwanis Club, he is chairman of the House committee and a member of the Boys Work committee, which supervises the Boys Brigade with its membership of more than 500 boys. In religion, he is a Baptist and a member of the Temple Church. Politically, he is Independent. Mr. Welsh is a firm believer in associational effort and is consistent in his attendance at all meetings. He frequently is called upon for technical and vocational addresses and is regarded as an authority on these subjects. He is prominent in the councils of the state and sectional organizations to which he belongs, and, while in New York, was chairman of the important Distribution committee of the Empire Gas & Electric Association.

The Welsh family is of English stock. The American branch of the family emigrated here many generations ago and moved into Kentucky from Virginia. They have devoted their attention to farming as their principal occupation, but also have interested themselves in religious and civic movements and have assumed all the responsibilities of good citizenship. Mr. Welsh's father was Henry T. Welsh, a native of the Owensboro section of Kentucky and a prosperous planter. He married Hettie Gordon, also a native of Owensboro. Her father was Jackson Gordon and he, too, was a native of that section of the Blue Grass state. Henry T. Welsh, father of M. G. Welsh, was the son of Robert Welsh, likewise a native of Owensboro and a farmer. There is no record, at hand, as to the exact date when the Welsh family moved into Kentucky, but it probably was in the early part of the last century.

On June 4, 1912, Mr. Welsh married Miss Ruth Tressle, of Terra Haute, Indiana. It was the culmination of a romance begun during the student days of Mr. Welsh at Rose Polytechnic. Mrs. Welsh is a native of Terra Haute, and the daughter of Adam and Catherine Tressle, prominent and influential residents of that city. Five children have been born of the marriage. They are: Landis, Kenneth and Katherine, all born in New York; Hewett, in Pennsylvania; and Aileen in North Carolina. Landis is a student in the local high school and Kenneth and Catherine are enrolled in the grades.


J. L Becton

JOHN LELAND BECTON, civil engineer by profession and who, since coming to Wilmington, in 1908, has taken a leading part in all progressive movements and is recognized as one of the most forward-looking and valuable citizens of the community, is a native of Wayne County, having been born near Goldsboro, October 24, 1885. During the last several years, he has acted as consulting engineer for the officials of the City of Wilmington and every improvement of importance represents his skill in his chosen profession, while bridges, and other constructions in various parts of the state, particularly in the Southeastern section, are enduring monuments of his ability.

Mr. Becton was reared on his father's farm, in Wayne County, and received his early education in the public schools of the county. In the fall of 1903, he enrolled as a student in Guilford College, Greensboro, where he remained three years. In the fall of 1906, he matriculated at the North Carolina State College, Raleigh, from which institution he graduated in the spring of 1908 with the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering. In the spring of 1913, this college also issued to Mr. Becton a second degree, that of C. E., or Master of Engineering. Immediately following his graduation, in 1908, he selected Wilmington as the most attractive city for the practice of his profession, and he became associated with C. R. Humphreys, a civil engineer of wide experience and a leading member of his profession in this section at that time. This association continued for a period of three years, or until October, 1911, on which date Mr. Becton went into business for himself. His services have been in demand on a number of notable land reclamation projects, municipal improvements for a score of cities and towns, and a most imposing total of suburban developments, from original plan to final improvement. Also on various road projects and surveys of all characters, his clientele has been most numerous.

As a citizen, outside the strict confines of business, his activities have been exceptionally varied. He is a communicant and a member of the board of stewards of the Grace Methodist Church and affiliates with the Masonic bodies of Wilmington, including the Shrine. Socially he is a member of the Cape Fear Club, the Cape Fear Country Club, the Carolina Yacht Club and the Phi Kappa Phi Greek Fraternity. His professional and semi-public connections are equally dignified and important. He is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, has been a member of the board of trustees of State College, Raleigh, since 1923, is president of the General Alumni Association of that institution, serving his second year, and is a past president of the North Carolina Society of Engineers. To this already large list, may be added the vice presidency of the Wilmington Rotary Club, easily one of the strongest service organizations in the state, and his membership on the board of managers and as vice-president of the Chamber of Commerce. In politics, he is a Democrat. His business interests include a membership in the directorate of the City & Suburban Building & Loan Association and other investments.

Mr. Becton is of English stock and his American ancestry dates, on the Becton side, back into Craven County prior to 1737 and through the Isler branch to 1711 when New Bern, historic county seat of Craven, was settled. His family connections include prominent planters and merchants of the Colonial period in both Craven and Wayne Counties, Revolutionary soldiers and others distinguished for patriotic and public service—the Metts, Simmons, Blackmans, Slades, Heaths, all prominent and substantian throughout that section for generations. John Becton, great-great-great-grandfather of J. L. Becton, was the founder of the family in America. The exact date of his arrival from England is not recorded, but in the files of the Craven County Court, at New Bern, his name appears as a merchant, in an item entered March 27, 1737. He married Curtiss Metts, daughter of George Metts, and among the children born of this marriage was Michael Becton. Revolutionary soldier and great-great-grandfather of the subject of this sketch. Michael Becton, the records indicate, was an extensive property owner, having plantations in Craven, Dobbs and Wayne Counties and lots in New Bern. He married Mary Blackman and of this marriage was born Frederick Isler Becton, great-grandfather of J. L. Becton. His second wife was Eliza A. G. Rhodes to whom he was married in 1831, and of which union, Frederick Isler Becton, Jr., grandfather of J. L. Becton was born. Frederick Isler, Jr., was born in Wayne and is the first native born Becton of that county. His son, George Lawrence Becton, father of J. L. Becton, also was a native of Wayne, and an influential planter. He married Mollie Yelverton, who became J. L. Becton's mother. She was the daughter of John Yelverton, a planter. J. L. Becton is unmarried.


Woodus Kellum

WOODUS KELLUM, lawyer by profession and now solicitor of the Eighth Judicial district, composed of New Hanover, Pender, Brunswick and Columbus Counties, was born near Jacksonville, Onslow County, January 16, 1878, the oldest of nine children, six girls and three boys, all living except one girl who died in her teen age.

At twenty years of age, in July 1900, he left the farm and came to Wilmington. He was without influence and without money. He applied at the transportation offices of the old Consolidated Street Railway, Light and Power Company (now the Tide Water Power Company) for a job. He was put on as a student conductor and motorman for a few days and then promoted to a regular run. He remained with the company until the following August and resigned to accept a place in the City Fire Department.

This was precisely the description of work he desired. The duties afforded the excitements required of his temperament and his hours were such as to permit him to read law at nights and during his days off, which were one day a month, twenty-one hours on duty daily, three hours daily for meals. He had long nursed an ambition to adopt law as a profession and he applied himself to its study with characteristic industry, and at the end of about eighteen months, in February, 1903, he applied for and was admitted to practice in the civil courts of North Carolina.

Of a clear, analytical mind, possessing the natural attributes of an orator and convincing in argument, his rise at the local bar was prompt and substantial. He followed the usual tendencies of lawyers and became active in local and state politics and, in 1911, was sent to the legislature from this county. He was re-elected in 1913. During his membership in the legislature, he introduced various bills of practical benefit and was author of the law providing for a solicitor for New Hanover County to prosecute misdemeanor cases in the Recorder's court. In 1920, a vacancy occurred in the office of solicitor of the Eighth Judicial district and he was appointed by the late Gov. Thomas W. Bickett for the unexpired term, assuming his duties December 1, of that year. He was elected in 1922, without opposition, and re-elected in 1926 and, although he had opposition in the primary, he carried every county.

Mr. Kellum is active in church work and, unquestionably, had he not become endued with an ambition for law in his early manhood, he would have entered the ministry. He is a communicant and a deacon of the Immanuel Presbyterian Church and the teacher of the Men's Bible Class in the Sunday School of that congregation. In addition, he is a past president of the Business Men's Evangelistic Club and vice-president of that club's state association. He is intensely interested in boys and young men and co-operates constantly with Col. Walker Taylor, W. H. Montgomery and others in seeking to build and re-build the character of those who have been victims of unhappy circumstances. Fraternally, he is a member of the Junior Order United American Mechanics and was a state councilor of that organization in 1918. Politically, he is a Democrat and has been a delegate to virtually every county and state convention during the last twenty-five years.

He is of English, Scotch and French stock. The family settled in Onslow County many generations ago. The present village of Kellum, in Onslow County, was named for the family. All have made farming their principal occupation. Mr. Kellum's father was Wilson T. Kellum, son of Bryant Kellum, both natives of Onslow and the latter a citizen of considerable wealth prior to the Civil War. Mr. Kellum's mother was Nancy Humphrey, daughter of Lewis Humphrey, a farmer of Onslow, and a member of the family to which W. D. Humphrey, a member of the House of Commons from Onslow in 1821, belonged. On October 26, 1904, in Wilmington, Mr. Kellum was married to Miss Christian Horn, daughter of H. L. Horn, native of Duplin County, but who had removed here several years previous. Mrs. Kellum's ancestry traces back to the early history of that fine old county. Two children have been born of the marriage. They are Madeleine Kellum, who now has the chair of biology and general science in the New Hanover County High School faculty, and Chloris Kellum, a student at Meredith College, Raleigh.


J. P. Herring

JAMES PRITCHARD HERRING (born at Long Creek, Pender County, North Carolina, July 11, 1865) has been a well-known and valuable citizen of this section throughout his mature life and now is engaged in the Agricultural Extension Service as New Hanover County Farm Agent, a position he has occupied since 1912, or for the last seventeen years.

After spending the first eighteen years of his life on his father's farm, in the Long Creek vicinity, Mr. Herring started out for himself. And, with the good judgment that has characterized him at all times, his first decision was to secure an education. Accordingly, he obtained employment as a district school teacher in Granville County to provide funds to enter Wake Forest College. He continued to teach school, save his money and attend college for a period of several years. In all, he taught fourteen years in the schools of Granville, Wake, Pender and New Hanover Counties; for seven years he taught the Masonboro and Greenville Sounds schools, just east of Wilmington.

Teaching, in his case as in all cases, in that it broadens and better prepares one for any class of work, qualified him as an instructor in field work at the Agricultural & Engineering College, a state institution at Raleigh. He accepted this position October 15, 1912, and promptly became identified, in a co-operative way, with the United States Department of Agriculture. From his services as a teacher and instructor, he accumulated sufficient funds for the purchase of a farm at Masonboro, and since has been giving his attention to building that farm into a model of convenience and production, while carrying on his work as a county agent.

In 1927, Mr. Herring, in company with E. W. Gaither, Federal district farm agent; Guy A. Cardwell, director of development for the great Atlantic Coast Line system, and George W. Trask, New Hanover county commissioner, made a tour of Eastern Europe to investigate farm conditions with the idea of adopting such approved methods as might be practical for this section. They visited the farming and trucking areas of Belgium, Denmark, Germany, France and England, and although they secured some valuable ideas, Mr. Herring and his associates were fully agreed that American farmers are far in advance of the European. The trip, however, was profitable in many respects.

Mr. Herring's citizenship always has been above reproach. He takes a modest, but a most interested part in all matters pertaining to the progress of the city and the county and his services are constantly in demand. He is a member of the Masonboro Baptist Church, of which congregation he is one of the deacons. In politics, he is a Democrat, but not ironclad in his partisanship—he candidly states that he will scratch the ticket when the nominee in his judgment is not a suitable man.

He is of English stock and his ancestry on both his father's and mother's side include a long line of North Carolinians. His father, George A. Herring was a native of Sampson County and a Confederate veteran. His mother was Margaret Eliza (Wells) Herring, also a native of Sampson County and the daughter of Rev. David Wells, one of the best known Baptist ministers of his period. His grandfather, James Herring, and other antecedents for many generations were Sampson Countians, being among the first settlers and big property owners in the Six Runs district of that historic section.

Mr. Herring married Miss Eva May Hewlett, of near Wilmington, December 25, 1894. Mrs. Herring was the daughter of George W. Hewlett, an influential and wealthy farmer of the Masonboro district. Her North Carolina ancestry pre-dates the Revolution, some of whom served in that glorious conflict. Members of the Herring and Wells and Hewlett families always have been well known and some have attained unusual prominence as public officials and professional men. Rev. D. W. Herring, a Baptist missionary to China, was one of the most successful of that denomination, and his son, Dr. George Nutt Herring, now is an American navy surgeon.

Six children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Herring. They are Lena May, now Mrs. T. L. Briggs; Alice Rea, who married J. H. Talley; Margaret, now Mrs. George McConnell, all living in Wilmington; John Pritchard, Jr., who married Miss Lila Urex and lives near Wilmington; Myrtle, now Mrs. J. B. Mast, of Mast, N. C.; and Glenn A., at home.


M. G. Volk

MARC GESNER VOLK, associate owner, with F. P. O'Crowley, of the Sunshine Laundry, World War veteran with the rank of First Lieutenant in the American Flying Corps in France and a young man of exceptional business ability, is a native of Pittsfield, Massachusetts, with a long line of New England ancestry, and was born June 3, 1896. He came to Wilmington from Charlotte, in 1922, and promptly became identified as among the most enterprising and useful citizens of the community.

Mr. Volk received his early education in the public schools of Pittsfield and graduated from the High school of that city in 1914. During the summer of that year, he became associated with the F. W. Woolworth Company, an organization operating hundreds of stores, and was sent to Hamilton, Canada, as a stock room clerk. This was the beginning of a remarkable series of advancements which included the management of some of the most important stores in the chain, and while he still was “just a boy” in the manner of speaking. He remained in Hamilton, however, only a short time because the great World War broke out in Europe about that time in 1914, seriously involving Canada because of England's participation. He was returned to the United States, and, within a few months, was sent to Atlanta, Georgia, as assistant manager of the store in that city. He had the distinction at that time of being the youngest assistant manager of a store of more than average consequence in the Woolworth organization. The following year, in the latter part of 1915, he was transferred to Greensboro, North Carolina, as manager of the branch in that city. He was nineteen years of age at this time. He remained in Greensboro until the late spring of 1917.

In this latter year, the United States declining to submit longer to Germany's submarine policies, hurtled herself into the Universal conflict on the side of the Allies by declaring war against the Imperial German government. Mr. Volk resigned his management of the Woolworth Greensboro store and entered the first Officers Training Camp at McPherson, Georgia. He was commissioned a second lieutenant of Artillery and sent to the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), at Atlanta, as a cadet, to study flying. In September, 1917, only five months after war was declared, he passed the required tests, was ordered to France, commissioned a First Lieutenant and assigned to the Aviation Corps. He continued in that service, participating in various American offensives and encountering all the spectacular perils which service in the air forces during war entails, until the Armistice was signed, November 11, 1918.

He returned to the United States in February, 1919, and was discharged at Garden City, Long Island, New York, March 17, 1919. Then back in civilian life, he again became associated with the Woolworth Company. He was sent to Jackson, Tennessee, where he acted as manager of the store until the last of the year when he was transferred to the more important branch at Columbia, South Carolina, as manager. During his residence in Columbia, he became acquainted with F. P. O'Crowley, his present partner in business and who at that time was manager of the Loose-Wiles Biscuit Company's Columbia branch. Mr. Volk resigned the management of the Woolworth store to accept a position as salesman for the Loose-Wiles people. When Mr. O'Crowley was transferred to Charlotte, Mr. Volk accompanied him to that headquarters and, while there, they joined interests and purchased the equipment for a laundry in Wilmington. That was in 1922 and the firm has been doing a growing volume of business each year. Mr. Volk, naturally affable, enterprising and generously endowed of a civic spirit, occupies a high place in the progressive element of the city. He is a member of the Chamber of Commerce and of the Exchange Service Club. He also is a member of the Wilmington post of the American Legion, a decidedly strong and active organization, and is prominent in its councils. In religion, he is a Lutheran and a regular communicant of St. Paul's Church. Politically, he is Independent.

Mr. Volk is of Holland stock, on both the paternal and maternal sides. His father, Dr. Robert Ward Volk, is a native of Pittsfield, and a successful dentist of that city. His mother, Florence (Hermance) Volk, is the daughter of R. G. Hermance, native of New England and of a prominent family of that section. Mr. Volk's grandfather, Abraham Volk, was born in New England. He enlisted in that struggle, in 1861, and served until the close of the war. He was with McClellan's Army and later, Grant's, in the Virginia campaigns.

On August 21, 1920, Mr. Volk was married to Miss Edna Ruth Cannon, of Columbia, S. C. Mrs. Volk is the daughter of D. A. Cannon, a contractor of that city, and a descendant of a long line of American ancestry extending into Colonial South Carolina. Two children, Ralph Cannon, eight, and Evelyn Florence, three, have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Volk.


U. A. Underwood

URAL ALEXANDER UNDERWOOD, president of the contracting firm of U. A. Underwood Company, Inc., builder of hundreds of homes and business houses in Wilmington and its vicinity, chairman of the State Examining Board of Contractors, active in progress movements and influential in the higher class of affairs of the community, was born May 18, 1872, at Mount Holly, Gaston County, North Carolina. He has been a resident of Wilmington for nearly twenty years.

Mr. Underwood received his early education in the public schools at Flat Rock, Gaston County. He was but nineteen years old when he began individual contracting, the youngest in the two Carolinas and it is probable the record still stands. Through constant effort of successfully mastering every detail in connection with his work and giving strict attention to business and full value received his clientele increased and by the time he was thirty years of age, he was generally recognized as one of the leading builders in this section of the United States. Big, fine school houses, churches, hotels, office buildings, business blocks and residences located not only in Wilmington, but in Kinston, New Bern, Chapel Hill, Goldsboro, Raleigh, Darlington, Florence, Greenville, Elizabeth City, and other cities and towns of North and South Carolina, stand as enduring monuments to the bigness and the thoroughness of his work. Among the buildings he erected in Wilmington are the Church of the Covenant, St. James Parish House, William Hooper School, Cornelius Harnett, Sears-Roebuck, St. Paul's Parish House and scores of others.

Regardless of Mr. Underwood's business activities he has appropriated much time to carrying his full share of the duties of a responsible and progressive citizen in school, religious, civic and similar affairs. He is a communicant of the Presbyterian Church of the Covenant and takes a prominent part in the auxiliary movements of the congregation. Fraternally, he is a member of St. John's Lodge, No. 1, A. F. & A. M., a Knights Templar, a Thirty-second Degree Scottish Rite Mason and a Shriner affiliated with the Sudan Temple, New Bern. His other fraternal memberships include the Knights of Pythias and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. His business associations are the Associated General Contractors of America, of which he is a director, and the General Contractors of North Carolina, of which he is a past president. Several years ago, he was appointed a member of the State Examining Board of Contractors and now is chairman of that important body. This work requires frequent trips to the larger cities of the state. Socially, he is a member of the Cape Fear Country Club, Wilmington Gun Club, and the American Trap Shooter's Association and winner of the North and South Handicap in 1919. Politically, he is a Democrat.

Mr. Underwood is of English descent and the family in America traces back to the pre-Revolutionary period in historic Mecklenburg and Gaston Counties. His father was John R. Underwood, native of Mount Holly, near the Gaston and Mecklenburg County line, who engaged in farming. He was a Civil War veteran, serving throughout that memorable conflict as a member of the First North Carolina Infantry, originally commanded by General Peter G. T. Beauregard and later by General Joseph E. Johnson. He was one of six brothers who enlisted in the Confederacy, each of whom served throughout the war and, with a single exception, went through the four-year ordeal without serious injury. J. R. Underwood married Mary Price, native of Mecklenburg County, and the daughter of James Price, also a native of that County and a Confederate veteran. James Price was the son of David Price, himself a descendant of a long line of American ancestors. The father of J. R. Underwood was Matthew Underwood, grandfather of U. A. Underwood. He was a native of Gaston County and a wealthy planter, but conscientiously opposed to slavery, although he sent seven sons to the Confederacy. The first Underwoods came to America in the early part of the Eighteenth century and settled in the Gaston-Mecklenburg section where they engaged generally in farming.

U. A. Underwood married Miss Sallie Campbell, November 3, 1894. Mrs. Underwood was born in Montgomery County, and is the daughter of James Campbell, a planter of that section. Her mother was Gladys Thompson, daughter of Susan Thompson. Her paternal grandfather was Charles Campbell, native North Carolinian, and Confederate veteran. The family is of Scotch descent on the Campbell side and English on the Thompson side. Mrs. Underwood is trained in the routine of building contracting and familiar with the details of office management. She is vice-president of the U. A. Underwood Company, Inc., and takes an active part in the supervision of the business. In addition, she is active in church and social work. No children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Underwood.


W R Dosher

WILBUR RANDALL DOSHER, active and efficient as a public official, as a business man and civic and progress leader, is a scion of the family of Doshers, who for generations, have been prominent at Southport, Brunswick County, one of the oldest settlements in the state. He was born in that city September 22, 1881, but has lived here since childhood. In business, he is a plumbing and heating contractor and, at present, he is a member of the New Hanover county board of commissioners, which important position he has held since 1920.

Commissioner Dosher received his early education at the Hemenway school in this city, but left his studies in 1898, when eighteen years old, and obtained employment at the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Shops. Two years prior, he joined the famous Boys Brigade, then directed by Col. Walker Taylor, and continued his membership there for about three years, receiving training in military tactics, athletics and other fundamentals of a well rounded young man.

When America entered the World War, in April, 1917, he enlisted in Wilmington, and was assigned to the Second North Carolina Regiment. He was sent to the training camp at Goldsboro, where he was transferred to Company C, 115th Machine Gun, with the commission of lieutenant. Thomas J. Gause, also of Wilmington, was captain of this company. The company, later, was sent to Camp Greene, and still later, to Camp Sevier, near Greenville, South Carolina. Upon being discharged, in 1918, he returned to Wilmington and re-established his business.

Mr. Dosher's activities, in addition to his public duties and his business affairs, are varied and influential. He is a member of the Fifth Avenue Methodist Church, and is president of the Men's Club of that congregation. His interest in the Boys Brigade is second to his religion and he embraces every opportunity to promote its welfare. In this connection, he also is a member of Col. Walker Taylor's Boys Brigade, a social organization, founded in 1928, by about 100 business and professional men of this section who belonged to the Brigade prior to 1914. He also is a member of the National Association of Master Plumbers, of which organization he was secretary in 1925-26, was on the conference committee, appointed to perfect agreements with manufacturing jobbers, 1926-27, and now is one of the fourteen members of the association's board of directors. This association has a total membership of more than 12,000 and represents master plumbers throughout the United States and Canada. Fraternally, he affiliates with St. John's Lodge No. 1, A. F. & A. M., the Elks, Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias. Other organizations with which he is identified, include the Chamber of Commerce; Merchants Association; New Hanover Fishing club, of which he is past president; the Kiwanis Service Club, of which he is a charter member and past president; and the Acme Male Quartet, organized over twenty-five years ago.

As a county commissioner, to which office he was elected in 1920 and re-elected in 1924 and 1928, his services to the community have been peculiarly valuable. Progressive and constructive, he has been industriously active in securing hard surface roads to Fort Fisher and other beaches and into the farming areas south of the city. This aspiration was partially realized, in 1928, when the state took over the Carolina Beach road and has just completed rebuilding it into a hard surface highway. He also has given valuable co-operation to the movement to cause Fort Fisher to become a Memorial park, which just recently has been effected.

Commissioner Dosher is of French and English ancestry. The Dosher family, in America, dates to the arrival, many generations ago, of three brothers from France. They settled at Southport and that vicinity of the Lower Cape Fear. The family, during the Civil War period, was intensely Confederate in its allegiance and Dr. James Sprunt, in his “Chronicles of the Lower Cape Fear,” specifically mentions Richard Dosher, of the Old Dominion; Julius Dosher, of the North Heath; and a second Richard Dosher, of the Susan Bierne, as pilots and blockade runners of exceptional success and heroic courage. Mr. Dosher's father was William Sterling Dosher, a native of Southport and an acountant by profession. His mother was Mary Martha (Price) Dosher, born in Southport, and a daughter of a well known family of that section. The father was the leader of the choir of the Southport Methodist Church for thirty-five years.

Commissioner Dosher married Miss Frances Gardner, of Wilmington, June 20, 1907. Mrs. Dosher was the daughter of Robert and Carrie Gardner. Two children have been born of the marriage. They are Wilbur R. Jr., and Harry Dosher.


F.O. Stilling

FREDERICK O. STILLING, JR., resident manager of the Wilmington district of the Chas. M. Stieff Piano Company, one of the oldest concerns of its kind in the United States, was born in Nashville, Tenn., July 30, 1894. He came to Wilmington in 1927 and since has been identified with the progress element of the city.

He was given his early education in the public schools of Nashville and, later, attended High School, graduating just before his seventeenth birthday. He completed his education by incidental study during the next two years when he became associated with one of the daily newspapers in his native Nashville.

In 1914, he quit newspaper work, to accept a position, carrying a more attractive salary, with the Starr Piano Company, as salesman. He continued as a salesman for four years, or until 1918, when he was promoted to the sales-manager of the Nashville offices of the company. He remained in this position for three years, 1921, when the Claude P. Street Piano Company, also of Nashville, offered him a place as sales-manager and he accepted. But, in 1923, he again returned to the Starr company as manager.

In the following year, 1924, the Charles M. Stieff Piano Company, Baltimore, Maryland, opened a new branch music house at Roanoke, Virginia, and wanting a manager who had proved successful, offered the place to Mr. Stilling. And again he resigned his position with the Starr company, this time casting his lot with the famous Stieff concern. He removed his headquarters to Roanoke and remained in that city until July, 1927, when he was transferred to Wilmington to take charge of the branch here.

Suggestive of the enterprise with which Mr. Stilling works, the Stieff Company was occupying a small building on Chestnut, between Second and Third Streets, when he arrived. He promptly negotiated for the lease of another building located in the heart of the city, on Front Street, and following an extensive remodeling program, moved into his new headquarters. The local branch covers a wide territory, including all of North Carolina and South Carolina and parts of Georgia and a large group of Stieff salesmen make Wilmington their headquarters. The records of the company show that he has built the district into one of the best, rated upon a percentage basis, in the entire South.

Mr. Stilling assumes all the duties of a good citizen and is active in various organizations. He is a member of the Episcopal Church and a regular attendant at the various services of the congregation. He also is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, the Merchants Association of Wilmington, the National Music Merchants Associations and the North Carolina Music Merchants Association. He is a member of the executive committee of the latter association. He also is a member of the Kiwanis Service Club, a member of the Finance committee and otherwise high in its councils, including an active interest in the Boys Brigade, an institution sponsored by the Kiwanis and, in which more than 500 boys are enrolled and trained in athletics, vocational and other essentials.

He is of German and English stock; on his father's side, his grandfather, R. J. Stilling was a native of Germany who came to this country shortly before the Civil War, locating in Nashville; while on his mother's side, his ancestry traces back through Tennessee and North Carolina to England, through the Garrett and Polk families. His father was born in Nashville, studied music and was recognized as an artist of exceptional talent. He now is conducting the Stilling School of Music, at Detroit, Michigan. Mr. Stilling's mother was Minnie Elizabeth (Garrett) Stilling. The Garretts have been prominent in Tennessee for more than a century and many have occupied positions of high public trust, including membership in congress. James K. Polk, native of North Carolina and President of the United States during the Mexican War, was a great-uncle of Mr. Stilling's mother.

On August 12, 1916, Mr. Stilling was married to Miss Bessie Lee Hutton, of Nashville. Mrs. Stilling was born in that Tennessee city and is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Hutton, also a native of Nashville and Mr. Hutton was asssociated with the Nashville-Chattanooga & St. Louis Railway Company prior to his death. One son, John Frederick Stilling, now twelve years of age, has been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Stilling.


J.M. Feagle

JOSEPH MARVIN FEAGLE is a native of Florida and was born near Lake City, Columbia County, November 28, 1887. He is manager of the Wilmington, North Carolina, district of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, and has headquarters in this city.

He was first educated in the Columbia County public schools, and the Fort White (Florida) High School. He completed his education as a student at the Florida Normal Institute, Madison, Florida and later at the University of Florida, at Gainesville, Florida.

Mr. Feagle was a successful school teacher in his native state for fifteen years, beginning when a young man, only eighteen years of age. In addition to teaching in the smaller district schools, he was for nine years principal of accredited senior high schools. He was a member of the state text-book commission named by the state superintendent to revise the state course of study. He made a special study of vocational guidance for high schools, and at one time delivered a lecture before the state Superintendents and Principals Conference at Gainesville, Florida, on that subject.

He began his career in the insurance business in May, 1922, as agent of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company at Americus, Georgia. He was an agent for only thirteen months, or until July first the following year, when he accepted the position of assistant manager for the same company at Valdosta, Georgia. His success in that position received prompt recognition, and in October, 1925, he was transferred to Wilmington, North Carolina as district manager. The local district is one of the large districts of the Southern Territory, employing thirty-six agents, five assistant managers, and four office girls. It covers a territory of about 160 miles in southeastern North Carolina.

His enterprise, however, is not confined strictly to business. He takes a commendably active part in the religious, lodge, social and civic club life of the city. He is a member of Grace Methodist Church, and a consistent attendant at Sunday School, where he teaches the Men's Wesley Bible Class. He is a director of the Kiwanis Club and Boys Brigade work, and chairman of the programme committee of the former organization. He also is affiliated with the famous St. John's Lodge, No. 1, A. F. & A. M. In politics, he is a Democrat.

Mr. Feagle is of German and Scotch-Irish descent. On his paternal side, the family has been in America for the last three generations, coming directly from Germany, and settling at Charleston, South Carolina. On his mother's side, he is a member of the South Carolina Tolberts, who trace their ancestry to Colonial times. The Feagles and Tolberts, like most American families, have been represented in virtually every industrial and professional line, including the ministry, farming, law, medicine, and business. His father, Appleton Feagle, was born in Columbia County, Florida and farmed throughout his life. His mother was Malverda Marshall (Tolbert) Feagle, also born in Columbia County, and a daughter of the late Captain Joseph M. Tolbert, a Methodist minister, and Captain in General Lee's Confederate Army. Mr. Tolbert was at one time Florida State Senator, and a member of the Florida Constitutional Convention, which framed the constitution under which the state is still governed. On her mother's side, Mrs. Feagle was a member of the Marshall family, to which United States Chief Justice John Marshall belonged. The father of Appleton Feagle was William Feagle, a native of South Carolina, but also who removed to Florida prior to the Civil War, and engaged in farming. His father also was William Feagle, who emigrated to this country from Germany early in the eighteenth century, settling in South Carolina, and becoming the first of this family in America. The family is now numerous in sections of South Carolina, South Georgia and Florida. Mr. Feagle was married to Miss Edna Lee Knight, of Fort White, Florida, September 8, 1907, of which marriage four children were born, viz., Edna Belle Feagle, now Mrs. Charles R. Caruthers, of Webster, Florida; James Marion Feagle, Dorothy Elizabeth Feagle, and Susie Ruth Feagle. Mrs. Feagle died October 8, 1922. On January 2, 1924, Mr. Feagle married Miss Alma Lucille Coats of Jacksonville, Florida. Of this marriage, one child was born, Edith Fiske Feagle.

The first Mrs. Feagle was the daughter of James R. C. Knight, of Fort White, Florida, and through the Guynns, maternal ancestors, she can trace back to Pocahontas, daughter of the great Indian Chief, Powhatan, who figured gloriously in early Colonial Jamestown. The second Mrs. Feagle is the daughter of Algernon A. Coats, naval stores operator in South Georgia, and Florida. Mr. Coats was descended from the House of Leicester, famous in English history.


E L White

ELVIE LINWOOD WHITE (born at Centerville, Virginia, October 29, 1889), whose present splendid success has been notably consistent—starting as an office boy when a lad of sixteen years, he has attained, literally, step-by-step, rung by rung, to the enviable position of one of the leading business men, civic leaders and responsible citizens of the entire state.

E. L. White comes under the general industrial classification of manufacturer, in that he is president and general manager of the Wilmington Ice Cream Company, among the largest of the independent plants in North Carolina, and occupies the same positions in the Wilmington Cold Storage Corporation. His business trademark and slogan is the single word “White's” and that word is ample guarantee to thousands of people throughout Wilmington and its trade territory of the standard quality of the company's products—ice cream in its varied forms, Pasteurized milk and other dairy products.

He has acquired local prominence without, in anywise, seeking it. His consequence rests wholly upon the fact that he has a record of astonishingly consistent successes, due strictly to the one simple and fundamental policy of performing every duty carefully, thoroughly and just a little better than was expected of him. There is absolutely no mystery or the well known element of “luck” entering into the causes of his success. It has been merely straight away work and the handling of each job as each job required handling. An office boy at sixteen years of age. And now, a little more than twenty years later, a first citizen of a community of nearly 50,000; head of two large and growing corporations; a substantial member of his church congregation, the Grace Methodist; a member of St. John's Lodge No. 1; one of the five local Masons who have attained to the Thirty-third Degree, Scottish Rite; an honorary member of the Supreme Council, Washington, D. C.; also a member of the Red Cross of Constantine (Masonic); and, in addition, a member of Oasis Shrine, Wilmington Consistory, Liberty Council Knights of Kadosh; Cape Fear Chapter of Rose Croix; Johnston Blakely Lodge of Perfection; and plus all these, he is a member of the Rotary Club, Cape Fear Country Club, local Chamber of Commerce, Merchants’ Association, United States Chamber of Commerce, International Association of Ice Cream Manufacturers and former president of the State Association of Ice Cream Manufacturers. In politics, he is an Independent-Democrat.

Chronologically, Mr. White was educated in the public schools of South Norfolk, Virginia. He left school in 1905, entering the office of T. S. Southgate & Company, Norfolk, as an office boy. By successive promotions, he became file clerk, record clerk and then manager of the sugar department for two years; from that position, he went to city salesman for the Norfolk district (Norfolk, Suffolk, Newport News and Portsmouth). In 1913, eight years after entering the firm as office boy, and now a young man, twenty-four years old, he became manager of the Wilmington branch of the Southgate Company. He remained as manager of the Wilmington office for nine years, or until 1922, when he resigned active management to devote his entire attention to the ice cream business. Two years previously, 1920, he had purchased the Plummer Ice Cream plant of this city. In 1922, he bought the Arctic Ice Cream Company and consolidated it with the Plummer under the present firm name of the Wilmington Ice Cream Company. In 1925, he added a Pasteurized, or cultured milk department, being among the first in North Carolina to take this progressive step. By reason of this expansion, he established a permanent market for the dairy farmers of New Hanover, Pender and Brunswick Counties and assured the success of the Cape Fear Milk & Cattle Growers Association.

Mr. White's contribution to the industrial welfare of the community has been large. His manufacturing plant and cold storage business employ a numerous payroll and his companies serve not only Wilmington and New Hanover County, but scores of smaller cities, towns and communities within a wide radius of this city. Both plants are modernly equipped and only skilled men are employed to operate them. It is worthy of observation, too, that his selection of employes, in the offices, plant and delivery service, is most accurate. He regards courtesy to the trade as an asset equal virtually to quality of product and has developed a most accommodating and capable organization. His activities in civic organizations have been examplary. He has done and is doing his full share in laying the foundation and maintaining the remarkable progress of Wilmington during the last ten years. His advisory help to the farmers of this section in developing dairy herds and indirectly promoting diversified farming

is having an incalculable benefit. His plant assures an easy and a strong and constant market for the dairymen and helps to provide a continuous stream of ready money for the agricultural interests of this area.

Mr. White is of English stock. His father was James Henry White, a farmer and wheelwright and native Virginian. His mother, Mary Florence (Gilbert) White was a native of Norfolk County, Viriginia, and the daughter of George W. Gilbert, merchant-farmer and native of Perquimans County, North Carolina. His grandparents on either side, and their parents before them, were North Carolinians and Virginians far back into Colonial generations. On March 7, 1916, Mr. White married Miss Rosa Mae Furlong, daughter of Walter A. Furlong, well known local marine engineer and a Spanish-American War veteran, having served as chief engineer aboard the Nantucket, home port at Port Royal, South Carolina, during the period of that conflict. He married Rosa Lee Mayo, native of Virginia and daughter of William Eugene Mayo, scientific mechanic, Confederate veteran in the Navy service and a prisoner, for a time, in Libby Prison, the most notorious of the Northern camps. His father was William Henry Mayo, great-grandfather of Mrs. White, a native Virginian, planter near Richmond and a great-uncle of the famous Dr. Charles Mayo, Rochester, Minnesota, surgeon. The Mayos were among the founders of Petersburg, Virginia, and it is legendary history in the family that some served with Washington during the Revolution. Returning to the Furlong branch of the family, Walter Furlong father of Walter A., and grandfather of Mrs. White, was a native of Ireland and founder of the family in America. He came to this country when a youth and was a blockade runner, although only seventeen years old, during the Civil War. He served as an engineer on both the Advance and the Raleigh. Dr. James Sprunt devotes much attention to the part the Advance and later, the Raleigh, took in the Civil War. On the Advance's first entry into port with supplies Governor Zebulon Z. Vance came to Wilmington to extend a formal welcome. She later became the U. S. S. Frolic. The Raleigh, a sister ship of the North Carolina, was one of the first ironclads. She was built at the Cassidy Shipyards here and was sunk in the narrow channel while trying to re-enter the river from New Inlet following an engagement with Admiral Porter's blockading fleet off Fort Fisher. She became a menace to navigation for several years.

Three children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. White. They are Rosemary, Margaret Mayo, and E. L., Jr.


ADRAIN BURBANK RHODES (born in Wilmington, January 11, 1890), four times has been elected to the office of register of deeds, the position in which he now serves and to the evident satisfaction of the people of New Hanover County, in that he was re-elected for the fourth time less than a year ago.

Mr. Rhodes was educated in the Wilmington grammar schools, later attending the Lutheran school and Prof. Washington Catlett's Cape Fear Academy here; the Locust Dale Academy in Virginia; and was three years in the University of North Carolina. In politics, he is a Democrat, but took no notably active part in elections until his return home from the World War. He is a member of the First Baptist Church and a regular and conscientious communicant of that congregation. He also is a member of St. John's Lodge, No. 1, A. F. & A. M.: the Consistory (Thirty-second Degree Mason); University of North Carolina chapter of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity; the Cape Fear Country Club; the Chamber of Commerce; and the Wilmington Post of the American Legion, in which latter organization he is chairman of the Athletic committee.

Mr. Rhodes, upon leaving school, secured employment with the Springer Coal Company, one of the oldest concerns of its kind in the city. He remained in the employ of this firm for seven years, or until the United States declared war against Germany at which time he entered the Universal conflict. He had been a member of the Wilmington Light Infantry for eight years and was a sergeant in that crack military organization when the war broke out. He first was sent to the training camp at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia. While there, he left the W. L. I., and was assigned to Company A, 47th Infantry, in training at Camp Greene, near Charlotte, N. C. This company was detailed for duty in France and sailed from Camp Mills, N. Y., May 1, 1918, landing at Brest. Almost immediately he and other officers were ordered to the front as replacements in 23rd Infantry, 2nd Division. And within only a few weeks, or July 31, 1918, during the terrific American drive at Sergy and Cyringes on the Marne, unhappy fate selected Mr. Rhodes as its victim and changed the entire prospective trend of his life. He was wounded three times in a single charge—the deadly fire of a sniper first struck him in the foot, inflicting a flesh wound; later a machine gun bullet plowed its way through the lower part of the stomach, emerging from the right hip, rendering him hors de combat. While out of commission and nearly out of mind, an H. E. broke over him tearing his helmet away together with a bit of scalp. He was carried from the bloody grounds of Sergy into a field hospital, later transferred to a base, and still later invalided home to America.

Upon his return home, in May, 1919, he sought employment at the Liberty shipyards. The work was too heavy for a cripple and he was compelled to quit. He recuperated for a short time, but necessity dictated that he seek some description of activity that he might obtain an essential revenue. He decided upon the automobile business and effected a partnership with R. F. Campbell, of this city. This partnership continued for two years, or until 1921, when Mr. Rhodes withdrew to become a deputy under Sheriff George C. Jackson, being assigned to the tax department. He continued with Sheriff Jackson until the spring of 1922 when he acted upon the suggestion of friends and successfully ran for the nomination for register of deeds. His nomination was equivalent to election and December 4, 1922, he assumed the duties of that office. He again was a candidate in 1924, 1926 and 1928, being nominated each time. It is a notable fact that there was no intimation of opposition in 1928—thus his services were given a hundred percent approval.

Mr. Rhodes is of English descent and is the son of the late Isaac B. Rhodes, native of Wilmington, and for many years a farmer and merchant of this county. His father was a Confederate veteran having joined the gallant defenders of Fort Fisher when a lad only 14 years old. His mother was Rebecca Galloway Rhodes, daughter of Francis Marion Galloway, native North Carolinian, Brunswick County farmer and also a Confederate soldier. His grandfather was Christopher C. Rhodes, native of the upper Cape Fear region, a Baptist minister and, until his death, in 1860, a candle manufacturer in Wilmington.

Mr. Rhodes married Miss Hattie Grafflin, at Charlotte, April 1, 1918. Two children have been born of the marriage. They are Adrain Burbank Rhodes, now six years old, and Rebecca Rhodes, two years. Mrs. Rhodes is the daughter of the late John L. Grafflin, born and raised in Wilmington, and for many years a steam engineer and later a hardware merchant. Mrs. Rhodes’ grandfather was Colonel John L. Grafflin.


R P Paddison

CAPTAIN RICHARD PORSM PADDISON (Cap'n Dick), Confederate Veteran with the rank of captain, personal friend of the late President Grover Cleveland, for two years a Colonel on the staff of General Julian S. Carr, Commander of the Virginia-North Carolina Confederate Veterans, probably the originator of the “Chain Store Idea” and for many years owner of a fleet of steamboats, was born at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, July 11, 1839, and died at his country estate in Pender County, in November, 1915.

Captain Paddison received a part of his education under the personal instruction of his father, Professor George Paddison, and could read Latin fluently at eleven years of age. Finishing his preparatory education, he studied pharmacy in Alexandria, Virginia, and at twenty years of age, went to Boston, Massachusetts, to engage in his profession. He remained in Boston until it became evident to him that the War between the States was inevitable and he returned to his father's home, then at South River, North Carolina. He volunteered in the Confederacy in 1861, enlisting at Clinton, Sampson County. He immediately was commissioned an officer and with his command assigned to Fort Caswell, at the mouth of the Cape Fear River. Later, because of his knowledge of drugs, he was transferred to the hospital service and stationed at Southport, opposite Caswell. Near the close of the war, he was transferred to Wilmington, hospital service headquarters, where he remained until the end of the war.

When peace was declared, Captain Paddison entered the general mercantile business at Point Caswell and Long Creek, North Carolina. Later, he became a pioneer steamboat operator on the Black River, owning and operating a fleet of a half dozen or more steamers and it was during this period that he became known throughout the Cape Fear region as “Cap'n Dick.” Point Caswell, at this time was the chief shipping point to Wilmington over a radius of approximately thirty miles and the boats of the Paddison fleet were constantly making this port with cargoes, principally of turpentine and other naval stores commodities. Suggestive of the activities of the industry, it has been picturesquely stated that “from early dawn to dewy eve, a string of ox-carts, each carrying from one to two barrels of turpentine, could be seen creaking their way to the boat landing at Point Caswell.” In 1885, Captain Paddison moved his headquarters to Florida where he continued to operate a line of his own steamboats on the Indian River from Titusville South to Lake Worth. It was during this period that Grover Cleveland and his charming bride, Frances Folsom Cleveland, visited Florida and made several trips along the Indian River aboard Captain Paddison's boats. A warm personal friendship developed. Mrs. Annie Edith Pretlow, daughter of Captain Paddison and now living in Wilmington, has among other interesting relies of her father, an autographed photograph of President Cleveland and a group photograph of the President, Mrs. Cleveland, Payne Whitney, Lamont and other members of the Presidential party and a note of thanks from Mrs. Cleveland. When the Florida East Coast Railway was completed from St. Augustine to Jupiter, Captain Paddison, with his oldest son, George Paddison, entered the retail lumber business. Always a pioneer, he established a series of stores which probably was the beginning of an industry now among the largest of the entire nation. He operated these stores in connection with the East Coast Lumber Company, which he founded and which still is in existence, operating a chain of lumber companies in florida. He retired from active business in 1897 and moved back to his country estate in Pender County where his death occurred eighteen years later.

Captain Paddison was of English descent and of illustrious lineage. His father, founder of the family in America, was George Paddison, a graduate of Oxford College and a most highly educated and cultured gentleman, whose ancestry in England traced back many generations. George Paddison, shortly after his marriage to Catherine Law, came to America and accepted the Chair of Languages in the Faculty of Georgetown University, near Washington. He was a famous linguist and author of a French grammar, a Latin grammar and a volume of Greek poems. He was particularly fond of the Greek writer, Richard Porsm, hence Captain Paddison's given names of Richard Porsm. Captain Paddison married Mary Elizabeth Simpson, a lineal descendant of Robert Walker and Lady Anna Montgomery, of Ireland. Robert Walker was a High Sheriff of New Hanover County in Colonial times. The Simpsons were of Scotch-Irish stock and came to America with Henry Eustace McCulluck, in 1735, and whose controversy with Governor Tryon in 1765, according to Wheeler,

was the beginning of the historic Mecklenburg Declaration. The Simpsons settled in the Lower Cape Fear and became prominently identified with the Colonial history of this section.

Seven children were born of the marriage of Captain Paddison and Mary Elizabeth (Simpson) Paddison. The eldest, George F., made history in the pioneer days of the East Coast of Florida and his name is revered and beloved throughout that part of the state. He married Gertrude Fee, niece of William Thomas Fee, American Consul, Bombay, India, 1899-1906; Bremen, Germany, 1906-1914; and Guatemala City, 1917-1919. The second child was Mary Eleanor, wife of George McClellan Robbins, of Maine, near relative of General George B. McClellan of Civil War fame and one-time Democratic candidate for the Presidency. The third child was Catherine Thomson, who married W. S. Sheets, Fayetteville. The fourth child died in infancy. Jeanette Barnett, fifth child, married Gabriel Toombs Anthony, a nephew of General Robert Toombs, of Washington, Georgia. Annie Edith, the sixth child, became the wife of Joel Cook Pretlow, well known Wilmington and Savannah (Georgia) business man and whose biographical sketch appears in this volume. Richard Porsm, Jr., the seventh child, married Mabel Marsh, of Chicago, whose father was prominent in the Insurance business of that metropolis.


JOEL COOK PRETLOW, one of the outstanding business men of Wilmington and Savannah (Georgia), prominently identified with all local public and progressive movements and well known in the civic life of the city, is a native of Indiana, having been born in Dublin, March 31, 1874, but, in actuality is a Virginian in that he was reared from childhood to manhood in the Old Dominion.

Mr. Pretlow's early education was received in the public schools near Franklin, Virginia. It is appropriate to explain at this time that the Pretlows being Quakers did not believe in fighting nor in slave-holding and shortly after the Civil War, J. C. Pretlow's grandfather moved to Indiana and later, James Pretlow and his wife, who became the parents of J. C. Pretlow, went there to live. When J. C. Pretlow was yet a child, an uncle, John Pretlow, large landowner, near Franklin, Virginia, persuaded the parents to let him take their son into his home. As a result the subject of this sketch early became a Virginian. He received his finishing education in the Westtown Quaker School and returned, when a young man, to his uncle's home and managed the estate. After several years, he definitely decided to abandon farming and came to North Carolina, locating in Pender County and engaging in the lumber business. In 1918, he came to Wilmington to engage in manufacturing pursuits. He affiliates with various local organizations including the Kiwanis Club, the Frying Pan Power Boat Club, the Motor Club, the Carolina Yacht Club, the Cape Fear Country Club and the Chamber of Commerce. In religion, he left the Quaker Church and united with the Presbyterians, with his wife when first married and now is a member of the First Presbyterian Church of Wilmington. In politics, he is a Democrat.

“One need not fear over-statement in saying that the fundamental qualities of what can properly be called the American brand of idealism are essentially Quaker in character and very largely Quaker in origin. Tolerance, respect for man as man, spiritual equality, impatience with outward form, dislike of violence as a means of setting disputes, belief in the essential goodness of human nature, self-dependence in religion.” This was the cardinal tenet of that courageous little band of Quakers who came to America in 1632 and among this band were the Pretlows—Sir Thomas Pretlow and his wife, Rebecca, who made the perilous voyage in their own ship. They settled just south of the early Virginia settlement at Jamestown and built their house of brick which they had brought with them from England. This was the first brick house in all the wilderness south of Jamestown. It is evident that the Pretlows became Quaker probably in the early part of the Seventeenth century, perhaps, upon the marriage of Sir Thomas to Rebecca, founders of the American family. This is indicated by the fact that it is family tradition that the Pretlows of Normandy, lineal ancestors of Sir Robert, were soldiers in the Tenth century and fought under the Norman William at Hastings where he conquered the English and became William I. The mother of the Pretlows of England, family tradition states, was a member of William's family. It is history in the Pretlow family, however, that the line extends beyond Hastings, into Normandy and back into early Scandinavia, or Norseland. In 912, Rolf, the Ganger, established a great earldom upon the coast of France, which he peopled with Northmen, from whom that land is called Normandy. Rolf Ganger's son was William, father to Richard, and grandfather to another Richard, who was the father of Robert Longspear and grandfather of William the Conquerer. From Rolf Ganger also were descended the Earls of Rouen, in Normandy.

The Pretlows in America became principally preachers and teachers. Dr. Robert Pretlow, uncle of J. C. Pretlow, was one of the foremost preachers in the Quaker Church in America. He held pastorates in Wilmington, Ohio; Brooklyn, New York; and in Seattle, Washington, where he recently died. In 1924, he gave up his work in Seattle to devote his entire time to the American Friends Service Committee, as field secretary. He traveled throughout the United States and Canada in behalf of wartime relief work which the Quakers were carrying on in Germany, Belgium, France and Russia. He was abroad in the summer of 1920 studying conditions. It was because of his deep sympathy for the children in these lands that he withdrew from the duties of a pastorate, yielded the comforts of home and traveled throughout the country in their behalf. He was effective as a speaker and highly intellectual, his mind being especially treasured with literature and history. Two of his sisters, Belle and Deborah, established and conducted a large Quaker school in Chicago, and a third sister, Chlotilde, became a medical missionary from the American Quaker churches to Cuba. Mr. Pretlow's mother was Maria Rawls (born in Nansemond County, Virginia,

J. C. Pretlow

1860, died in Franklin, April, 1915). Her father was a soldier in the Confederacy. She is described as a woman of rare personal charm and personality and a perfect Christian. Her cousin, E. E. Holland, of Suffolk, served several terms in Congress and now is President of the Farmers Bank in that Virginia city. Another cousin was Judge Richard Rawls, of Nansemond County.

On December 26, 1905, J. C. Pretlow married Miss Annie Edith Paddison of Point Caswell. Mrs. Pretlow is the daughter of the late Captain Richard Porsm Paddison and Mary E. (Simpson) Paddison and is a lineal descendant on her mother's side from Robert Walker, Colonial High Sheriff of New Hanover County, and Lady Anne Montgomery of Ireland. Her great-great grandfather, William Walker was an officer in the Revolutionary War and was one of the largest landowners in Eastern North Carolina. A more detailed review of the Paddison and Simpson families appears in the sketch of Captain Paddison in this volume. Mrs. Pretlow was reared in Florida and educated in the John B. Stetson University, DeLand, Florida, taking a post-graduate course at the Peabody College for Teachers in Nashville, Tennessee. Two children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Pretlow. They are James Paddison, born May 22, 1907, and Joel Cook, Jr., born August 3, 1908. They now are in college.

Judge B. B. Winborne, of Murfreesboro, North Carolina, a close relative of J. C. Pretlow has written an interesting book of the Winbornes of North Carolina. The volume shows the connections and the intimate allied relationship of the Winborne, Pretlow, Elliott and Cook families in the early Colonial history of Virginia and North Carolina. This book is in the library of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.


J. A. Orrell

JOHN AARON ORRELL, accountant by profession, but a New Hanover County official for the last sixteen years, first as treasurer and then as auditor, was born October 13, 1875, in Wilmington. The keynote of his success in one of the most difficult and exacting positions of public trust in the state, has been due to his thorough competency and his genuine affability and uniform courtesy to all those who call at his offices for information or service.

By reason of unhappy circumstances, Mr. Orrell had no childhood in the usual happy acceptance of that term. His father died when he was only a month old and his mother when he was only nine years old. He was taken into the home of relatives, living in New Hanover County. He continued attending school in Wilmington, but at an early age, his education stopped and he began making his own way in life. His first job was that of office boy for the Acme Manufacturing Company, at Acme. He remained here for a period of three years when, in August, 1890, he secured a place, still as office boy, in the Wilmington offices of the Standard Oil Company. But he stayed with the Standard, on this occasion, only two months and returned to Acme. Two months later he again is found in the offices of the Standard, this time as a stock clerk.

The next several years were devoted to his duties at the Standard plant and to long, tedious hours of study in an effort to master the intricacies of auditing and book-keeping. He became proficient in handling every detail of the business reaching the position of assistant manager in the Wilmington branch and acquired an enviable reputation for accuracy and neatness. In 1905, at his own request he was transferred to Asheville, North Carolina, as salesman and traveling auditor. Six months later, or in March, 1906, he was transferred to Columbia, South Carolina, to assist in re-organizing the distributing headquarters of the company in that city. He did the work with characteristic thoroughness and, in July, of that year, he became assistant manager of the Columbia branch. He remained in Columbia a little more than two years, August, 1908, when he was sent to the Charlotte, North Carolina, branch as assistant manager. He remained at Charlotte for two years until January, 1911, when the “call of home” caused him to resign and he returned to Wilmington. Upon returning to Wilmington, he entered the employ of the Cape Fear Oil Company. The venture did not prove a success and the following January, he became associated with a local wholesale grocery concern. Three months later, March, 1912, marked the beginning of his public career.

In addition to properly handling all the duties of his office as County Auditor, Mr. Orrell has assumed and performed the various obligations of a good citizen. He is a member of the First Baptist Church of this city and active in the work of that congregation. He also is a Royal Arch Mason, affiliating with Concord Chapter No. 1, and Plantagenet Commandery No. 1, Knights Templar, being treasurer of the Commandery, Chapter and Munson Council No. 4, R. & S. M. His other lodge associations include the Odd Fellows, the Woodmen of the World and Junior Order United American Mechanics. He also is a member of the Chamber of Commerce. He is President of the North Carolina Association of County Auditors, which he helped to organize in Wilmington and became its first president in 1927. During the period of the World War, he acted as secretary of the New Hanover County Selective Draft Board which was one of only five boards in the state, the members of which served without compensation. In 1926, he was appointed by Governor Angus W. McLean as a member of a commission of twelve to study county governments with a view of promoting efficiency and economizing on costs. And, in connection with this long list of official duties, the office of County Auditor provides that he also act as ex officio county treasurer, county accountant and county tax supervisor.

Mr. Orrell is of Scotch and English descent. His father was John J. Orrell, native of New Hanover County, a Civil War veteran and the son of a long line of Cape Fear forebears. His mother was Annie E. (Hewlett) Orrell, daughter of John Hewlett and a sister of Elijah Hewlett, former treasurer and sheriff of New Hanover County and prominent in this section for many years. On June 26, 1895, Mr. Orrell married Miss Mattie Powell, a native of New Hanover County and daughter of Joseph L. Powell and Margaret (Taylor) Powell. Two children have been born of the marriage. They are John A. Jr., now in the automobile business in Wilmington, and May, wife of Ensign John W. Ryssy, in United States Coast Guard Service.


M. C. McIver

MALCOLM CHESTER MCIVER, lumberman, North Carolinian for six generations, prominent in the religious and business life of the city and, suggestive of his high standing in the community, at this time, April, 1929, a candidate for Mayor of Wilmington, was born at St. Pauls, Robeson County, April 13, 1882. He has been a resident of Wilmington for thirteen years and his rise to prominence and influence has been consistently rapid.

Mr. McIver, who started with a capital of less than $400 and now is ranked among the leading citizens and heavy taxpayers of a more than an ordinarily progressive and wealthy city, was educated in the Robeson County Public and High schools and, later merely as an accomplishment after arriving at middle age, enrolled as a student in the Wilmington Law School. Between the ages of fourteen and twenty-one, he farmed in Robeson and Richmond Counties, and, regardless of his youth, was reasonably successful. In 1902, he, in association with his brother, Fred J. McIver, purchased a sawmill, then operating at St. Johns, Robeson County, and, under the firm name of McIver Brothers, continued in that business for ten years. It may be parenthetically remarked at this point that the original sawmill was bought on credit and paid for, in full, the following year. In 1907, the two brothers broadened their interests, moved to Columbia, S. C., and in addition to the sawmill, conducted a wholesale and retail lumber business.

Five years after moving to Columbia, the McIver Brothers firm was dissolved and M. C. McIver returned to North Carolina, settling at Maysville where, with two associates, he established the Maysville Cooperage, Inc., a plant engaged in the manufacture of slack staves, for flour and apple barrels. This company did a tremendous business for four years. Its products were sold into all sections of the country, particularly into the great apple growing areas of New York and Michigan. In 1916, Mr. McIver sold the plant, removed to Wilmington and organized the McIver Lumber Company, of which he is virtually the sole owner. Mr. McIver had a capital of only $400 after purchasing home and lumber plant. Within a short time, however, he was doing a $125,000 annual business and the volume is constantly increasing. His lumber yards in the north part of the city are modern and adequate and his interests are extensive. Only this spring he became interested in the development of Carolina Beach and will erect a huge hotel at that resort during the coming season. He also takes a progressive interest in civic and forward movements of the community. He is a charter member of the local Lions Service Club, active in the Chamber of Commerce, and a member of the board of directors of the Merchants’ Association. He is a communicant and recently was elected a trustee of the First Presbyterian Church, and is president of the Men's Club of that congregation. He also is a member of the Executive Committee of the Feast of Pirates, Wilmington's big mid-summer carnival classic; a director of the Y. M. C. A., and president of the Speakers’ Club, a strong auxiliary of that association. He is a Mason, with membership in the Maxton Lodge, No. 447.

Mr. McIver comes of a long line of Scotch ancestry and his American forebears trace back to 1772, when his great-great-grandfather, Duncan McIver, native of Scotland, came to this country. Duncan McIver, descended from a Highland clan of centuries standing, threw his destinies with the American Revolution and became a patriot officer during that historic struggle for freedom. Duncan McIver's father, Donald McIver, was the founder of the family in America. Mr. McIver's great-grandfather was Alexander McIver, a native of Robeson County and a planter and manufacturer. His son, Malcolm McIver, grandfather of M. C. McIver, also was a native North Carolinian, and, in later life, was a wealthy naval stores manufacturer. His son, Malcolm McNair McIver, the father of the subject of this sketch, became a Presbyterian minister and was a member of the Wilmington Presbytery for more than fifty years. He was a student of Theology in a Virginia Seminary when the Civil War broke out and promptly enlisted with the Army of Northern Virginia, rising to the rank of major. Mr. McIver's mother was Flora Jane Crawford, native of Robeson County.

Mr. McIver has been married twice. On July 17, 1903, he married Miss Mary McQueen, of Maxton. Two children were born of this marriage. They are Thelma, now Mrs. H. Everett, Wilmington, and Myrtle, at home. The first Mrs. McIver, died March 14, 1912. On June 27, 1914, Mr. McIver married Miss Ruby Fogle, granddaughter of Captain Richland Fogle, Confederate veteran, killed and buried on the field of battle. At the time of the war, he was a resident of Columbia, S. C., but he was a native North Carolinian and of French stock. Five children have been born of the second marriage. They are Marguerite, Mack, LaMar, Clifford and Peggy, all at home.


D T Bowden

DAVID TIMON BOWDEN, descendant of an old Georgia family and to whose history he has added luster, in his own right, as a business executive, a civic leader, a major league baseball player and as a patriot veteran of the World War in the vanguard of the American offensive at historic Chateau Thierry, was born at McDonough, Georgia, August 15, 1891. He has been a resident of Wilmington since 1927, coming here as division manager for the big Armour Fertilizer Company.

Mr. Bowden received his early education in the grades and high school at McDonough, later attending the preparatory Locust Grove Institute, Locust Grove, Georgia. He matriculated at the University of Georgia, Athens, in 1910, and graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts in June, 1913. Upon graduation he entered professional baseball as an outfielder for the Cordele team in the Georgia State League. The following season, 1914, he started with the Macon Club of the South Atlantic, but finished with the St. Louis Browns of the American League, to which club he was sold in mid-season by Macon. In 1915, he was successively with the Atlanta Club of the Southern Association; Columbus, Georgia, of the South Atlantic and Portland, Maine of the New England League. In 1916, he managed the Montgomery Club, in the South Atlantic throughout the year and the following season was with the Chattanooga and the Mobile teams, of the Southern Association.

In December, 1917, he enlisted in the World War as a private and was sent to Camp Gordon, Georgia, for training. He entered the Third Officers Training Camp (first for enlisted men) and in April was given certificate of commission as Second Lieutenant, but assigned as a First Class Private, to Company F, 328th Infantry, 82nd Division. He was promoted Sergeant within less than a week and a few days later, to First Sergeant. About April 15, the company was ordered overseas, sailing from Boston and arriving (by way of Southhampton, England) in France, May 18. After a brief period of training with the British, the company was moved into the Toul Sector, front line trenches and took part in the bloody engagements at Mount Sec. At this time, July 3, he received his commission and was transferred to the Second Division of the Regular Army, stationed at Chateau Thierry and the history of that Division is too well known for rehearsal, constituting, as it does, one of the most brilliant chapters in military annals. He later was transferred to the General Headquarters, Third Army Corps, and was near Verdun during the famous Argonne drive, Following the Armistice, he was sent to Germany with the Army of Occupation and stationed at Neuweid until July 10, 1919, when ordered home.

The war over, and out of a job, he applied for a place with the Armour Fertilizer branch at Atlanta and employed as a salesman. And here starts a most remarkable series of rapid promotions in one of the greatest commercial organizations in America. He was a salesman one year when called into the Atlanta office as assistant manager. In the summer of 1923, the company opened a division at Columbia, S. C., and he was placed in charge. Two years later, 1925, he was promoted to assistant sales manager of the Southern district, with headquarters in Greensboro, N. C., and in direct charge of the two Carolinas. In 1927, he was transferred to the management of the Wilmington Division, it being one of the largest of the Armour organization. As division manager, he is the directing head of the local factory, employing, in peak periods, 350 men, with an adequate office force and a group of high salaried salesmen. He is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, is a Royal Arch Mason, with a membership at McDonough, and, socially, he affiliates with the Cape Fear Club, the Cape Fear Country Club and the Carolina Yacht Club. While at the University, he was a member of the Gridiron Club, the Phi Kappa Literary Society and the Kappa Sigma Greek Fraternity. In religion, he is a Baptist, being a member of the First Church.

Mr. Bowden is of Scotch and English stock. His American ancestry traces back to the early part of the last century. His father, James Filmore Bowden, was a native of Henry County, Georgia, and was a farmer. He married Sarah Jane Mayo who became D. T. Bowden's mother. She was the daughter of William Mayo, a Henry County farmer and Confederate soldier, losing his arm in one of the early engagements of that war. Mr. Bowden was married to Orion Elizabeth Arnold, of Hampton, Georgia, November 18, 1920. Mrs. Bowden is the daughter of Dr. R. J. Arnold, prominent physician and landowner. Hon. O. H. Arnold, of Oglethorpe County, Georgia, was her paternal grandfather and her mother was Nellie Jane Curry, lineal descendant of the Lewis and Wright families, notable educators and barristers of Georgia. Two children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Bowden. They are Orion Elizabeth and Frances Arnold.


Fred T. Tucker

FREDERICK TAYLOR TUCKER, Deputy United States Revenue Collector, one of the most prominent of the civic club progressives in the community and a citizen of genuine worth, was born in Mocksville, countyseat of Davie County, June 22, 1885.

Mr. Tucker received his early education in the public and high schools of Ruffin, Rockingham County, to which city his parents removed when he was a child. He later enrolled in the Bingham Preparatory School, at Mebane, North Carolina. Upon leaving school, in 1906, he secured employment as a clerk in the yardmaster's office of the Southern Railway at Winston-Salem. He continued in the service of the Southern, for ten years, except for a two year period, 1910 to 1912, when he was with the Federal government under appointment from the Census Bureau. During this time, his headquarters were in Washington. Upon leaving Washington, in 1912, he returned to the Southern Railway service as transportation inspector with headquarters at High Point, North Carolina. He resigned this position in 1916 to accept a place with the state as inspector attached to the North Carolina Demurrage Bureau, Raleigh, a position for which he was particularly well qualified because of his long experience in railroad service. He remained with the state, however, only one year when an opportunity developed for his removal to Wilmington, as cashier of the local offices of the Seaboard Railway. He came to Wilmington August 1, 1917. He remained with the Seaboard for almost exactly four years, or until November 1, 1921, when he received an appointment as United States Division Deputy Revenue Collector, with headquarters at the Customs House, Wilmington.

Although Mr. Tucker's official duties require his frequent absence from the city in that his jurisdiction covers a territory of ten important counties in the Southeastern section of the state, including New Hanover, Brunswick, Columbus, Pender, Bladen, Robeson, Cumberland, Sampson, Onslow and Duplin, he finds time to perform his full share of the civic obligations resting upon the best citizenship of all communities. Among his affiliations are memberships in the First Baptist Church, the Knights of Pythias Lodge and the Wilmington Chamber of Commerce. He also is secretary of the local chapter of the Federal Business Association, an organization composed of Federal employes in this district. Mr. Tucker's greatest contribution to the civic welfare of Wilmington probably is through his connection with the Exchange Service Club, of which he has been secretary for the last four years, which perhaps establishes a record in this city, and attests both to his laudable willingness to serve in any capacity in which he may be drafted and to the thorough manner in which he handles the duties of the office. Politically, he is a Republican and takes a normal interest in the campaigns preceding the elections. He has been secretary of the New Hanover County Executive Committee for nine years, or since, 1920.

Mr. Tucker is of German and English stock, and his American ancestry extends back into the early part of the last century. Dr. F. P. Tucker, father of Fred T. Tucker, was born in Davie County, graduated in medicine and now is a successful practicing physician. His mother was Jennie C. Hanes, daughter of Jacob Hanes, a prosperous farmer of Forsythe County, a Confederate veteran serving with General Johnson in North Carolina and connected not only with the Hanes but the Wrights, Footes, Millers and other prominent families of Yadkin and Forsythe Counties. Dr. Tucker's father was Daniel Seaborn Tucker and was raised from infancy in North Carolina. It is of interest that he was born on the highseas during the voyage from England to America and the incident suggested his middle name of “Seaborn.” He enlisted in the Confederate army and served throughout that struggle. His father was William Tucker, great-grandfather of the subject of this sketch. He settled at Lexington, North Carolina, where he became a wealthy and influential planter. His wife was a Miss Walser, and a near relative of H. Walser, who represented Davidson County in the House of Commons, 1846-48, and of Zeb Vance Walser, a representative in the legislature and state senator from the Lexington district and a member of the Republican state central committee for fourteen consecutive years. He was Attorney General of North Carolina, 1897 to 1901.

Mr. Tucker was married October 23, 1918, to Miss Lillian Fonvielle of Wilmington. Mrs. Tucker is the daughter of James H. Fonvielle, of Warsaw, Duplin County. Her ancestry are of French stock who came to America many generations ago and settled in Onslow County, and to which family, D. W. Fonvielle, representative in the legislature from that county, in 1850, belonged. No children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Tucker.


Luther T Rogers

LUTHER THOMAS ROGERS, general contractor, with offices in Wilmington, and whose home is at Seagate, oldest and largest of the suburban communities of the city, was born at Seagate on Independence Day, 1894. He is one of the best known and most successful men in building circles in this section of the state.

Mr. Rogers was educated in the New Hanover County public schools and later, at Salemburg Academy, Baptist school in which he enrolled as a student with the intention of preparing himself for the ministry of that denomination. Yielding to a wanderlust, a heritage handed down from the first generation of Rogers who adventured into the aboriginal North Carolina, he left school while still a boy, 18 years old, and sought the West. In 1912 he secured employment with a rig building company, then developing the oil fields in the vicinity of Shreveport, Louisiana. He remained in this work, with all its rigors and dangers, but carefree and alluring characteristics, for five years.

When the United States declared war against Germany, 1917, his building abilities were in demand by the government for the erection of cantonments and other preliminary work at training camps. Throughout the period when soldiers were being mobilized and trained, he was associated with W. H. Warner, of Shreveport, and supervised the construction of cantonments at the Lake Charles Aviation Field; Camp Beauregard. at Alexandria, La.; and at Waco, Texas. He returned to Wilmington in the latter part of 1918, and, for the remainder of the war, was stationed at the Carolina Shipyards.

In September, 1919. Mr. Rogers entered the contracting business and has devoted himself to this work ever since. And his success has been notable. Within the last eight years, he has built more than 250 houses (twenty percent of which are brick) in Wilmington and its vicinity. He has supervised virtually all the houses erected at Wrightsville Beach during the last seven years and constructed the first three homes erected at Shore Acres, select residence section, across the sound from Wrightsville. He also built the first stores (brick structures) at Shore Acres.

In association with George E. Kidder, of the Cement Products Company, Mr. Rogers supervised the jettys work at Shore Acres and actually built the first concrete jettys at Wrightsville Beach. As an additional evidence of his building initiative his services were obtained for the construction of the concrete wall around the Hugh MacRae property at the Northern extension of Wrightsville Beach, and which is regarded as one of the choicest of its kind along the coast. The Shell Island Negro Resort, also is his handiwork. As a result of these activities, he has succeeded in business. In association with his father, he owns in fee simple approximately thirty houses, extensive farm lands and is one of the heaviest taxpayers in the county. He is a member of the Industrial Investment Company, the Wilmington Baseball Association, St. Johns Lodge, No. 1, A. F. & A. M., Harnett Council of the Junior Order United American Mechanics, the Chamber of Commerce and the Lions Club. He is a member of the Seagate Baptist Church and a deacon of the congregation. In politics, he is a Democrat, and a member of the county executive committee. He is a member of the committee of the Bradley Creek school, and, at the last session of the superior court, he was selected to act as foreman of the grand jury. Withal, he is a most valuable and progressive citizen.

Mr. Rogers is of Scotch and English descent and comes from a long line of North Carolinians, the original Rogers settling in the Lower Cape Fear probably prior to the Revolution. His father is George Henry Rogers, merchant-farmer-capitalist, a native of the Seagate section and one of the wealthiest men in New Hanover county. His mother, Lavina Elizabeth (Sneeden) Rogers is the daughter of Stephen Sneeden, a native of the Greenville Sound (Seagate) district and who at one time owned the property on which Seagate now is situated. The Sneeden family removed to North Carolina from Pennsylvania. On the paternal side, Wilson Rogers, father of George H. Rogers, was a native North Carolinian having been born in the vicinity of Greenville Sound where he farmed throughout his life. He was in the Confederate service and took part in the defense of Fort Fisher.

Mr. Rogers was married to Miss Anna Lee Rutherford at Shreveport, La., June 10, 1916, daughter of Jesse Lee Rutherford, well known insurance man of that city. The Rutherfords are an old and highly respected Louisiana family, some of whom were Civil War veterans and served with Lee, as is indicated by the frequency of that great Southern name in the family. Four children have been born of the marriage. They are Ruby Elizabeth, Katherine Roy. Luther T. Jr., and Herschel Evans Rogers.


John J. Burney

JOHN JAY BURNEY, member of the law firm of Burney & McClelland, World War veteran and one of the most distinguished and successful young attorneys in Southeastern North Carolina, was born at Elkton, Bladen County, September 13, 1896. He has been a resident of this city since 1914, when he came to accept a place as a clerk in a railroad office and, through the merit of native talent and integrity, he has risen into the prominence of one of the most progressive, influential, and substantial citizens of the community, though still only a young man, thirty-two years of age.

Mr. Burney received his early education in the public schools of Bladen County, which he attended until about 1914. In that year, he came to Wilmington and secured employment in the accounting department of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company. He remained in this position until the United States became involved in the World War, in 1917, when he enlisted. He served two years, including one year in France, and returned home, resuming his clerical duties at the Atlantic Coast Line. In May, 1920, he resigned and established the Equitable Freight Adjustment Bureau, which he operated until June, 1925. In the fall of that year, he enrolled as a student in the Law Department of the Wake Forest College, completing his legal education in preparation for admission to the bar in September, 1926.

Thus is a cold summary of the career of Mr. Burney. But it lacks the interesting details which distinguish a biographical sketch from a mere statistical record. Up to the age of twenty-one years, Mr. Burney's life was the usual life of a boy in a small town and a clerk, busy in the routine of a railroad office. The World War changed the situation. A short time after war was declared, he sought to enlist and was rejected for physical reasons. Following an operation, however, he was accepted for service and assigned to the 66th Engineers, and sent to Camp Laurel, Maryland, for training. In time, his company was ordered to France, arriving in July, 1918. At various times, he was stationed successively in the Sens Department of the Yonne; at St. Florentine; and St. Minneabo, near Verdun.

He has appeared as counsel in some of the most important cases docketed in the long annals of the local courts, including the historic Warren Moore murder trial and civil actions in which many thousands of dollars were involved. In business, he has become a heavy taxpayer on real estate and his collateral investments include interests in Wilmington Savings & Trust Company, the Peoples Savings Bank and the Progressive Building & Loan Association, of which latter institution, he is a director. Religiously, fraternally and commercially, he is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church, St. John's Lodge, No. 1, A. F. & A. M., the Consistory (Thirty-second Degree), the Shrine, the Knights of Pythias, of which he was chancelor for two consecutive terms, the Dramatic Order Knights of Khorssan, Junior Order United American Mechanics, Chamber of Commerce and the Exchange Service Club. In politics, he is a Democrat. His connection with the Wilmington Post of the American Legion has been particularly outstanding. He, at this time, is serving as Commander of the Post, and during his regime, the organization has established a new record for membership, has sponsored many civic movements and social events and, on a percentage basis, is rated as leading other posts of the state for general achievements.

Mr. Burney is of Scotch ancestry. Two MacBurney brothers, came to America from Edinburgh early in the Nineteenth century. One settled in New York; the other James Burney, J. J. Burney's great-grandfather, came South to Bladen County, North Carolina, dropped the “Mac” from his name, as a matter of convenience, and became a prosperous farmer. He was the first senator from Bladen County (1836), under the new State Constitution. His son, Charles H. Burney, succeeded to the estate and continued to farm. He died in 1852, being survived by a son, John W. Burney, who became the father of the subject of this sketch. The Civil War coming on, John W. Burney enlisted in Company K, 42nd Regiment and was one of the gallant defenders of Fort Fisher in 1865. Following the war, he became a man of big influence in Bladen County, engaging in farming, merchandising and lumber manufacturing. Mr. Burney's mother was Margaret (Shaw) Burney, also a native of Bladen County. She was the daughter of Archie M. Shaw, a farmer and a Confederate veteran who served with General Lee's army in Virginia. Archie M. Shaw's father, Randall Shaw, great-grandfather of J. J. Burney, was a native of Edinburgh, who came to America when a youth and amassed a large fortune in land, slaves and other property.

On April 29, 1922, Mr. Burney married Miss Effie Maie Barefoot, daughter of N. B. Barefoot, of Hallsboro, prominent and substantial farmer. One child, John Jay, Jr., has been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Burney.


E.W. Gaither

EDGAR WILLIAM GAITHER, one of the most constructively successful agricultural specialists in the Southeast and a scion of a family that traces uninterruptedly from France, prior to the Renaissance, through England and Wales into Colonial Virginia, at Jamestown, 1622, and thence into Maryland and North Carolina, 1781, was born at Advance, Davie County, April 13, 1879. Mr. Gaither's present position is that of District Agent, North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service with jurisdiction over eighteen counties in this section of the state.

Mr. Gaither received his early education in the public schools of Mecklenburg and Anson Counties, later matriculating at the North Carolina State College at Raleigh from which institution he graduated in 1904. Since leaving college, he has had a most varied and valuable experience, being successively Plant Chemist, Caraleigh Fertilizer Company, Raleigh, 1904-06; Commercial Laboratory Chemist, Lucius P. Brown Company, Nashville, Tennessee, 1906-08; Research Chemist, Crops and Soils, Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster, Ohio, 1908-14; Commercial and Industrial Chemist; Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Paper Clays; Decatur, Alabama, War Potash; and Chicago, Illinois, Aspha-Brick. In 1917, he entered the public service by assignment in war service by U. S. D. A. in food production and conservation, accepting appointment as county agent, Hertford County, North Carolina, with headquarters at Winton. He remained in Winton until 1919, when he became district agent, representing the North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service of the North Carolina State College and the United States Department of Agriculture, with headquarters in the Customs House, Wilmington.

His duties as District Agent take him into all sections of Southeastern North Carolina. The counties in his territory include, New Hanover, Brunswick, Onslow, Duplin, Columbus, Cumberland, Pender, Robeson, Johnson, Sampson, Jones, Lenoir, Bladen, Craven, Pamlico, Green, Carteret and Wayne, each of which except two, has a county agent, giving him a co-operative organization among the strongest in the South. During the last ten years, he has effected a notable change in the methods of farming throughout this area, encouraging with remarkable success, diversification, stock, swine and poultry raising and co-operative marketing. His efforts in the development of the dairy industry have proven probably the most effective and have resulted in the organization of the Cape Fear Milk & Cattle Producers Association, with its resultant diversification benefits—pastures, rejuvenation of the soil, improved fences, better outbuildings and a constant ready-money income, making possible other developments and largely eliminating the possibility of total crop failure. He also has been intensely interested in truck-growing and this region now is among the most productive, in some products, the most productive, in America. His affiliations, aside from his professional lines, are limited, but highclass, including membership in the St. John's Lodge, No. 1, A. F. & A. M.; Thirty-second Degree, Scottish Rite Consistory; Sudan Temple Shrine; and the Epsilon Sigma Phi Greek Fraternity. He also is a member of the Presbyterian Church of the Covenant. Politically, he is a Democrat. For several years he was an active member of the American Chemical Society, composed of outstanding chemists in various cities of the United States and Canada.

Mr. Gaither's ancestral line, of which he has official record, extends back to the close of the Middle Ages, and, in many generations, is more than ordinarily illustrious. The family is originally French, spelled “Gautier,” and lived near the border between France and Germany. The name became Anglicized into “Gaither” when the family was exiled into England in the Seventeenth century. Later, the Gaithers moved into Wales. The American family was founded by “John Gaither, Gentleman, who arrived at Jamestown, Virginia, 1622, from England,” according to Maryland archives. His son John married Ruth Mosely, the record continues, and their son, Benjamin, married Sarah Burgess. All these family names continue prominent in the annals of Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. Benjamin Gaither moved to Maryland, 1709, and was active in establishing Queen Caroline Parish in 1728. He was the surveyor of the county, belonged to the House of Burgesses and otherwise an influential citizen. His wife, Sarah (Burgess) Gaither was of a family of equal importance in the life of the Colony, she being the granddaughter of Colonel William Burgess, of Ann Arundell County, who was at various times, Councilor, Deputy Governor, and eventually Colonel in command of the Colonial troops, 1677. Among the children of Benjamin Gaither was Edward Gaither, great-great-grandfather of

E. W. Gaither, native of Maryland, who married Eleanor Whittle, who became the mother of Captain Basil Gaither, great-grandfather of the subject of this sketch. He and his brother, Burgess Gaither were the founders of the Gaither family in North Carolina. Captain Gaither was a Revolutionary patriot, and had three brothers, Burgess, Benjamin and Greenberry, who also were officers in that historic struggle. He married Margaret Watkins, sister of Colonel Gassoway Watkins, who served in both the Revolution and War of 1812, and was a member of the Order of Cincinnati. Captain Gaither moved to North Carolina, settling in Rowan County, in 1781, and served in the Senate and House of Commons at various times. Six children were born of the marriage of Captain Basil Gaither and Margaret Watkins. Of these William Wiley was the second child and became the father of E. W. Gaither. He was born in Caldwell County and was destined to unusual prominence. He was educated at Davidson College and Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, graduating from the latter, in 1860. He was appointed, November 6, 1861, assistant surgeon, 26th North Carolina Confederate Regiment and, later, was made surgeon of the 25th Regiment. Dr. Gaither served as principal clerk in the House which impeached Governor W. W. Holden, in his second administration, 1869. He married Eugenia P. McComb, native of Mecklenburg County. He died in Brunswick County August 18, 1902, and is buried at Charlotte.

On June 19, 1909, E. W. Gaither married Miss Margaret Valithea Sawyer. Mrs. Gaither is of English stock being a member of the Woodard-Gordon family of Virginia, which landed at Jamestown, in May, 1620, and in straight line father-to-son descendants still live on part of the original grant from King George to the Woodard family. General Gordon was one of her ancestors. Members of the family were active in both the Revolutionary and the Civil Wars. Her father's people are from New England and he was a descendant of the Sawyer-Campbell families, well known Scotch and English names. Two children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Gaither. They are Sarah Elisabeth, now a student in the High School and John Burgess Gaither.


JOSEPH HATCH HINTON, retired hotel owner, president of two of the largest corporations in the city, head of a big development association, capitalist and one of the heaviest taxpayers in this section of the state, is a native of Wilmington and was born March 24, 1870. He has been a recognized influence in Wilmington for the last forty years and is one of the most substantial and progressive citizens in North Carolina.

Mr. Hinton's early education was received in the public schools of New Hanover County, but because of the death of his father, Joseph N. Hinton, Sr., he was compelled, through unhappy circumstances to begin earning his own way at the early age of sixteen. Merest chance caused him to apply to a local hotel for a job. He received it and was assigned to the store room. He was industrious, accurate and agreeable and promotion was prompt. Within a short time, he was acting as clerk and, a short time later, he was performing all the duties and carrying all the responsibilities of a manager but without the title. Two years after taking the stockroom job, or at eighteen years of age, his ability in properly handling the public had become sufficiently notable for him to receive the offer of the management of the Purcell Hotel, then the leading “Inn” of the community. Upon assuming this position he became the youngest proprietor of a first class hotel in the United States, a distinction which gained for him, the hotel and the city a wide publicity in newspapers and magazines.

In 1888, Wilmington having outgrown its hotel facilities, Colonel K. M. Murchison, owner of historic Orton plantation and a local capitalist built a new and highly modern hotel on Front, between Princess and Chestnut streets, which he named for his plantation, The Orton. It was natural that the management of the new Orton be offered to Mr. Hinton and he accepted the place. During the next quarter of a century, or during the entire time it was conducted by Mr. Hinton, The Orton was recognized as the leading hotel of this section, the central pulse of the community and the place where the chief events were held. During the greater part of this period, the hotel was directed and owned by Mr. Hinton in that he purchased the property upon the death of Colonel Murchison in 1906. He still owns The Orton but has retired from its active management.

Inevitably, one endowed with the ability and the energy of Mr. Hinton did not confine his business efforts to a single industrial. He became active in various commercial lines and, although retired, he continues active in the business affairs of the community. When the Fidelity Trust & Investment Company was organized, he was selected as president. When Wrightsville Beach began to assume an importance of more than a local extent, and the need of hotel facilities there became apparent, the Seashore Hotel was built and he was elected president of the holding company. Among his other interests may be included the City Laundry, one of the most complete institutions of its kind in the South and of which he also is president; as also he heads the Kure Land & Development Company and the Co-Operative Building & Loan Association.

Mr. Hinton is of English descent and his ancestry traces back to early North Carolina. The name frequently appears in the history of the state. According to Wheeler, Noah Hinton was a delegate from Bertie County to the Halifax Convention in October, 1775; Colonel John Hinton, of the Hillsboro District was contemporary on the Committee of Safety of that region, with Thomas Davis, Archibald MacLaine and other notables of the Wilmington District. Charles L. Hinton represented Wake in the House of Commons for many years and later, in 1839, became State Treasurer. Mr. Hinton's middle name of “Hatch,” came from the family of Lemuel Hatch, Revolutionary patriot of Craven County. Joseph N. Hinton, Sr., father of the subject of this sketch, was born in Pasquotank County, but came to Wilmington at an early age and taught school in New Hanover County. At the time of his death he was principal of the Wilmington High School for Young Men. Many of the present day older residents of the city were his pupils and his memory is genuinely revered. He married Elizabeth Grant, who became the mother of J. H. Hinton. She was the daughter of Richard H. Grant and Melvina Gause Grant.

On December 10, 1898, Mr. Hinton married Miss Camille Pennington, of Wilmington. Mrs. Hinton was the daughter of Lewis P. Pennington and Mary Fountain Pennington, both of Wilmington. Two children were born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Hinton. They are Lewis P. Hinton and Josephine Hinton.


F.P. O'crowley

FRANCIS PAUL O'CROWLEY, associated with M. G. Volk in the ownership of the Sunshine Laundry, successful business man, originator of the great Feast of Pirates, and, in 1927, formally heralded by hundreds of his fellow townsmen as “Wilmington's Most Valuable Citizen,” is a native of Ireland, having been born in the City of Cork, June 29, 1892. He has been a resident of Wilmington since 1922, but within the short period of seven years he has risen into the first stratum of progressive leaders and civic club chieftains.

Mr. O'Crowley received his early education in private and public schools and, in the fall of 1907, matriculated at Christian Brothers College, Cork, from which institution he graduated in 1909. Upon leaving school, he was apprenticed to an uncle, a jewelry manufacturer in Tralee, County Kerry, eighteen miles from Killarney. He remained in Tralee two years, or until 1911, when he sailed for New York, enroute to Jacksonville, Florida, to visit his brother, Joseph O'Crowley, who had preceded him to America several years. Once here, he decided to stay, “for” to quote his own statement, “whoever came to America and wanted to go back?” The following year, 1912, he obtained employment as a salesman out of the Jacksonville office of the Loose-Wiles Biscuit Company, Kansas City and Chicago. During the next five years, he had headquarters successively at Lake City, West Palm Beach, Gainesville and Tampa. In 1917, when America declared war against Germany, he went to Miami sought to enlist, was refused, and thereupon went to Canada where he succeeded and was assigned to the air force. He remained in the air force as a training pilot until the close of the war when he returned to Jacksonville and again became a salesman for the Loose-Wiles company. In 1919, he was transferred to Columbia, S. C., as sales manager in charge of that branch. During the next two years he was sales manager for the branches at Charlotte and Atlanta, Ga. In 1922, he joined interests with M. G. Volk, with whom he had been associated in Columbia and later in Charlotte, came to Wilmington and purchased a partially abandoned laundry, moved it into larger quarters, re-equipped it, changed its name to the Sunshine Laundry and, since, has been doing an increasing volume of business.

Although a leading business man and whose company only last year, 1928, expended many thousands of dollars in an expansion program, Mr. O'Crowley principally is known as the man who is responsible for the prevailing progressive spirit and the unity of purpose that now obtains among Wilmington business men. His personal magnetism, his earnest enthusiasm and genuine civic pride, together with his genius for organization and getting results place him among the best known progressives in North Carolina. His outstanding local achievement is the Feast of Pirates, Wilmington's mid-summer carnival classic, which attracts thousands of visitors to the city annually and bids fair to challenge the historic New Orleans Mardi Gras in the magnitude of its scope and popularity. Following the first Feast of Pirates, he was presented with a gold watch by his fellow citizens, of every class, and on that occasion was formally declared the city's most valuable citizen. He acted as presiding officer of the organization for two successive years and declined the place for the third year. His other civic activities are similarly characteristic of him. He has been called upon at innumerable times to assist in good roads, Red Cross and special movements and as secretary of the Lions Club, local service organization, his services have been equally valuable. His other affiliations, of a local nature are United Commercial Travelers, Travelers Aid Society and Frying Pan Power Boat Club. It is a reasonable estimate that he devotes two full months time each year at actual work in behalf of the city, in addition to generous contributions in real money. In religion, he is a Catholic, being a communicant at St. Mary's. In politics, he is a Democrat. He holds associational memberships in the National Laundryowners Association and the Tri-State Laundry-owners Association.

Mr. O'Crowley is of pure Irish stock and the family has been well-known in the South of Ireland for generations. He is a lineal descendant of Neill O'Crowley, of Dunscombe Woods, whose persistent leadership in one of the Irish rebellions of the seventeenth century, caused him to be hanged, drawn and quartered. His grandfather, Jeremiah O'Crowley, became a seaman, sailing from Cork and Queenstown into all the ports of the world. He was attached to a British blockade runner during the American Civil War and, while there is no definite record that he was aboard any ship running the gauntlet of Federal vessels off Fort Fisher, it is a reasonable presumption that he was; at least, that he probably was. The father of Mr. O'Crowley was James Francis O'Crowley, from whom he secures his first name of Francis. He was

born in Cork and has the distinction of having originated and organized the Gaelic Athletic Association of Ireland, an association that still is in existence. He was one of the officials of the association and, at times, acted as handicapper and starter in the various events. He was a jeweler by trade. For a long period, he was the only manufacturing jeweler in Ireland and turned out hand made work of rarely charming design. It is of record in the City of Cork that he made the Gold Keys presented to the Prince of Wales (afterwards Edward VII, of England), upon the occasion of that notable's visit to Ireland in 1882. He also was selected to make the Gold Keys presented to the great Stewart Parnell, upon the occasion of that patriot's visit to Cork. Mr. O'Crowley's mother was Kathleen O'Connell, native of Ballincolling County Cork. She was the daughter of P. S. O'Connell, a business man of that city and normally influential.

On April 15, 1915, Mr. O'Crowley married Miss Margaret Love Morrow, of Jacksonville, Florida. Mrs. O'Crowley was born in Belfast, Ireland, but came to this country when a child. Her father was James Morrow, engaged in the tailoring business and official manufacturer of uniforms and the various regalia of the officials of Belfast. Three children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. O'Crowley. They are Elizabeth Kathleen, twelve; Eileen Frances, ten; and an infant son (deceased).


ROBERT MERRITT KERMON, successful lawyer and one of the best known young men in New Hanover County was born at Acme, just across the Cape Fear River from Wilmington, in Columbus County, June 1, 1893. He is a product of Wilmington and a splendid examplar of the possibilities of this section when a young man is endowed with the courage and industry and determination to take advantage of the opportunities offered. He stands exceedingly high in the esteem of Wilmington's entire citizenship.

Mr. Kermon's early education was received in the public schools of Wilmington, known until a few years ago as the Union Schools. He later attended the Alderman private school, the Wilmington High School, the Wilmington Law School and finished by enrolling as a student in the special course of the Law Department of Wake Forest College. His career has been varied but constantly toward the goal of law, upon which profession he determined when a youth, but because of circumstances was denied a quick entry being compelled to accomplish his purpose by the tedious, but most valuable method of hard work, night study and enduring pluck while he “earned his way.” The world, and properly so, thinks more of a boy who achieves in that way. Mr. Kermon's first job was in 1908-09, when he acted as quartermaster of the Steamer Wilmington, under the late Captain John W. Harper. In 1910, when seventeen years of age, Mr. Kermon applied for and received a job as an electrician's helper with the Southern Electrical Company, of which John Hall was the chief owner. In 1912 and 1913, he was employed by J. W. Blake, electrician, and as an electrician for the local plant of the Swift Fertilizer Company. One year later, 1914, when twenty years of age, he entered the electrical contracting business by joining with Eugene C. Dixon and establishing the firm of Dixon & Kermon, a firm now operating under the name of the City Electrical Company and owned by Mr. Dixon and Thomas A. Henderson. He remained in association with Mr. Dixon until 1917 when the World War broke out and he sold his interest with a view of enlisting. He was rejected, however, by the army officers because of defective vision, but, undaunted, he volunteered as a special recruiting officer and helped raise the cavalry company, commanded by Captain Thomas E. Gause, and the Engineering Corps, in command of Captain Ira Hines. He also spiritedly assisted in all local war movements and in any capacity to which he was assigned by the committees in charge. In the meantime, he was engaged in private electrical contracting. In 1919, he was appointed meter inspector for New Hanover County under the Act of the Legislature passed in that year.

Endowed with virtually an unlimited energy, he opened in 1919 the Union Bath House at Wrightsville Beach, an institution which he continues to operate. Five years later, in 1924, he leased and operated Carolina Beach, another popular resort near Wilmington for the entire season, placing that beach on a basis which has caused it to consistently grow in attractions each succeeding season. One year prior to taking over Carolina Beach, he leased the Academy of Music, located in the City Hall and owned by the city. This lease was for a period of three years and each season he brought a series of high class stock companies and road shows to the city. His lease expired in 1925 and it is no secret that the city has been practically without such amusements since that time. At this time, he saw his opportunity to study law and enrolled as a student at the Wilmington Law School, attending lectures when his business would permit, attending court when possible and studying the text books at night. He steadily advanced and, in the Spring of 1927, he enrolled at Wake Forest, completed the course and August 23 of that year was admitted to practice in the courts of North Carolina and in the Federal courts. Since then, he has devoted his time to his profession and with a notably increasing clientele. His outside associations are limited. He is a member of the First Presbyterian Church and takes a normal interest in the auxiliary work of that congregation. He was a charter member, 1906, of Company B, Colonel Walker Taylor's Boys Brigade and continued a member of that organization until it was disbanded during the World War. He also is a member of the Junior Order United American Mechanics, and the Ioga Tribe, Independent Order of Red Men. Politically, he is a Democrat, a member of that party County Executive Committee and, in 1928, was a candidate for the Legislature, making a creditable race against an exceptionally strong field.

Mr. Kermon is of Scotch descent and his American ancestry traces back to Colonial Beaufort County. His father was Captain William J. Kermon, Confederate veteran and

Robert. M. Kermon.

one of the gallant defenders of Fort Fisher in 1864-65. Following the Civil War, Captain Kermon was engaged in the steamboat business and for two score years prior to his death, in 1913 was employed in the Government Service on the Cape Fear River and was in charge of the Government Yacht Mercer, attached to the local headquarters of the United States Engineering Department. Captain Kermon was a native of Beaufort County, as were his ancestors for many generations, and with his single exception all engaged in farming. Captain Kermon married Rosalia R. Robbins, native of Columbus County and daughter of Joel Robbins. Her mother, Robert M. Kermon's grandmother, was Harriet Bryant (Carpenter) Robbins, native of Virginia. The family was connected with the Carpenter and Lee families of the Old Dominion.

On November 25, 1914, Mr. Kermon married Miss Annie M. Todd, of Wilmington. Mrs. Kermon was born in this city and is the daughter of Lewis Todd, who served under the Confederate Flag during the War between the States, and Anne M. Todd, both natives of New Hanover County. Two children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Kermon. They are Robert M. Jr., and Louis Todd.


J. J. Adkins.

CAPT. JOHN JAROD ADKINS, veteran pilot, filibusterer during the thrilling days prior to the Spanish-American war, a veteran of that conflict and, later, an active participant in the World War, is a native of the historic Cape Fear region, being born in New Hanover County, October 24, 1851. His activities have covered a period of more than fifty years and during the epochal half century when this section and the nation registered their greatest development. It has been his fortunate experience to serve prominently in the excitements which described the last quarter of the last century and also during the present era of mighty progress.

Captain Adkins was a boy, nine years old, when the struggle between the North and South began and the great events of that period developed in him a spirit for adventure. Too, he is the son of the late Capt. James Newton Adkins, pilot of the Ella and Annie and other daring blockade runners of 1861-65, that darted in and out of the Wilmington harbor, scorning the great Federal fleets mobilized off Smithville, now Southport and New Inlet (Fort Fisher). His early experiences inevitably inclined him toward the sea and, when a boy, only nineteen, he received his first license as a pilot. This was in 1870 and the document was issued by the immortal Zebulon B. Vance, then Governor of North Carolina. Since then, Captain Adkins has traveled down the corridor of time amidst experiences that seldom have been paralleled by a single individual.

In the Seventies and Eighties, he devoted himself to the duties of a pilot in the Cape Fear, bringing in and taking out ships from all ports of the world. His life, during this period, was largely the life of the usual pilot. But the spirit of adventure, inherited from the daring blockade runner of a generation before, was merely lying dormant, awaiting the proverbial spark to cause it to flame forth. The unhappy conditions in Cuba supplied the match. That Island, for centuries a victim of Spanish tyranny, rebelled in the Nineties under the leadership of Gomez and the heroic manner in which the people of that stricken region sought to overthrow the Castilian yoke aroused the sympathy and the admiration of America. Captain Adkins, however, was one who did more than merely admire and sympathize. He entertained a most intense hatred of the policies of “Butch” Weyler, the Spanish governor, and joined with other hardy mariners in various filibustering expeditions in a patriotic effort to supply the Revolutionists with arms, ammunition and food. As captain of the famous Alexander Jones, fitted out in Wilmington, and making his rendevous in Fernandina, Florida, he became a serious problem to the Spanish authorities. Out-guessing and out-maneuvering the Spanish spies, he ran the blockades under the guns of their battleships and the frowning cannon of the Spaniards, and those of the American Navy, tantalizing the Spanish government as to become almost internationally known.

And then came the tragic Maine disaster. One of America's finest battleships was blown up in the Havana harbor. The United States declared war against Spain. This was exactly what Captain Adkins had been hoping for years. He promptly enlisted, was sent to Charleston, commissioned a lieutenant, junior grade and assigned to the navy's fleet in the Southern waters. He was attached to the U. S. S. Waban, as commander at Charleston and given command of the flotilla by Commander C. H. Arnold, and proceeded to Key West. The Waban's services throughout the period of the war were notable even among the unprecedented achievements of the American navy of that time. Captain Adkins now has letters in his files from Admiral Jones, Capt. C. H. Rockwell, of the Flagship Chicago, and other high officials commending his effective exploits in the waters off Key West. They are precious documents and properly will become heirlooms, passed down from one generation to another in the Adkins family.

The war over, Captain Adkins resumed the now prosaic duties of a Cape Fear Bar pilot. His discharge was received September 8, 1898, and during that month, he returned to Wilmington and Southport. But his active nature did not permit confinement to the duties of a single position. In 1907, he was employed by the Paulsen Company, Savannah, Georgia, to superintend the re-building of their four-masted schooner. Forest City, in New York. After completing repairs, the call of the sea and adventure, persuaded him to continue his services with that company and for three years he sailed the Forest City in coastwise trade along the Atlantic. He became industrious in seeking to improve channel conditions on the Lower Cape Fear and to maintaining efficiency in the profession of pilotage and navigation. Among his papers may be found formal appointments as delegate to the annual conventions of the Atlantic

Deeper Waterways convention in Savannah, Ga., in 1915, and at Miami, Fla., in 1917. He was appointed by Gov. Locke Craig to the former and Gov. T. W. Bickett to the latter. He also was sent to Washington as a delegate of the Cape Fear Pilot Association to secure certain aids, has consistently resisted adverse legislation to the pilotage service, both at Raleigh and Washington, and otherwise was prominent, including a lieutenancy in the Naval Battalion of the State Guard of the Russell administration, during the period between the Spanish-American and the World War. During the latter conflict, he was made chairman of many Brunswick County war committees and also an inspector of the Emergency Ship Building Corporation, whose duty it was to take out, as commander, the fleet of concrete and other ships built here during that time to test their efficiency of speed and engine power. Suggestive of the high esteem in which he is held by Federal authorities he now holds license from the steamboat inspector service of the Commerce Department, qualifying him to command, any sail vessel or steamship of any tonnage in any ocean or sea. He probably is the only North Carolinian who holds such licenses.

Since the World War, he has settled down to semi-retirement. He continues to act as pilot, attached to the Southport base. His chief activities, however, are civic, rather than maritime. He is a member of the Wilmington Lions Club and high in its councils. He was one of the principal movers in the recent campaign to have the state take over the Bell Swamp road in Brunswick county, reducing the distance on an improved highway, by fifteen miles between Wilmington and Southport. He is a member of Orient Lodge, A. F. & A. M., Wilmington, and has been a Mason for many years. His other affiliations include membership in the George Davis Camp, Sons of Confederate Veterans, the Spanish-American War Veterans and the Wilmington-Cape Fear Pilot Association. In politics, he is a life-long Democrat and takes an influential interest in campaigns preceding each election. His principal business connections are with the Peoples United Bank, of Southport, and Peoples Savings Bank of Wilmington.

Captain Adkins is of Scotch and English stock. His father, Capt. James Newton Adkins, was a native of Onslow County and the son of James M. Adkins who came to America in the early part of the Eighteenth century, landing at Boston, Captain Adkins’ mother was Susan C. (Burriss) Adkins, native of New Hanover County and daughter of James N. Burriss, a native of England, and a pilot and captain on the Cape Fear River. Captain Adkins has been married three times. His first wife was Miss Minnie Smith, of Southport, to whom he was wedded in 1881. In 1884, he married Miss Addie Crowder, also of Southport. The last Mrs. Adkins was Miss Ellen Elizabeth Clemmons, daughter of J. Hardy Clemmons, of Brunswick County, and Confederate veteran C. S. N., to whom he was married August 31, 1886, the date of the Charleston Earthquake. Four children have been born of the third marriage, two living. They are Alice E. Adkins, now living in Charlotte, N. C., and John J. Adkins, Jr., at home.


WAYNE ALEXANDER FONVIELLE, active in Real Estate and Building & Loan and one of the best known and substantial young business men of Wilmington, was born in Onslow County, North Carolina, March 3, 1893. He has been a resident of this city for about fifteen years.

Mr. Fonvielle was educated in the public schools of Wayne County, and upon finishing the grammar, or grade, course, he was enrolled as a student in the Goldsboro, Wayne County, High School, in which institution his father and mother also had been students. Upon completing High School, he was sent to Elon College, from which he graduated in 1915, in the commercial course.

Immediately after graduating from college, he began to consider a definite business occupation and decided upon real estate. He came to Wilmington and entered the employ of the late L. W. Moore, for many years one of the leading real estate and insurance men of this section. Seven years later, or in 1923, he became an associate of Mr. Moore in the Moore-Fonvielle Realty Company and the Moore Insurance Agency.

Within a short time, he became assistant-secretary of the Carolina Building & Loan Association and, upon the death of Mr. Moore, in 1926, he became president of the Moore-Fonvielle Realty Company and the Moore Insurance Agency. He also was elected secretary-treasurer of the Carolina Building & Loan Association, succeeding Mr. Moore in that position. The latter association is advertised as the largest of its kind in Eastern North Carolina and Mr. Fonvielle's associate officers in the organization include such well known men as E. T. Taylor, president; J. O. Carr, counsel, and others. In addition to his strictly business connections, Mr. Fonvielle also is active in other lines. Following in the footsteps of the Fonvielle's for generations, he early became a member of the Baptist Church and now is a deacon in the First Baptist Church congregation of Wilmington. He also is a member of the Masonic Lodge and the local lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He was president of the Wilmington Real Estate Board in 1928 and affiliates with the state association. His civic club connections are with the Lions, which service organization he joined several years ago and has consistently co-operated in all its major, social and incidental activities. Politically, he is a Democrat. Few young business men of this section have been more industrious and effective in co-operating for the civic and commercial advancement of Wilmington. He accepts such duties and responsibilities as leading citizens of all communities must bear if their city keeps abreast of modern movements and accomplishments. His services as president of the Real Estate Board, and his committee work with Lions Club, the church and other organizations have invariably been characterized by industry and thoroughness.

Mr. Fonvielle is of French and English stock. His ancestry on both sides, were early American settlers in what now is Onslow, but at the time the first Fonvielles came, it was a part of New Hanover County. His father was Eugene H. Fonvielle, a native of Goldsboro and a well known merchant and farmer of that section. His mother was Cora (Keaton) Fonvielle, also born in Goldsboro and the daughter of A. H. Keaton, native of Wayne County and a citizen of much prominence throughout that area. The grandfather, Louis Oliver Fonvielle, was born in Onslow County, where he, like his forebears for several generations engaged in farming. He later removed to Wayne County, near Goldsboro, where he reared a family and was a successful farmer. Upon the outbreak of the Civil War, Louis Oliver Fonvielle enlisted in the Confederacy, and served throughout that unhappy conflict. The great-grandfather, D. W. Fonvielle, was one of the most extensive property owners in this part of the state and one of the influential men of his period. He was a member of the House of Commons from Onslow County, being contemporary with John F. Spicer, John B. Pollock, Thomas Ennett and other notables of Onslow of the years preceding the Civil War. It is probable his son, Louis Oliver Fonvielle, was named for Louis T. Oliver, distinguished in the political life of Onslow in the first quarter of the last century.

Mr. Fonvielle's marriage to Miss Pearle F. Fogleman was the happy climax of a college romance. The wedding took place at Elon college, June 16, 1916, one year after his location in Wilmington and his definite establishment in business. Mrs. Fonvielle is the daughter of L. C. Fogleman, native of historic Alamance County. Three children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Fonvielle. They are W. A., Jr., Chris Eugene and Lloyd W.


Archie Seigler

ARCHIE SEIGLER, progressive young business man, World War veteran with a creditable record, Past-Commander of the local American Legion and prominently identified with various other Wilmington organizations, was born at Dillon, South Carolina, November 14, 1889. He has the distinction of being the first child born in Dillon, which was founded as a railroad junction in that year and now has grown into one of the most substantial small cities in the state. His father, Samuel Seigler, started and owned the first store in the community.

Mr. Seigler left school in 1905, when sixteen years of age, and became associated with his father in the conduct of the furniture store, which the elder Seigler was operating in Wilmington at that time. He continued in this capacity for about twelve years, or until the World War began, in April, 1917, when he sought to enlist and was rejected. He promptly began to re-condition himself, physically, and, November 17, 1917, again volunteered for service at Detroit, Michigan, was accepted and assigned to the 23rd Engineers. His company was sent to Columbus Barracks. Columbus, Ohio, thence to Camp Meade, Maryland, where, following a period of intensive training, it was stationed when ordered to overseas duty, in early January, 1918. He was in France for nearly eighteen months, participating in the St. Mihiel and other historic American offensives. Although he escaped bullets, the exposures and rigid army life ruined his health and, upon his return to America, in June, 1919, army physicians instructed that he be sent to Fort Bayard, New Mexico, to recuperate. he remained at Fort Bayard until November, 1920, when upon his own insistence, he was transferred to Fort Dodge, Iowa, and given his discharge papers.

Upon his return to Wilmington, still broken in health but as undaunted in spirit as during the perilous American drives in France, he began to search for an opportunity which his physicial condition would permit him to turn into a livelihood. He eventually decided upon the pressing and dry-cleaning business and opened a veritable “hole in the wall” in an upstairs room on Princess Street. Constant attention to his work and his positive refusal to let other than strictly high class quality work leave his establishment, attracted increased business and within two years he moved into larger quarters at 128 Market Street, occupying the entire building and assuming the firm name of Enterprise Cleaners. He bought improved machinery and can take care of any fabric with every modern expertness possible to that industry. Also, he has a payroll of about ten employes, some of whom are skilled, and operates two auto delivery wagons. His plant is equal to the best in the state and he is the sole owner.

Mr. Seigler has various associational affiliations. He is a member of the Merchants Association and co-operates liberally with any movements sponsored by that organization. He also is a member of the Wilmington Post of the American Legion and has occupied many positions in its official roster, including Vice-Commander and Commander. During his administration as Commander, the Post laid the foundation for its recent membership campaigns, which have placed it, on a percentage basis, as the leading post in North Carolina. He also affiliates with the Junior Order United American Mechanics, Knights of Pythias, the Eagles Lodge and is an active member of Colonel Walker Taylor's Boys Brigade Club, a social organization of business and professional men who were enrolled at that great institution prior to 1914. Also, he is a member of the 40 et 8, a social auxiliary of the American Legion and has filled official positions in that order.

Mr. Seigler is of German stock on his paternal and English on his maternal side of the family. His father, Samuel Seigler, was a native of Hamburg, Germany, and came to America shortly after the Civil War, landing in New York. He later came South and, in 1889, went to Dillon, S. C., where he started a store for the convenience of the community and thus acquired the distinction of being that city's first merchant—not a small distinction since Dillon has grown into more than of ordinary importance. Samuel Seigler married Sarah Dees, who became the mother of Archie Seigler. She was a native of South Carolina and the daughter of John Dees, a Confederate veteran and, following the war, a farmer of the vicinity of Pee Dee, S. C.

On June 19th, 1924, Mr. Seigler married Miss Edna King, of Wilmington, at Florence, S. C. Mrs. Seigler is the daughter of James King, now connected with the Tide Water Power Company of this city and descended from a long line of Wilmington ancestry. One child, Robert Seigler, has been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Seigler.


OLIVER EDGAR TODD, secretary-treasurer of the Progressive Building & Loan Association and one of the most successful young business men of this section of North Carolina, was born at Loris, Horry County, South Carolina, March 20, 1886. He has been a resident of Wilmington, since 1914, when he came here from his native state to accept a position in the auditing department of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company's General offices.

He attended the Horry County Public Schools and occupied himself in the various capacities of a boy on his father's farm until he was nineteen years of age, or until 1905. In that year, he enrolled in Draughon's Business College, at Columbia, South Carolina, one of the standard commercial training schools in the South. Upon graduation from Draughon's he returned to Loris and was engaged in the general merchandise business for a period of about four years when he disposed of his mercantile interests and organized, in 1909, the Loris Telephone Company, which served the town and rural section of the county, with long-distance connections with the Southern Bell Telephone System. He was sole owner of the telephone company and acted as president and general manager, until he disposed of the property, in 1914, selling to his brother, G. H. Todd, who still owns and operates the plant.

Upon coming to Wilmington, he remained with the General Offices of the Coast Line until 1919 when he became associated with the Progressive Building & Loan Association, then in its infancy, as a bookkeeper. One year later, 1920, he was elected Secretary-Treasurer and has continued in that position to date. As a business man, he has been a pronounced success. As evidence of this, the Progressive Building & Loan, in 1920, had total assets of approximately $100,000; at the present time, its assets are eight times that amount, or over $800,000, invested in high class homes in Wilmington and its vicinity. The association owns attractive and modern headquarters on one of the busy streets in the down-town section, has a notable and substantial group of men as officers and employs a number of clerks, bookkeepers and other attaches of a progressive and rapidly growing business. He takes a normally active interest in church, lodge and civic affairs. His church affiliations are Baptist and he is a regular communicant of the First Church in this city. Fraternally, he is a member of the local lodges of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias and the Improved Order of Red Men. He also is a member of the Chamber of Commerce. Politically, he follows his ancestry and is allied with the Democratic party.

Mr. Todd is of English descent. His earliest American ancestors were of the early generations that braved the perils of the Atlantic and the even greater perils of savages skulking in a continent of wilderness. The Todds were among the first Colonials and the descendants of the South Carolina. They have followed the various pursuits, but usually, they were farmers. The direct ancestral line of O. E. Todd remains in Horry County—all his lineal forebears being natives of that section. His grandfather, Joseph Todd, like his fathers before him was a farmer. Prior to the Civil War, in which he served with distinction as a Confederate, he was prosperous in lands and personal property. His son, Cornelius B. Todd, father of Oliver E. Todd, also was a native of Horry County, and was a prosperous farmer and business man. He married Susan Jane Williamson, who became the mother of the subject of this sketch. She also was born in Horry County and was descended through a long line of planters, from the pre-Revolutionary period. Like the Todds, the Williamsons are of English stock.

Mr. Todd married Miss Bessie Hughes, June 8, 1908 at Loris, South Carolina, Mrs. Todd is the daughter of Samuel P. Hughes, a farmer of that county. Her mother was Sarah Elizabeth Hughes. The Hughes family traces into the Colonial times. William Hughes, father of Samuel P. Hughes was born in Horry County, served as a Confederate soldier and was influential throughout that section. His father was of Scotch descent.


LOUIS ANDREW DELOLLE HANSON, chemical manufacturer, extensive real estate owner, World War veteran, active civic leader and a young business man of progressive ideas and splendid citizenship, was born in Wilmington, North Carolina, July 17, 1890. He is president and general manager and principal owner of the Spirittine Chemical Company, a corporation founded by his father, the late Louis Hanson I, in July 1878; for many years the only institution of its kind in the United States.

Mr. Hanson received his early education in the public schools of Wilmington. Later he took a special course in chemistry in the University of Pittsburgh, formerly known as the Western University of Pennsylvania. Upon his return from Pittsburgh in 1910, he began his business career with his father, Louis Hanson I. July 1918, he entered the service of his country as a private, in the 30th Division U. S. A., and served his country until the Armistice, when he was discharged with rank of Lieutenant, and placed in the Reserve Corps of the United States Army.

Returning home, he assumed the management of the Spirittine Chemical Company, immediately upon retirement of Mr. Hanson, Sr., who had been the active head of this company since its founding in 1878. The plant of the Spirittine Chemical Company is located at the Foot of Dawson Street; manufacturers of pine oils, pine wood creosotes, various disinfecting oils and insect destroyers and exterminators for termities, Mediterranean flies and wood borers, and other pine oil preparations. Its business extends to every section of the United States and into Mexico, Cuba, Canada and other foreign countries. The company has just completed fifty years of successful business, and the industry is an important business asset of the city. In addition, Mr. Hanson is a heavy taxpayer by reason of his extensive realty holdings, investments of a varying character, and otherwise, he is one of the progressive and substantial citizens of this section.

Aside from his strictly business connections, Mr. Hanson takes an unusually active interest in the religious, social, civic and fraternal life of the city, recognizing the responsibilities of citizenship and assuming those responsibilities. He is a communicant of St. Paul's Lutheran Church; a member of the Church Council for the past seven years, and superintendent of the Sunday School for the past eight years. He served as a member of the board of directors of the local Y. M. C. A., for ten consecutive years, and takes a generous interest in the welfare of the Salvation Army, Y. W. C. A., Red Cross and other religious and semi-religious organizations. He has maintained and operated a mission Sunday School in the southern part of the city for the past six years; much good work is being accomplished. Also, Mr. Hanson has been a member of the Board of Governors of the James Walker Memorial Hospital of this city for several years, and at present is vice-president of that board. He is prominently identified with the Rotary Club, having been a member since its organization in Wilmington and is especially interested in the boys work and the clinic for crippled children. Fraternally, he is affiliated with the Wilmington Post of the American Legion and the Masonic bodies, of the latter, being a member of Orient Lodge, No. 395, A. F. & A. M., Thirty-second degree Scottish Rite Mason; a Knights Templar and a member of the Sudan Shrine. Mr. Hanson has been an active member of the Frying Pan Power Boat Club, since its organization, serving as Second Commodore of the Club, and professionally, he has membership in the American Society for the Advancement of Science. Withal, he is a decidedly well rounded and exceedingly valuable citizen.

Mr. Hanson is of Danish stock on his father's side and German through his mother's people. His father, the late Louis Hanson, Sr., was a native of Svaneke, Bornholm, Denmark, having come to the United States when a lad of fifteen. Mr. Hanson's grandfather was naturalized as an American citizen in Boston, 1842. His mother was Augusta (Glameyer) Hanson and a native of Ottendorf, Germany. The elder Mr. Hanson's sociological religious and practical philanthropic work among his employes and others, is well known throughout this section, a work his son Louis II, continues with splendid results.

On November 4, 1918, Mr. Hanson married Miss Katherine Christine Vollers, of Wilmington. Mrs. Hanson is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. H. L. Vollers of this city. Both H. Vollers and L. Vollers, paternal and maternal grandfathers of Mrs. Hanson served with much distinction in the Confederate cause as commissioned officers in the Southern armies. Three children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Hanson. They are: Katherine, Louis III, and Elizabeth.


ERNEST EDWIN KILBURN, general superintendent of the Tide Water Power Company, is a native of New England and was born in Boston, Massachusetts, July 27, 1885. He has been a resident of Wilmington for eleven years, during which period the Tide Water Power Company has registered a development perhaps unparalleled by any other similar public utilities in the entire country.

He received his early education in the public schools of Boston and, later, as a student in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, regarded as one of the best schools of its kind in the world. He graduated from this institution in 1908, following a four year course in the electrical engineering department. From that date to the present time, he has been constantly engaged in his profession, largely in Connecticut and North Carolina.

Immediately after graduation at Boston Tech, he became a member of the electrical engineering staff of the Industrial Instrument Company, now the Foxboro Company, with headquarters at Waterbury, Connecticut. The Industrial Instrument Company, or The Foxboro, as it now is known, manufactures a vast variety of standard electrical instruments, is a nationally known corporation, and the training received by Mr. Kilburn, then a young man, just out of school, proved most valuable. He remained with this firm for two years, securing all the benefits of the practical experience which the connection afforded.

In 1910, he resigned his place with the Foxboro people and accepted the position as chief electrical engineer of the Standard Engineering Company, also of Waterbury. He had been here but one year when the Shore Line Electric Railway Company, with headquarters at Saybrook, Connecticut, made him a most attractive offer and he accepted. He moved his headquarters to Saybrook and began his new duties as electrical engineer for the Shore Line in the latter part of 1911. He was with this company, seven years later, when he resigned and came to Wilmington as general superintendent of the Tide Water Power Company. At the time, Mr. Kilburn came here, the Tide Water was serving only one community, Wilmington, as an electric lighting, power and gas utility. The company, at the present time (1929) has more than 400 miles of power lines, permeating into a wide section of southeastern North Carolina and serving approximately seventy-five cities and towns. The growth of the Tide Water Power Company is one of the developments in North Carolina which has caused this state to challenge the admiration of the world during the last decade.

Mr. Kilburn's business, civic and social affiliations are those of the usual leading citizen of a progressive and accomplishing community. He has a son in the High school and therefore, he is a member of the Parent Teachers Association of that institution. He also is a member of the school committee which serves Seagate, Wrightsville and Wrightsville Beach. He has been a member of the Chamber of Commerce since his removal to this city and is an active member of the Kiwanis Club, being one of the committee on attendance. Beyond the confines of Wilmington and New Hanover County, he affiliates with the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, a standard organization of its kind, the National Electric Light Association and the Southeastern Electrical Association. Fraternally, he is a member of the Masonic lodge, and the York Rite Commandery, also, he belongs to the Waterbury Lodge, Independent Order of Odd Fellows. His religious connections are Presbyterian, he being a regular communicant of the Church of the Covenant of this city. Politically, he is Independent.

Mr. Kilburn is of English stock and dates his American ancestry back for nearly three hundred years, or to the Colonial 1640's. The first Kilburn was a member of the Massachusetts settlement and, in succeeding generations pioneered into Maine and other parts of New England. Members of the early family took part in the Colonial wars and also were enrolled in the patriot armies of the Revolution. Mr. Kilburn's father, Joseph E. Kilburn, was a native of Maine and a steamship and electrical engineer by trade. He married Izora C. Kingsbury, also a native of Maine. They removed to Boston during their early married life and their children were born in that city. The grandfather of Mr. Kilburn was William Kilburn, a native of Maine and a typical Yankee Skipper, having been a captain on the swift sailing vessels which made that period one of the most notable in history for American maritime commerce. And, it may be parenthetically noted, with the end of that generation also came the beginning of the end of America's challenge as a shipbuilding nation.

Mr. Kilburn married Miss Elsie Holt, at Thomaston, Connecticut, June 3, 1913. Mrs. Kilburn is the daughter of Luther J. Holt, a farmer living in the vicinity of Thomaston. One child, Clarence, 13 years old and now a student in the High school, has been born of their marriage.


CLAUDE HUNTLEY MCALLISTER, native New Englander, was born in Old Saybrook, Connecticut, December 5, 1893, educated in the public schools of that city and early began his training as a practical electrical engineer. He now is superintendent of the electric meter division of the Tide Water Power Company, which serves this entire section of North Carolina.

In 1910, when only 17 years of age, he struck out for himself and secured a place as assistant rodman with the survey department of the New York, New Haven & Hartford (The New Haven) Railroad Company. His headquarters were at New Haven. He remained a rodman for only one year, when he resigned to engage in the electrical business, entering the firm of W. L. Whitney & Company, Middletown, Connecticut, as a wireman.

In 1913, however, he was offered a position and returned to the New Haven Railroad Company as an electrical signal maintainer of the Shore Line Division and, as such, once more became a resident of New Haven. In the course of his duties, he became acquainted with E. E. Kilburn, then in Madison, Connecticut, and now general superintendent of the Tide Water, with headquarters in Wilmington. He became associated with Mr. Kilburn, in 1915, and continued at Madison until the United States entered the World War.

Mr. McAllister enlisted at New Haven in the air service of the Regular Army, in October, 1917. He was immediately sent to Fort Slocumb, New York, for initial training. He was transferred, under special orders, to Washington and thence assigned to duty at Kelly Field, near San Antonio, Texas, arriving there in late November. Then followed a series of promotions and transfers, successively including Ellington Field, near Houston, Texas, as sergeant-instructor and chief radio man and Gerster Field, Lake Charles, Louisiana, as radio-telephone instructor with a special assignment to the research squad, under Colonel Clarence Culver, then investigating the possibilities of radio-telephone communication and its practical application to army service. He was at Gerster Field until October, 1918, when he was transferred to Columbia University, New York City to continue research work at Columbia when the Armistice was signed and the war ended. He was given his discharge at Columbia, November 29, 1918.

The war over, he returned to his home at Old Saybrook and visited for a few weeks when he accepted his present position, offered him by E. E. Kilburn, who, in 1918, had accepted the general superintendency of the Tide Water Power Company and had removed to Wilmington. His duties with the Tide Water are responsible and on occasion, take him to the nearly four score communities served by that big public utilities in this section.

He is active in religious, civic and fraternal organizations. He is a communicant of the First Presbyterian Church of this city; a member of Salome Lodge, No. 32, A. F. & A. M., Scottish Rite Consistory, Thirty-second Degree; Shrine Drum Corps of Sudan Temple; and high in the councils of the Wilmington Post of the American Legion. He also is a member and now commodore (presiding officer) of the Frying Pan Boat Club, the organization that successfully entertained the National Outboard Boat Races here in 1928. In politics, he is a Republican.

Mr. McAllister's ancestors are Scotch and English and came to America and settled in New England prior to the Revolution. His great-grandfather removed to Pennsylvania in the early part of the last century and two generations of McAllisters continued to reside in that state. The grandfather of C. H. McAllister, was born in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and followed farming as his father had done before him, in that section.

George McAllister, father of C. H., also was born in Allegheny County, but, in 1870, he became dissatisfied with conditions in that district of the Keystone State and decided to return to New England, the original home of the McAllisters in America. He settled at Old Saybrook where he operated a carriage manufacturing plant until the advent of the automobile when he re-equipped his factory for the repair of the vehicles of the newer mode of transportation. George McAllister married Ida (Huntley) McAllister, native of Connecticut, as were her parents and their parents for many generations. Several McAllisters and Huntleys were soldiers in the Federal army during the Civil War and their forebears took part in the War of 1812 and the Revolution.


MADISON MONROE RILEY, agent at Wilmington of the Clyde Steamship Company, New York, is a native of Mayslick, Kentucky, and is the scion of four generations of Kentuckians. One of his ancestral fathers, Jared Riley was a North Carolinian and accompanied the immortal Daniel Boone to the Blue Grass state shortly after the Revolution. Mr. Riley was born June 19, 1882. He received his early and preparatory education at private schools, later attended the Georgetown Academy, Georgetown, Kentucky, and completed his studies at the Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, Virginia.

At 20 years of age, or in 1902, he left school and accepted employment as a clerk in the offices of the Alabama Great Southern Railway Company, at Birmingham, Alabama. He was promoted to chief clerk and occupied that position until he resigned, in 1907, to become chief clerk in the Mobile, Alabama, offices of the Mallory Steamship Company. Three years later, 1910, he was transferred to Brunswick, Georgia, to act as agent for the Mallory Line, which, during that year, had consolidated with the Clyde Lines. Suggestive of the high esteem in which he was held he spent a portion of that year in New York. In 1913, he was sent to Tampa as Mallory Line agent. In 1918, he was transferred to Wilmington. He has remained in this city ever since an agent for the Clyde Lines, except for a period of six months, in 1919, when he was sent on special assignment to the Clyde-Mallory New York offices.

Mr. Riley always has taken a general interest in the organized commercial and social life of the city. He was active in the plans and shared with other progress leaders, in the responsibilities for the successful Feast of Pirates carnivals in 1927-28. He is a member of the Rotary Club and prominent in the councils of that results-getting civic organization. He also is a member of the Carolina Yacht Club, one of the oldest in the state, and of the Cape Fear Country Club, and Cape Fear Club. During the World War, he held a captain's commission in the Reserve Corps. In religion, he is a Baptist, of which denomination many members of Kentucky Rileys have been outstanding ministers. In politics, he is a Democrat.

Genealogically: Mr. Riley is of Scotch-Irish descent and of that fine old stock of adventurous pioneers and empire builders to which Boone and George Rogers Clark belonged and which turned Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, Missouri and the greater Northwest into glorious commonwealths. His father, Dr. Madison M. Riley, native of Owen County, Kentucky, was a Baptist minister and for a time, a professor at Georgetown College and later, president of the Greenville College for Women, Greenville, South Carolina, and Brenau College, Gainesville, Georgia. He died in 1928, at Gainesville, Georgia. Mr. Riley's mother was Lulu (Gayle) Riley, also a native of Owen County and the daughter of James Gayle, himself a Kentuckian and a planter of that section.

His grandfather, Captain Samuel Riley, was born in Ohio, but was raised in the Blue Grass State. He was one of the first to enlist in the Mexican War and rose quickly to a Captaincy. With the exception of his military service during the brief conflict with Mexico, Captain Riley devoted his entire life to farming. Captain Riley's father (M. M. Riley's great-grandfather) was Ninian Riley, native of Kentucky and spent his life in that state, except for a short residence in Ohio. He was a planter and a Baptist minister. As a minister, he served as chaplain with General Andrew Jackson's “Hunting Shirt” warriors in the War of 1812 and was with that redoubtable chieftain at New Orleans.

Ninian Riley was the first of the native Kentucky Rileys, his father being Jared Riley, born at Guilford Court House, North Carolina, and one of Boone's first band of empire builders to invade the frontier wilderness. He with others of that sturdy group later received Revolutionary grants and his family and succeeding generations continued to make their homes there. This also was true of the Gayle family. The first Gayle to go into Kentucky went to settle upon Revolutionary land grants.

On June 30, 1912, Mr. Riley was married to Miss Helen Antoinette Sturges, of Los Angeles, California. She is the daughter of A. B. Sturges, now an architect with offices in Los Angeles, California. Her grandfather, on her mother's side was Louis Phillip Rogers, who, shortly after the Civil War, became chief government architect and held that position many years. He was a painter and artist of more than local fame. One child has been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Riley. He is Roger Sturges Riley, now a student at the New Hanover High School.


LAMONT SMITH, Editor of the Morning Star, oldest daily newspaper in the state and because of its long line of notable editors, one of the most influential in the Southeast, was born at Maxton, Robeson County, North Carolina, May 22, 1893. He has been a resident of Wilmington since 1916, except for a period of six years when he was connected with papers in Baltimore, Norfolk and other cities.

He received his early education in private schools and in the public schools of South Carolina, to which state his parents removed when he was yet a child. Later, he attended The Citadel, a standard military college, at Charleston, S. C. He completed his education, and during the next three years occupied himself in various occupations, apparently seeking to decide upon a definite course.

In 1916, he was offered and accepted a position on the reportorial staff of the Wilmington Star, of which paper Joseph E. Thompson, present commissioner of finance for the city of Wilmington, was the general manager. After working here for several months, he began a six year period of “change,” a period which virtually all well-rounded newspaper men experience some time during their career. He went from The Star to the Charleston, South Carolina, News and Courier as news editor. During the next few years, he was employed successively as state editor, The Observer, Charlotte, North Carolina; City Hall reporter, The Virginian-Pilot, Norfolk, Virginia; telegraph editor, The Observer, Charlotte, North Carolina, then back to the Wilmington Star, as city editor; then to the Baltimore Sun as a copyreader (telegraph editor); and to The American, same city, on special assignment.

The editorial columns of The Star probably are as widely quoted as those of any newspaper in the South. Possessed of exceptional brilliancy of mind, Mr. Smith adds to this a varied store of useful experience and literary learning. He has perfected a clear and easily understandable and connected style and he employs a forceful diction. The result is an editorial page of outstanding excellence and widely growing influence. Suggestive of the constructive character of the policies the paper adopts, it will suffice, in this limited space to indicate only a few of the last several years: (1) Publicly-owned causeway across Wrightsville Sound; (2) A free bridge across the Cape Fear River connecting Wilmington with its neighbors on the West; (3) Organized assistance for industrial prospects and tax exemption for first five years for those locating here; (4) Passenger steamship service; (5) Regular sailings of merchant ships between Wilmington and foreign ports; (6) More equitable freight rates; (7) Thirty foot channel from the harbor to the Cape Fear Bar; (8) Adequate warehouse and terminal facilities, with, at least, one municipal-owned pier; (9) Further development of the Southern end of New Hanover County and the beginning of a winter resort; (10) More adequate marketing facilities for farmers; (11) A larger advertising appropriation; (12) Consolidation of executive branches of city and county; (13) A hard-surface highway, connecting Whiteville and Southport; and (14) Placing of traffic signals at congested street intersections in Wilmington. And suggestive of the response his editorial arguments have been accorded, it is a fact that the Cape Fear bridge, a $1,300,000 project, now is in process of erection; an expert industrial agent has been employed for part-time service; an improved 16-foot highway, leading to the Southern end of the county, has just been completed; the city officials have ordered the installation of traffic signals; there is every prospect that a 30-foot channel is a reasonably immediate development; a movement now is in progress to exploit Wilmington as a winter resort and provide ample accommodations for winter visitors; and many of the other policies of Mr. Smith's editorial columns, seemingly, are in process of early realization. Mr. Smith is a member of St. Paul's Episcopal Church and a regular communicant of the congregation. He also is a member of the Rotary Club. In politics, he is Independent. He belongs to no lodges or fraternities.

He is of Scotch and English stock. His father was W. C. Smith, a native of Marlboro County, Virginia, and a farmer. His mother was Flora (Patterson) Smith, born in Laurinburg, N. C., the daughter of Neal C. Patterson, a native of Scotland and a business man of Laurinburg. His grandfather, Murdock Smith, was born in Scotland and came to the United States in 1830, settling in Virginia. He enlisted in the Confederate army, served with General Lee and received wounds in the battle of Gettysburg of which he died. Mr. Smith was married to Miss Ruby Duncan, at Charlotte, December 29, 1917. Two children have been born of the marriage. They are Wyatt Lamont, ten years old, and Jean Duncan, eight.


LIONEL STEVENSON, manager of the Wilmington district of the National Oil Company, Inc., is a Virginian. He was born at Accomac, in the Old Dominion, August 31, 1888.

His education was received in the public schools of Accomac, the Baltimore, Maryland, High School, and the Cooper Institute, New York City. He graduated from the latter institution in 1909. In November of that year, he secured a position as clerk in the yardmaster's office of the Pennsylvania Railroad, at Cape Charles, Virginia. And on that date started the career of service and strict attention to duty that permits the laudable boast that “he has never lost a day's pay nor looked for a job from that time to this.”

Mr. Stevenson remained as clerk in the yardmaster's office for only six months when he was selected, though still a boy in his twenty-first year, as joint agent of the Atlantic Coast Line, the Southern, the Pennsylvania and the Norfolk & Portsmouth Belt Line, with headquarters at Port Norfolk. He remained in this position for seven years, or until 1916, when he resigned to accept the proffered assistant management of the Norfolk plant of the National Oil Company.

After serving as assistant manager, at Norfolk, for about eight months, he was transferred, February 26, 1917, to this city as manager of the entire Wilmington district and since has made this his home. The position is one of the most responsible in the National Oil company's organization. The local plant is central for tank truck distribution of gasoline, oils and similar products throughout a radius of approximately 50 miles. Also, it is the supply station and distributing headquarters, by rail, for all stations south of Virginia, including a territory consisting of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

Mr. Stevenson, as all successful and well balanced men do, recognizes his responsibility to the community and takes an active part in the religious and civic life of the city. He is a member of the First Presbyterian Church, teacher in the Sunday school and is vice-president of the Men of the Church, an organization created to co-operate with the pastor and aid in such religious movements as may require systematic help from the laymen.

He was one of the charter members of the local Lions Club and now occupies the position of secretary in that enterprising organization. He has assumed his full share in the major activities of that service club and is regarded as one of its most dependable members. Also, he has co-operated with the management of the Feast of Pirates, Wilmington's great mid-summer carnival, and performed every task assigned, regardless of its detailed tedium, with prompt and thorough willingness. And otherwise, he has done, and is doing his part as a good citizen. He is a member of the Travelers Protective Association and other local organizations. He is a Democrat in politics but displays no active partisanship.

Mr. Stevenson is of Scotch-Irish descent and comes of a long line of Virginians. His father, William B. Stevenson, is a native of Accomac County and now is a building contractor in Norfolk. His mother was Miss Crissie Kelly, also born in Accomac and the daughter of a well-known family of that section. It is a pleasing record that the parents of Mr. Stevenson will observe the Fiftieth, or Golden Wedding Anniversary at their Norfolk home during the approaching summer.

The grandfather, Samuel J. Stevenson, was a native of Virginia and a planter. He served throughout the Civil War and was with General Lee at historic Gettysburg. The great-grandfather and his parents were Virginians, the family coming to America during the pre-Revolutionary period and settling in the fertile area, now known as the East Shore. The family, with its various branches, are numerous in that section of Virginia. As a whole, the members have been farmers, except for an occasional one straying into business or into the professions.

Mr. Stevenson was married to Anne Nora Wright, at Norfolk, June 16, 1910. Mrs. Stevenson is the daughter of James P. Wright, shipbuilder and contractor. He is a native of Princess Ann County and the son of the late Dr. James P. Wright, one of the best known physicians and surgeons in that section and one of the leading surgeon's on Lee's medical staff during the war. The Wright family has been in Virginia for many generations. Two sons have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Stevenson. They are Lionel, Jr., and Winifred B.


HENDERSON COLE, Methodist Minister, founder of the Wilmington Furniture Company, one of the largest in the state, a leader in civic progress and one of the best known and most substantial citizens of Wilmington for more than twenty years, was born October 13, 1867, at Bentonville, Johnston County, North Carolina, and died in this city December 15, 1922. Integrity, high ideals, personal magnetism and ability to lead placed him in the high ranks of valuable North Carolina citizens and the results of his services commercially and civicly, will continue to exert a helpful influence for many generations to come.

Mr. Cole received his early education in the public schools of Johnston County and his preparatory training at the Turlington Institute, Smithfield. He later matriculated at Elon College, from which institution he graduated in 1887, and although only twenty years of age, he became active as a Methodist Minister in the Eastern North Carolina Conference as a supply pastor and evangelist. He assisted, during the next few years in establishing churches at Rocky Point, Columbia and communities in Dare County. His genius and his inclinations, however, were toward business and while still in the ministry, in the fall of 1899, he founded the Smithfield Furniture Company, a store that continues to prosper in that Johnston County City. He remained in the furniture business in Smithfield until October, 1905, when he came to Wilmington, then the metropolis of the state, and started the Wilmington Furniture Company, a store that now is outstanding for attractive appearance, modern equipment, merchandise and service and which is owned and operated by his estate.

The record of Mr. Cole's life indicates that he was endowed with a tremendous energy and an alert and inquiring mentality. It was because of these characteristics, perhaps, that caused him in later life to investigate Christian Science which Christian philosophy he adopted, abandoning the Methodist ministry, and becoming a member of the local First Church of Christ, Scientist. Also, it was this tremendous energy that awakened Johnston County farmers to the value of diversification. He became intensely interested in the progress of the farmers of his section and succeeded in effecting such magnificent responses to his appeals for a more modern industry that the Johnston Exhibit, which he assembled and supervised, one season at the State Fair, Raleigh, won 127 merit distinctions—a record so astonishingly fine that it perhaps still stands as the best in the annals of the State Fair Association. The chief benefits, however, were not in the award of prizes, but in his success in securing the growers to diversify crops. Although a professional man and merchant, he was among the first evangels of crop diversification in the South. Another lasting monument to his ability as a leader is the North Carolina Retail Furniture Dealers Association, which he principally was responsible for organizing, and which now is among the strongest business associations in this section.

Mr. Cole was of Scotch-Irish stock but his American ancestry in both the paternal and maternal branches of the family trace back into the Colonial period. His father, William B. Cole, was a native of Johnston County and a planter of that section. He enlisted in the Confederacy at the outbreak of the Civil War, rising to the rank of a First Lieutenant and serving with Johnson throughout the conflict. William B. Cole married Serena Langston, who became the mother of Henderson Cole. She also was a native of Johnston County, and was the daughter of Isaac Langston. William B. Cole's father, Willis Cole, grandfather of Henderson Cole, was a native of that section and one of the most extensive plantation owners in Wayne and Johnston Counties. He was prominetly identified with educational movements. Wheeler's History shows that the Coles were prominent in the patriot cause during the Revolution. William Temple Cole was a Captain of one of the Regiments organized in the Salisbury district. He was contemporary with Pleasant Henderson, also a Revolutionary patriot, and for whose family Henderson Cole was named.

On June 10, 1890, Mr. Cole married Miss Margaret Bowden, of Rocky Point. Mrs. Cole is the daughter of Jesse Bowden and Elizabeth (Bordeaux) Bowden and was born in Rocky Point. Jesse Bowden was engaged in the planters business. His family connections extended throughout Pender and New Hanover Counties. Nine children were born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Cole. They are, in order of age: Henderson Cole, Jr., Greenville Sound, manufacturer; Eva (Mrs. Melzar Pearsall), Elsie (Mrs. H. H. Jones), Esther (Mrs. M. G. Schnibben), Margaret (Mrs. C. W. Boyette), Louise (Mrs. H. J. Rogers), all of Wilmington; Serena, teacher in the Greensboro High School; Ada, student in Wilmington High School; and W. B., assisting in the store.


PAUL HESS, Meteorologist, in charge of the Wilmington station of the United States Weather Bureau and normally active in church, fraternal and other local organizations, was born in Fort Atkinson, Iowa, October 16, 1879. He has been a resident of Wilmington since 1921, having been transferred here from New England, and during that time has accumulated a most enviable personal friendship list.

Mr. Hess received his early education in the public schools of Iowa, a state that has been remarkably prolific in the development of men who have acquired national reputations because of outstanding successes in such lines as they may adopt. After finishing the grade schools, he enrolled in Gates Academy, Neligh, Nebraska, and later, matriculated at Yankton College, Yankton, South Dakota, where he was a student for two years. The peculiarly cosmopolitan character of his education, attending the grades in Iowa, a preparatory school in Nebraska and completing the course in a South Dakota College, became a fitting ground work for the equally remarkably numerous changes in locations which were to feature his later life. But through all the various changes, he remained the typical Central Westerner. His transfers in chronological order follows:

After a preliminary course in the weather service, he was assigned, July 17, 1906, to the United States Weather Bureau, at Seattle, Washington. He remained there about two months, or until September, 1906, when he was transferred to Tatoosh Island, an important weather district, located at the mouth of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, extreme northwest tip of Washington. After nearly one year of service at Tatoosh Island, he was transferred to Port Crescent, Washington, and in the fall of 1907 he again was transferred to Eureka, located on Humboldt Bay in the heart of the Orange, Hops and Grape belts of California. He remained as assistant observer at Eureka United States Weather Bureau until December 1907, when he was ordered across the continent for duty as assistant at the Research Station of the Weather Bureau, in Mount Weather, Virginia, near Washington, D. C. In 1910, he was sent to far New England to the Station at Northfield in the North Central part of Vermont. Six years later, or in 1916, he was transferred to New Haven, Connecticut. About this period, the developments initiated by Hugh MacRae at Castle Hayne and other sections of the Wilmington vicinity had become of big importance as a truck growing area and he was transferred February 13, 1921, from the Bureau at New Haven to the local United States Weather Bureau. And he has been at this point since that date.

Mr. Hess is of German and Swiss stock and his American ancestry dates back three generations, or nearly one hundred years. His grandparents, on the Hess side, were natives of Germany and on the Bauder side, his mother's people, they were Swiss. Both families arrived in America during the early 1840's. Henry Hess, grandfather of Paul Hess, was one of the thousands of Germans who fled from that country during the historic period when Metternich, Austrian premier and driving spirit of the Confederation, sought to hold his power and which led directly to the Revolution of 1848. It is a fact worthy of note that some of America's leading statesmen, publishers and captains of industry of the period between the close of the American Civil War and the close of the last century, were among those who were exiled from Germany at that time. This volume, it also is worthy of note, carries biographical sketches of others, who like Mr. Hess, are sons or grandsons of these liberty-loving Germans, known in their native country as Liberals. The results of that crisis are among the most far-reaching in history. Henry Hess, grandfather of Paul Hess, upon his arrival in America, settled with his family, near McGregor, Iowa. His son, Henry Hess, Jr., father of Paul Hess, was born about the time of the arrival of the family from Germany. When a young man, having acquired some education through his own efforts, because his father died when he still was a boy, he was ordained a Congregational minister, and during the greater part of his life, he served as a pastor to several German churches in Fort Atkinson and neighboring communities. He married Anna Bauder, whose family were of Swiss origin and had removed to America about the time the Hess family settled in Iowa.

Mr. Hess, in addition to his professional duties, is active in such local progress and welfare movements as the nature of his work will permit. His association and other memberships are limited. He belongs to St. John's Lodge, No. 1, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, oldest in North Carolina and the third oldest in the South. He also is an associate member of the American Meteorological Society. Politically, he is Independent.


ARTHUR WELLESLEY STILWELL, engaged in the mercantile agency business and manager of the Wilmington district of the R. G. Dun & Company, New York, was born in Matawan, New Jersey, November 19, 1894. He came to Wilmington from Houston, Texas, in 1923, and since has made this city his home, becoming prominent in church, civic, and in the business life of the community.

Mr. Stilwell received his early education in the public schools of Matawan. He later, enrolled as a student in the Allegheny Collegiate Institute of Alderson, West Virginia, from which he graduated and, in 1911, matriculated as a student in the University of West Virginia, at Morgantown. He left the University the following year at nineteen years of age, and became associated with the R. Hoe & Company, manufacturers of printing presses, New York City. He was connected with the office staff and remained with the Hoe & Company for two years, or until 1914, when he resigned and accepted a position as traveling salesman for the Musical Instrument Sales Company, also with factory and general offices in New York City. He remained with this company four years, or until 1916, when his company of New Jersey National Guard was assigned to duty on the Mexican border.

The situation becoming quiet along the Mexican border, the Troop was ordered home in late February, 1917, and enroute stopped over in Washington to participate in the parades and other ceremonials describing the second inaugural of President Wilson. While the Cavalry troop was marking time between that date and the following fall, Mr. Stilwell became associated with Lewis Nixon, at that time public service commissioner of New York City, in the manufacture of sulphuret of antimony, a powder, golden and crimson in color, and used, in this instance as a compound in the manufacture of rubber auto tires, bottles and similar products. The plant later was dismantled, re-equipped and turned into a factory for making hand-grenades. Also, about this time, Troop B. First Squadron, New Jersey Cavalry, was mustered in for service in the World War. The company was first sent to Camp McClellan, in New York, and later, to Camp Anderson, Alabama. At Anderson, it was merged into Battery F. Field Artillery, Colonel Quincy A. Gilmore, commanding, and, in April, 1918, was assigned to overseas duty. In France, it became a part of the historic American offensives which reached their climax in the Argonne Forest drives, which marked the beginning of the end of the Universal struggle. Later, this company was sent back of the lines in Vosges area maintaining highways, and in June was ordered home. On July 4, 1919, they were discharged at Camp Stewart, returned to Camp Dix, New Jersey, and demobilized. In October, Mr. Stilwell accepted a place with Bradstreet's Mercantile Agency, New York, and was assigned to the Houston, Texas, branch as a reporter. He resigned in 1922, to accept a similar position with the Houston offices of the R. G. Dun & Company. The following year, 1923, the manager of Dun's here resigned and Mr. Stilwell was transferred from Houston to Wilmington as his successor. Since coming here, he has become affiliated with the First Presbyterian Church, is active in the Wilmington Post of the American Legion and prominent in the various movements of the Rotary Club. In politics, he is an Independent.

Mr. Stilwell is of English and Holland stock. His Holland ancestry bear the name of “Allswell” but the branch to which he belongs Anglicized the name many generations ago and continue to use the English equivalent. Mr. Stilwell's grandfather, George Stilwell, native Jerseyman, was a Civil War veteran, commissioned a captain and served several years, or until captured by the Confederates in one of the Virginia campaigns. He later was exchanged. His son, William H. Stilwell, father of Arthur W. Stilwell, also was a native of New Jersey and engaged in the insurance business throughout his mature life. Mr. Stilwell's mother was Lillian (Davis) Stilwell, of English descent and a native of New York.

On July 15, 1923, Mr. Stilwell was married to Miss Urslie Williams, at Durham, North Carolina. Mrs. Stilwell is the daughter of A. E. Williams, a prosperous Randolph County farmer, living near Asheboro. She is descended from Colonial stock. In her ancestry are included veterans of the Civil, Mexican, War of 1812, and the Revolutionary War. No children have been born of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Stilwell.


McKean Maffitt.

MCKEAN MAFFITT, bearer of the name and direct in descent of a long and distinguished line of American patriots, extending from the Colonial to the present time, was born in Barnwell, South Carolina, August 4, 1884. He has been a resident of Wilmington since 1918 when he came here from Florence, S. C., as superintendent of the water and sewer department and as acting engineer for the city. He received his early education in the public schools of Charlotte, N. C., to which city his parents removed from Barnwell when he was a child. He matriculated at the University of North Carolina in 1904, but remained only three months, when he withdrew to seek employment.

A chronological review of the life of Mr. Maffitt indicates that his climb to success was a hard one, and at the same time it exemplifies the truth of the axiom that constancy of purpose will triumph. When a child, eleven years of age, he began helping to make his own way, by becoming a carrier boy on the Charlotte Observer. His next job was in 1899 when he became office boy in the water department of the city. But he remained an office boy only a short time when he was transferred to the meter repairs department and in 1901, he became foreman of that division. In 1907, he was appointed general foreman of construction of the Charlotte plant and held that position until 1911 when he accepted an offer as superintendent of the plant at Florence. He had been in Florence seven years when he came to Wilmington. The records of the city show, as do the bank clearings and other accurate evidences, that Wilmington's progress during the last decade has set a record in local industrial history. This required unprecedented work in the water and sewerage department of the city. The huge expansion programs adopted by the city during this period were in charge of Mr. Maffitt, and the manner in which they were executed proves his qualifications.

His services as a civic leader have been especially valuable. He shares with Francis P. O'Crowley, whose biographical sketch will be found elsewhere in this volume, the distinction of having made virtually a national success of the Feast of Pirates, a mid-summer carnival held in Wilmington each year. Mr. Maffitt has been secretary of the Feast of Pirates since its inception—a most difficult and tedious task because of its myriad and exacting detail. The position is wholly honorary and the compensation is the satisfaction that a good citizen experiences in knowing that his home town is registering achievement. In addition, he is an active member of the Lions Service club and chairman of the Milk committee, which supervises the distribution of free milk to children in the various schools of the city, and otherwise he is identified with forward movements in Wilmington. His selection for president of the North Carolina Section of the American Water Works Association was but the result of his effective services in that organization as a member of the executive and other important committees. His election as president of the North Carolina Sewage Works Association carried the distinction of becoming the first presiding officer of that organization. He also is a member of the Society of Municipal Improvement, national in scope.

Mr. Maffitt is of Scotch-Irish stock, but his American ancestry antedates the Revolution, and one of his forebears not only served in that historic struggle for freedom but also in the War of 1812, the Civil War and he, himself, was subject to call by the engineering department in the World War. Frederick McKean, son of Thomas McKean, Mr. Maffitt's great-great-great-grandfather, was the first speaker of the first Continental Congress, a delegate from Pennoy County, Pennsylvania, and one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. His great-grandfather, on the Maffitt side, was the Rev. John Newland Maffitt, native of Pennsylvania, but who later removed to Alabama. His son, Frederick P. Maffitt, grandfather of McKean Maffitt, was a native of Montgomery, Alabama. Frederick P. Maffitt was a brother of John Newland Maffitt, famed Confederate navy officer and blockade runner into Wilmington. Mr. Maffitt's father was Walter C. Maffitt, native of Georgia, trained in the railroad service and at one time division superintendent of the Charlotte, Columbia & Augusta Railroad Company. His mother was Charlotte Cowan (Jenkins) Maffitt, native of Salisbury, Rowan County, and a descendant of the well-known Cowan and Jenkins families of that section.

On December 20, 1907, Mr. Maffitt married Miss Ida Lucile Henderson, at Charlotte. Mrs. Maffitt is the daughter of Walter F. Henderson, a planter in the vicinity of Maxton. Two children have been born of the marriage. They are: Charlotte C. Maffitt, now in New York City, and Lucile M. Maffitt, at home.


HARRY GOLDSTEIN, one of the most successful, progressive and well-known merchants in this section of the state, was born in Lomza, Russia, December 17, 1863. He received a sparing education in the schools of that unhappy country and under the tutelage of his father, Abraham Goldstein, a rabbi of Lomza.

Vastly, the greater portion of his early preparatory education was received in the hard school of experience, a fate of all Russian children, except those of the elect. At the boyish age of nine years, he was apprenticed to a tailor of his native town and continued his apprenticeship for a period of seven years when he yielded to the hopeful call from America and ran away from home. He landed in New York, the latter part of 1899, a youth 16 years old, with scant funds but a wholesome determination to become a permanent part of the great “melting pot” and develop into a genuine American citizen. He found employment in a tailoring shop on the East Side and stuck to the task for two years. Tiring of the provincialism and meager confines of a big, seething city, he asked for and received employment with a standard tailoring establishment, George T. King of Washington, D. C. He remained with this firm nine years, or until 1910, when he entered into business for himself as a contracting tailor. From the start of individual enterprise, he has been successful. During the short two years he was in the contract-tailoring business, he had numerous national notables for his customers and at times, his payroll totaled from 90 to 100 employes. But the small-town spirit continued to manifest itself. He constantly yearned for the unpretentious and genuine friendships and associations of the small community. And, in 1912, he disposed of his contract-tailoring plant, purchased a clothing store at Burlington, North Carolina, and removed to that town.

As an evidence of his worth to the community, when, in 1915, he decided to remove to Durham, the citizens of Burlington earnestly appealed to him to remain. Mrs. Goldstein's health was failing and it was believed the change in localities would benefit her. But they were disappointed in this, for, in 1916, on advice of physicians, the family came to Wilmington, that Mrs. Goldstein might receive the invigorating benefit of the wholesome atmosphere of this region—a blend of the healthful pines and the salt sea breezes. Mr. Goldstein's business career in Wilmington began modestly. He opened a small clothing store on Market street. The war coming on, he sought to enlist but was refused because of his age and the dependent ages of his children. He did the next best service and industriously co-operated with local committees in Liberty bond drives and other home war work. The war over, he devoted himself to business and, within a few years, increased his volume of trade to an extent that warranted his removal to a more central location, on Front, just off Princess street, where he opened the Young Men's Clothes Shop. And in March this year, 1929, he established his second store, Harry's Exclusive Ladies Shop, three blocks north of his men's clothing store. He always has taken a laudable interest in local progress movements and is prominently identified in church, fraternal and civic organizations. He is a communicant of B'nai Israel and a member of the Masonic and Odd Fellows lodges. He also is a member of the Merchants’ Association and regular in his attendance at the deliberations of that organization. In politics, he is a Democrat.

Mr. Goldstein's ancestry, on both the paternal and maternal sides, are Jewish Russians. The family, particularly on his father's side, tend strongly to religious activities. Abraham Goldstein now is a rabbi at Lomza and has been for more than a half century. His grandfather, Isaac, and his great-grandfather, of the same name, also were rabbis. Mr. Goldstein's mother, Anna (Soull) Goldstein, also was the daughter of a rabbi. In 1918, when the Bolsheviks established their Soviet regime and looted Russia, Abraham Goldstein and his household were among the victims of hate and were temporarily exiled from Lomza.

On January 5, 1907, Mr. Goldstein married Miss Lena Wolpert, daughter of Albert Wolpert, merchant of Baltimore, Maryland. Four children have been born of the marriage: Aaron, Isadore, Henry and Abbie. Denied educational opportunities in his youth, the father early began to supervise the education of the children and with splendid results. Aaron graduated from the local High School with honors and with a cum laude distinction, in 1928, at Johns Hopkins University. He now is in the banking and brokerage business at Baltimore. Isadore, also a graduate of the New Hanover High School, is enrolled as a student at the State University, Chapel Hill. The two younger children are at home, Henry in the High, and Abbie in the grade schools.


JESSE FOSTER ROACHE, executive vice-president of the Home Savings Bank, elder in the First Presbyterian Church, director in the Y. M. C. A., active in the Rotary Club, member of Board of Managers of Walker Memorial Hospital, vice-president Red Cross Sanatorium, and otherwise a leading and valuable citizen of the community, is a native of Virginia, being born at Fairville, August 7, 1881. He attended the public and high schools of his native city and, later enrolled as a student in the Commercial Department of the Junior College, of Fairville and graduated from that institution in 1899.

Immediately after leaving school, he obtained employment in the Richmond offices of the R. G. Dun & Company, New York. He continued with this company at Richmond, serving in various clerical and executive capacities until January, 1906, when he was transferred to Wilmington as manager of the local branch. He acted as manager of the Wilmington offices until December, 1911, at which time he definitely decided to engage in the banking business and became cashier of the Home Savings Bank. He continued in this position for twelve years, or until 1923, when he was elected executive vice-president, which place he now occupies. It is due Mr. Roache to state that the Home Savings Bank which he helped to found seventeen years ago has developed into one of the largest and most reliable institutions of its kind in the entire Southeast and its future, because of the rapid development of Wilmington and the careful manner in which the affairs of the bank are conducted, is even more promising. His business interests also include investments in the Auto Finance Corporation, of which he is a director, and in the Brookwood Development Company, a real estate organization which has developed one of the choicest suburban sections in this part of the state.

Mr. Roache's services as a citizen, other than as a business man, especially have been valuable. As a member of the First Presbyterian Church, one of the oldest congregations in the city, he is, in addition to being a ruling elder, active in its organizations. He is a director of the local Y. M. C. A., and takes a substantial interest in the welfare of the Y. W. C. A., the Salvation Army and other religious and semi-religious institutions dependent largely upon the public spirited generosity of any community's leading citizens. His lodge, civic and social affiliations include the Royal Arcanum, the Knights of Pythias, the Rotary Club, the Chamber of Commerce, the Cape Fear Club, the Cape Fear Country Club and the Carolina Yacht Club. Also, he is a member of the local Clearing House Association, the North Carolina Bankers Association and the American Bankers Association.

Mr. Roache comes of ancient lineage, dating back to the French Presbyterian Huguenots. On April 4, 1907, Mr. Roache married Miss Edith Merrill at Richmond, Virginia. One child, Edith M. Roache, has been born of the marriage.


ISAAC CLARK WRIGHT, Wilmington lawyer, was born November 9, 1884, at Coharie, Sampson County, North Carolina, on a farm that has been in the family for five successive generations, or since the early part of the Eighteenth century. He has been a resident of this city since 1916.

He received his early education in his mother's private school. He later attended Oak Ridge Institute, a preparatory school at Oak Ridge, North Carolina, and graduated at the University of North Carolina. A. B. and A. M., in 1905. He studied law at the University of North Carolina and at the University of Chicago.

Mr. Wright practiced at Clinton until 1916, when he removed to Wilmington, where he has practiced since. Mr. Wright has taken a normal interest in the religious, civic and public affairs of the communities in which he has lived. As a student at the University of North Carolina, he was a member of the debating team and took part in two debates against the University of Georgia, winning one and losing one. He was the first secretary of the Alpha Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa in North Carolina. He is a Methodist, and a member of Trinity Church. In politics, Mr. Wright is a Democrat. During his residence in Clinton, he was chairman of the Sampson County Board of Elections for four years serving in that capacity until his removal to Wilmington. He is a member of the Cape Fear Lodge No. 2, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Cape Fear Country Club and the Carolina Yacht Club.

Mr. Wright is of English stock. His great-great-grandfather, John Wright, came to North Carolina from Pennsylvania, and was one of those who, following the New Bern Convention of 1777, signed the famous Duplin County Declaration of Independence. His son John Wright was born December 5, 1759, a Revolutionary soldier, first lived at Coharie and the family has lived there ever since. Mr. Wright's father, John C. Wright, was a Confederate soldier and served as second lieutenant, Company A, 46th North Carolina Regiment, as a part of Cook's Brigade. He married Bettie V. Herring, native of Duplin County, daughter of Bryan W. Herring, and Penelope Simms.

On June 9th, 1910, Mr. Wright married Miss Bertha Dalton of Winston-Salem. Three children have been born of the marriage. They are Rebekah C., Bertha Dalton and Bettie V. Wright, all at home. Mr. Wright is a member of the North Carolina State Bar Association (and was chairman 1926 of the Executive Committee) and of the American Bar Association.


Wilmington and New Hanover county have been emphatically blessed by reason of the character of its leading citizens. The biographical sketches of those appearing in the preceding pages, representative of this particular period, establish the fact that the present generation is handing down heritages of the same splendid quality, which it inherited from sires of nearly two hundred years of former generations.

Only intimations have been given in this volume of that magnificent band of men who came first into this area and laid the foundations for civilization in the Lower Cape Fear. Incidental references have been made to “King” Roger Moore, General Robert Howe, Nathaniel Moore, Governor Arthur Dobbs, Marsden Campbell, George Burgwin, Richard Eagles, James Smith, and other colonists who came here and built the ground work of an empire. Others, who acquired fame extending beyond local boundaries and whose citizenship New Hanover County and the city of Wilmington may laudably boast included:


John Baptista Ashe was the founder of this notable Cape Fear family. He had powerful friends in England and secured a grant in America, emigrating here in the early part of 1727. He was well educated and of courteous manner and deportment. He was one of the council named in the commission of Governor George Burrington in 1730 and otherwise prominent in Colonial political life. He married Elizabeth Swann, near relative of Samuel Swann, famous lawyer and compiler of the “Yellow Jacket” statute laws of 1752. John Baptista Ashe was the father of two sons, John Ashe, born 1721, and Samuel Ashe, born 1725, both of whom acquired merited eminence in the colony. John Ashe acquired distinction by his patriotic opposition to the Stamp Act; was speaker of the General Assembly, under the Colonial government, 1762-65; and led the attack on Fort Johnston, which ended in the flight of Governor Martin and the destruction of the Fort. He was the first in the state to receive a commission from the people, a colonelcy of New Hanover County, later became a brigadier-general and served in the Revolution. He died in October, 1781, at the home of Col. John Sampson, in Sampson County. Samuel Ashe was a lawyer and patriot, served in the Provincial Council, was a member of the State Congress, at Hillsboro, in August, 1775, also at Halifax, April, 1776, and a member of the convention in November, 1776, which formed the first state constitution. John B. Ashe, born in 1748, Samuel Ashe, born in 1763, and Cincinnatus, born in 1765, each of whom served in the Revolution, were sons of Samuel Ashe. Five Ashes were officers in the War of Independence.


Carnelius Harnett, born April 20, 1723, probably in Chowan County, was one of the earliest and most effective champions of liberty for the colonists. He threw all, his property and his life, into the cause. In Wheeler's history, it is stated that Cornelius Harnett was president of the provincial council, which was the executive power of the state and as such was virtually governor from the time of Governor Martin's flight to the British sloop at Fort Johnston, and the accession of a constitutional officer. Had the British subdued the country, and he fallen into their hands, a halter would have been his fate. General Clinton specially marked him and excluded him from all marks of pardon or favor. Wheeler then adds: “It is a matter of deep regret that more of the history of this distinguished man, whose life was offered up to his country, is not known. It is hoped that this feeble notice will excite some friend of the state to collect and collate the full biography of this worthy citizen.” Dr. Sprunt describes him as “about the most noted and conspicious personage of his day in the whole Cape Fear.” His grave is in St. James Cemetery, a scant two hundred feet from the statue, erected by a grateful city at Market and Third streets.


William Hooper, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, was born in Boston, June 17, 1742, and died in Orange County, in October, 1790. He was educated for the ministry, but gave up that profession in preference for the law. He removed to Wilmington in 1763 and immediately became identified with the leading citizens of the community. He appeared as counsel in many of the most important trials of the period and also was selected by the citizenry for many public distinctions, including membership in the General Assembly in the Hillsboro and Halifax conventions

and later the Continental Congress at Philadelphia. His activities during the Revolution proved to be particularly irksome to the British and frequently he became a special target for their venom. He moved and was a leader in the distinguished and patriot group of Cape Fear men which included Ashe, Iredell, Johnston, Moore, Harvey, Harnett, Caswell, Maclaine and others. His Wilmington home stood on Second street, between Princess and Market, and only recently was torn away by the advance of progress. He also had a home at Masonboro sound and another, burned by the British, a few miles below the city. He has been described as “the champion of that illustrious band, which in North Carolina first opposed the encroachments of arbitrary power,” and “no man ever entered into the public service on more correct principles, or with purer or more disinterested motives.”


Johnston Blakely, Captain in the United States Navy, was born in Ireland, in October, 1781, but he was raised in Wilmington from a baby, of two years, in the home of Edward Jones, who took the child upon the death of the senior Blakely. He was appointed a midshipman in February, 1800, and thus began one of the most spectacularly daring and successful naval careers in history, approaching at times the unprecedented brilliancy and courage of John Paul Jones. From the time (early in 1814, during the War of 1812) he sailed from Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in command of the U. S. S. Wasp until his mysterious disappearance, in November, 1814, he was a terror to the vaunted British navy and achieved an undying fame in maritime history. He met and defeated numerous English ships on the high seas and audaciously entered British ports, creating consternation and wrecking shipping. During the first fifteen days of August, 1814, this intrepid commander met and took fifteen ships, including the Avon and the Reindeer. The last authentic information ever received of Captain Blakely was the report of the capture of the brig Atalanta. His unknown fate is one of the historic tragedies of the sea. Heavy firing off the Charleston bar, about the time he was to have come home, a naval battle occurred at night and an American ship was sunk. This may have been the gallant Blakely, or he may have foundered at sea. “And thus perished at the early age of thirty-three, this meritorious officer, whose brilliant success, chivalric daring, generous character and mournful fate, have thrown a halo of interest around his name.” His only daughter, Udney, was adopted, December 17, 1816, by the Legislature of North Carolina and educated at the expense of the state. She was married a few years afterward and died in the West Indies.

ARCHIBALD MACLAINE: Member of the committee of safety for Wilmington, during the Revolution and author of many important state papers. He was a member of the Hillsboro congress, in June 1778, called to deliberate upon the Federal constitution. He was of the period and the group of Davie, Johnston and Iredell. He was survived by one daughter, who married George Hooper, of Wilmington.

EDWARD JONES: Native of Ireland and friend and patron of Capt. Johnston Blakely. His brother was the famous William Todd Jones, Irish patriot. He emigrated first to Philadelphia, later removing to Wilmington and engaging in the mercantile business, failed and then read law. He held many local and county offices and in 1791 was chosen solicitor-general of the state. He died in Pittsboro, August 8, 1842.

EDWARD B. DUDLEY: Governor Dudley was the last representative from the borough of Wilmington (1834) and the first governor elected by the people in 1836. He was a native of Onslow County. He was elected to Congress in 1829, but declined re-election. He was an exceptionally progressive citizen and became the first president of the Raleigh & Wilmington Railroad, buying $25,000 worth of the stock.

And to this notable list may be added more than a score of other products of this section, some of whom are: Joshua Granger Wright for whom Wrightsville was named, was a native of New Hanover, speaker of the House and judge of the superior court, in which capacity he served until his death, in June, 1811; William S. Ashe, grandson of Gov. Samuel Ashe, elected to Congress in 1849 and re-elected in 1851; General William MacRae, “tall, dark-visaged and soldiery,” son of General Alexander MacRae, of the War of 1812 and father of seven other sons who took part in the Civil War; and many others, Francis Clayton, William Farris, Joshua Potts, John Swann, John Devane, Job Howe, Caleb Granger, Rufus Marsden, John A. Campbell, William H. Hill, Thomas Clark, James and Timothy Bloodworth, John Hill, Edward Jones, William Jones, Alexander Lillington, John Walker, George Moore, Richard Nixon, James Larkins.


Wilmington, from the time of its first settlement, nearly two hundred years ago, to the present, has been famed for its cordial and sensible hospitality. The ability of its citizenship to extend welcome and entertainment in an easy, genuine and natural manner, wholly free from the veneer and gusto of pretense, has caused the community to become known as a city where those who are once guests are most anxious to return.

Scores of notables have visited Wilmington. Among these have been five Presidents of the United States, Washington, Monroe, Polk, Fillmore and Taft, and one, Woodrow Wilson, was a resident here for several years. Lesser public notables, Calhoun, Clay, Webster, Everett and others, who have been guests of the city have been of a frequency constituting virtually a processional. Dr. James Sprunt, in his “Cape Fear Chronicles” leads his chapter on “Notable Incidents” with the visits of well-known men to this city and the list inspires the statement that probably no city of Wilmington's population (never in excess of 45,000) has been so signally selected by the great of the land.

GEORGE WASHINGTON visited Wilmington the latter part of April, 1791, the third year of his first administration. He arrived April 24 and was met at the Rouse House, about 15 miles out on the New Bern road, by a delegation of prominent citizens and the Wilmington Light Horse, a military organization. He and his party were escorted through a lane of acclaiming citizens, down Market street and thence to the home of Mrs. Quince. On the following day, a great parade was given in his honor and, in the evening, a gala ball was held at the Assembly Hall, patriotically called “Old ’76” because it had been erected during that epochal year. President Washington also visited General Smith, at Belvidere, across the river in Brunswick County. A notation in Washington's diary says: “Wilmington has some good houses, pretty compactly built. The number of souls in it amount by enumeration to about 1,000. The quantity of shipping which loads here annually amounts to about 12,000 tons. Exports are naval stores and lumber; some tobacco, corn, rice and flax seed and pork.”

JAMES MONROE: Almost exactly 28 years later, on April 12, 1819, Wilmington entertained James Monroe, fifth President of the United States, enroute to Georgetown, S. C. As on the occasion of Washington's visit, a delegation of local notables, accompanied by the Wilmington Light Horse, met the Presidential party out on the New Bern road, near Scott's Hill. John C. Calhoun, secretary of war, was a member of the Monroe suite. Hospitalities, characteristic of the city, were extended. He was entertained at a mass dinner at which there were a number of patriotic toasts drunk, among those responding being Secretary Calhoun, General Thomas Davis, General James Owen, John D. Jones, Alfred Moore and others. The President visited Fort Johnston and Wrightsville as a part of the program arranged for him here.

JAMES K. POLK: The Mexican War President came to Wilmington, March 7, 1849, immediately after his retirement from office. He was accompanied by Mrs. Polk and their niece, Secretary Walker and his niece, and a Mr. Grahame, solicitor of the treasury, and Mrs. Grahame. Cannon boomed, bells rang and flags and streamers fluttered in welcome. Colonel James T. Miller, Magistrate of Police, as the Mayor of the City then was designated, a committee and a numerous concourse of citizens met the train. The former President was really among homefolks, in that he was a native of North Carolina and educated in this state. His address and those of the citizens made happy reference to this fact. A public reception was held in his honor at the Masonic Hall.

MILLARD FILLMORE: Another President, Millard Fillmore, visited Wilmington a short time after his retirement from office, or May 12, 1854. He had contemplated a Southern trip during the previous year and Wilmington citizens had passed resolutions inviting him here. Under the resolution a committee, composed of George Davis, John MacRae, J. G. Wright, E. Kidder and others, was named to tender him the hospitalities of the town. The proposed trip was delayed by the death of Mrs. Fillmore until the following year. Upon the former President's expressed wish, “all pomp and pageantry of a public reception,” were avoided. The party arrived here from Columbia and departed the following day for Baltimore.

WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT: The present Chief Justice of the United States, then President, visited Wilmington, November 9, 1909. An immense crowd, from all sections of the state and including Gov. W. W. Kitchin, Senator Lee S. Overman, numerous

congressmen and others, joined the local multitude in giving welcome. The day was a busy one—Wilmington extended herself in her usual manner. A breakfast was given, with a distinguished guest list, at the home of Dr. James Sprunt; a mass meeting of school children was held at Third and Market, where the President delivered a short talk; a trip down the river to Southport; a huge parade, to which additional color was given by the presence of companies of State Guard and Naval Reserve detachments of Confederate veterans, U. S. Coast Guard Artillery and off the Cutter Seminole, ending in a huge meeting at the City Hall where the chief address of the day was delivered. The closing feature was a banquet in the late afternoon at the Masonic Temple. Mayor Walter G. MacRae was spokesman for the city on the occasion and Henry C. McQueen, chairman of the general reception committee. It is a fact wholly worthy of note, that President Taft was accompanied on this visit by Captain Archibald B. Butt, U. S. A., himself a North Carolinian and who afterward lost his life in the historic wreck of the Titantic.

WOODROW WILSON: The Great War President, whose ideals of statesmanship and purity of purpose at once startled and challenged the admiration of the entire world, never “visited” Wilmington, but he lived here for several years. The boy, destined to become, for a time, the hope of a wrecked world, came to Wilmington from Davidson College where he was a student, and spent the year 1874-5 here with his parents, his father a short time previously having been called to the pastorate of the First Presbyterian Church. Of this period in President Wilson's life, Dr. Sprunt says: “It was a young man very different from the raw youth of Davidson, who, one day in September, 1875, took the Wilmington and Weldon train for the North. During his senior year at Princeton, he concluded that the best path to a public career lay through the law. In the autumn, therefore, he matriculated in the law department of the University of Virginia, that seat of liberal learning organized by Thomas Jefferson. Just before Christmas, 1880, he returned to Wilmington and devoted himself to reading law and otherwise preparing himself for the practice of his chosen profession. It was not until May, 1882, that he finally determined where to locate, and then he opened an office in Atlanta.”

Among others of national and international repute who visited Wilmington, were Henry Clay, Alexander Stephens, Daniel Webster and Edward Everett. Clay came April 9, 1844 and was given an enthusiastic welcome. He was accompanied by Alexander Stephens, then a member of congress from Georgia and who a decade and a half later was to become vice-president of the Confederacy. Special meetings were held in honor of the visitors and the usual addresses were delivered. The list of those on the local committees and published in The Chronicle of that date, includes such well-known names as John MacRae, Dr. Thomas H. Wright, General Alexander MacRae, George Davis, R. G. Rankin, Thomas W. Brown and many others. Former Governor Dudley, president of the Clay Club, presided at the meeting held at Captain Samuel Potter's home on Market street.

Daniel Webster visited Wilmington in May, 1847, as the guest of Governor Edward B. Dudley. The trip seems to have been purely social for there is no record that he delivered an address, although he was the guest of honor at a public reception at the Masonic Hall. The committee of arrangements, appointed by Colonel John MacRae, mayor, included Governor Dudley, John D. Jones, General Alexander MacRae, Dr. T. H. Wright, and a score of others. There also is a chronicle that Senator Webster, as might have been expected, over-sampled the very excellent madeira at the Governor's home. Edward Everett came to Wilmington in 1859 and delivered his famous lecture upon the “Character of Washington.” George Davis, a report of the meeting states, presided and introduced the visitor with an eloquence that excelled even the famous Everett.


Few cities are more strategically situated than Wilmington. It stands on the eastern bank of the Cape Fear River, twenty-eight miles from the Atlantic ocean and is one of only three fresh water harbors on the Atlantic between Portland, Maine, and Miami, Florida. It is blessed by nature with a wide variety of staple resources and its citizenship, totaling 44,000 people, is a happily balanced blend of the conservative and the progressive, the small town and the city. It possesses trunk line railroad, deep water transportation and is the center of as perfect a network of highways as even the great state of North Carolina can boast. These various services assure equitable freight rates and permit quick freight movements in great volumes. It is both important as a port and as an industrial city, while it is the pivotal point for a rich and large agricultural area which is growing larger at a tremendously rapid rate. And finally, it is a trading center for fully 300,000 people, Wilmington being their nearest as well as their largest market.

What Dr. Sprunt declared in 1914 is true today. That is, coincident with the river improvements there has been a gratifying increase in the business volume of the City of Wilmington. While one of the largest factors in this splendid growth has been the development of the trucking industry, yet much is to be attributed to the increased commerce of the port. To the trucking industry and the great Atlantic Coast Line Railroad System may be ascribed a considerable proportion of the large bank deposits and the general diffusion of prosperity; but the remarkable increase in commerce speaks for itself and gives assurance of the future importance of the city. During the eighty years from 1829 to June 30, 1909, there had been spent on the river below Wilmington $4,328,000 and the total annual commerce at the end of that period was 864,071 tons, of a value of $49,753,175. For the year ending June 30, 1910, there was expended for river improvement $400,000 and the value of the commerce rose to $52,214,254. At the end of the year, June 30, 1913, there had been a total expenditure of $5,368,000 and the tonnage had risen to 1,072,205 and the value to $60,863,344 in 1912. The exports were to eight foreign countries, Germany. France, England, Italy, Belgium, Spain, Haiti and Chile, while there were imports from ten foreign countries. For the year ending June 30, 1914, the imports from the foreign countries were $4,194,745, as against $3,460,419 in 1913; and the exports to foreign countries were $25,870,851, as against $19,510,926 in 1913—showing an improvement of about one-third in both exports and imports in one year. The increased depth of water to twenty-six feet back in 1914 was having its expected effect on the business of the city. The tonnage handled through this port in 1928 totaled 1,089,432 as compared with 1,604,589 for the preceding year. Tonnage in 1928 had a valuation of $59,377,030 against $61,449,181 for 1927. In the foreign commerce shown for the port in 1928, imports totalled 280,820 and exports 29,737 tons, making a total of 310,557 tons of foreign trade handled here. In 1927 imports totalled 171,980 and exports 38,158 tons, making a total of 210,138 for the year, or a gain of almost 50 per cent for 1928. The increase in imports indicates that the port is being used on a larger scale annually by shippers throughout the state. The increased commerce anticipated is regarded as being indicative of what may be expected with a thirty-foot channel between the port and the ocean; a situation which is already authorized by the Board of Engineers. The city's importations are large and constantly growing, which is evidence of a successful port. As a cotton port, it yearly sends forth approximately 200,000 bales and this record, it is reasonably certain, will be substantially surpassed during the next decade. Its imports cover a large field and come from virtually every quarter of the globe.

Since 1924, the population of Wilmington has grown from 35,000 to an estimated 44,000. To accommodate the increasing population, hundreds of homes have been erected by individuals and to these may be added additional hundreds erected through a corporation, with an authorized capital of $1,000,000, twenty-five percent of which is paid-in, which was organized for the sole purpose of meeting the demand for homes. During the year just ended, 1928, Wilmington's building expansion alone totalled about $4,000,000. Among the major developments were the Cape Fear River Bridge, costing about $1,350,000 and which represents the realization of a hope of nearly two centuries. Also, there were great highway improvements, business blocks, refining companies, fertilizer plants and development company projects. Of this latter, Hugh MacRae, always in the vanguard of progress in the Lower Cape Fear, during the spring of 1929, organized an industrial and development company, placing not only his individual personality behind the plan but also vast resources. Another huge project started during the fall of 1928 but entering into the full spirit of the movement in 1929, is the Harbor Island development, between the Sound and Wrightsville Beach. This project, which gives

promise of increasing valuation by hundreds of thousands of dollars has the individual support of Roger Moore, Oliver T. Wallace, and associates. The increased volume or business, the huge expansion programs and the general advancement of the city in all lines are not the results of any special campaign for increased population but the normal, healthful growth of a city destined to become a metropolis because of its ideal situation and the illimitable resources awaiting development.

Wilmington is the natural gateway of the two Carolinas. North Carolina alone is larger in area than either New York or Pennsylvania and almost as large as all New England. The record-breaking industrial achievements of North Carolina during the last ten years have been such to astonish the civilized world and is a reasonable portent of what Wilmington may be expected to accomplish; what the city now is accomplishing. In 1910, the assessed valuation of the real estate in the city was $11,851,150; in 1914, it was $14,472,564, being an increase of around thirty percent. In 1928, the assessed valuation of the city was $43,000,000 in round numbers, and for the county, $60,000,000. The value of the real estate in the city was estimated at between $25,000,000 and $30,000,000 in 1914; in 1928, it is in excess of $100,000,000, exclusive of scores of big manufacturing plants and properties just outside the corporate limits but which properly should be included in the city in describing the city's actual importance. Between 1910 and 1914, the banking capital increased from $1,922,716 to $2,568,959. The bank deposits, during the same period rose from $9,292,000 to $11,494,000, while the aggregate resources were $15,397,000. At the present time, 1929, recent bank statements show the total deposits are $17,600,000 and the total resources $23,760,000. The various Building & Loan Associations will add an estimated $5,000,000 to the total resources.

In 1913, twenty-five years ago, the jobbing trade of Wilmington totaled approximately $70,000,000. With the new conditions, it has risen to around $90,000,000. A summary of conditions in Wilmington in 1929, based upon figures assembled by Secretary Moore of the Chamber of Commerce, shows among other facts: From the Middle West, the Panama Canal is in more direct communication by way of Wilmington than by any other South Atlantic Seaport and cargoes to and from Wilmington will not be subjected to the dangers of Cape Hatteras. The city is the center of the greatest vegetable producing district in the United States and the largest strawberry raising area in the world. It also is the largest lettuce growing section in the world and the second largest peanut market. Its shipping facilities by rail and water are the Atlantic Coast Line System, the Seaboard Air Line, Wilmington, Brunswick & Southern, the Clyde Steamship Line to New York and foreign ports, Railway Express Agency, Inc., and a virtually perfect system of improved highways. In its climate there is no extreme heat or extreme cold. The average summer temperature, according to the official Weather Bureau statistics, is 78 degrees; winter 48 degrees. The normal rainfall is 51.05 inches; average annual clear days, 132 (New York rainfall, 44 inches; clear days, 118; New Orleans rainfall, 57; clear days, 109). The mild climate and diversified opportunities cause the city and the section to become a haven for home-seekers. The district is one of the greatest trucking regions in America and the yield for these early crops totals an annual value of about $18,000,000. It is the nearest Atlantic port to Ohio gateways and nearer Cincinnati than Charleston by fifteen miles and Savannah by thirty miles. The city has become the largest distributing point south of Baltimore for the Standard Oil Company and other companies have added terminals from which they supply the entire Southeastern trade area. The harbor docks, or terminals, will accommodate sixteen ocean-going steamers at one time and the warehouse facilities are in excess of 600,000 square feet. The commerce on the Cape Fear River at and below Wilmington in 1928 totaled approximately 1,000,000 tons with a valuation of more than $67,000,000. In brief, the following portrays Wilmington, at this time:

Name of City—Wilmington, North Carolina.

Slogan: “The Only Deep Water Port in North Carolina.”

Form of Government: Commission.

Population: 1920—33,372; 1928—44,000.

Area: Four and One-half square miles.

Altitude: Thirty feet.

Assessed Valuation: $43,500,000 with $1.20 per $100 valuation.

White Population: Sixty-two and two-thirds percent above total.

Colored Population: Thirty-three and one-third percent above total.

White Poulation of age: Males, 12,298; females, 12,680.

Number all Males: 20,536; Females: 21,846.

Native Born: 99 7-10 of whole.

Predominating Nationalities: American; Irish; German; Italian.

Parks: Six, with 225 acres, valued at $150,000

City's Bonded Debt: $2,195,900.

Financial: One commercial bank; one Morris Plan bank; three trust companies, with total deposits of $21,499,411.13; resources, $29,000,000, and clearings of $275,000,000 annually. Three savings banks, with $7,214,380.13 total deposits.

Postoffice Receipts: $258,060.44.

Telephones in Service: 4,575.

Church buildings: Thirty-five white; Forty, colored.

Building and Construction: Value of building permits, $1,500,000 with 165 new dwellings, great amount of residential and industrial buildings in suburbs not included: Aggregate $4,000,000.

Real Estate: Number of homes, 7,750, with about 75 percent owned.

Industry: Number of establishments, 125, employing 13,793 men and 5,651 women, paying wages $13,000,000 annually and having products valued at $50,000,000 annually.

Trade: Retail territory serves 225,000 people with trading area covering radius of 75 miles; jobbing territory serves 400,000 people within radius of 150 miles.

Hotels: Four, with total of 475 rooms; newest built in 1926.

Railroads: Atlantic Coast Line system and Seaboard Air Line.

Amusements: Four theaters with total capacity of 4,400 seats; largest, 1,100 capacity.

Hospitals: Four, with 325 beds.

Education: One Business College; One Law School; Eleven School Buildings, including one high; two parochial; public school pupils, 9,000; private 1,000; total teachers, 250; value of all school property, private and public, approximately $1,300,000.

Library: One with 15,671 volumes.

City Statistics: Total street mileage, 150, with 65 to 75 miles paved, continuing miles under construction or ordered; gas mains laid, 45; sewers, 74; electric street railway, 16; water works capacity, 8,000,000 gallons daily; daily average pump, 3,500,000, with 74 miles of mains and value of plant estimated at $1,500,000; fire department, 45 men with one auto, two engines, five hose and chemical wagons, five hook and ladder trucks, one fire boat, one aerial ladder in three station houses; value $165,000. Police department has one central station and five pieces of motor equipment; value, $20,000.

In that this narrative is intended to be accurately descriptive of the importance of Wilmington and New Hanover County at the present time (1929) the facts contained herein were obtained from Secretary Moore of the Chamber of Commerce, who appropriately comments that “it is well, at times, to take an inventory and ascertain the condition of a business, an enterprise or a municipality,” and, he continues, a citizen is prone to forget what his own town has in the way of industrials and payrolls, resorts, churches, schools and general citizenship. Wilmington is peculiarly fortunate in all these particulars and each year registers a conservative growth.

Truck growing and fertilizer manufacturing, each equally dependent upon the other are the chief sources of Wilmington's prosperity, with the exception of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, the history of which is reviewed in another section of this volume. Fifteen of the largest fertilizer manufacturers, importers and distribution companies are located in Wilmington and thus place the city among the first three largest fertilizer manufacturing points along the Atlantic Coast. The physicial valuation of the plants is estimated as well in excess of $4,000,000, modernly equipped and directed by capable and progressive executives. In the height of the season, approximately

3,500 people are employed in the various plants, earning from $20 to $30 per week. The total value of the products, shipped into all sections of the Southeast, is conservatively estimated at $20,000,000 annually. In this connection, it may be noted that the large cargoes brought into this port for fertilizer manufacture plants have become one of the principal facts upon which the Federal Board of Engineers recently authorized and adopted a project which has for its purpose the deepening of the present Cape Fear River channel from a mean low water depth of 26 feet to 28 feet and work upon this improvement will start, it is believed, within the next year. Also, the immense commerce carried on by these plants, adding a tremendous total to the usual aggregate, has caused the port of Wilmington to become one of the most important on the South Atlantic and has given substantial encouragement to the movement for the Inland Waterway system, Beaufort to Wilmington, for which Congress recently authorized an appropriation of $6,000,000 and upon which work already has begun.

With the fertilizer plants within immediate service and with trunk line railroad facilities and steamship transportation of the best, plus an ideal climate, it is but natural that the trucking industry has attained to immense proportions. Wilmington is the center of the vast trucking and fruit growing area of this part of the Carolinas. The annual value of the strawberry crop, produced in the Wilmington territory at Chadbourn, Wallace and other nearby points approximates nearly $2,000,000 annually. The total value of agricultural products in the district ranges from $16,000,000 to $18,000,000. The region between Wilmington and Mount Olive, 70 miles, is declared by competent authorities, as one of the most productive trucking areas in the world. New Hanover County is the banner producer of splendid grades of lettuce, shipping from 600 to 900 carloads into the northern markets each season. This output, added to the huge quantities of cucumbers, beans, strawberries and other commodities of that classification increase the annual aggregate total to a value virtually equal to the business volume of the fertilizer plants, or around $20,000,000. It is proper to state at this time that bulb production, which received a great stimulus a few years ago when Congress placed an embargo upon foreign bulbs, has been in gradual process of development in New Hanover County for more than a decade. The colony of Castle Hayne, composed largely of Hollanders, a model of its nature and founded about twenty years ago through the genius of Hugh MacRae, an outstanding citizen of Wilmington and the South, did not need to experiment with bulb culture. Consequently, they were able to reap the immediate advantages of the embargo and the industry in that one section alone has grown into an institution valued at $500,000 annually.

Probably next in importance to the Atlantic Coast Line and the trucking and the fertilizer industries is the Tide Water Power Company, of which Fred A. Matthes is executive vice-president and under whose executive ability the company, within the last several years has extended from a merely local utilities into one of the largest light and power and gas distributing concerns in this section of the United States. The company serves light and power and gas to seventy-five cities, towns and communities in southeastern North Carolina, and operates a modern city railway system and a suburban line to Wrightsville Beach. The employes total about 400 men and women. The company's motto is “A Citizen of Every Community Served” and constantly is in the vanguard of progress movements. The Tide Water Power Company was incorporated in 1907 and was the result of the magnificent industrial vision of Hugh MacRae of Wilmington whose business ability, in manifold lines, has redounded to the benefit and still is ably developing Wilmington into a great city. The company was the result of the consolidation of various other services, including the Wilmington Gas Light Company, the Wilmington Street Railway Company, and the Wilmington Seaboard Railway Company. The company later was purchased by the Fitkin interests and it was during this period that F. A. Matthes was transferred to Wilmington and the big causeway over Wrightsville Sound constructed. More recently, the Tide Water was sold and became a subsidiary of the Insull interests.

The Seaboard Air Line Railway Company has a satisfactory payroll in Wilmington and serves a populous and prosperous tributary area. It employs around 75 people in the local offices, yards and terminal warehouses. Its line into Wilmington originally was the Wilmington, Charlotte & Rutherford Railroad, chartered February 13, 1855. After a varied existence, this road later, May 31, 1880, became the Carolina Central Railway and on July 14, of that year, at the reorganization meeting, Capt. David R. Murchison became President. At that time it served New Hanover, Brunswick, Columbus, Bladen, Robeson, Richmond, Anson, Union, Mecklenburg, Gaston, Lincoln and Cleveland Counties. In 1901, it became a part of the Seaboard Air Line consolidation. Another substantial asset to the city is the Southern Bell Telephone Company, employing

an average of 70 people with a combined earning of approximately $90,000 annually. Wilmington also is the home of the great cotton exporting firm of Alex Sprunt & Son, among the leaders in the United States, and with branch offices in New York, Houston and several European cities. It reached its present splendid proportions from a nucleus of five bales. The romance of this enterprise, with its nearly three-quarters of a century illustrious history may be found in the biographical sketch of the late Dr. James Sprunt. Wilmington also is rapidly becoming one of the chief distributing points for petroleum products. The Standard, The Texas, The Atlantic, The National and other large oil companies have headquarters here and huge terminals have been, or now are in process of erection. It is an important lumber center: a branch factory of the Aladdin Company, manufacturers of ready-cut houses, is located here and the American Molasses Company also maintains a branch in this city. Wilmington is the only port between Baltimore and Mobile through which table grades of molasses are imported, fifteen states being served from this city by the company mentioned. The Cement Products Company, of which George E. Kidder is President, has home offices here with a branch in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This company's field extends throughout the South and East and its output has been diversified to include drainage tile, bridge piling, jetty construction, concrete highways and similar work. Summarizing in a way, scores of other major industrials might be listed, including the Broadfoot Iron Works, headed by W. G. Broadfoot; the Wilmington Compress & Warehouse Company, owned by the Sprunt interests; the Wilmington Cottonseed Oil factory, conducted by the Pearsalls; the Spirittine Chemical Company, owned by Louis Hanson; and other industrials, towing companies, three big laundries, printing plants, roofing plants, plumbing establishments, peanut factory, paint factory, grist mills, garages, bakeries, textile and others.

As a residential and resort, church and school city, Wilmington takes its proper place among the choicest in the South. Although it is the home of some of the wealthiest families in this section of the country, it is not a community of palaces and hovels. Instead it is famed for the beauty and comfort and sensible, as distinguished from the mere pretentious possibilities of riches. In their homes, the citizenship use the same fine judgment and common sense balance as they use in other affairs of life. It is probable no city can boast a citizenship who has acquired the ideal, the true philosophy of life to a happier degree than has Wilmington's people. They combine to an extraordinary degree all the necessary push and vigor and progress of a huge metropolis with the charming and delightful friendliness and modesty and good breeding of the small town. It is probable that no city's people entertain a more genuinely affectionate regard for each other and extend a more sincerely cordial welcome to the visitor than do the people of this city. These magnificent traits are shown in the modesty of the homes of the more successful and the comforts and average beauty of the average successful. In recent years, through the enterprise of Hugh MacRae, Roger Moore and others, the suburban districts have been developed and hundreds of most attractive homes have been erected in the outlying sections; schools and churches also have been built in these districts; the light and phone companies have been quick to extend utilities, while the city officials and the county have co-operated most splendidly in furnishing water and adequate street and highway conveniences.

The resorts of the city are almost nationally known. Of the several within easy distance of the city, Wrightsville Beach is the most famous and thousands are attracted to Wilmington annually because of the surf bathing and other features. The beach is dotted by cottages and, in season, Lumina, the great amusement place, is in constant operation. The Tide Water Power Company maintains an adequate transportation schedule and the county, co-operating with the state has established a most excellent system of good roads by which Wrightsville Beach and other beaches may be reached. In the immediate vicinity of Wrightsville Beach, several small, but delightfully located communities have developed. Among these are Seagate, Wrightsville and Masonboro. The latter is composed largely of the summer homes of the wealthier class of people; the others are composed principally of those who find it more comfortable and economic than living in the city proper. To the south of the city are located Carolina, Wilmington and Kure beaches and, still further, at the tip of the peninsula is located Fort Fisher, the last of the Confederate strongholds to yield before the advancing hordes of Federals during the Civil War. The beaches are growing in popularity as the city grows in population. They were given much impetus in 1928 when the State, through the efforts of the County Commissioners, took over the Carolina Beach road and converted it into one of the best highways in North Carolina. Fort Fisher also is becoming more popular since being converted into a National Park. Its popularity will increase when plans for its beautification are perfected and the work completed.

Greenfield Lake, at the southern edge of the city, is one of the loveliest spots in the Southeast and thousands make it their principal amusement center. The creation of this park is largely due to the enterprise of Commissioner James E. L. Wade with the cordial co-operation of his associates, Mayor Walter H. Blair and Commissioner Joseph E. Thompson. Mayor Blair has publicly declared that he believes Greenfield Lake within the next few years will compare favorably in popularity and now compares in scenic beauty, with the famous Magnolia Gardens of Charleston, South Carolina.

The churches and the schools of Wilmington and New Hanover County are reviewed in separate articles. Suffice to say at this point that they are characteristic of the other chief assets of the community. The streets are well kept and beautifully shaded. Many are boulevarded and, in season, are long lanes of flowers. The Cape Fear Country Club and the city maintain golf courses; an association of leading business and professional men have made professional baseball possible, while fishing, hunting, swimming, bathing and other sports are abundantly near at hand. Of especial interest, too, are the numerous historic places throughout this section. Wilmington, being one of the first of the English settlements in America, is particularly rich in historical lore, tradition and fact. Sites of outstanding events in the Colonial, Revolutionary, pre-Civil War and Civil War periods are being preserved. The Chamber of Commerce with its usual enterprise has compiled a list of the more notable points. The list may be summarized as follows:

Orton Plantation: At Orton Plantation, fourteen miles down the Cape Fear River, is a splendid Colonial mansion still used by the present owner, J. Laurence Sprunt, as a summer residence. The mansion was built in 1725 by “King” Roger Moore. Adjoining is the old Kendal plantation, also owned by Mr. Sprunt, and in the immediate vicinity is the site of the old Brunswick, settled in the early 1720's and a prosperous community until Wilmington was founded in 1733.

Early Churches: Near Orton plantation mansion is old St. Phillip's Church, more than 200 years old and the first church edifice in the Lower Cape Fear. Only the walls remain to remind the present generation that their ancestors worshipped there. St. James Church, also Episcopal and the successor of St. Phillip's, is in Wilmington, located at Third and Market Streets. This church was established in September, 1751. Except for an intermission of several years in the latter part of the Eighteenth century it has been a continuous congregation and now is a part of the Eastern Carolina Diocese of which the Rt. Rev. Thomas C. Darst, of Wilmington is Bishop. The church is of stone material, vine-covered and picturesque. It was used as a horse stable by Tarleton's forces in the Revolution and as a hospital for Union wounded in the Civil War. The churchyard, adjoining the building, contains the graves of many Colonial heroes, including Cornelius Harnett and Thomas Godfrew, the latter the author of the first American drama, “The Prince of Parthia,” published in 1765 and produced in Philadelphia, two years later. Many also believe that the grave of the last British Governor, William Tryon, is in this old churchyard.

Monuments: At Third and Market, the statue of Hon. George Davis, Attorney General of the Confederate States, a lawyer of most brilliant attainments and an orator, probably unequalled in his generation, will forever perpetuate the memory of that distinguished citizen and statesman. The monument of Cornelius Harnett, Revolutionary patriot, is one block west, at Market and Fourth Streets. At Thirteenth and Market, a handsome monument provided by public subscription, stands as an eternal memorial to the New Hanover County young men who made the supreme sacrifice during the great World War. At Third and Dock Streets, a beautiful monument was erected in 1927 in memory of the heroic dead of the Confederate Army, the memorial having been provided from a $20,000 fund left by G. J. Boney, a Confederate soldier. In the National Cemetery, Twentieth and Market Streets, approximately 3500 soldiers of the Northern Army, who were killed in this section during the Civil War, are buried. Near the intersection of Fourteenth and Fanning Streets, is Oakdale, one of the most attractive cemeteries in the South. The monument to the Confederates, which stands in this cemetery, is a very impressive and graceful work of art. Granite markers, with the inscriptions noted, are located as follows:

Water and Market Streets: “Here was the residence of William Tryon, Governor of North Carolina from April 3, 1765, to June 30, 1771. Stamp Master William Houston was brought out from the house and forced to resign his office, November 16, 1765.”

Second, Between Market and Princess: “Here stood the residence of William

Hooper (born June 17, 1742, died October 14, 1790), an eloquent lawyer, devoted patriot and Signer of the Declaration of Independence.”

Northeast Corner Third and Market: “This building was occupied as Confederate Headquarters during the Civil War, and from here operations at Fort Fisher and other military movements were directed. In this house also John C. Calhoun, Secretary of War, was entertained by Dr. A. J. deRossset, Senior, April 12, 1819.”

Southwest Corner of Third and Market: “This building was occupied by Lord Charles Cornwallis, Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, in April, 1781. In the basement was a military prison.”

Second, Ann and Nun: “Here was stationed a British garrison of soldiers from the 81st Regiment under Major James H. Craig, afterward Governor-General of Canada. Wilmington surrendered to him January 29, 1781.”

Front and Nun: “This building was the residence of Edward B. Dudley, first Governor of North Carolina elected by the people in 1836. Here Daniel Webster was entertained by Governor Dudley on May 5, 1847, and here President William H. Taft was the guest of Dr. James Sprunt on November 9, 1909.”

Front and Dock: “In this building George Washington was entertained April 25, 1791. Here also Henry Clay was a guest April 9, 1844.”

Second and Dock: “Here stood the Wilmington residence of General Benjamin Smith, elected Governor of North Carolina in 1810.”

In Front City Hall, Third and Princess: “Here President William H. Taft addressed the people of Wilmington, November 9, 1909.”

In Front Court House, Third and Princess: “Eighteen miles below Wilmington stood Fort Fisher, which kept the port of Wilmington open for the Confederacy during almost the entire Civil War. On December 24 and 25, 1864, it withstood the greatest bombardment in the history of the world up to that time. 600 guns on 55 warships were engaged against it. On January 13, 1865, a larger fleet of 58 warships, transporting an army of 10,000 men, attacked the fort. After storming it for three days by land and sea, the fort was captured on the night of January 15, 1865.”

Front and Market: “Here at the intersection of Market and Front streets, stood the court house of New Hanover County, in which the Stamp Master appointed by the British crown was forced to resign his office November 16, 1765. On November 28, 1765, at the town of Brunswick, 14 miles below Wilmington, the armed militia of Brunswick and New Hanover Counties under the command of Colonels Hugh Waddell and John Ashe, prevented the landing of the stamp paper by the British sloop-of-war Diligence. Here the citizens of New Hanover County on June 19, 1775, made the following pledge for defense of the country: ‘We do unite ourselves under every tie of religion and honor and associate as a band in her defense against every foe; hereby solemnly engaging that whenever our Continental or Provincial Councils shall decree it necessary, we will go forth and be ready to sacrifice our lives and fortunes to secure her freedom and safety.’ ”

On Fort Fisher Highway, Near Carolina Beach Entrance: “Battlefield of Sugar Loaf. Major-General R. F. Hoke, commanding a division of Confederate troops with a brigade of North Carolina Senior Reserves, occupied a position along here from the river to the sound, which was attacked several times from January 19 to 22, 1865, by Federal forces under Major-General A. H. Terry. Upon the evacuation of Wilmington, the Confederates retired.”

Foot, Market Street: “On the west side of the river, a little south of the causeway was Beery's shipyard, where the Confederate Ironclad, North Carolina, was built in 1862 for the protection of the port. The ironclad, Raleigh, was constructed at Cassidy's shipyard, near the foot of Church Street, in 1864.”

Tablet, Steps of City Hall, Third and Princess: “The beginning of Wilmington was opposite the junction of the rivers, in 1732, and called New Liverpool. In 1733, a settlement was made at the foot of Market Street, named Newton, and here Governor Gabriel Johnston and other officials, located in 1734. In May, 1735, the Colonial Council and the courts were held here. In 1739, the town was incorporated as Wilmington and given a representative in the General Assembly.”

Causeway, Across River Opposite Market Street: “This Causeway across Eagles

Island was begun by Colonel William Dry in December 1764, and finished by Governor Benjamin Smith in 1791, under Acts of General Assembly.”

Near Mouth of Town Creek, West Side Cape Fear River, Several Miles Below Wilmington: “Site of Charlestown, settled May 24, 1664, under leadership of John Vassall Sir. John Yeamans, appointed Governor, arrived with additional Colonists from Barbadoes, November, 1665. The population then numbered 600. The settlement was abandoned about two years later.

Site of Fort Anderson, West Side Cape Fear River, Fifteen Miles Below City: “Fort Anderson. Begun 1861. Named in honor of General Joseph R. Anderson, then commanding military district. The fort, under command of Brigadier-General Johnson Hagood suffered a severe bombardment by a Federal fleet and attack by Federal Army under Major-General J. M. Schofield, in February, 1865, and was then evacuated.”

Entrance Hall, New Hanover County High School: “Colonel James Innes, of New Hanover County by will probated October 9, 1759, made bequest of his large plantation, one hundred pound sterling, and his library, for the use of a free school for the benefit of the youth of North Carolina.” Also, Second Tablet: “Hinton James, of New Hanover County (born September 20, 1776, died August 22, 1847) was the first student in the University of North Carolina.”

Hilton Park, North End of Fourth Street: “Here stood the residence of Cornelius Harnett, an able and devoted patriot, who gave his wealth and life to the cause of American freedom.”

At Parsley Place, Masonboro Sound: “Residence of William Hooper, Signer of the Declaration of Independence.”

Literally scores of other historic places dot this section, which prove of intense interest alike to the student and to the curious. The great Johnston Blakely, Commander of the Frigate Wasp in the War of 1812, played about Wilmington's streets when a boy; the late Woodrow Wilson spent several years of his young manhood here and a tablet recently was placed in the First Presbyterian Church, of which his father was pastor, as a permanent reminder of the War President's residence here. A volume of most interesting instructive fact relative to famous men, born or developed here and of historic events which occurred here, could be and some day will be written that future generations may be accurately informed of the illustrious place in the glorious annals, not only of the Lower Cape Fear, but of the state and nation, which this fine old city occupies. Returning to the present period, the following brief sketches will seek to describe the religious, industrial, educational and social and semi-social activities of the community:


Wilmington's greatest asset is the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company. This railroad, with its General Offices and shops, terminals and warehouse facilities, exercises such an influence upon the city and is such a secure basis for its prosperity that Wilmington properly may be described as a “railroad town.” The President of the company, George B. Elliott, as were the Presidents of the company before him during the last fifty years, is a resident of the city as also are his entire executive staff. The actual list of local officials and employes will total approximately 2,000 and those dependent upon the railroad, directly and indirectly, easily aggregate 10,000, or nearly one-fourth the population of the city.

Suggestive of the tremendous importance to Wilmington in being the home of the General Offices of the Atlantic Coast Line System, it may be mentioned that it is the third, or fourth, largest railroad in the United States. The System proper has a total mileage of 5,100 miles serving six states along the Atlantic Coast, but with its affiliated lines, including the Louisville & Nashville, this mileage is increased to 14,288 with an aggregate of more than 100,000 employes. The Atlantic Coast Line operates more than 1,000 locomotives and with the L. & N., this total may be increased to around 2,350; it has more than 33,500 freight cars, which, with the L. & N., with its nearly 60,000, will aggregate close to 100,000. Among the group of lines composing the system are the Atlantic Coast Line, Wilmington Railway Bridge Company. The Belt Line Railway Company, Montgomery, Alabama; South Carolina Pacific Railway, Northwestern Railroad Company of South Carolina, Winston-Salem Southbound Railway,

Charleston & Western, North Charleston Terminal, Columbia, Newberry & Laurens, Atlanta, Birmingham & Coast, the Louisville & Nashville, the Washington & Vandemere and the Charleston Union Station Company. The romance of the development of the Atlantic Coast Line and its meaning to Wilmington and this entire section has been graphically described in “Cape Fear Chronicles:”

“The equipment rails and rolling stock of the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad and its connections north and south were thoroughly worn out at the end of the war, so that when peace came there was need for entire rehabiliament. Mr. Walters, Mr. Newcomer and Mr. Jenkins, of Baltimore, becoming interested in the property, so managed it that in a few years it became wonderfully productive and under their control it was a nucleus of railway development. From it has arisen, Phoenix-like, the Atlantic Coast Line, in its equipment and management one of the finest examples of railroad development in modern times. It has been called the aorta of Wilmington's commercial and industrial life. Without it Wilmington could not have flourished. Many of our inhabitants of slender means depend upon its dividends for daily bread—others of larger fortunes have always preferred to invest in its shares, not only on account of its admirable physical equipment and its stable financial policy, but also because Mr. Henry Walters, the chairman of the board, and his associates in its excellent management, command the respect, the confidence and the admiration of stockholders, large and small. From this training school of the thousands who depend upon it for their occupation and support have arisen many young men, worthy successors to vacant places of responsibility and honor, because the quality of their instruction has been of the best and their industrious application has been made effectual in a higher calling.

“In November, 1898, the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company of Virginia was formed, consolidating the Petersburg Railroad Company, from Petersburg, Virginia to Garysburg, North Carolina, 67 miles, and the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad Company, from Richmond to Petersburg. The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company of South Carolina was organized in July, 1898, and the consolidation of the following companies was effected: Wilmington, Columbia and Augusta Railroad Company, Northeastern Railroad Company, Florence Railroad Company, Cheraw and Darlington Railroad Company and Manchester and Augusta Railroad Company. On May 1, 1900, the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company was formed by the consolidation of the following companies: Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company of Virginia, Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company of South Carolina, Norfolk and Carolina Railroad Company, Wilmington & Weldon Railroad Company and the Southeastern Railroad Company of North Carolina. The Plant System of Railways, which consolidated with the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company in 1902, comprised the following lines: Florida Southern Railroad Company, Sanford and St. Petersburg Railway Company, and Savannah, Florida and Western Railway Company. The Savannah, Florida and Western Railway Company had previously acquired the following lines: Alabama Midland Railroad Company, Brunswick and Western Railroad Company, Charleston and Savannah Railway Company, Tampa and Thonotosassa Railroad Company, Silver Springs, Ocala and Gulf Railroad Company, Abbeville Southern Railroad Company, Greenpond, Walterboro and Branchville Railway Company, Southwestern Alabama Railway Company, Sanford and Lake Eustis Railway Company and St. John and Lake Eustis Railroad Company.”

Starting in Virginia, with its grain and other hardy crops, Dr. Sprunt's narrative continues, the line passes through the cotton and tobacco belt, thence through the wonderful garden truck section of the Carolinas and Georgia into the semi-tropical section of Florida, abounding in citrus fruits of unrivaled quality as well as early vegetables of every variety, which the fortunate introduction of making ice, invented by Gorrie, and the use of refrigerator cars have enabled the carriers to transport in fresh condition to the great markets of the North. The remarkable diversity of soil and climate is steadily attracting the attention of settlers, and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, through its Industrial and Immigration Bureau, by co-operation with the state agricultural colleges and in other ways has left no stone unturned to develop and advance an interest in agriculture. The products of the forest form a most important part of the tonnage of the line, running as it does through the great pine and cypress belts of the South. Nor is this section dependent on any one line of industry for its growth and prosperity; its diversity of manufactures, including cotton mills and naval stores, being important factors. The phosphate industry, particularly, is an important one and the rails of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company reach the rich deposits of phosphate in Florida and South Carolina.

The General Offices of the company always have been located in Wilmington. Starting with a few men in 1840, it now has employed at headquarters about two thousand and to meet the constantly increasing business there was built, in 1913, one of the handsomest railroad office buildings in the South. The structure, six stories in height, is of concrete and steel material, and cost, with train sheds and concourse approximately $375,000, a value which now would be double that amount. The company owns and uses for the convenience of its patrons in Wilmington wharf fronts at two locations approximating two thousand feet in length, in front of which an adequate depth of water is maintained to accomodate the largest freighters. Huge warehouses, with thousands of square feet of space for bulk material have been erected. The lower yard tracks directly connected with the water terminals will accommodate over eight hundred cars and the Smith Creek yards on the outskirts of the city will take care of an additional thirteen hundred cars.

“It is a far cry,” Dr. Sprunt's narrative concludes “from the passenger train of 1840, with its crude equipment, on which a passenger had to pay seven cents per mile or more to travel, to the magnificent trains of today, with their powerful locomotives and steel passenger equipment, on which one may ride for two cents a mile. The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company runs daily, during the winter months, four through passenger trains, with the most modern Pullman equipment, from New York and eastern cities to Jacksonville, and other Florida points. It also runs daily five passenger trains, with modern Pullman equipment, from Chicago to Florida points, connecting with the Coast Line rails at Montgomery, Albany and Tifton. From Key West and Tampa direct connection is made with modern passenger steamers for Havana and other points in Cuba. At one time all through trains between the North and South moved by way of Wilmington, but in 1892, in order to shorten the distance materially and thus to compete more effectively for Florida travel, a line was completed from Contentnea to Pee Dee, a distance of 141 miles. This line opened up also a fine farming section. The Atlantic Coast Line is generally known and advertised as the ‘Standard Railroad of the South.’ It is the constant aim of the management to maintain this standard and to merit this distinction.”

And the Coast Line means more to Wilmington than industrial prosperity, or rather security. Railroad officials and employes, individually, as distinguished from the company, own property totaling millions of dollars in value. The executives and others take a most laudable interest in the general welfare of the community, viewed from every angle. They are chosen to act upon the boards of the various churches and in the schools; they are directors and stockholders and depositors in the banks; they are trustees for the hospitals; actively identified with the Chamber of Commerce, the civic clubs, social organizations, the Feast of Pirates and every other worthwhile movement. And, in every instance, their presence and their services are most valuable in that railroad officials invariably are of unusual ability; they rise to executive positions only through merit; they are railroad trained and that means thorough competency, able in organization and always of perfect integrity. This volume contains sketches of many Atlantic Coast Line executives, including the first President, the late Colonel R. R. Bridgers, and the present, Mr. George B. Elliott. It is entirely appropriate to suggest that the reader turn to the biographies of all these executives—they are most interesting; not from the manner in which they are written, but because of the facts they contain.

Harbor Scene—Cape Fear River


Wilmington is peculiarly blessed with numerous and beautiful churches. It is probable that no city of similar size in America has a larger church-going population and some of its ministers are among the most distinguished for learning and devotion to Christian duty in the entire Southland. There are approximately thirty white congregations in the city, representing virtually all the principal denominations, while out in the county there are strong Presbyterian, Methodist, Episcopal and Baptist churches in Seagate, Wrightsville, Winter Park, Masonboro, Castle Hayne and other points. Even at Wrightsville Beach, wholly a resort section, there is a Union chapel in which pastors of the city hold weekly services throughout the summer season, and also another chapel in which worship those of the Roman Catholic faith. It is probable that the average attendance at Sunday services is around 7,500, while the value of the church property will approximate $2,000,000.

The city is the headquarters of the Eastern Carolina Episcopal Diocese, of which the Rt. Rev. Thomas C. Darst, D. D., is Bishop. This denomination also has the historic St. James Church, established in 1751, or nearly two centuries ago and one of the oldest in the state. Other Episcopal churches include St. Paul's, St. John's, St. Andrews (Wrightsville) and several missions. The First Presbyterian Church, of which Rev. Dr. A. D. P. Gilmour, is pastor, and the Church of the Covenant, Rev. Dr. J. Harry Whitmore, pastor, are among the handsomest and most thoroughly equipped churches in the South. They are magnificent edifices, charming in architecture and perfect in arrangement for the proper handling of the varied tasks which modern churches are called upon to perform. Other Presbyterian churches are St. Andrews, Immanuel, and Pearsall Memorial. The Methodist churches in the city are Grace, Fifth Avenue, Epworth, Delgado, Trinity and also at Seagate, Winter Park, Masonboro and various communities. The Baptists have six churches in the city: Calvary, First, Southside, Delgado, Gibson Street and Temple; this denomination also is represented at Seagate, Masonboro, Winter Park and in many communities of the county. The Catholics worship at St. Mary's Pro-Cathedral; the Lutherans at St. Paul's and St. Matthews. The Jewish people hold devotionals at the uniquely attractive Temple of Israel, and the B'Nai Israel Synagogue. Other denominations include the Christian Advent (Fourth Street and Sixth Street), the First Christian, the First Church of Christ (Christian Science), and a Latter Day Saints mission. The negroes also maintain Presbyterian, Baptist, Methodist, Episcopal and Catholic churches.

Every congregation has the usual auxiliary organizations, Sunday Schools, Women's clubs, and Young People's Unions. In addition, an active Ministerial Association of about twenty-five members is maintained and the five leading Protestant denominations conduct a Religious educational course as a part of the High school curriculum. The Catholics operate two parochial schools. Also the various Protestant churches co-operate with the public in maintaining Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. organizations. The former has a large brick building on Market Street, between Third and Fourth, and is the center of much worthwhile Christian activities, supplying religious, athletic and similar training for several hundred youths of the city. The Y. M. C. A. also is headquarters of the Evangelistic Club, the McClure Bible Class, Yokefellows, Hi-Y Club and other organizations of a religious and semi-religious character. The Y. W. C. A. is an especially strong institution and is doing a most valuable service. Many of the Wilmington civic clubs accord this organization substantial co-operation. The Salvation Army is especially active and receives cordial and generous public aid in maintaining its Citadel and a Maternity Home.

The history of churches always is interesting. The reasons are manifest, but primarily, it is because everyone has a religion (even atheism and infidelity are curious brands of religion) and also because the churches preserve civilization, assure public schools and make possible decent government. Dr. Sprunt in his “Cape Fear Chronicles” devotes much space to Wilmington's early churches and the following is taken from his book:

“There was no organized parish at Cape Fear until the settlers came from South Carolina and brought with them to Brunswick, in 1729, Rev. Mr. John LaPierre, a French Hugenot. He was supplanted by Rev. Mr. Marsden, who became the first minister at St. James Church. This church was established by an Act of the Assembly, the 25th of September, 1751: ‘Whereas the Church of St. James parish in New Hanover County is by law appointed to be built in the town of Wilmington—and many well disposed persons have subscribed liberally thereto and a further sum is yet necessary

to carry on and complete the same,’ it was provided under this Act that the pews should be sold to subscribers, and to quote the Act, ‘which piece or parcel of ground so adjusted and set off, shall be an estate of inheritance to such person, or persons, for his and their heirs and assigns forever.’ Several persons left sums by their wills towards building the church, among them William Farris and John Flavell. The Church of St. James was not finished till after 1768. The building stood partly in Market Street, facing the river, at the corner of Fourth and Market Streets. A picture of this building, as well as other buildings of that period has been preserved in Lossing's Field Book of the Revolution.

“At the time of the Revolution, some of the ministers of the Church of England, bound by oath to the Government, abandoned their flocks. The minister of this parish, Mr. Wills, retired as rector, but he remained in Carolina and on occasion, performed marriage ceremonies. The old church was abandoned, except that several times, court was held there, and British troops under Major Craig occupied it. Not until 1795 was it again used as an Episcopal Church, when Dr. Solomon Halling was called as the first minister. This building had neither steeple nor belfry and the town bell was used to call the service. There were three entrances; one faced the river, in line with the present pavement on the south side of Market Street; one opened at the side on Market Street; and one into the graveyard. The aisles were quite broad and paved with square brick, the pews square and box-like. There was a high reading desk and a pulpit still higher, from which the congregation could be observed in the pews, furnished with red velvet cushions, and there was a sounding board above the pulpit. A large mahogany table was used for the communion service. This old church was taken down in 1840 and the present church was built, the old bricks and material being used in the new house.

St. James Church

“There was no Presbyterian Church in Wilmington till after the Revolution. The Scots had no established church here, but ministers came and preached in their homes and the Presbyterians were strong on the upper Cape Fear. Rev. James Campbell came here from Pennsylvania, visited his kinsman, Alexander McKay (now we spell the name McKoy) in Anson County, and preached through the Scotch settlements, as did McAden. Rev. Mr. Bingham came to Wilmington as a teacher. He was from County Down, Ireland, a graduate of the University of Glasgow, and became the ancestor of the family of celebrated teachers of his name in the state. There being no service held for years in St. James Church, he was invited to preach there, which he continued to do till 1795, and afterwards held alternate service there with the minister. In 1785, devout people of Wilmington, desiring some form of public worship and religious

First Presbyterian Church
service, turned to those who could assist them and an Act was passed (Chapter 35, 1785) empowering John Hill, Thomas Wright, John Huske, Thomas Maclaine, Robert Wells, John Bradley and James Read, Esqrs. (Episcopal families) to receive donations and bequests that had been made for the use of a congregation of the Presbyterian communion, and legally apply the same for the purchase of ground and the erection of a Presbyterian church or house of worship. From this inception, that congregation grew, continuing their services in old St. James church, alternating during the incumbency of Dr. Halling and Mr. Empie. In May, 1818, the lot on the east side of Front Street, opposite the present city market, between Dock and Orange Streets, was purchased, and a building erected, the cornerstone being laid by the Masons, but it was destroyed by fire in 1819. It was, however, rebuilt and finished in

1821. The remains of the old session room, back of the church, built in 1840, can still be seen from Front Street. On April 13, 1859, the top of the steeple caught fire from a spark blown by a high wind from a furnace. It was inaccessible and beyond the reach of a fire engine, and crowds of people stood watching the blaze, fanned by the strong wind, slowly creep down the spire, till, wrapped in flames, it fell crashing upon the roof and the building was doomed. The present church (see note) on the corner of Third and Orange Streets was finished in 1861, and still an ornament to the city. It stands on what is called the Thunder-and-Lightning Lot, because of an old stable which once stood on this lot and which was frequently struck by lightning, and even after the church was built there, its spire was repeatedly damaged by lightning. Since the town has been strung with electric wires, these powers of the elements are no longer manifested. (Note: Dr. Sprunt wrote the above in 1914. In 1926, the Presbyterian church again burned down and in its place the present magnificent church building, see photograph, was erected, being completed in 1928.)

“The first Baptist congregation in the Cape Fear was called the New Lights; they came along our coast from New England and New Jersey. They were fishermen, toiling with their nets by day, preaching in their camps at night, and holding meetings on Sunday. As early as 1762, they had strong settlements in Lockwood's Folly and at Shallotte. In other parts of the province, the Baptists were very numerous, having come at a much earlier period direct from England. Their handsome church in our city, with its beautiful spire, which would do credit to any city in the world, shows the rapid growth of this sect in our community.

“The Wilmington Methodists can claim the honor of having had the Rev. Mr. Whitfield (associate of John and Charles Wesley at Savannah, Georgia) to preach to them as early as 1760, in St. James Church. This sermon, Governor Tryon remarked, was worthy to be preached in the King's Chapel, in London. We find a deed on record, in 1791, in which Mrs. Ann Sophia Hasell, the widow of the late Chief Justice Hasell, conveys six acres of land on Cabbage Inlet Sound to William Meredith, preacher of the Gospel, and one from William Campbell, for a lot in Wilmington at the corner of Second and Walnut Streets to erect a building to the worship of Almighty God. The full lot, extending to Front Street, was subsequently acquired by the congregation. Here the Methodist Church was built and the congregation was at first mainly composed of negroes; the whites, being few, made use of the gallery. This church was burned by the fire of 1884, which swept away a large part of the town. Grace Church on Mulberry Street (now Grace and Fourth Streets) is now the pride of the Methodist denomination.

“The Quakers were once established here in early days, but their quiet and unobtrusive ways have left us only a graveyard and no other record of their labors. There they will lie until the spirit moves them on the Great Day. This block where their graveyard stands was a part of the tract belonging to the Campbell heirs in the northern part of the city. They respected the lot and would not sell it and finally deeded it to the City of Wilmington. The city established in the center of this lot a negro public school and deeded the four corners of the block to four negro denominations, who have erected churches for themselves upon the property.

“The establishment of the first Roman Catholic church here was of later years. Two daughters of Mr. James Usher were educated in St. Joseph's Convent, at Emmitsburg, Maryland, and became converted to that faith. One of them became a nun. The other came home imbued with the spirit of practicing her faith by her works and devoted much thought and energy to the upbuilding of her adopted church in Wilmington. She corresponded with the Rev. John England, the eminent Bishop of the Roman Catholic Church in Charleston, invited priests to Wilmington, had services in her parlors for the poor laborers of the town and finally a fund was raised and lot on Dock Street was purchased in the name of William Berry, Barney Baxter and others in trust and the Church of St. Thomas was erected. One of the most consecrated adherents and supporters was the late Mrs. Catherine Fulton, who all her life was a devoted Catholic. The Roman Catholics now have a fine cathedral in the city.”


“In every community there are builders of character, and the building is based on the gold, silver and precious stones of love and sacrifice . . . . ‘It is with unspeakable delight that I (Lord Brougham) contemplate the rich gifts that have been bestowed, the honest zeal displayed, by private persons for the benefit of their fellow creatures.’ ”

The late Dr. James Sprunt in his “Cape Fear Chronicles” begins his chapter on

schools with that statement. And it is appropriate. Schools unquestionably are next to churches as the basic foundation of civilization and nowhere as in America has devotion to a God and a zeal for education been so manifest. Millions not only attend church services each Sabbath day and reverently worship a Divine Father, but these same millions devoutly provide great churches and universities that an intelligent pulpit may direct these services. And with a zeal, second only to that of a reverent religion they apply their wealth and their genius to the establishment and the maintenance of schools. That is not only true in Wilmington, but true in every city, town and neighborhood in all wide America. American philanthrophy, not even approached elsewhere in all the history of the world, is the direct result of the churches and the schools and it is because of these that American civilization is the most cultured, its statesmanship the highest, its captains of industry the most just in their relations with their employes and their liberality a happy astonishment to mankind. Religion and schools continue the bulwark of freedom and progress and with these America is peculiarly and abundantly blessed.

Wilmington, in her schools, as in her churches, has long occupied a position in the front ranks of the South. From the time of John Ashe, who back in 1759, petitioned the crown for funds for a free school down to the present regime of James O. Carr, head of the board of education, outstanding men have been chosen to the leadership and directed the educational programs. In the period immediately following the Civil War, the public schools suffered here as elsewhere in the South and progress in education, except for those who could afford private or “pay” schools was much retarded. It is a long and tedious period between 1867 when Miss Amy Bradley organized her Unitarian Union School here, up through the Hemenway and Tileston Normal to 1882 when M. C. S. Noble became county superintendent under a consolidation process. It was fiteen years later, however, before high school grades were taught and the first graduation class at the old Tileston Normal, in 1897, numbered three girls. From that date, though, or during the last thirty years the progress has been notable until this year, 1929, a system, headed by J. O. Carr as Chairman of the Board of Education and O. A. Hamilton as County Superintendent shows a score of buildings of a total valuation of around $1,250,000; an organization of approximately 250 teachers; and a $500,000 High school building with a faculty of forty-one and an enrollment of 1,500. The graduating class this year totaled around 250 students and they were equipped to matriculate at virtually any college or university in America.

New Hanover High School

The history of the community shows that educational facilities were in the Cape Fear as early as 1734 and John Baptista Ashe, father of John Ashe, at that time was insistent in his demands for the proper education of the growing generation. In 1745, a school was taught at old Brunswick and in 1749, the Legislature appropriated 6,000 pounds to establish a free school, but during the Indian War the money was used for other purposes. In 1754, other appropriations were made but England declined to approve these. It was five years later, or in 1759, that John Ashe became insistent and laid a prayer before the King urging that a certain fund be laid out for the purchase of glebes and in establishing free schools in each county. But failure of proper co-operation from the Provincial, or Crown officials, delayed actual progress. In 1760, a Presbyterian minister, Rev. James Tate, opened a classical school in Wilmington and twenty-five years afterwards, 1785, Rev. William Bingham established his famous school here. In 1800, the Innes Academy was finished.

In 1825, a “Literary Fund,” was created, according to Dr. Sprunt, by the Legislature.

The author of the bill was Bartlett Yancey, but it was not until 1839 that the first bill providing for free schools in every county was passed. In a footnote, Dr. Sprunt states that “Dr. Frederick Hill, of Orton, was a strong advocate of public education and was one of the authors of the legislation on the subject and was in Wilmington, ‘the Father of the Public Schools.’ ” Between 1840 and 1850 a more elaborate system was put into operation. The Union Free Schools came into existence six years later or in 1856. The name Union was applied to any school, it is explained, in which private and public interests were united in accordance with an act of the General Assembly. Prior to this time, there were in New Hanover County, in addition to the schools of the town of Wilmington: the New Hanover Academy, 1833; Rock Fish Academy, 1834; Black Creek Female Institution, 1846; and schools at Rocky Point, 1846-50; and Topsail, 1851. The first Union school is described in a letter to Silas N. Martin from John W. Barnes. It says in part: “A meeting of citizens was held in the summer of 1856 in the vicinity of the ‘Oaks’ and it was decided to raise the necessary money for the purchase of a lot and the construction of a building. The deed was executed November 3, 1856, to James Green, John Barnes and Thomas Freshwater, as trustees, and the same recorded December 31. In April, 1857, a meeting of the subscribers was held in the new building, in which it was decided to start the school the first of May. * * *The school house originally seated one hundred pupils. In 1859, a room capable of holding forty scholars was added * * *.”

Shortly after the war, Miss Amy Morris Bradley became interested in these two schools and in 1866 opened the Union School and, later, the Hemenway and, in 1870, received recognition from the state in that they received from the state fund, $1,266.71. The Union School in which was taught the Tileston Normal School passed into the hands of the county in October 1871, when the new brick Tileston building was opened. This building by a deed of gift became the property of the city in 1901. A large bronze tablet, at the entrance, bears an inscription stating the Tileston Memorial School was built by Mrs. Mary Hemenway of Boston in 1871 and maintained at her own cost for twenty years under the “devoted administration of Amy Morris Bradley.” Accordingly in October, 1872, the old Union and Hemenway buildings were abandoned, turned over to the Free School committee and the schools were combined under the name of the Tileston Normal School in the new brick building. In 1882, the Wilmington system of schools was developed with M. C. S. Noble as superintendent. Under this system, the management of the common schools was placed in the hands of five county commissioners, who formed the county board of education and appointed three school committeemen for each district and the school committee, in turn, appointed teachers. John J. Blair succeeded Mr. Noble in 1899. In 1901, the Tileston building and half of that city block became the property of the city. In 1904, an addition of fourteen rooms was made to the Union School and just previous to this eight rooms were built to the Hemenway. In 1909, a local tax of 15 cents on the $100 valuation was voted by the entire county and New Hanover was the first county to become a special tax district. In 1910, under an enactment by Congress, eleven city blocks of land back of the Marine Hospital were secured by the Board of Education for park and school purposes. The following year, the late Samuel Baer gave a beautiful brick school building to the city which became a valuable and much needed addition to the system. The greatest expansion, however, took place in 1927, when through a consolidation system, during the administration of Major W. A. Graham, County Superintendent, new school buildings were erected in Forest Hills, at Bradley Creek and Castle Hayne. At the present time, under the county superintendency of O. A. Hamilton, the Board of Education of which J. O. Carr is Chairman, is considering plans for an expansion program in the city schools which may add from eighty to 100 rooms to the present buildings.

The High school idea was slow in development. The superintendent's report in 1886 shows provisions for only six grades. In the 1890's, High school subjects were gradually added to Hemenway and Union Schools. Later, the school committee bought a lot, Third and Market Streets, and moved the more advanced pupils into the building erected there. This remained Wilmington's High school until 1897, when the advanced classes from Hemenway, Union and Third Street schools, totaling a hundred with four teachers in charge, moved into the Tileston Normal. The following May the first graduating exercises were held there and certificates were given to three girl graduates. Each year, the record shows, there were gratifying increases. The class of 1914, numbered thirty, bringing the total number of graduates up to 315. In 1910, nine more rooms were added and in 1921, the new High School building, on Princess between Thirteenth and Fourteenth Streets, was completed and opened. This building now is becoming crowded and one of the problems of the school authorities.


Two newspapers, the Morning Star and the News-Dispatch, the latter occupying the afternoon field, are published in Wilmington. Both issue Sunday editions, carry Associated Press news service and each is exceptionally progressive in the purchase of special and syndicated feature services, and maintain capable city staffs and state correspondence organizations. The Star is owned by Page Brothers, publishers of a chain of four newspapers in North Carolina, Georgia and Florida and with general headquarters at Columbus, Georgia, but with R. G. Page as resident manager. It is edited by Lamont Smith, a young man of brilliant intellect, trained on the larger metropolitan newspapers, a close student, familiar with men and events and an editorial writer, whose strength of thought, fairness in presentation and smoothness of diction probably are unequalled and certainly not excelled in the South. His editorial page and his special column, Aladdin's Tower, are interesting and instructive and will compare favorably with any in the entire country. He classes with the late Dr. Theodore Kingsbury, editorial writer on The Star during the generation just passed and concededly one of the most influential editors of his period. The News-Dispatch is owned principally by Chesley C. Bellamy, well known lawyer, planter and capitalist of Wilmington, Joseph E. Thompson, for eight years City Commissioner in charge of finance and a most capable and estimable official, and Joshua Horne, a resident of Rocky Mount and publisher of the Telegram of that city. George B. MacFarlane is editor and general manager of the News-Dispatch and is rapidly building the institution into a most progressive and influential publication. He received his early training on Charleston, South Carolina newspapers, is notably earnest in his efforts and the paper has registered remarkable advancement during the last twelve months.

The history of the press in Wilmington is interesting. A pamphlet-book published by J. S. Reilly in 1884 and a copy of which now is in possession of Louis A. Hanson II, well-known Wilmington manufacturer, carries an entertaining and instructive article upon local newspapers. At that time, three newspapers were published here. They were The Morning Star, The Daily Review, and The Sunday Morning Mail. This article states that The Star, the oldest daily in the state, was established by W. H. Bernard, present (in 1884) editor and proprietor, September 23, 1867. T. B. Kingsbury was associate editor. “Its editorial department,” says the article, “is conducted with signal ability and an intelligent independence, while its city columns contain full and well written presentations of all matters of local interest.” In 1909, the late Dr. James Sprunt, Colonel Walker Taylor, J. O. Carr, Henry C. McQueen, William H. Sprunt, J. Holmes Davis and others formed the Wilmington Star Company, Inc., and this company continued its publication until 1926, when it was sold to the Page Brothers. The Review was established in 1875 and afterwards became, by purchase, the successor of The Journal. The editorial staff consisted of Josh T. James, editor and proprietor and Major H. H. Foster, associate and local editor. The Evening Dispatch, established January, 1895, was the successor of The Review, and according to Dr. Sprunt, The Dispatch was owned by R. P. McClammy, and edited by R. K. Bryan, and later by James H. Cowan. The Sunday Morning Mail was established in 1882 by E. S. Warrock & Company. Of the newspapers prior to 1884, Mr. Reilly's article says, in part:

“We are told by the historian that the Lords Proprietors and the Royal Governors were extremely hostile to the establishment of newspapers in the colony under their administration. We are further told that the Governor of Virginia would not suffer the use of the printing press in the colony under any pretense whatever and that Sir William Berkley, one of the Proprietors of North Carolina, thanked God that there was not a printing press in any of the Southern colonies. Notwithstanding such opposition, however, a printing press was introduced into North Carolina and a paper published at New Bern, by James Davis, in 1749, one hundred and thirty-five (now 180) years ago. It was called the North Carolina Gazette, and was issued weekly. The second paper published in the state was at Wilmington, where in 1764, the Cape Fear Gazette and Wilmington Advertiser was started by Andrew Stewart. This paper was discontinued in 1767, but was succeeded in the same year by the Cape Fear Mercury, published and edited by an Englishman named Adam Boyd, who afterwards left the press for the pulpit. There is no record extant as to how long The Mercury continued to exist. It has frequently been said that there could be found no trace of any other publications in Wilmington prior to 1818. Through the courtesy of Hon. A. H. VanBokkelen. President of the Chamber of Commerce, to whom we are indebted for many favors the writer has just been shown a well preserved copy of the Cape Fear Herald, a weekly published by Boylan & Ray. It bears date of Wednesday, November

2, 1803, and is Vol. 1, No. 46. It contains, among other things, Thomas Jefferson's Message to the Eighth Congress, which was presented to that body, Monday, October 17, 1803. The existence of this paper forever sets at rest what has heretofore been a disputed point in the history of the press of Wilmington.

“In 1818, a gentleman named David Smith, Jr., began the publication of a paper called the Cape Fear Recorder, and continued it until 1825, when he was succeeded by Archibald Maclaine Hooper, a cultured and educated gentleman and a ready and forceful writer. For a long time this was the only newspaper published in this section of the state, and naturally wielded great influence. In 1834, Henry S. Ellinwood came to this city and took editorial charge of a paper then published here called the Wilmington Advertiser. His connection with it was brief, however, as he died suddenly soon after assuming its control and management. The paper, at his death, was purchased by Joshua Cochrane, of Fayetteville, who conducted it until the summer of 1836, when he also died and the paper fell into the hands of F. C. Hill, as editor and proprietor, who continued its publication until 1842, in which year it took its place in history as a thing of the past. A publication contemporaneous with The Advertiser was the People's Press, a paper published by P. W. Fanning and Thomas Loring, the latter being editor-in-chief, a position which he held for some time, when he disposed of his interest and purchased The Standard at Raleigh, which paper was at that time the organ of the Democracy of this State. Differing with his party in 1842 in regard to the course pursued towards the banks of the state, he retired from the paper, returned to Wilmington and established the Tri-Weekly Commercial, which he conducted until failing health forced him to retire from journalism, and its publication was discontinued.

“In 1838, the Wilmington Chronicle was established by Asa A. Brown. It advocated the principles of the Whig party with great ability and earnestness. In 1851, Talcott Burr, Jr., purchased the paper and changed its name to the Wilmington Herald. Under his capable management, The Herald became one of the leading and most influential papers in the state. Mr. Burr continued its publication until 1858, in which year he departed this life in the prime of a useful manhood. His brothers, C. E. and R. Burr, carried the paper for several years afterwards, when it was purchased by A. M. Waddell, and, upon the breaking out of the war, it ceased to exist. The first number of the Wilmington Journal was issued in 1844 by Alfred L. Price and David Fulton. For many years thereafter this publication exercised a controlling influence upon the political questions of the day. The editorial charge of the paper was in the hands of Mr. Fulton, and so remained until the time of his death, when his brother, James Fulton, took charge of its editorial management. Under his control, The Journal became a powerful influence, not only in this section, but throughout the entire state. In the early part of 1866, Mr. Fulton died and was succeeded by Major J. A. Engelhard, who fully sustained the reputation The Journal had acquired under its previous management. Colonel W. L. Saunders became connected with the paper by the retirement of Alfred L. Price, and the firm became Engelhard & Saunders. During the perilous times and almost utter demoralization of society that followed the close of the war, the utterances of this paper were manly and fearless in denunciation of the oppressive measures taken by the party in power under their so-called reconstruction policy. It continued in existence until 1878, when, overcome by adverse circumstances, its publication was discontinued, and it was purchased by The Daily Review, an afternoon paper published by Josh T. James, as editor and proprietor, who now (1884) issues it, in connection with The Review, as a weekly, still retaining the old name.”


The Wilmington Chamber of Commerce is the oldest in the state and was organized September 11, 1866, for “the mutual interest of those engaged in mercantile pursuits and for the purpose of instituting a uniform system for the government of trade and commerce, by adjusting amicably by arbitration causes of dispute and of exercising a general supervision of all matters pertaining to the commercial interests of the port.” The first President of the Chamber of Commerce was William L. deRosset, who served five consecutive years; he was followed by Alfred Martin, two years; Dr. William White Harriss, two years; and A. H. VanBokkelen eight years. As far back as there is a record of secretaries and executive officers is 1884. At that time, Mr. VanBokkelen was finishing his eighth consecutive administration; Edward Peschau was Vice-President; Donald MacRae, Second Vice-President; and John L. Cantwell,

Secretary-Treasurer. The Executive Council was composed of R. E. Heide, George Harriss, H. C. McQueen, J. H. Chadbourn, W. Calder and Roger Moore (President of the Produce Exchange). That was one and two generations removed, but names familiar then still are familiar and in the vanguard of present day progress.

In April, 1873, the organization of the Produce Exchange assumed control of certain branches of trade not fully provided for by the Chamber of Commerce; and in June, 1873, the constitution of the latter body was amended in all points in conflict with the new organization. The Produce Exchange was incorporated in September, 1873, with D. R. Murchison as President. His successors, as far as there is a record obtainable were D. G. Worth, C. H. Robinson, R. E. Calder, Dr. James Sprunt and Roger Moore. The last Board of Managers consisted of Roger Moore, President; J. H. Currie, Vice-President; John L. Cantwell, Secretary-Treasurer. The Exchange consisted of leading capitalists, merchants and business men, who, “with broad and liberal views of what is best tended to promote the general interests and welfare of the community, will ever be found ready to adopt every legitimate means calculated to spread abroad the intelligence of the present advantages and future possibilities of the City of Wilmington as a great commercial and manufacturing center and important distributing point.” There seems to be no record as to the date when the Exchange became totally absorbed by the Chamber of Commerce. It probably though was in the 1880's for the last available records show many of the same men acting on boards of both the Chamber of Commerce and the Produce Exchange. Keeping in mind the officials and executive councilmen of the Chamber of Commerce, the following list of Exchange officials, Board of Managers and Committeemen will indicate how closely allied were the two organizations: Roger Moore, as President; J. H. Currie, Vice-President; and John L. Cantwell, Secretary and Treasurer; the Board of Managers were H. C. McQueen, B. F. Hall, A. M. Green, R. E. Calder and Alfred Martin; and the standing committees were: Arbitration, D. G. Worth, A. J. deRosset, Alex Sprunt and John Woody; Finance, R. E. Calder, B. F. Hall and John L. Cantwell; Law, H. C. McQueen and Alfred Martin; Information and Statistics, C. H. Robinson, H. Johnson and R. E. Heide; Marine, Dr. James Sprunt, E. Peschau and C. P. Mebane; Inspection, A. H. VanBokkelen, R. H. Love and B. G. Worth; Cotton Classification, A. H. Greene, E. Lilly and R. W. Hicks; Cotton (Quotations), William Calder and S. R. Birdsey; Naval Stores (Quotations), C. H. Robinson, Dr. W. W. Harriss and D. G. Worth; Membership, W. R. Kenan, John L. Rankin and G. J. Boney.

At the present time, nearly a half century later, the Executive Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce is Louis T. Moore, son of Roger Moore, President of the old Produce Exchange and member of the Executive Council of the Chamber of Commerce. The present organization is one of the most efficient in the South and has been constant in its co-operation with every progress movement in the Wilmington trade territory. It is located on Third Street, directly in front of the City Hall building, and has been and now is actively instrumental in the bringing of factories and other industrial plants to the city, in the development of the trucking and agricultural area and in giving a wider publicity to the local resorts than any similar organization, possibly, in the United States, in that the organization has no publicity bureau, Secretary Moore preparing the copy and directing its distribution without organized assistance. The Chamber also co-operates with the Traffic Bureau, of which R. A. Pool is Secretary, with the Industrial Bureau, sponsored by the Industrial committee of the Chamber of Commerce and under the direction of Secretary Pool, and also it co-operates with the Merchants Association, C. D. Hogue, Secretary.

Boats Discharging at Clyde Line Dock


According to W. B. McKoy, quoted by Dr. James Sprunt, the first public building erected in Wilmington was situated at the intersection of Market and Front Streets. It was built by private contribution and called the Town House. Under the act incorporating the town, 1739, this building became the county court house. It is described as being a brick building, with an open area below paced of brick and with open archway approaches from each street. On the second floor was one large hall, with a slate roof. Here the town meetings, the Superior Courts and the General Assembly of the Province were held. There was no town bell until 1751; until that date a drum was used to assemble the people. In 1790, an act was passed requiring that this building be torn down, as a menace to safety, and a new building of brick material erected on the same site and to be used for no other purpose than a court house. This building was damaged by fire in 1840 and many deeds and papers were lost.

The next courthouse was built on the northside of Princess, between Second and Third Streets. It was about in the center of the block and to the west stood the “stocks and whipping post.” The jail also stood nearby, although the first jail stood where the Cornwallis House, Market and Third now stands. The old basement walls of that building are said to have been used when the Wright family acquired the property, prior to the Revolution and erected the present building. This fact may suffice for a reason why legend insists that under the house are dungeons. About 1850, a new jail was built at Third and Princess Streets and forty years later, or in 1893, the old part of the present courthouse was erected there, combining courthouse and jail. The building still is occupied by the county officials, although a most handsome Annex was erected just east on Princess in 1927 and it is in this Annex that Superior Court sessions are held, the clerk's offices are located, and all prisoners are kept in the jail on the third floor. The present City Hall was built in the 1850's and designed by James F. Post I. This building continues in service and combines municipal offices, an Academy of Music (Assembly Hall and Theater), the City Library, Police Department and City Jail.

The Federal government erected its first building, customs house and postoffice, in Wilmington in 1846. In 1891, the Postoffice Building, Chestnut and Front Streets, was erected. This also did service as a Federal Court until the present magnificent $600,000 Customs House Building was erected. It is one of the most beautiful public buildings in the entire country. It is of white limestone, three stories high and extends along Water Street and Wrights Alley for a distance of one full block between Princess and Market Streets. Its arrangement is declared by experts to be perfect and adequate space is allotted to the Federal Court room, judge's chambers, clerk's and marshal's offices. Also for Federal, state, district and county farm demonstration offices, the United States Engineering department, the collector of the port, revenue officials and the various other departments of government. Immediately across Water Street, the government also has erected modern docks, extending the full length of the customs house, and used as the home dock for government vessels in harbor.

Customs House—Cutter “Modoc.”

“The Cape Fear Chronicles” recalls that the “market house where meat was sold (not the fish market, for that, known as Mud Market, was at Second and Market, along Jacob's Run, then a considerable stream where the fish boats came up) stood in the middle of Market Street, half way between the court house and the river. This

was a long one story brick building and standing there in 1766.” It was from the roof of this building, Dr. Sprunt states, that the people of Wilmington, after taking Samuel Houston, stampmaster forcibly from Governor Tryon's residence, south side of Market Street, immediately opposite the market, placed a rope around his neck and threatened to publicly hang him if he did not there and then swear not to distribute the stamps and to publicly resign his office before the face of royal authority. This was the historic Stamp Defiance Act, the first emphatic resistance to British rule in the Colonies. The old building was torn down when the courthouse was removed and replaced by an old shed in the middle of Market Street. Dr. Sprunt continues: “It (the shed) was supported by iron pillars and open on all sides. It was paved with brick and fitted with wooden meat stalls and timber sawed into chopping blocks. At the upper end was a stairway leading to a bell tower. Before the war, the bell in this tower was rung at nine o'clock, one o'clock, and seven o'clock; and it rang the nine o'clock curfew, which required all slaves without a pass to leave the street.” Another public institution of long ago was the ancient ducking stool, a chair attached to a long timber and which could be swung around on a pivot and ducked into the river. This was located at Market Dock.


The Wilmington Kiwanis Club was organized in the fall of 1919, receiving its charter in the spring of 1920. Charles C. Chadbourn was the club's first President, and his associate, Louis J. Poisson, now Lieutenant-Governor, of Zone 4, Carolina Kiwanis District, Vice President. Julius C. Hobbs was the club's first Secretary; only three others serving in this capacity during the entire nine years, Hanry L. Taylor, Harold W. Wells and, the present executive secretary, William H. Montgomery. Thirty-five constituted the charter membership of the club and the membership now totals seventy carefully selected men. The following officers are steering the destiny of the organization during 1929: Captain Fred E. Little, President; J. B. Cranmer, Vice-President; W. H. Montgomery, Secretary-Treasurer; Thomas H. Wright, District Trustee; and W. B. Munroe, immediate Past President.

In casting about upon the waters of life's uncharted seas, the Wilmington Kiwanis Club selected as its major objective, the building of character by re-opening the Boys Brigade Building and setting sail on the charted course for the port of better men. The Brigade was founded by Colonel Walker Taylor a generation earlier and had achieved a most illustrious record. The institution, however, had closed during the World War when every one was devoting every possible effort to ending that universal conflict. But on July 1, 1921, the Brigade was re-opened by the Kiwanis with a membership of twenty boys; the present membership of five hundred and nine boys is the capacity of the present building. The success which has crowned the efforts of the Kiwanis Club in its boys work program can best be judged by various testimonials from outstanding citizens including the Governor of North Carolina, the Mayor of Wilmington, Bishop of East Carolina, Judge of the Eighth Judicial district, Chamber of Commerce and innumerable other expressions from the local citizenship. The attendance of the Brigade Boys’ Club for 1928 was 42,851, and the total cost of this work during the same period was $7,500. In addition to conducting boys work in the Brigade building, the Club has sponsored for several years, three baseball leagues of four teams each in the city and county schools, furnishing umpires, balls, supervision, trophies, etc. A Boy and Dog Parade also is an annual feature in Kiwanis work, as well as the sponsoring and financing of a Pet and Hobby Fair among the Brigade boys. Two hundred boys had 419 exhibits on display in 1928. The club also conducts a highly successful Boys’ Camp, with an annual attendance of 100 boys. The club holds a banquet each year jointly with about 300 boys. A gymnasium exhibition is sponsored each year with 100 choice athletes participating. Several plays and minstrels have been staged over a period of years resulting in adding several thousand dollars to the boys’ work budget. A decorated Bicycle Parade for school children, recently innovated, is proving very popular with the juvenile element. Kiwanis financed a twenty piece boys band for several years. Contributions among club members resulted in raising $180 to pay the hospital bills of two young High School students who were injured in an automobile wreck. $100 also was contributed by the membership to The Feast of Pirates celebration. Each year since the club has been in existence, it has contributed from $100 to $200 in providing Christmas baskets to the poor, consisting of food, fruit, clothes, toys, etc. The club holds from one to two Inter-Club meetings each

year with nearby clubs, promoting the good will of each community. The Carolinas’ Kiwanis District, comprising eighty-four clubs in the two states, reported thirty-seven different activities last year, the Wilmington Club leading with seven. While the Club has accomplished many more worthwhile activities, the above are outstanding.

Many questions have arisen as to how Kiwanis finances such a large boys work program. For the first two or three years, the Boys Brigade was financed entirely by the club; but it grew to such proportion as well as in popularity that the public asked for the privilege of sharing in the work. At present, the Kiwanis Club assumes half of the operating budget and the community half. The Club has established such a reputation and public confidence that the entire management was left to Kiwanis, so long as it continues to be satisfactorily managed. The local Kiwanis Club is rapidly forging to the front as a civic organization. There is nothing spectacular about its activities, as its membership is composed of among the most conservative and progressive business and professional men who prefer to build well and strongly upon a foundation where it will last throughout the ages. The nine years existence of the Wilmington Kiwanis Club has been abundantly ripe in achievement and rich in the blessings that come to a club which holds aloft the torch, “We Build.”


Three other International civic organizations, the Rotary, Lions and Exchange, have clubs in Wilmington. The former, with around three score, has the most numerous enrollment. Fred A. Matthes, Executive Vice-President of the Tide Water Power Company is President, and Charles B. Newcomb, local attorney and prominent Masonic official, is Secretary. Of the Lions, O. H. Shoemaker, local merchant is President, and Lionel Stevenson, of the National Oil Company is Secretary. Dr. H. L. Keith is President of the Exchange Club and Fred T. Tucker, of the United States Revenue Department is Secretary.

All three organizations are laudably active and occupy an important part in the life of the city. The Rotary Club operates a night school for boys, maintains a clinic at the James Walker Memorial Hospital for crippled children and co-operates with all worthy welfare movements. The Lions is a decidedly enterprising organization. It has had for some years past as its major objective the free distribution of milk to under-nourished children in the public schools. It took a leading interest in the organization of the Feast of Pirates and its former Secretary, Francis P. O'Crowley, was the first President, serving two years, of that great mid-summer classic. It also is industrious in all civic movements sponsoring music, co-operating with the Chamber of Commerce, Merchants Association and other organizations in promoting the possibilities of this section. The Exchange Club sponsors one of the most attractive annual institutions held in the city. It is the “Sunshine Special.” On these occasions, every girl of limited financial means is a guest of the club at one of the local beaches where bathing and a shore supper feature the program. The Exchange Club, like the other civic organizations, is active in its co-operation in progress movements.


In the fall of 1895 several Wilmington women began discussing the advisability of forming a literary club, with the result that on December 4, of that year such a club was organized, consisting of about a dozen women, with Mrs. Andrew J. Howell, President, and Miss Margaret Lovell Gibson, Secretary. During that winter the club chose the name “North Carolina Sorosis”, and began plans for becoming a department club, so that by the next year its scope of work had greatly widened and ever since its members have been busy studying Art, Literature, Civics, and Music, and bringing their studies into practical use when possible. In 1896, the club joined the General Federation of Clubs, the first club in North Carolina to be so federated, and six years in advance of the State Federation, which occurred in 1902, in Winston-Salem, and at which two representatives of Sorosis were present.

Sorosis has sponsored many projects during the almost thirty-five years of its existence. Along civic lines it established, in 1901, a Domestic Science Department in the High School, and its interest in that branch of study was only discontinued when

it became a part of the regular school course. Then the club saw the great need of a public library in Wilmington. There had been a subscription library in the past, but there was no free library. Sorosis began to accumulate books, secured a room in the Odd Fellows Building, and rented the books for a few cents a week, the members of the club serving as volunteer librarians. Gradually, public sentiment grew in favor of the project, and in 1907, the city established a public library on the second floor of the City Hall, where it still remains. The first gift to the new enterprise was from Sorosis, and consisted of 1700 books. Then music lovers of the club felt the need of better music for the local citizenship and, in 1909, the club brought to Wilmington a wonderfully fine Musical Festival. Another big enterprise in which members of Sorosis, collectively and individually, were much interested, was the presentation of the “Pageant of the Lower Cape Fear,” which was brilliantly presented in 1921. From 1913 to 1917, Sorosis sponsored the Corn Shows, which were a great success and which gradually were merged into the County Fairs, lasting for some years. During that period, the club encouraged the beautifying of the city in various ways, giving prizes for the most beautiful gardens from 1911 to 1914 and for several years, giving prizes for school children's gardens, along which line the club did much pioneer work. The club also was interested in sponsoring the civic work of installing municipal trash containers and in interesting the authorities to more adequately screen the public markets. In these plans as in all others, initiated for the good of the community, the club always has received the most active co-operation from the city and county boards. Another far-sighted vision of some of the club members was to see Greenfield mill Geenfield Lake
pond become the beautiful place which it since has become. The club kept this idea before the public, in season and out of season, through many vicissitudes and was industrious in its co-operation when the city purchased the site and began the work which has resulted in the present delightful Greenfield Lake. In 1916, Sorosis established two charitable organizations, which still are doing a wonderful work. They are the Travelers Aid and the Baby Milk Station. Meanwhile, the club feeling the need of a permanent home, purchased the large West residence, just north of the City Hall and became an incorporated concern. In 1923, the club organized a hospital committee which established an auxiliary for the James Walker Memorial Hospital. The affairs of the auxiliary were conducted by this committee until 1926 when it was able to stand alone. In 1927, Sorosis assisted in putting on the Feast of Pirates by sponsoring the Baby Parade and throwing open the club rooms as rest rooms for visitors. Its most recent constructive accomplishment was only last fall (1928) when it most successfully sponsored the New Hanover County Tuberculosis Survey in the public schools.

Those who have served as Presidents and the dates of their administrations, follow: Mrs. Andrew J. Howell, 1895-97; Mrs. Philander Pearsall, 1897-98; Miss Margaret Gibson, 1898-99; Mrs. W. N. Harriss, 1899-1900; Miss Margaret Gibson, 1900-02; Mrs. Andrew J. Howell, 1902-03; Miss Alice Green (Mrs. E. M. Wilson), 1903-04; Mrs. Walker Taylor, 1904; Miss Margaret Gibson, 1904-07; Mrs. Andrew J. Howell, 1907-08; Mrs.

Rufus W. Hicks, 1908-10; Mrs. Herbert McClammy, 1910-12; Mrs. J. W. Williamson, 1912-13; Mrs. M. L. Stover, 1913-15; Miss Margaret Gibson, 1915-17; Mrs. J. M. Solky, 1917-19; Mrs. Rufus W. Hicks, 1919-21; Mrs. J. B. Sidbury, 1921-22; Mrs. J. C. Williams, 1922-24; Mrs. C. C. Covington, 1924-25; Mrs. J. G. Barrentine, 1925-27; Mrs. R. W. Farmer, 1927-29. The present officers, in addition to Mrs. Farmer, President, are Mrs. A. B. Love, First Vice-President; Mrs. M. G. Saunders. Second Vice-President; Mrs. C. L. Meister, Recording Secretary; Mrs. W. A. Fonvielle, Corresponding Secretary; Mrs. Harvey T. Fisher, Treasurer, and Mrs. W. T. Bannerman, Auditor. The organization, in 1929, had 120 members.


The Business and Professional Women's Club of Wilmington was organized January, 1922, during which year the local club affiliated with the North Carolina State Federation and the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs. Its object is “to promote the interests of business and professional women and to bring the members into relations of mutual helpfulness.”

Its officers serve for two years, its first officers being: Margaret Lovell Gibson, President; Florence Jeffress, First Vice-President; Mrs. F. M. Schiller, Second Vice-President; Anita Waldhorst, Recording Secretary; Davie Duffy, Corresponding Secretary; Mrs. H. Edmund Rodgers, Treasurer; Florence Haven, State Councillor. During its second year it acted as hostess club in entertaining the State Convention at Wrightsville Beach, one of the best conventions the State Federation ever held. In 1924, the officers elected were, Mrs. Lilian M. B. Rodgers, President; Margaret Lovell Gibson, First Vice-President; Mrs. Schiller, Second Vice-President; Mildred Suggs, Recording Secretary; Sarah McLaurin, Corresponding Secretary; Florence Jeffress, Treasurer; Mrs. Annie Howell, State Councillor. During 1923, the club took a membership in the Chamber of Commerce, which it has continued ever since, and during the same year it contributed $35.00 to a bed in Walker Memorial Hospital, which also has been maintained annually since that time. In 1925, some changes were made in the officers, Anne Barnwell being elected Second Vice-President; M. Clarice Wright, Recording Secretary; Annie Garrason, Treasurer; Pauline Williams, Recording Secretary, and Sarah McLaurin, State Councillor. In 1926, Mrs. Sarah E. Maull was elected President; Mrs. Lilian M. B. Rodgers, First Vice-President; Miss Alice Behrends, Corresponding Secretary. In 1927, Mrs. Maull resigned, owing to the state of her health at that time and Mrs. Lucy G. Peschau was elected President; Miss Columbia Munds, Second Vice-President, and Mrs. Lillie Northam, Treasurer. The Club had for several years given prizes to the two girls in the graduating class of New Hanover County High School with the highest marks in the commercial course; it also contributed to the State Educational Fund for girls which it still continues. In 1928, Mrs. Elizabeth F. Buck, was elected President; Miss Estelle Cox, First Vice-President; Mrs. L. M. B. Rodgers, Second Vice-President; Annie Garrason, Corresponding Secretary; Mrs. Evelyn McDonald, Recording Secretary; Lonnie McLam, Treasurer, and Mrs. H. A. Adams, State Councillor. In September, Mrs. Buck resigned owing to the state of her health and the vice-presidents have been acting until the next election. The club has held many delightful social affairs and successfully conducted a booth at the celebration of the Feast of Pirates in 1928, besides arranging the coronation of the queen, one of the events of the celebration.


Wilmington Post, No. 10, of the American Legion, composed of veterans of the World War, is one of the most active and accomplishing organizations of the city and the success of many local civic movements may be credited to the Post's progressive membership.

The Wilmington Post was organized in 1919, the charter being issued September 3, of that year. The charter members were C. T. Lassiter, E. E. Graham, Thomas J. Gause, J. R. Hollis, Dan Quinlivan, J. T. Betts, L. D. Marshburn, G. A. Palmer, I. G. Tillery, W. F. Quinlivan, Theodore James, Clarence LeGrand, J. H. Gerdes, O. D. Holmes and M. L. Futrelle. E. E. Graham was the first Post Commander, chosen in 1919. Other Commanders, following in order, have been J. R. Hollis, 1920; R. C. Cantwell, Jr., 1921; G. H. Bunker, 1922; John Bright Hill, 1923; L. R. Hummell, 1924; Frank W.

Sears, 1925, Emmett H. Bellamy, 1926; Graham K. Hobbs and Archie Seigler, 1927, and J. J. Burney, 1928. Mr. Burney, present commander, has the following for associate officers: George B. Applewhite, First Vice-Commander; Joseph Milan, Second Vice-Commander; E. M. Bell, Adjutant; J. M. Bremer, Finance Officer; Rev. Edwin F. Keever, D. D., Chaplain; H. A. Codington, Service Officer, R. S. McClelland, Judge Advocate, and Emmett H. Bellamy, Raymond Musselwhite and Frank W. Sears, members of the Executive Committee.

The Post's membership total has grown consistently, reaching its greatest number in December, 1928, and January, 1929, of the present administration. Meetings are held weekly and the average attendance is exceptionally high because of the enthusiasm that the officials and committees have been able to maintain through constructive and worthwhile programs. The primary purpose of the Legion is to keep alive the spirit of patriotism and in attaining this objective, the Wilmington Post has been extraordinarily successful. One great event, Armistice Day, November 11, is observed annually. On these occasions, some notable citizen, usually a North Carolinian, is invited to deliver the principal address. A huge parade is held, in which all World War veterans, Confederates and Spanish-American War Veterans are invited to participate. The day, while largely dedicated to gala numbers, including parade, music, banquets, dancing and similar festivities, also has its serious features, including the reading of the Memorial Roll, presentation of medals for any outstanding services and a formal re-dedication of their services, even to the lives of the membership, if necessary to the support of the Democratic ideals of the American government. The Post takes an active interest in the state and national organizations and many of its members have risen high in the councils of these bodies. Its activities in local welfare, civic and social movements invariably are helpful, co-operating with other organizations in carrying to a successful conclusion any campaigns initiated for the betterment of the city or of this section of the state.

Its services to former soldiers in distress are most helpful. It has given aid, especially in securing work, for hundreds, while a helping hand is constantly accorded those who temporarily become victims of misfortune. These assistances are given quietly, relieving the beneficiary of the embarrassments that too frequently become a part of such service. In this respect, the Legion may be likened to the popular and, no doubt, the correct idea of the manner in which the great Masonic lodge extends its services to those in distress. The local organization has industriously sought to encourage good government, improved schools, increased recreational opportunities and has constantly co-operated in all movements tending to make this section the standard for good citizenship, high, patriotic ideals, and strong dependable, high class manhood and womanhood. Its members are in the executive councils of the municipal and county governments; prominent on the various civic and social and educational boards; and in the trusteeships of virtually every church congregation in the city. They are not in these positions, because they were placed there by the Legion itself but because the Legion membership is composed of the caliber of men from whom such officials are selected. Its influence is felt in every pulse of the life of the community.

The Post has headquarters at “The Hut” erected on government property, just back of the Postoffice Building. “The Hut” is situated in the midst of a beautiful lawn and the building was ideally planned as a club, providing adequate arrangements for committee meetings, banquets, dances, and assemblies of any character. It is one of the leading social centers of this part of North Carolina.


The Wilmington Light Infantry, with a record of seventy-six years, is one of the most famous military organizations in the South. Though formally organized February 22, 1853, activities looking to that organization began as early as 1849, when the command was chartered by a special Act of the Legislature. The anniversary date, May 20, is also the anniversary date of the signing of the Mecklenburg Declaration, which declared for freedom from the British government prior to the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia, July 4, 1776, and now America's National anniversary. The following is a brief history of the Wilmington Light Infantry, indicating the glorious part it has served in the affairs of the state during the last three-quarters of a century:

1849—Chartered by special Act of Legislature.

1853—First meeting called at the courthouse, Wilmington, in January. The founders, or charter members enrolled February 22, 1853. Edward Cantwell elected first captain, May 20, the date of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence—selected as the anniversary of the company.

1857—In May the company paid a ceremonial visit to the Oak City Guards, Raleigh, going by boat to Fayetteville, thence by a march of sixty miles to the State Capital. Captain W. L. deRosset in command.

1859—In May the company, by special appointment of the governor, proceeded to Weldon and acted as escort to President James Buchanan who was then visiting the University at Chapel Hill.

1861—April 15, the company was ordered into service by Governor Ellis and sent to the mouth of the Cape Fear river, along with the German volunteers and the Wilmington Rifle gaurds, to seize and occupy Forts Caswell and Johnston there. Captain W. L. deRosset in command.

1861—June 15, the W. L. I. united with nine others to form the 18th North Carolina regiment. W. L. I. became Co. G., Henry Savage, and now ceased to be known as the Wilmington Light Infantry.

1875—March 17, survivors formally reorganized the Wilmington Light Infantry and elected as Captain, Matthew P. Taylor.

1898—Company under command of Captain Donald MacRae, volunteered its services for duty in the War with Spain. Went to Raleigh on May 6, and was mustered into service of the United States as Company K, Second regiment, United States Volunteers, North Carolina Infantry.

1898—November 10, company furnishes several squads of men for duty during the riot which seriously threatened the peace of the city. The company was under command of Captain T. C. James and Captain William R. Kenan was in charge of the machine gun squad, the gun being operated by First Lieutenant, Charles H. White.

1901—Attended the Charleston, South Carolina exposition under Captain A. P. Adrian.

1905—Roosevelt's Inauguration—Captain William F. Robertson.

1907—Called out to guard two prisoners from Clarkton—the company accompanied them to Goldsboro. Captain William F. Robertson.

1907—Company attended the Jamestown Exposition at Yorktown, Virginia. Captain William F. Robertson.

1908—Company by vote decided to change from Infantry to Coast Artillery and was designated as the Second Company, Coast Artillery, North Carolina National Guard.

1909—On duty as special bodyguard to President Taft on the occasion of his visit to Wilmington. Captain Edwin A. Metts.

1913—Attended Inauguration of President Woodrow Wilson. Captain Edwin A. Metts.

1914—May 20, celebration in Charlotte, North Carolina. Captain E. P. Bailey.

1915—Volunteered for service on Mexican border but not called out. Some of the members of the company joined other units and served on the Mexican border.

1916—Street car strike, Wilmington, North Carolina. Captain E. P. Bailey.

1917—July 25—Called into the service of the United States for World War service under Captain James B. Lynch. In August ordered to Fort Caswell. There designation changed to Eighth Company, Cape Fear and gradually the members were assigned to various over-seas units and the identity as the Wilmington Light Infantry ceased to be. In the meantime, the members of the Reserve Corps who remained in Wilmington organized under Captain E. A. Metts, a company of Home Guards who drilled zealously and prepared themselves to take care of any emergency that might arise in the absence of the active company.

1919—Wilmington Light Infantry reorganized—Robert Strange elected Captain.

1921—Company sent on an hour's notice from the Governor, to Whiteville to guard and prevent lynching.

Many of Wilmington's most distinguished names, both past and present have been on the rolls of this great military organization. Its history has become a part of the history of every war in which America has participated since the middle of the last century and its record is untarnished. Its social features are of more than ordinary importance. The Armory, a fine structure located on Market, between Fourth and Fifth Streets is the center of many social events while each year, on May 20, the organization's anniversary is celebrated with an elaborate program. These programs usually are held at Wrightsville Beach and always free transportation is furnished by Fred A. Matthes, Executive Vice-President of the Tide Water Power Company.


This summary of Cape Fear Camp No. 254, United Confederate Veterans of Wilmington is largely information kindly furnished by Drs. A. M. Baldwin and W. D. MacMillan, Captain W. McB, Wilson and others. The camp was instituted during the summer of 1889. The following were charter officers: Colonel John D. Traylor, Commander; Major T. D. Love, First Vice-Commander; William H. Green, Second Vice-Commander; William Blanks, Secretary and Treasurer, and Samuel G. Hall, Assistant Secretary and Treasurer. As nearly as now can be substantiated, the names below comprised the charter membership, exclusive of the officers, above: John G. Bagwell, Louis F. Belden, D. S. Bender, William Blanks, James B. Brinkley, J. H. Brown, Thomas A. Bunting, Louis Chapman, A. M. Croom, John H. Currie, Graham Daves, William L. deRosset, William P. Elliott, John W. Galloway, Charles H. Ganzer, Jacob F. Garrell, Edward D. Hall, R. F. Hamme, Dr. W. W. Harriss, P. Heinsberger, Thomas P. Henderson, George W. Huggins, James B. Huggins, John T. James, William R. Kenan, F. W. Kerchner, Charles H. King, W. R. Kuhl, John R. Latta, Thomas C. Lewis, Thomas B. Lippitt, Thad D. Love, Walter G. MacRae, Ed Wilson Manning, James F. Metts, Frank H. Mitchell, B. R. Moore, Roger Moore, Ed. J. Moore, Charles D. Myers, John McEvoy, A. G. McGirt, William P. Oldham, J. Dal Orrell, Dr. F. W. Potter, H. C. Prempert, Jasper Price, John W. Primrool, John T. Rankin, J. F. A. Reaves, Charles H. Robinson, Henry Savage, T. A. Shepard, H. H. Smith, Peter H. Smith, S. J. Sneeden, Thomas J. Southerland, Charles M. Stedman, Stacey VanAmerige, John G. Voss, A. M. Waddell, W. S. Warrock, B. F. White, A. O. Wiggins, Dr. Charles F. Wood, Joshua G. Wright, Charles W. Yates, and F. V. B. Yopp. Total, 66.

The following is the list of those who held the position of Commander of the Camp from its inception down to the present time: Colonel John D. Taylor, Major T. D. Love, Captain O. A. Wiggins, Colonel W. L. deRossett, L. F. Belden, Captain George W. Huggins, Captain James I. Metts, W. J. Woodard and Dr. A. M. Baldwin. Captain Metts and Captain W. G. MacRae, each acted as Commander at several meetings in the absence of the presiding officer. R. F. Hamme was Vice-Commander and S. Jewett served as Adjutant and, since his death, the Camp has had no Adjutant; neither has a Vice-Commander been elected to fill the place of Mr. Hamme. The Camp, following its organization, grew rapidly, so that by the end of the year or not long thereafter the membership reached the goodly number of 250, which it held for some time, then gradually began to dwindle, until there now are only thirteen survivors, each one of whom is old and more or less feeble, but each cheerily awaiting the summons; and when, at last, the silent hills of the West obscure life's declining sun, may the gallant little remnant of the best soldiers of the world sleep serenely and securely in the promise of the red dawn of a never-ending, all glorious day. Here is the list of the thirteen surviving members of the Camp: Dr. A. M. Baldwin, Commander, T. B. Cox, M. T. Davis, B. F. Hale, J. A. King, J. A. Montgomery, R. W. McKeithan, Henry C. MacQueen, Dr. W. D. MacMillan, Richard Reaves, R. J. Sykes, William M. Skipper and J. R. Turrentine. There also are here in Wilmington and New Hanover County, seven other Confederate Veterans, but who do not belong to the Camp. They are D. F. Aman, T. F. Gaskill, J. N. Kennedy, O. H. Kennedy, Asa King, W. D. Rhodes and W. L. Williams.

“Quite a number of the Camp was of the flower of the community,” writes Dr. W. C. Galloway, “and many of them became celebrated in different fields of endeavor. Possibly no Camp in the great Old North State could boast of more distinguished

men. The Camp has never failed to turn out in memory of Lee and Jackson and on that day they always are guests of honor at a sumptuous dinner given by the United Daughters of the Confederacy and, at the close of the dinner, each one of the Confederates is presented with an appropriate gift. The glad hour is theirs and they enjoy it to the fullest. How truly beautiful and magnanimous is the service of the United Daughters of the Confederacy towards the matchless Confederate soldiers, not only here but throughout the Southland. They do many grand and noble things; they do not simply dream them all day long. But if they rendered no other service, save that, to the Confederate heroes, their names should be cherished and revered by a generous public and enshrined forever in song and story. They, with the Sons, will keep the memory of the chivalrous Confederate warriors green and unsullied until the final trumpet sounds on far away Judean hills.”


Cape Fear Chapter, No. 3, United Daughters of the Confederacy has the distinction of being the third oldest Chapter in the entire South, the two preceding it having been organized in Tennessee and Georgia. The Chapter grew out of the Ladies Memorial Association which, as early as July, 1866, inaugurated the beautiful custom of decorating the graves of the Confederate dead with fresh flowers. They also cared for the graves and erected suitable memorials over them. For thirty years the patriotic women of the Memorial Association continued their good work until they merged into the newer and more far-reaching organization which was first called “The National Association of the Daughters of the Confederacy”, later, adopting its present name, “United Daughters of the Confederacy.” The organizer and first President of Cape Fear Chapter was Mrs. William M. Parsley, who, for many years, actively guided the young Chapter, and who remained its friend and adviser until the day of her death.

In June, 1894, the Memorial Association appointed Mrs. Parsley chairman of a committee to write a history of the work of the Memorial Association, and to collect relics and historical data of the War. While engaged in searching the papers of various states for items of historical interest, Mrs. Parsley saw in the Savannah News that a petition had gone to the Supreme Court for incorporation of the “Daughters of the Confederacy.” Finding this bit of news of great interest, she immediately wrote for further information and learned that a convention of interested women had been held in September at Nashville, Tennessee, and it was suggested to her that Wilmington apply for a charter, “thereby becoming the charter Division, with authority to form other Divisions.” The charter was applied for, signed by twenty-four women, and after some unavoidable delays, at a meeting in Nashville, which Mrs. Parsley attended, it was granted and April 26, 1895, the Chapter was organized. The first Constitution bears the following inscription: “Constitution of the Cape Fear Daughters of the Confederacy, the Charter Chapter of the North Carolina Division, National Daughters of the Confederacy, organized at Wilmington, North Carolina, April 26, 1895.” Ever since that day Cape Fear Chapter has been actively engaged in work for the past, the present and the future. In behalf of the glorious heritage of the past, the Daughters try to preserve history correctly, and to obtain records of all living veterans and others who remember the events of the War between the States. They observe all great anniversaries of that period, and in every way try to keep alive the memories—not of bitterness—but of bravery. For the present, the Chapter aids needy veterans and widows, gives them entertainments and pleasures when possible; and tries to interest the students in our public schools in sifting true history from false. For the future, the Chapter, along with all the Chapters in the North Carolina State Division, is sponsoring thirty-seven scholarships in the various colleges in the State, to be given High School graduates, who are lineal descendants of Confederate veterans. The students also share in many general organization scholarships. The greatest work of the Chapter at the present time looks towards the great monument which the State Division is to erect at Fort Fisher, and in which work the Chapter and city are expected to render very substantial aid.

Cape Fear Chapter meets on the nineteenth of every month in regular session. The present officers are: Mrs. A. J. Howell, President; Mrs. R. W. Hicks, Vice-President; Mrs. William Bissenger, Recording Secretary; Miss Carrie White, Corresponding Secretary; Miss Lena Beery, Treasurer.


The George Davis Camp, No. 5, Sons of Confederate Veterans of Wilmington was organized in the parlor of the old Y. M. C. A. Building, Front and Grace Streets, some time in June, 1896. E. S. Tennent, now of Spartanburg, South Carolina, was made Commandant; Dr. W. C. Galloway, Wilmington, Surgeon; and Colonel Walker Taylor held the same position. No record can be found of the charter members and, according to Dr. Galloway, “reliance is placed solely on fickle memory to recall a few of those on the original roster.” In addition to the above, he lists William Brown, John Brown, Colonel Van B. Metts, Edward Metts, Clayton Giles, R. C. Fergus, Paul Cantwell, Thomas W. Davis, Arthur W. Belden, Phillip Heinsberger, Robert C. Davis. Roger Moore and James Stevenson. E. S. Tennent, first commandant, is the son of Dr. Edward S. Tennant, Confederate Surgeon. Dr. Tennent was shot by the enemy in the calf of the leg. The wound was so slight, he paid little attention to it. In a few days gangrene developed and upon investigation it was found to be due to a poisoned bullet. It was the first recorded case that the Federal Army was using poisoned bullets, and the authorities were duly notified. Dr. Tennent grew rapidly worse. His leg was amputated below the knee and, later, above the knee. But too late to save his life. While on his sick bed, he notified Confederate surgeons, calling attention to the seriousness of poisoned bullets and advising them to be prepared for emergencies which might arise from that description of warfare.

The general organization of the Sons of the South was formed at Richmond, Virginia, July 1, 1896, during the annual Reunion of the United Confederate Veterans and the George Davis Camp sent, as representatives, to that meeting, Thomas W. Davis and Arthur W. Belden. Colonel John Van B. Metts succeeded Mr. Tennent as commandant and Colonel Walker Taylor followed Colonel Metts. The Camp was abandoned for several years and was re-organized by Dr. Galloway in 1911 or 1912, under whose command, it since has continued. William S. Clayton, for many years, diligently and faithfully served as Adjutant. He was followed by David S. Oliver, who capably and energetically filled the office for six or eight successive years. He was succeeded by H. H. Elliott, an active and efficient Adjutant, one who loves the Cause and still is acting in that capacity. The personnel of the Camp always has been of exceptional excellence, being recruited from the best element of the city and many of whom have acquired enviable distinctions in various walks of life. They always have been especially kind and considerate of the incomparable Confederate soldiers; have aided them in various ways; and at one time contributed a substantial amount to defray expenses of Confederate veterans to the New Orleans Reunion. It has become a standing custom to assist in the Lee and Jackson Day ceremonials and one of the Sons presented to Richard Reaves, a member of the Cape Fear Camp U. C. V., a gold coin for his name to be inscribed on the Roll of Honor at Stone Mountain, near Atlanta, Georgia, the first and possibly the only gift of the kind in North Carolina Two of the members have been signally honored as Adjutants of the Cape Fear Camp, the office of each being unsolicited.

The Camp five years ago had sixty-five members enrolled; at the present time, according to a list furnished by former Adjutant David S. Oliver, there now are fifty-four members. They are W. R. Baxter, C. P. Bolles, A. Benaud, J. H. Brown, W. Bunting, R. C. Cantwell, G. A. Cardwell, D. J. Fergus, R. C. Fergus, Dr. W. C. Galloway, Clayton Giles, A. M. Hall, John Hall, L. E. Hall, Ed Heinsberger, P. Heinsberger, John C. Heyer, George W. Huggins, E. E. Hunter, W. F. Martin, R. L. Meares, Louis T. Moore, E. S. Oliver, J. F. Roache, W. L. Smith, Robert Strange, J. A. Taylor, J. D. Taylor, E. T. Taylor, Colonel Walker Taylor, Walker Taylor, Jr., W. C. Whitney, Thomas H. Wright, C. W. Yates, J. W. Yates, Louis J. Poisson, H. H. Elliott, J. O. Carr, James R. Ardrey, John Bright Hill, Thomas P. Lilly, Spurgeon Baxley, J. E. Thompson, W. G. Saunders, J. F. Walters, J. Hull Moore, A. J. Moore, Jr., Frank Shepard, H. E. Huggins, Thomas S. Shepard, G. L. Clendenin, M. Cronley, W. R. Taylor and Capt. J. J. Adkins.


The Stamp Defiance Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, is one of the most active and accomplishing of the local patriotic organizations. Its services to the community in seeking accuracy in history, preserving records and relics of a period, which perhaps has wielded the greatest influence upon civilization in the annals of mankind,

have been most valuable. According to an article recently appearing in the local press and written by Miss Willena Beery, present Regent of the Chapter, the Stamp Defiance Chapter was organized May 26, 1921. Forty members from the city and surrounding counties were in attendance and seventy applications were received. Mrs. Cuthbert Martin presided at this preliminary meeting and Mrs. W. M. Creasy suggested the name of Stamp Defiance for the Chapter, which suggestion was unanimously adopted. The official meeting was held September 28, 1921, with the State Regent, Mrs. W. O. Spencer, in active charge. The first officers were Mrs. Cuthbert Martin, Regent; Mrs. W. M. Creasy, Vice-Regent; Mrs. Avery Burr Croom, Jr., Corresponding Secretary; Miss Willena Beery, Recording Secretary; Mrs. Eugene Philyaw, Register; Mrs. Guy Cardwell, Treasurer; Miss Margaret Gibson, Historian; Mrs. Roger Moore, Chaplain; and Miss Sallie Bowden, Mrs. Mangum Turner and Mrs. Eloise Burkheimer, Advisory Board. The Chapter at once plunged into active work. It has been represented on all occasions when foreign born citizens have taken the Oath of Allegiance and has presented them with the Manual and copy of the Constitution as well as evidencing in other ways its interest and friendship. It has sent much aid to Crossnore School and has shown especial interest in the work at Ellis Island. Each winter, the Chapter has sponsored a play or other activity which not only has provided funds but has aroused enthusiasm in its membership and the public. It has met every obligation, city, state and national. Each year it has assisted in making the anniversary celebration at Moore's Creek Bridge Battle Field a success and it is largely due to the efforts of this organization that this historic battlefield has been set aside as a National Park, thus preserving it for all times. Miss Beery, in her article, says that “special credit in this respect is due Mrs. (Eugene) Philyaw.” The charter of the Chapter is framed from wood brought from the scene of the Stamp Defiance action and it caused gavels to be made from parts of the same wood; one to be used by the Chapter and others, with suitable inscriptions on silver plates presented to the State and National organizations. The Chapter is constant in its observation of all historical days and in visiting and beautifying historical spots. During the last Flag Day exercises, held at Greenfield Lake, the Chapter presented to the city a live-oak tree, marked with a handsome bronze tablet in memory of “The Heroes of the Stamp Defiance.” The Chapter also raised the funds for the erection of the memorial to the late President Woodrow Wilson at the First Presbyterian Church, which he attended during his youth and of which congregation his father, Rev. Dr. Joseph Wilson, was pastor. It is of historic interest that the Chapter secures its name from the first American defiance to “British taxation without representation.” In November, 1765, the people of Wilmington, with drums beating and colors flying, forced Samuel Houston, stampmaster to go to the courthouse and publicly resign his office. Two months later, the militia of Brunswick, Bladen and Duplin Counties, marched to Smithville (now Southport), boarded the ship-of-war Diligence and forced British Commander Lobb to surrender his vessels and all British crown officers to swear never to issue any stamp paper in the colony of North Carolina. Thus a decade before the Declaration of Independence and a half dozen or more years before the Boston Tea Party, Cape Fear patriots, in open day, without disguise, successfully carried out Wilmington's Stamp Defiance.

The present officers of the Chapter follow: Miss Julia Willena Beery, Regent; Mrs. R. C. McCarl, Vice-Regent; Mrs. C. W. Spencer, Recording Secretary; Mrs. W. L. Hellen, Corresponding Secretary; Miss Sarah McLaurin, Register; Miss Mary Woolvin, Treasurer; Mrs. B. O. Stone, Historian; Miss Annie McKay, Chaplain; Mrs. C. J. Kelloway, Auditor; Mrs. W. T. Bannerman, Custodian, and Mrs. H. A. Huggins, Mrs. M. L. Stover, Mrs. J. B. Sidbury and Miss Irene Nixon, Directors.


The New Hanover Historical Commission is a voluntary body organized to co-operate with the North Carolian Historical Commission in its efforts to mark historical places in the state. In the fall of 1917, Rev. Andrew J. Howell invited the following gentlemen to join him to form the county commission: the late Dr. James Sprunt, Eugene S. Martin, Esq., and William A. McGirt, the last named at that time being the chairman of the Board of County Commissioners. The object of the Commission was primarily to secure funds from the State commission, the county of New Hanover and the city of Wilmington for the purpose of placing markers commemorating historic points in the community. The plan was submitted to the State Commission, and its approval secured, and the cooperation of the county and city was obtained.

At a meeting for organization held at the residence of Dr. Sprunt, Rev. Mr. Howell was named chairman of the Commission, and was designated also to handle the funds. The commission at once took steps to secure the necessary funds for the desired markers, and, in the course of the next two years, these were purchased and placed. There were twenty in all, the large majority of them being on the streets of Wilmington. These markers commemorate events and personages of historic interest, and they have attracted a great deal of attention from citizens and visitors. In the winter of 1929, it was decided to revive the work of the county commission, and Louis T. Moore, Executive Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, and Addison Hewlett, Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners, were chosen to take the places of Dr. Sprunt and Mr. Martin, deceased. The commission hopes to continue its work of marking historic points, and also has actively co-operated in the efforts to establish a local historical museum for the county, and will further any movement to preserve and publish the records of the historic past of this section. The work of the New Hanover Historical Commission has received hearty commendation from the North Carolina Historical Commission and prominent citizens of the State. Rev. Mr. Howell continues as Chairman of the Commission.

The present Historical Commission is largely a development of the Historical and Scientific Society, organized in Wilmington, in October 1876 and at that time was the only one of its kind in active operation in the state. Its first officers were Rev. G. D. Bernheim, President; W. B. McCoy, Secretary and Treasurer; and W. F. Wenzel, Curator. The object was “to collect, preserve and diffuse historical and scientific information, especially such as is connected with the State of North Carolina, and, particularly, with the Cape Fear Region.” The Society maintained a correspondence with similar organizations throughout the country and a system of exchange was established by means of which the various publications of other sections were received. The association labored under many disadvantages, especially relative to funds. It never was able to secure permanent headquarters and eventually passed out of existence. The last known officers of the Society were Colonel J. G. Burr, President; Rev. Dr. A. A. Watson, Vice-President; S. A. Story, Secretary-Treasurer; Rev. F. W. E. Peschau, Corresponding Secretary, and David Cashwell, Curator.


This Club was established in 1866, and is the oldest club in the State. There are few clubs, if any, in the Southern States that were established, or chartered, at an earlier date. The club was incorporated by an Act of the Legislature of North Carolina in the year 1872, “An Act to Incorporate The Cape Fear Club,” and as a matter of historic interest the Act reads in part as follows:

“With the view of promoting literary and social intercourse among its members, and providing and furnishing suitable rooms for the courteous entertainment of visitors to the City of Wilmington, there has for some years past existed in said city an organization known as ‘The Cape Fear Club’ and to enable said association more fully to carry into execution its commendable purposes and secure in permanent perpetuity so praiseworthy an institution, its members desire a corporate existence.

“Section 1. That William A. Wright, Armand J. deRosset, Robert H. Cowan, Joseph A. Engelhard, Edward D. Hall, Alfred M. Waddell, Donald MacRae, Francis W. Kerchner, Edwin A. Keith, Joshua C. Walker, Thomas C. McIlhenny, Guilford L. Dudley, David S. Cowan, Richard F. Langdon, James G. Burr, Chas. D. Myers, John W. Atkinson, Thomas H. McKoy, David R. Murchison, Edwin E. Burruss, Chas M. Steadman and Charles W. Bradley and others who are associated with them in the organization referred to in the preamble hereto, and of which Oscar G. Parsley, Jr., is at this time President and Columbus L. Chestnut the Secretary, together with their future associates and successors, are hereby created and declared to be a body politic and corporate by the name of ‘The Cape Fear Club’ and by said name shall have perpetual succession with the rights, privileges and powers incident or belonging to corporations as set forth in the first, second and third sections of the twenty-sixth chapter of the Revised Code of North Carolina entitled ‘Corporations.’ ”

The Club for many years was located on the northwest corner of Front and Chestnut Streets in a large and comfortable building of its own, surrounded by trees, on the site now occupied by the Murchison Bank Building. The old club property was

sold in 1912 and the property on the corner of Second and Chestnut Streets was purchased and the present splendid club building was constructed. The Club has more than 150 members and its present officers are P. R. Albright, President; John Hill Brown, Vice-President; Robert C. deRosset, Secretary-Treasurer. The Governing Board consists of John Hill Brown, C. McD. Davis, Lyman Delano, John Bright Hill, J. Laurens Wright and D. W. Gross.

The organization is in splendid condition and is one of the city's most attractive and valuable assets.


The Cape Fear Country Club was organized as the Cape Fear Golf Club of Wilmington in March, 1896, the officers being: President, Colonel D. P. Heap; Treasurer, M. F. H. Gouveneur; Secretary, Miss Louisa Cutler; Directors, R. B. Mason and Miss Josephine H. Sharrer. The course was laid around Hilton Park, one hole being actually in the Baseball Ground enclosure—play on that hole being discontinued on days that the baseball team was at home. The Terminal Building of the Wilmington Street Railway served as a club house.

In 1899, a new Club house was built upon the embankment beside the railroad and near the present Fourth Street bridge and was opened with considerable ceremony in October of that year. The following is an extract from the Morning Star of the same date: “The club house is situated on the southern end of the links and occupies an elevation * * * affording a picturesque view, with the moss covered trees tringing the Cape Fear and Smith's Creek. From the house there is a sweeping view right out over the links and the hazards that hedge it about * * *. There are about sixty members and now that the club has a house in which to entertain visitors and make themselves comfortable, it is expected that the club will greatly increase in membership. The lady members of the club have decided to each give teas to the members on Saturday afternoons at the club house so that henceforth the club will figure largely in the social life of the city.” In 1902, steps were taken toward finding a more suitable place upon which to establish a course and the present grounds (or that portion occupied by the holes north of what is now the Wrightsville State highway) were selected. The work of laying off the links began at once. The house was moved from Hilton and rebuilt on the new property. In 1903, the Club was incorporated under the laws of North Carolina and given the name of Cape Fear Country Club. In 1907, a new club house was built and furnished with a dining room, kitchen, locker room, making what was considered a most comfortable modern club house. This house was built on the spot now occupied by a large trap on the present No. 7 hole. The club house burned in 1919 and the large hole left by the basement locker rooms was converted into a trap in 1928. Three years before this building burned the club had increased its membership to a point where it was necessary to extend the course from a nine hole to an eighteen hole course. Property lying to the southeast of the old course was acquired and under the skillful direction of Burke H. Bridgers was soon cleared and the additional holes laid off, but before the new holes could be completed the United States entered the World War and all work was held up until after the signing of the Armistice. In 1921 the present club was built and situated so that there would be nine holes on each side of the Club—making the ninth and eighteenth greens both at the club and thus considerably increasing the efficiency of the course.

At the present time there are 356 members of the Club and the officers are as follows: President, J. B. Rice; Vice-President, C. Van Leuven; Secretary and Treasurer, Henry L. Taylor; Chairmen of Committees: Golf, E. C. Hines; Greens, B. H. Bridgers; House, B. M. Washburn; Tennis, H. M. Corbett; Directors at large, Norwood Orrell and Colonel R. S. McClelland.


The Boys Brigade was founded February 14, 1896, by Colonel Walker Taylor. The organization being the outgrowth of the Sunday School Class conducted by Colonel Taylor at the Emmanuel Presbyterian Church, at Front and Queen Streets. Under the watchful guidance and influence of Colonel Taylor, a friend and lover of boys,

the popularity of the Brigade grew to such proportions that it attracted the attention of Mrs. Henry M. Flagler, who in loving remembrance of her father, the late Captain William Rand Kenan, gave the present Boys Brigade building, which has brought opportunity, sunshine and gladness to the hearts and minds of hundreds of boys during the past several decades. It is truly a character factory, turning out human products of better citizens. Scores of leading business men of the community are products of the Old Boys Brigade. The growth of the Brigade has been remarkable, and those who have been privileged to guide the destiny of the organization are justly proud of its achievements. Assisting Colonel Taylor in this work was, D. K. Young of England, the organization's first full-time secretary. Succeeding Mr. Young in the order named were, Chas. C. Loughlin, now Captain of Infantry in the United States Army and a product of the Brigade, Charles Dushan, formerly a Y. M. C. A. Physicial Director, Rev. Hiram K. King, now a Methodist Presiding Elder, another product of the Old Brigade and W. H. Montgomery, present Executive Secretary of the Brigade who also came up through the ranks of the Old Brigade.

Despite the growth of the organization, circumstances surrounding the World War, necessitated the closing of the Brigade in 1916. It remained closed until July 1, 1921, being reopened under the sponsorship and management of the Wilmington Kiwanis Club. While the foundation of the Old Brigade has yielded to the larger superstructure of the new, and the traditions of the past have been an inspiration to those who are conducting the Brigade today, the only outward change has been in the name, which was changed to the Brigade Boys Club, January 1, 1929, and the terminology of the various groups. Company units being eliminated in favor of more modern groups, such as: Midgets, Preps, Intermediates, Seniors, etc. These two changes were made in order that the Club could obtain a rating of a first class Boys’ Club, in the Boys’ Club Federation, an International organization. The Brigade joined the Federation in 1924, its membership comprising 280 Boys’ Clubs in the United States and several foreign countries. Modern and up-to-date programs are being conducted daily at the Club House at Second and Church Streets. Standardized programs are given little consideration; all effort being centered toward fitting the boy to the program instead of the program to the boy. Although the building facilities are inadequate for the hundreds of boys in the city who are not linked with any organization, a congested membership of 509 boys are handled in the small building seventy-five by fifty feet at Second and Church. The following activities are carried on at the Brigade Boys’ Club: Organized Gymnasium classes, Leaders Classes, Indoor and Outdoor Track Teams, Exhibitions, Basketball Leagues, Indoor and Outdoor Baseball Leagues, Social functions, Dinners, Banquets, Vocational Classes, Pet and Hobby Fairs, School Baseball and Basketball Leagues, Fraternity Groups, Dramatic Club Debating Society, Bowling Leagues, Lobby Games, Summer Camp and a Woman's Auxiliary. Personal interviews with boys regarding their many troubles is an important feature of the work. It also assists and co-operates with the various schools in handling unruly boys. The same may be said of the Juvenile Court.

The popularity of the Brigade Boys’ Club can best be judged by the attendance of 42,851 for 1928, which gives a daily average of 140 boys. Operating expenses for 1928 were: $8,835.68 or a yearly per capita cost of $17.42. The yearly per capita cost to maintain a boy in the state's training school is $305.87. It also may be interesting to note that the yearly per capita cost to maintain a boy at the Brigade Boys’ Club has been reduced from $40 the first year to $17.42 for the eighth year. The youth of a city and nation are the trustees of posterity, and in addition to testimonials from Mayor Walter Blair, the Rev. Thomas C. Darst, Bishop of East Carolina, Judge George Harriss of the Recorder's Court, Louis T. Moore, Chamber of Commerce, County Welfare Officers, substantiating this statement the Hon. Angus W. McLean, ex-Governor of North Carolina has this to say in reference to the Brigade work. “I desire to commend most heartily the laudable and invaluable work that is being done in character training by the Wilmington Kiwanis Club in its Brigade Boys’ Club. Such training for the underprivileged boys will undoubtedly result in a morally, mentally, physically and spiritually healthier and more virile citizenship. Personally, on behalf of the people of North Carolina, I give my warmest approval to this work and commend its promoters, wishing for them all merited success in their efforts to improve and elevate the standard of the future citizenship of North Carolina.”

By the founding of the Boys Brigade, Colonel Taylor started an institution that has been directly responsible for the success of some of the most successful business and professional men ever developed in the Cape Fear section. His high ideals, his practical philosophy, his genuine love for humanity and boys and young men in particular,

his out-standingly fine citizenship—all combined to make the Brigade a success and its success has caused him to become one of the greatest men, if men's greatness is rated on actual accomplishment, ever produced in the entire country. The work, started and developed into robust health by Colonel Taylor, could not have been turned over to more competent hands than W. H. Montgomery, present executive secretary and himself a “graduate” of Colonel Taylor's organization. The Boys Brigade easily is one of the greatest institutions of its kind in America.


The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, which is Wilmington's principal industrial asset, also is responsible for the city's all year round music organization—the Atlantic Coast Line General Office Band. The band personnel is composed of a selected group of musicians attached to the various departments of the General Offices of the Atlantic Coast Line. W. C. Dean, one of the most capable musicians in the Southeast, leader of the New Hanover County High School orchestra and otherwise prominent in the music circles of the city, is the director of the band and the officers and members include the following: McC. B. Wilson, President; S. D. Hurst, Jr., Vice-President; J. B. Thompson, Secretary; C. W. Fulford, Treasurer; W. C. Jolly, T. E. Applewhite, G. W. N. Borneman, W. H. Clemmons, D. M. Davis, L. O. Ellis, Jr., T. O. Green, William Glisson, A. B. Grimsley, Fred Hatch, Jr., M. M. Hinnant, Robert Ingram, R. J. Innis, E. W. Johnson, H. S. King, W. T. Kraft, H. B. Lawson, T. A. Rivenbark, D. J. O'Rourk, T. M. Crute, P. L. Allen, J. D. Parris, S. D. Hurst, Jr., K. F. Anderson, Chester James, R. H. Smith, E. W. Lewis, T. E. McCraw, G. E. Schnibben, C. Z. Smith, B. E. Taylor, D. B. Upchurch, E. E. Poovey, C. F. Borst, J. B. Thompson, L. B. Dexter, C. E. Bender, C. W. Fulford, F. M. Schaker, W. C. Johnson, C. A. Brooke, W. H. Brown, G. S. Truelove, P. R. Rankin, E. M. Milton, A. C. Block, J. B. Hinnant H. R. Davis, J. H. Brady, J. H. Love and H. Habenicht, Jr. The band was organized during the winter of 1927-28 and entered into a period of several months intensive training before making a public appearance. Although it properly carries the name of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, in that every member is an employe of that system, it is distinctly a community institution; in its services to Wilmington the band virtually is a municipal organization but without being a burden on the taxpayers; assisting in all local forward movements purely as a matter of civic pride. Suggestive of the varied manner in which the band is almost incalculably valuable to the city, it gives a series of public entertainments throughout the summer season at Greenfield Lake and other amusement places; it accompanies the High School football and basketball teams on trips; appears as one of the principal attractions during the big Feast of Pirates celebration; and co-operates in every possible manner in assuring the success of any important events which the city, the Chamber of Commerce or other organization may sponsor.


The Wilmington Post, No. 9, United Spanish-American War Veterans, is one of the most active of the local patriotic organizations. It was organized in 1923 and William Adkinson was the first Post Commander. Its officials, elected in 1928, are J. F. Gibson, Post Commander; J. W. Thurman, Vice-Commander; and Hugh Turrentine, Adjutant. Joseph S. Lane, immediate Past Commander, is chairman of the Executive Committee. The organization has fifty-four members and maintains attractive club rooms in the basement of the Court House, where regular weekly and special meetings are held. The post has obtained prominence in the city because of its active co-operation in all civic and patriotic movements and the high class character of the members has acquired a wide influence in the state, J. W. Thurman being State Commander at the present time, having succeeded J. C. Benjamin, of Raleigh, to that position.


The Feast of Pirates, Wilmington's great mid-summer carnival classic, is the development of an idea of Francis P. O'Crowley and the success of the first exposition, which assured the permanency of the institution, was due largely to his civic patriotism

and personal magnetism. It has been accurately described as a “Joy Feast of Fun, Frolic and Friendship.” Three days each August is devoted to the carnival spirit. Thousands take part in the pageants, parades and other features. Among the chief events of the program is a “Naval Battle” on the river in which the “Pirate Fleet” captures Fort O'Crowley across the river and takes possession of the city. The event is staged on a most elaborate scale and has developed into magnificent proportions and seemingly is destined to compare favorably with the famous and historic Mardi Gras at New Orleans. Mr. O'Crowley acted as President of the organization for two, but declined a third administration. James Owen Reilly, who has the distinction of naming the carnival and who with hundreds of other prominent business men has co-operated with Mr. O'Crowley from the inception of the idea, now is acting as President. McKean Maffitt, a most enterprising young man, is Secretary.


Wilmington's future unquestionably is secure. It has every advantage calculated to make it a city in which one would like to live. Its citizenship is of the highest character, cordial and genuine. Its attractions, aside from the purely commercial, are notably numerous, including fine schools, magnificent churches, modern resorts, the balmiest and perhaps as healthful climate as any in America, all the various lodges and civic organizations, an ideal suburban district and every street, almost, is rich in historic fact and delightful legend. It is peculiarly attractive to the winter resident, the retired capitalist or to the tourist.

From a commercial, or business standpoint, Wilmington is building upon the most solid of foundations. The very sensible policy adopted by the Chamber of Commerce of seeking only such industrials that have a reasonable chance to succeed in this section is having its results. Wilmington is not burdened with a group of declining enterprises; those here are healthful and progressive. Within the last five years, the development has been of a volume and a character unexcelled in all the long annals of the community. Within the last half decade, millions have been expended for homes in the immediately outlying areas—big, beautiful, modern homes. The causeway across the sound to Wrightsville Beach has been constructed. Greenfield Lake has attained a charm that makes it one of the beauty spots of the Southeast. The Cape Fear River Bridge has become an actual institution. The great Inland Waterway system has been started. Great fertilizer plants have come into the territory and erected factories. The trucking industry has expanded into one of the most productive in the United States. The Tide Water Power Company has added almost three score cities and communities to its service. The great Atlantic Coast Line System, with its General Offices here, has continued to reach out and maintain its high standing as among the three or four biggest railroad systems in the country. The list of individual enterprises might be continued almost indefinitely.

The city has miles of paved streets. Its hotel facilities are of good quality and, for time being, adequate. Six improved highway systems central here. Summarized, and mentioning only the more important, there are in Wilmington a grist milling company, two iron works plants, two candy factories, one ready-cut house plant, mill work factories, mattress factory, veneering plants, septic tank factories, cotton compresses, pine products plants, cottonseed oil mills, paint factory, marine railways, numerous saw mills and lumber yards, cold storage plant, a shirt factory, tariff and commercial printing plants, cucumber pickle factory, peanut grading factory, barrel and stave plants, bottling plants, rapidly becoming one of the most important oil distributing points in the South and it has many other substantial assets. Its port volume approximates $70,000,000 annually and its jobbing volume around $80,000,000. The wholesale houses are numerous and handle every description of goods—groceries, dry goods, clothing, shoes, hats, ladies’ wear, building materials and the various other commodities. The bank resources are nearly $29,000,000, with a capital and surplus of over $4,000,000. And above all the spirit of the citizenship is perfect; the idea of co-operation is strongly entrenched and a most healthful aspiration to progress along sane and substantial lines is manifest.

It is not difficult to forecast a continuation of the present forward movement. The next ten years, successful men of the city agree, will register the same satisfactory progress and development as has the past ten years. If that is accomplished, it is as much as the most conservatively and sanely optimistic may hope.


George Davis (Portrait)Frontispiece
History of Wilmington: Lane's Expedition in 1585; White's First Voyage in 1587; Sir John Yeamans Arrives, 1663; Old Town Creek Settled; Old Brunswick Founded; Wilmington Founded; St. James Parish; Borough of Wilmington; New Inlet; Cape Fear Gazette, 1764; Stamp Act Resistance; Wilmington During Revolution; Moore's Creek Bridge Battle; The Cornwallis House; Post-Revolutionary Period; Increase in Commerce; Wilmington During Civil War; Fort Fisher Falls; “Revolution of 1898”10
Hill's Old Plantation Stories: Sir John Yeaman's Arrival; Settlements Along Cape Fear; Green Hill Plantation; Mosely Hall; The Vatts; Lillington Hall; Hymeham; The Hermitage; Orton Plantation; Kendal Plantation; Castle Haynes; Hilton; The Oaks26
Captain Ashe's “Notes”: “King” Roger Moore; Governor Burrington; Spring Gardens; The Joneses and the Cutlars; Col. Maurice Moore; The Devil's Ditch37
Biographical Sketches (See next page)43
Early Notables: The Ashe Family; Cornelius Harnett; William Hooper; Johnston Blakely; Archibald Maclaine; Edward Jones; Edward B. Dudley275
Historic Visitors: George Washington; James Monroe; James K. Polk; Millard Fillmore; William Howard Taft; Woodrow Wilson; Daniel Webster; Henry Clay; Alexander Stephens277
Wilmington Today: Business Volume; Table of Facts; Fertilizer Plants; Tide Water Power Company; Ocean Beaches; Greenfield Lake; Historic Markers; Atlantic Coast Line System; Wilmington Churches; New Hanover County Schools; Wilmington Newspapers; Chamber of Commerce; Public Buildings; Kiwanis Civic Club; Other Civic Clubs; Sorosis Club; Business and Professional Women's Club; The American Legion; Wilmington Light Infantry; Confederate Veterans; Daughters of Confederacy; Sons of Confederate Veterans; Daughter American Revolution; Historical Commission; Cape Fear Club; Cape Fear Country Club; Boys Brigade Club; Atlantic Coast Line Band; Spanish-American War Veterans; Feast of Pirates279
By Way of Forecast313

(Biographical Sketches)
Adkins, Capt. J. J.255
Anderson, Admiral Edwin A.43
Becton, John L.207
Bell, Benjamin117
Bellamy, Emmett H.137
Bellamy, Marsden, Jr.111
Bellamy, Marsden, Sr.112
Bellamy, Dr. W. J. H.69
Blair, Mayor Walter H.197
Bluethenthal, Arthur91
Bowden, D. T.237
Brand, J. N., Sr.105
Brand, R. A.103
Bridgers, Col. R. R.83
Bridgers, Preston L.85
Burgwin, Kenneth O.135
Burney, John J.243
Campbell, William B.113
Carr, James O.119
Catlett, Prof. Washington109
Clontz, Rev. R. C.167
Cole, Henderson267
Darden, Thomas F.153
Darst, Bishop Thomas C.73
Davis, George5
Davis, J. Holmes191
Davis, Junius77
Davis, Thomas W.79
Dosher, Wilbur R.217
DuRant, Capt. O. A.203
Elliott, George B.57
Fairly, Rev. Dr. John L.155
Feagle, J. M.221
Fechtig, F. H.107
Fonvielle, W. A.257
Gaither, E. W.245
Gilmour, Rev. Dr. A. D. P.89
Goldstein, Harry272
Green, Dr. Thomas M.139
Hanson, Louis261
Harriss, Dr. A. H.131
Harriss, Frank G.99
Harriss, George, Sr.126
Harriss, Judge George128
Harriss, Major W. N.127
Harriss, Dr. William White95
Herring, J. P.211
Hess, Paul268
Hill, John Bright165
Hinton, J. H.247
Hobbs, Major Graham K.179
Hoggard, Dr. John T.147
Holmes, Harry Z.199

Jackson, J. W.115
Kellum, Woodus209
Kermon, Robert M.251
Kidder, George E.125
Kilburn, E. E.262
Little, Capt. Fred E.121
MacQueen, Henry C.71
MacRae, Hugh65
McAllister, C. H.263
McCaig, W. D.149
McClelland, Col. R. S.193
McIver, M. C.235
Maffitt, M'Kean271
Matthes, Fred A.177
Montgomery, W. H.183
Newcomb, Charles B.181
Newman, Harriss201
O'Crowley, Francis P.249
Orrell, John A.233
Paddison, Capt. Richard P.227
Pearsall, Oscar161
Peschau, George L.67
Poisson, Louis J.133
Post, James F.145
Pretlow, J. C.229
Reilly, James Owen187
Rhodes, Adrain225
Riley, M. M.264
Roache, Jesse F.273
Robertson, Dr. James F.81
Rogers, Luther T.241
Rountree, Judge George53
Scott, Robert151
Seigler, Archie259
Slocum, Dr. Robert B.143
Smith, Lamont265
Sprunt, Dr. James51
Stevenson, Lionel266
Stilling, F. O.219
Stilwell, Arthur W.269
Taylor, Col. Walker61
Todd, O. E.260
Tucker, Fred T.239
Underwood, U. A.215
Volk, Marc213
Wade, James E. L.185
Welsh, M. G.205
White, E. L.223
Whitmore, Rev. Dr. J. Harry157
Wright, I. C.274
Wright, Thomas H.159
Yopp, A. H.175
Yopp, Walter E.171
Yopp, W. R.173

Biographical sketches of Wilmington citizens
Biographical sketches of Wilmington citizens / by R.H. Fisher. Wilmington, N.C. : Wilmington Stamp and Printing, 1929. 316 p. : ill. ; 26 cm. Original held by New Hanover County Public Library, Wilmington, N.C.
Original Format
Local Identifier
NC 920 F
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