Washington and the Pamlico







WASHINGTON AND THE PAMLICO











WASHINGTON AND THE PAMLICO






Washington and the PamlicoURSULA FOGLEMAN LOY PAULINE MARION WORTHY EditorsPride in the Past--Faith in the Future--The Original Washington--Bicentennial
1776-1976
Washington North Carolina

Seal of Washington, N. C.Published by Washington-Beaufort County Bicentennial Commission1976




Copyright 1976

Washington-Beaufort County

Bicentennial Commission

Library of Congress Catalog Number 75-39183

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BY EDWARDS & BROUGHTON CO., RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA

FOREWORD

Acting on instructions from the Washington-Beaufort County Bicentennial Commission with Roland Modlin, Chairman, the History Committee, under the Chairmanship of John Morgan, began in 1974 a history of the Washington area. The committee decided to use articles which spoke more graphically of their periods than those written today as the chronological base for the history, and to enlist the aid of a number of people in researching and writing in the areas in which they were interested. The result is a collection of articles, both old and new, which supplements the earlier work, Beaufort County: Two Centuries of its History by Colonel Wingate Reed, and brings to print much data heretofore not published. Hundreds of people have been interviewed. Records, letters, ledgers and scrapbooks have been brought from attics and used. Old newspapers have been collected and consulted. Much had to be omitted but the committee hopes that further volumes of Beaufort County history will follow. Quantities of material are now available and more is constantly accumulating, which has not been touched in this volume. This material is in the files at the George H. and Laura E. Brown Library where the data used for this book is stored.

The collection and preparation of this effort has been, in large part, a community project. It is impossible to note the names of all those who have contributed, either material, pictures, advice or labor, but the help of a few must be acknowledged: Raymond M. Taylor, Marshal of the Supreme Court and Librarian of the Supreme Court Library, State of North Carolina; Lee Wallace, Jr., Historian with National Parks Services; Shirley Dunston Glover who typed and proof-read; Ethel Jensen, typist; Betsy Blount Swanner, typist and Betty Jean Brinson, typist.

The Bicentennial History Committee is composed of John Morgan, Chairman; Ysobel Dupree Litchfield, Louis May, Jill High, Daisy B. Parham, Dee Congleton, Pauline Worthy, Ursula F. Loy and Norfleet Daniel Hodges.

U.F.L.






Contents

SECTION ONE
FOREWORD
CHAPTER I
In the Beginning—Herbert Paschal1
CHAPTER II
They Fought for Freedom—Pauline M. Worthy6
CHAPTER III
The Town Develops—Pauline M. Worthy8
CHAPTER IV
Beaufort County's Contribution to a Notable Era—Congressman Lindsay C. Warren15
CHAPTER V
By-Gone Days—Lucy Wheelock Warren Myers33
CHAPTER VI
The Civil War Era37
Part 1: Washington During the Civil War—Charles F. Warren37
Part 2: Beaufort County Soldiers—J. J. B.45
Part 3: When the Yankees Set Fire to the Town of Washington—Charles F. McIntire49
Part 4: Recollections of the Civil War—Annie Blackwell Sparrow51
CHAPTER VII
The Closing Years of the Nineteenth Century—Pauline M. Worthy65
CHAPTER VIII
Early Customs of Washington73
Part 1: Early Customs—Rena H. Davenport73
Part 2: Edmund Remembers Christmas—Edmund H. Harding84






CHAPTER IX
Early Twentieth Century in Washington89
Part 1: Recollections of Washington—James Ellison89
Part 2: Goerch Remembers—Carl Goerch104
CHAPTER X
Reminiscences—by Pattie Baugham McMullan, recorded by Mary McIlhenny Toler108
CHAPTER XI
World War I117
Part 1: War Chronology for Beaufort County117
Part 2: Beaufort County Casualties in WWI119
Part 3: Battery B—Captain Wiley Croom Rodman120
Part 4: Jim Baugham123
Part 5: First to Return125
Part 6: Special Courier125
CHAPTER XII
Between Wars127
Part 1: Overview127
Part 2: The Great Depression—Lonnie Squires128
Part 3: The Works Progress Administration129
Part 4: Lonnie Remembers: The Old Swimming Hole—Lonnie Squires132
Part 5: The Bug House—Elizabeth Yert Sterling and Mary Shelburne McLaurin133
Part 6: Jack Swanner Remembers Web's135
Part 7: Poetry—Taylor Koonce136
Part 8: The Tulip Festival—Isabel Carter Worthy137
Part 9: Showboat—Pauline M. Worthy140
Part 10: No Business Like Show Business—C. A. Turnage142
CHAPTER XIII
World War II144
Part 1: Chronology—Ann Kimberly Glover and Julia Jones145
Part 2: General Hudnell218
Part 3: Admiral McIlhenny219
Part 4: Washington Shipyard in World War II220

SECTION TWO
CHAPTER XIV
Shipping—Ysobel Dupree Litchfield225
CHAPTER XV
Schools248
Part 1: Schools, Public and Private—Joe Kornegay248
Part 2: Beaufort County Schools260
Part 3: Beaufort County Schools, an Historical Perspective—Ethel Matthews261
Part 4: Trinity School, Chocowinity—Lucretia Hughes263
Part 5: Washington Collegiate Institute264
Part 6: Mother of Mercy and St. Agnes265
Part 7: Pungo Christian Academy268
Part 8: Pamlico Community School268
Part 9: Terra Ceia Christian School269
Part 10: Pantego, School with a Soul—Norfleet Hodges270
Part 11: Beaufort County Technical Institute—Norfleet D. Hodges272
CHAPTER XVI
Churches276
Part 1: Beaufort County Church—Jill High276
Part 2: Churches of Washington—Jill High297
CHAPTER XVII
Libraries307
Part 1: North Carolina's First Library—Pauline M. Worthy307
Part 2: History of the Brown Library309
Part 3: The Brown Bequest—Pauline M. Worthy311
Part 4: B. H. M. Regional Library—Barbara King Walker314
Part 5: I. B. Turner Library—Nora Foster Dowdy320
CHAPTER XVIII
Fires and Fire Fighters—Margaret Fitzgerald Winfield322
CHAPTER XIX
Lumber329
Part 1: The Story of Beaufort County's Lumber Industry—Louis G. May329






Part 2: History of the Town of Belhaven—Carolyn Lloyd352
Part 3: Pinetown—Dee Congleton355
CHAPTER XX
Farming356
Part 1: Tobacco356
Part 2: Farm Services in Beaufort County359
CHAPTER XXI
The Media in Washington and Beaufort County364
Part 1: Newspapers in Washington—Marjorie Wallace364
Part 2: Washington Daily News368
Part 3: Newspapers Published in Washington, North Carolina368
Part 4: WRRF-WITN369
Part 5: WEEW369
Part 6: Twenty Years at WITN-TV—Dick Paul370
CHAPTER XXII
Medicine373
Part 1: Of Doctors and Hospitals373
Part 2: Bill Blount and the Building of the Hospital374
Part 3: Doctors and Hospitals of Yesterday Recalled375
Part 4: Dr. J. C. Tayloe, First Chief of Staff—Ashley Futrell382
Part 5: Dr. Lewis H. Swindell383
Part 6: Tideland Mental Health Center384
CHAPTER XXIII
Firsts—Pauline M. Worthy387
SECTION THREE
CHAPTER XXIV
Congressmen401
Part 1: William Kennedy—John Baxton Flowers III401
Part 2: Edward Stanly402
Part 3: Henry Selby Clark—W. A. Blount Stewart402
Part 4: Richard Spaight Donnell—W. A. Blount Stewart403
Part 5: W. A. B. Branch—W. A. Blount Stewart404
Part 6: John Humphrey Small-W. A. Blount Stewart405

Part 7: Hallett Sidney Ward, Sr.—John A. Wilkinson406
Part 8: Lindsay Warren409
Part 9: Herbert C. Bonner—W. A. Blount Stewart411
CHAPTER XXV
The Judiciary—Norfleet Daniel Hodges414
Part 1: Supreme Court414
Part 2: Superior Court421
CHAPTER XXVI
Other Office Holders424
CHAPTER XXVII
Women Who Served—Pauline Worthy431
CHAPTER XXVIII
Profiles440
CHAPTER XXIX
Organizations458
Part 1: Louise Lane458
Part 2: Ann Tyndall466
CHAPTER XXX
Early Black Families of Influence—Patsy Harper Mallison472
CHAPTER XXXI
Names on the Land
Part 1: Names—Pauline Worthy479
Part 2: Aurora—Ysobel Dupree Litchfield488
Part 3: Chocowinity493
CHAPTER XXXII
Bath494
Part 1: Restoration of Historic Bath494
Part 2: Restoration of St. Thomas Church499
CHAPTER XXXIII
Hurricanes—Pauline Worthy500
CHAPTER XXXIV
—Ships That Pass in the Night——Edmund H. Harding506
CHAPTER XXXV
Since World War II—John I. Morgan and Bill Abeyounis510






CHAPTER XXXVI
Urban Renewal—William I. Cochran, Jr.514
CHAPTER XXXVII
The Clock Ticks On—Raymond Taylor519
APPENDICES
Appendix A
Article of Incorporation of Washington524
Appendix B
Laws Pertaining to Washington—Passed by N. C. Legislature527
Appendix C
Civil War Fortifications—Fred Mallison545
Appendix D
World War II Casualties—Ann Kimberly Glover551
Index553

SECTION ONE





CHAPTER I
IN THE BEGINNING
by
HERBERT PASCHAL

In 1663 North Carolina was granted to eight of the political friends of the recently restored King of England, Charles II. These men, known as the Lords Proprietors of Carolina, promoted the settlement of this state. Settlers from Virginia began to push into the Albemarle region of eastern Carolina. As this area became inhabited some of the more adventurous settlers pushed southward and by the 1690's settlers had begun to appear on the Pamlico River. In 1696 the county of Bath was established and in 1705 the present Beaufort County was established as Pampticough precinct.

Into the present area of Beaufort County came settlers moving up the Pamlico River and settling on the banks of this stream and its tributaries. By 1706 a town of about twelve houses and a public library had been established at Bath. In 1711 the Tuscarora Indian war brought death and destruction to the settlements along the Pamlico. Only the Lionel Reading plantation six miles below the present Washington on the south side of the river managed to survive. A garrison of troops was established there and for two or three years it marked the most westerly outpost of white settlement and the point from which expeditions against the Indians set out into the interior. With the defeat of the Indians about 1714 settlers once more began to push up the Pamlico and in 1726 a portion of the land on which Washington now stands was included in a grant of 337 acres made by the Lords Proprietors to Christopher Dudley. In the following year Dudley transferred his title to the land to Edward Salter who in turn conveyed it to one






John Worley. Worley established a plantation on the old land grant but in 1729 he sold it to Thomas Bonner who established his home at Bonner Hill one mile north of the present Washington. At his death his son, James Bonner, inherited the site of Washington, established his residence there and it became known as Pea Town.

James Bonner soon came to realize the strategic location of his plantation for it was located at the head of navigation on the Pamlico. Beyond his plantation site it was impossible for ocean-going ships to go, as the twisting Tar filled with sand bars and snags baffled all efforts to navigate her waters. The Bonner plantation appears to have gradually increased in importance and several homes were established about the plantation. This scattered settlement appears on old maps as Bonner or Forks of the Tar.

By 1771 Bonner had decided to establish a town here, for in that year he petitioned the Colonial assembly for permission to establish a township. By 1776 James Bonner, now a Colonel in the Revolutionary militia, had completed his plans for establishing a town. He laid the town off in sixty lots with appropriate streets and sold the lots by lottery. The first town commissioners who were chosen by the lot purchasers, were Henry Bonner, Robert Salter, John Cowper and Joseph Blount. To these men in 1776, Colonel Bonner conveyed full title to the streets and to lot No. 21 which was to be for public use and to lot No. 50 as a site for a church building.

The first known reference to Washington in which the present name of the town appears, is to be found in the journal of the Council of Safety which was meeting at Halifax on October 21, 1776. The reference reads: —Resolved that Captain John Forster, commander of the armed brig, the general Washington, now lying at Washington, do proceed with all possible dispatch to Ocracock Bar and there protect the trading vessels.— It is on the basis of this brief entry that the town of Washington lays claim to being the first town named for General George Washington.

Born in the Revolution, Washington became a center of privateer activity. Such leading merchants as Richard Blackledge and John Gray Blount would fit out armed ships to cruise the Atlantic and prey on the shipping of Great Britain. The records contain numerous mention of the prizes taken by privateers arriving in Washington. In 1780 Benjamin Hawkins brought five hundred muskets to Washington from St. Eustatius where he had purchased them for the use of the Continental troops. From Washington and

its vicinity came many officers and men who served valiantly and well in the struggle for independence.

In 1783 the Southern Post road which had gone from Edenton through Bath to New Bern was changed so that it now went through Washington to avoid the wide ferry crossing at Bath. Along this new route in 1783 came Johann Schoysf who was making a tour of the newly created nation and in his journal he notes that Washington has —perhaps 30 houses.— The trade of Washington he declared to be —trifling— and notes that most of the produce was carried out by New England shippers. —The chief occupation,— he says, —is the building of small ships and vessels, which are put together entirely of pine timber and sold very cheap, but they rot easily.—

In 1782 Washington was incorporated as a town by the Assembly at Hillsboro and in 1784 by act of the Assembly certain lands laid off by Thomas Respass, John Gladden and Hadrianus Van Norden, all of whom have streets named for them, were added to the town of Washington. Union Alley is the dividing line between these lands and the old Bonner property.

In 1785 on the motion of Nathan Keais, John Gray Blount, and Richard Blackledge, the county seat was transferred from Bath to Washington and a courthouse, jail, pillory and stocks were ordered erected.

During the Confederation period of the 1780's, Washington's warehouses, which during the —Revolution had been filled with pork for the Continental forces, were filled with public tobacco which had been collected for taxes.

In 1787 William Attmore, a native of Philadelphia, visited Washington. He arrived by ship on muster day when the militia of the county gathered to drill. He found the town filled with people and many disorders and some fighting kept the authorities busy. By this time Washington had grown to about sixty families. The lots upon the river were laid out with one hundred feet front to each lot and the houses were built of wood some of which, Attmore reported, were large and convenient. To Attmore's horror there were no fire buckets in the town.

By this time Washington was developing as an important trading center. Several large wharves had been erected and sometimes as many as twenty sailing vessels could be seen lying in the harbor. From Washington a brisk trade was conducted with the upriver settlements as far as Tarboro. The goods were carried chiefly on large flats and scows which drew little water. Some of these






flat-bottomed scows carried seventy or eighty hogsheads of tobacco.

The chief exports from Washington were tar, pitch, turpentine, rosin, Indian corn, boards, scantling, staves, shingles, furs, tobacco, port, lard, tallow, beeswax, myrtlewax and peas. The trade was chiefly with the West Indies and with the other states.

To the industrial life of Washington in 1787 had been added a rum distillery and Attmore remarks that —this is not likely to render the place more healthy.—

During this period George Horn's Tavern served as the popular gathering place for the townsmen and here the visitor could receive lodging and board for about six shillings paper money per day. Here on some cold night seated about the fire in the tavern's public room could be found such leading townsmen as Thomas and Richard Blackledge, John Gray Blount, Nathan Keais, a recent settler from Rhode Island, Doctor Loomis, Colonel William Kennedy, whose home two miles above Washington was a social center, Captain John Wallace, seafarer, Mr. Arnett, the lawyer, and others of the Bonner, Whipple, Nuttle and Leland clans as well as the Grimes, father and son, and Mr. Shoemaker and the well-traveled and talkative Captain Eldredge.

Within the parlors of the homes along Water and Main streets and on the sprawling river plantations, a lucky young bachelor like William Attmore, under the sponsorship of the prominent Blackledges, could obtain a cup of tea and an interesting conversation with the young ladies of the community. There were the prim and proper Miss Grimes, the two pretty Misses Eastwoods, young Miss Sally Salter who could ride well and discuss religion until the wee hours, as well as the interesting Miss Lucy Harvey, who was to marry John Gray Blount.

Perhaps a disappointment to the Washingtonians was the failure of President Washington to visit his namesake during his southern tour in 1791. There were two possible routes from Petersburg to Charleston. One was by Edenton which went through Washington and was an estimated five hundred and four miles, one by Halifax which was an estimated four hundred and sixty miles. Washington chose the shorter Halifax route and came no closer to Washington than Greenville which he called —a trifling little place.—

Throughout the 1790's and 1800's Washington continued to grow and the great Blount firm composed of the three brothers, John Gray, Thomas and William conducted a thriving business. In 1790 Congress made Washington a port, and a customs house

was established in Washington about the end of the —War of 1812 with the arrival of the Fowle family from New England. Under the leadership of the enterprising S. R. Fowle, a great new mercantile house was established which continued to grow and prosper for many years.

Thus, by 1800, the pattern of Washington's business and social life had been set and for the next sixty years the wharves of Washington teemed with the river trade that was her very life blood.






CHAPTER II
THEY FOUGHT FOR FREEDOM

In 1775 Beaufort Coutny was represented at the Congress which met in Hillsboro by Roger Ormond, Thomas Respess and William Salter. This Congress appointed the following officers to command the Beaufort County Regiment in the —Revolutionary War: James Bonner, Colonel; Thomas Bonner, Lieutenant Colonel; Roger Ormond, 1st Major, and William Brown, 2nd Major.

One hundred and twenty-five men and boys from Beaufort County walked from a starting point in Bath to New Bern to join the Revolutionary forces. Unfortunately their names have been forgotten. —Twas ever thus! Since Time began foot soldiers have been slugging it out in the mud to win the victories and suffer the defeats, while the names of their officers have gone down in history.

This, however, does not detract from the luster of the officers— names. The local Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution has located the names and most of the graves of eight Beaufort County men who served as officers in the —War for Independence.

Colonel James Bonner's grave in the corner of the Churchyard of St. Peter's Episcopal Church is a conspicuous local landmark. No birth or death dates are on his stone. The fact that he was the Founder of Washington is noted. Next to Colonel Bonner's grave is that of Elizabeth Bonner thought by some to be his wife. However, both of Colonel Bonner's wives were named —Mary.— The wife of his son, James Bonner, Jr. was named Elizabeth.

Nathan Keais, a native of Rhode Island, who was a member of Washington's first Board of Commissioners is also buried in St. Peter's Churchyard. He was a Captain in the Second Regiment of the Continental Army.

In Trinity Cemetery approximately three miles from Washington, is the grave of Israel Harding, who was a Sergeant in the 10th North Carolina Militia.

Several miles from Washington, in the family burying ground at —Bellefont— is the grave of Reading Blount, who was born February 22, 1757, and died October 13, 1807, a Major in the Continental Army. Blount served for eighty-two months. He was cited for bravery at the Battle of Guilford Court House and again at the Battle of Eutaw Springs.

Colonel John Eborn is buried in the family plot at the edge of Machapungo Creek. This is located on the John Winfield plantation at Yeatesville. Eborn was born in 1742, died in 1796. He served under George Washington in the campaigns around New York and was with Washington during the winter at Valley Forge.

Colonel John Patton and his regiment distinguished themselves at the Battle of Kings Mountain. Patton is said to have been buried near Hill's Point. His grave has not been located.

Charles Crawford was a Captain in the Continental Line. He is buried on the south side of the river on a farm formerly owned by W. J. Whitley, now the property of Texas Gulf.

Simon Alderson (probably the grandson of Simon Alderson the first, who was one of the Incorporators of Bath), was the Captain of a Troop of Horse, and has gone down in history as —a daring Cavalryman.—

Caleb Foreman, a Lieutenant in the 8th Regiment rests in the Old Snoad Burying Ground.

The grave of Lieutenant Richard Respess, who also fought with the 8th Regiment, has not been located.

The only Naval officer on record is John Bonner, who was born on September 15, 1746 and died on December 6, 1788. He is buried in St. Peter's Churchyard.

P.M.W.






CHAPTER III
THE TOWN DEVELOPS
by
PAULINE WORTHY

In 1775 James Bonner laid Washington off in half acre lots. Streets extended from Harvey Street to Union Alley and as far back as Third Street. The two blocks on Water Street between Harvey and Market were the first to be developed. The original streets were Water, Main (originally called First), Second and Third. These ran parallel to the river. Running northward were Market and Bonner.

The sixty lots were numbered and sold by lottery. Each lottery ticket cost five British pounds, approximately twenty-five dollars. There were no dollars at that time.

It was specified that each person buying a lot must, within two years after the close of the war with England, build on his lot one good habitable stone, brick, or frame house not less than sixteen feet square, and that it should have either a brick or stone chimney.

Later, lots not sold by lottery went on sale for twice the original price and the first bought was lot 15. The purchaser was George Horn, a shoemaker. The deed was recorded on December 23, 1776 and was signed by James Bonner in the presence of John Fullin and Henry Lewcas.

During this period when the —Revolutionary War was on, Washington was serving as a storage place for supplies for the Continental Army. A report to Congress on September 22, 1777 recorded the fact that four hundred and thirty barrels of pork and fifteen barrels of beef were stored at Port Washington in North Carolina.

The same year John Gray Blount was sent on a special mission to the West Indies to get supplies for the Army, primarily gun powder.

On his return in 1778 he married Lucy Harvey and built the sixth house in town. This house on the southwest corner of Main and Market streets was occupied by Blount descendents until progress demanded its demolition in 1923 nearly a century and a half later.

In 1782 Washington took out its incorporation papers. Two years later a part of the farm of Thomas Respess was annexed and soon thereafter some property belonging to John Gladden and Hadrianus Van Norden. Union Alley was the dividing line between Bonner's Old Part and the new lots in Respess town. It was decided that in order to keep the streets in repair residents must be taxed one shilling on every hundred pounds of property, the equivalent of twenty-five cents on five hundred dollars.

By 1785 this town had so outgrown Bath that the citizens petitioned the General Assembly to move the county seat. The Assembly, meeting in New Bern, passed an act to that effect and authorized the erection of a courthouse, a prison, a pillory and stocks. No crime or disorder was to be tolerated in this infant village.

The Courthouse was built prior to 1800 but the exact date is not on record. The act of the Assembly moving the county seat specified that the dimensions of the courthouse should be not less than forty by twenty-five feet. It also authorized Court to be held in the schoolhouse until the courthouse was completed.

Tradition says that a Mr. Bowen superintended the building of the courthouse and that the bricks were made in his brickyard. Wouldn't he be astonished to know that nearly two centuries later this building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places? (A list of sites and structures significant in American history.)

New Bern, now the thriving seat of North Carolina government, was amused at the pretensions of the village growing in a pea patch on the banks of the Pamlico. A few jokes were cracked along this line and this amusement was reflected in the first map of Washington which was drawn for John Gray Blount by a Frenchman named Pasteur. Using as background a military cape belonging to an officer in the British Army, Mr. Pasteur drew a plot of the town. An artist as well as a draftsman, the map maker drew in one corner a town in the clouds, painted in the center of a pea






pod. This perpetuated the nickname —Pea Town— which the Assemblymen at New Bern had bestowed upon New Bern's audacious little rival on the Pamlico.

The first Federal Census was taken in 1790 and population figures for Beaufort County were listed in 1791 as follows: free white males over sixteen years of age, nine hundred fifty one; free white males under sixteen years of age, nine hundred twenty six; free white females, one thousand eight hundred thirty four; slaves, one thousand six hundred twenty two; all other free persons, one hundred thirty nine; total population, five thousand four hundred fifty two.

How many of these people were actually living in Washington is not known but it is known that in 1787 there were at least sixty families within the city limits. Names prominent among them were Bonner, Blount, Keais, Blackledge, Moules and Ormond.

By 1790 the town had attained sufficient status as a port to have Congress, then meeting in New York, establish a customs house and a post office, the first post office in the United States for a Washington.

Prior to this time Richard Blackledge had been serving unofficially as postmaster but there had been no regular mail service. Outgoing letters were taken to Mulberry Tavern to be entrusted to passing travelers and incoming letters were left at the Tavern to be called for. On June 2, 1790, William Groves was appointed as Washington's first official postmaster and a small post office was set up on the corner of Main Street and Union Alley.

By 1791 a fire department had been organized with a small handpumped engine plus volunteers willing to form a bucket brigade.

Although the population was small, it held a number of different religious persuasions. All worshipped together in the Free Church on lot 50 until 1800.

There had been a bridge of sorts across the Pamlico since 1799, but in 1812 a charter was drawn up for a more substantial one. Stock was sold at twenty five dollars per share and profits were divided among stockholders. Toll rates were: five cents per person, fifty cents for a four-wheeled vehicle. Lumber and shingles were charged for by the square foot, and any commodity sold by the bushel was one and one-half cent per bushel.

In 1812, also, a pair of brothers from New England, Josiah and Luke Fowle, arrived in Washington where in time they would

leave the Fowle imprint on the community. Soon they were joined by a younger brother, Sam, and in 1818 the Fowle brothers established a shipbuilding business on Castle Island.

As early as 1796 the Custom House had reported one hundred and thirty vessels entering Port Washington. These, however, were boats built elsewhere. Now in the 1820's and 30's Washington began to build her own vessels. The lumber came from the surrounding forests and the logs were cut with a ripsaw.

Tannyhill and Lavendar built the first sawmill and in 1831 built the Edmund McNair especially for towing rafts of logs to their own mill. Later this mill was bought by Benjamin Hanks, who as time went on owned eight canal boats which carried lumber from Washington to Norfolk and Baltimore.

Turpentine distilleries developed. These were built across the river because of the danger of fire. Turpentine was exported as well as tar, pitch, pork, grain and bacon. The port products were brought down the Tar River on flats poled by slaves.

As the population increased and there was more coming and going by both water and stagecoach, there was increased demand for hotel services. Mr. Wiswall built a large frame structure with a ballroom on the corner of Main and Respess (where N.C.N.B. now stands). Here President James Monroe was entertained when he came South in 1819 on his tour of coastal defenses.

When General Lafayette came from France on his nostalgic visit to the United States in 1825, he visited Washington and was a guest at the Lafayette Hotel.

It is probable that Lafayette came by stagecoach. Wiswall ran four-horse stagecoaches to both New Bern and Plymouth. The Plymouth road was the main road leading out of Washington as it connected with coaches going to Norfolk and Baltimore.

These coaches were drawn by four horses which were changed half way between destinations. The driver and the footman rode on a high seat up front, while the passengers rode inside. A coach could accommodate nine. The driver always came into town with a flourish, blowing his horn loudly.

Mail was also carried by stagecoach. Postage on a letter to New York or Boston was twenty-five cents.

By 1830 the population had doubled; according to this census, there were now ten thousand, nine hundred and forty-eight people in Beaufort County.

What were all these people doing in addition to giving birth, going to church, burying relatives and trying to make a living?






Certainly everything was not rosy. The County built a poorhouse in 1827 to care for the aged and the indigent. However, by and large, the area was prospering.

There were numerous craftsmen to provide both necessities and luxuries. When Benjamin Pyle died in 1813 and his things were sold at public auction his goods and chattels included watch and clockmaking tools and a variety of jewelry, such as earrings, finger rings and watches. In addition there was much flat silver such as lady's tea and dining spoons and sugar tongs.

What of the furniture in Washington homes? Edward Long was making venetian blinds in 1823 as well as doing other cabinet work. Augustine Fair, a cabinet maker with a shop opposite the bridge, advertised in 1838 that he had plenty of mahogany on hand and was prepared to execute all work in his line of business.

The men gathered to discuss politics, and the fact that a Temperance Society was deemed necessary is suggestive.

What of sports and entertainment?

John Prime, a Washington gunmaker, advertised in the New Bern Spectator that he could make both double and single barreled guns in the best styles and that all his repairs were done in the neatest manner. So we can assume that hunting was a major sport. The James Sprunt Historical Publications say that in 1787 Rodman's Quarters was a favorite hunting ground and that Washington men would often gather there, divide into groups and go into the woods to track deer.

For ladies there were tea parties, but not with tea and sandwiches. The English High Tea was the fashion with a real supper served and men invited. For mixed groups there was square dancing.

Also there were cultural organizations such as The Literary and Scientific Circle. There was a dramatic society which put on amateur theatricals. Mrs. Phinney advertised in the American Recorder (July 16, 1819) that she would instruct young ladies in drawing, painting, gilding and embroidery. A French dancing master was giving dancing lessons in Selby's Hotel and Mrs. Cooke was teaching music.

And so life moved along as life does in all times and places until 1843 when the yellow fever epidemic struck.

Mosquitoes were the carriers. They brought it from the West Indies in a cargo assigned to Lewis LeRoy, a prominent merchant. Unhappily Mr. LeRoy himself was one of the first victims. People

died like flies, as many as seven being buried in a single day.

Doctors were hard put to manage. Dr. Norcom, Dr. Freeman, Dr. Shadrack Allen and Dr. Telfair were the physicians in town at that time.

In 1846 there was a smallpox scare but this did not develop into an epidemic since the patient was isolated.

There were no chronometers for measuring time. Ships used —dead reckoning— which was a lead line and an hourglass. Knots were tied in the line to measure so many feet of water. At the end of the line was a piece of lead containing a hole filled with soap. As this was put into the water the hourglass turned. When the lead touched bottom the line was drawn in and if sand was on the soap it could be estimated how many feet of water the ship was in. By the hourglass the time taken to reach bottom was estimated. A hard way to reckon longitude! Yet many successful voyages were made by —dead reckoning,— voyages to Point Petre, Guadaloupe, St. Kitts and Turks Island in the West Indies and to northern ports such as New York or Boston.

Naval stores were the principal exports. However, corn was the principal crop in the county, and between forty and fifty barrels were sometimes shipped in a single year.

Cotton was a secondary crop. Not too much was raised in Beaufort County except by Bryan Grimes whose output was about fifty bales a season.

Occasionally these returning ships brought hats or dresses for affluent ladies. There were no fashion plates or papers to indicate changes in fashion, but if a lady got a new dress she usually, with great generosity, let her friends copy it. Mrs. Sarah Quinn and Mrs. Elizabeth Orkney were the leading milliners, creating many fancy bonnets. Dresses could not be bought ready-made. Home sewing was a way of life for all women. Every garment worn by every member of the family and by every servant had to be cut and stitched at home. Short close-fitting waists and full straight skirts held out with hoops were the fashion in 1850.

Conversation and letter writing were the favorite avocations of both men and women. Since telephones were not available, servants carried notes from the east end to the west end of town, from mother to daughter, or from sister to sister, detailing the news of their particular neighborhoods.

There was plenty to talk about in 1845 when Henry S. Clark, candidate for Congress challenged Henry Dimock to a duel.






Dimock was editor of The North State Whig which, Clark claimed, had printed lies about him. Shots were fired but neither was wounded and friends patched things up between them.

The assumption is that Beaufort County had outlawed duels because both the Henry S. Clark-Henry Dimock affair and the William Kennedy-Fenner B. Satterthwaite duel were fought outside the county. Both were anti-climactic. Satterthwaite put three holes through Kennedy's hat. Kennedy put four bullets in Satterthwaite's leg and five in his coat tails before a recess was called and the matter settled by arbitration.

Punctuated only by such occasional excitement, time rolled peacefully on until the nation was plunged into war. By the time Federal troops invaded Washington the town extended from the gate at —Elmwood— on Washington Street to the Bradford residence just beyond where the Baptist Church now stands. The northern limits were at Fifth. There were two main thoroughfares which were lined with giant elm trees with here and there an occasional cedar or sycamore. Streets were packed hard with crushed oyster shells. Planks along the sidewalks made walking possible in muddy weather. The population stood at three thousand, of whom few or none dreamed of the horror ahead.

CHAPTER IV
BEAUFORT COUNTY'S CONTRIBUTION TO A
NOTABLE ERA OF NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY
(Selections from a series of articles)
by
CONGRESSMAN LINDSAY C. WARREN

Printed in the Congressional Record

April 29, 1930

(Used with Mr. Warren's permission)

The county of Beaufort has always played a commanding role in the history of the Commonwealth. There have been periods when its leaders rose to great heights and left their indelible impress.

Settled exclusively by the English, its trials and tribulations as an important section of the colony go hand in hand with the rebellion against colonial rule and the unconquerable desire for independence. Undaunted by the Indian massacres of the early days, which almost took her last man, the county rose nobly to the cause of the Revolution, sending more than her quota of fighting men, and furnishing from her great estates even the family plate brought from England. Two of her great public leaders stood out in these times—Col. James Bonner and John Gray Blount. The former commanded the Beaufort County Militia and was preeminent as a man and as a soldier. The latter as a boy from a distinguished family, seeking adventure, had accompanied Daniel Boone as a chain bearer in his pilgrimage to Kentucky, and during the administration of Thomas Jefferson was to become one of the largest individual landowners in America.






It was these two men who molded the sentiment and policy of the county in that early day. For the next 40 years, beginning with the accession of Jefferson, the sons of these men as well as other prominent figures came on the scene, and Beaufort County sat high in the councils of the State.

The purpose of these articles is to portray, historically correct, I trust, some of the happenings of that great era in North Carolina from 1845 to 1875 and to bring forth again those men who became dominant actors and who either lived in Beaufort County at the time or who were closely identified with it. Certainly no period in our history could be more interesting. They were the halcyon days before the war, and then the dregs and despair that followed it. Beaufort County shared in its pleasures, drank deep in its sorrows, and contributed greatly in its reconstruction.

For 40 years before the War between the States, Washington was a pleasure-loving but ambitious community. It was a port of no small repute. Out over the bar of Ocracoke Inlet to the West Indies, and northern points, when the fleet of Fowle ships carrying lumber and returning with merchandise, fruits, and molasses. Commerce teemed in the harbor and the docks were a busy scene. It was a day of large plantations, high living, fast horses, hard drinking, and political strife. The first day of court was always a gala affair, and set aside for political discussion. Any orator could get a crowd. The social reputation of the community was widely known. The people were hospitable to their hurt, and entertained lavishly. The slaves did the work. But withal, there was culture and refinement in the homes, and many of them were centers of attraction for learned people.

An outstanding event in its social life had been in 1819, when the town was visited by President James Monroe and his Secretary of War, John C. Calhoun. It was occasion for great celebration, the distinguished guests being met a few miles from town by a cavalcade of 100 citizens. Cannon boomed out the presidential salute. They were escorted to the courthouse lawn where the President spoke to thousands. That night, a dance, graced by ladies and gentlemen in resplendent dress, culminated the entertainment, Mr. Monroe taking part in the festivities and making himself most agreeable.

The town was included in the itineraries of many of the prominent men of the day, who came here to consult the great leaders and enjoy the social life. In the summer of 1836, Washington was visited by one of her native sons in the person of The Hon.

Churchill C. Cambreleng. He was born here but moved to New York City at the age of 16, and subsequently engaged there in the mercantile business. He was elected to Congress as a Tammany Democrat and served for 18 years. At the time of his visit to Washington he was chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, enjoyed the friendship and confidence of Jackson, and had always been a tower of strength to him in his fight on the bank. Mr. Cambreleng spoke at Washington advocating the election of his close friend, Mr. Van Buren, but Beaufort County voted heavily against his candidate in the election. Two years later he was defeated for Congress and Van Buren thereupon appointed him as minister to Russia, where he served with great distinction. Judge Stephen C. Bragaw is one of his relatives and bears the name of his brother.

A discussion of the men and measures of the age beginning in 1845 necessarily must be woven around the legal fraternity. At that time politics was an exalted profession and the bar, on account of their educational qualifications, were looked to by the people as leaders of thought and exponents of issues. For years the bar of Washington has been without a superior in the legal history of the State. The statement is made advisedly, but with knowledge of the groups that practiced there in each decade. Certainly this was true in the early fifties, when Edward Stanly, Thomas Sparrow, Edward J. Warren, William B. Rodman, Fenner B. Satterthwaite, Richard S. Donnell, and David M. Carter took their seats at the counsel tables in the same courthouse at Washington that stands today. Of this bar only William B. Rodman was born in Beaufort County. Aside from being a good place to live, there was considerable litigation in the county, and men like Stanly and Donnell forsook their native Craven and moved there.

In 1846 there came to Washington from the hills of his native Vermont a young man 20 years of age from a long line of Massachusetts ancestry. He had just graduated with distinction from Dartmouth College, founded by his maternal ancestor, Doctor Wheelock. His name was Edward Jenner Warren. The rigors of the cold northern climate had affected him and he was moved to seek a milder temperature. He was a part of that migration of young men from New England that came south in the early forties. All were graduates of Tufts, Dartmouth, Yale, or Harvard, and they settled in Elizabeth City, Washington, and in Wilmington, N. C., and in Charleston, S. C. The South was still in the






prime of her importance in the life of the Nation, and these young men, some as lawyers, some as physicians, and others as schoolteachers, came seeking their opportunity and marrying into the older families. President Coolidge once told the writer that he became greatly interested in the southward trek of these able young men from his section during that period and used it as his subject when addressing the New England Society of Charleston when he was vice-president.

Edward J. Warren came as a schoolteacher, finding time in his spare moments to read law, and was admitted to the bar in 1848. He shortly married Deborah Virginia Bonner, daughter of Col. Richard Bonner, a member of the council of state, long influential and powerful in affairs and the largest planter and wealthiest man in Beaufort County.

His contemporaries at the bar were: Edward Stanly, born in New Bern, and a graduate of Norwich University, possessed with all the force as well as logic that is generally given an able man. In his younger days he was hot-headed and ill-tempered and promptly met on the dueling ground a member of the House from Alabama over an imaginary insult, but which resulted in no harm to either. But in his latter days Mr. Stanly grew calmer.

Thomas Sparrow, likewise born in New Bern, had graduated with great distinction at Princeton, being the valedictorian of his class and receiving from that great institution both his A.B. and master's degrees. He read law under Judge Gaston, and moved to Washington and formed a partnership with Stanly. He was a profound student, and a forceful debator and orator. His appealing personality gathered men around him.

Richard S. Donnell was also born in New Bern. He was a graduate of the University of North Carolina and of Yale, and was a grandson of Gov. Richard Dobbs Speight. He was a man of commanding appearance, quick and decisive in his actions, and thorough in the preparation of his cases. He was a clear thinker and went to the heart of every problem.

William Blount Rodman, a grandson of John Gray Blount, was born in Washington, and educated at the university. He was small of stature and rather rotund. He was a fluent speaker, possessing a concise and analytical mind and knew the history of his State such as few men did. Later as a writer of legal history he had few superiors.

David M. Carter was nearly 6 feet tall and of large frame. He was born in Hyde County and attended the university. He

had red hair and blue eyes, and at times an ungovernable temper. When in a rage, his countenance was ugly beyond description. He was a good hater. To his friends he was as true as steel. He detested his enemies. He was as brave as a lion. He was a powerful, ruthless advocate who brooked no opposition. After the war he formed a partnership with Mr. Warren.

Fenner B. Satterthwaite lived just over the line in Pitt County, but practiced in Washington regularly and moved there after the war. He had a natural gift for the law. He rarely cracked a book, but depended on his commanding appearance and striking personality, his knowledge of the people, and his ability to speak. And quite successful was he.

Such was the bar of Washington in 1850. There was not a case brought in Beaufort County that these men were not pitted against each other, and at every courthouse in the eastern country where they appeared, one or more of them would arise and address his fellow citizens on the issues of the day. Warren, Stanly, Sparrow, Donnell, Satterthwaite, and Carter were Whigs, while Rodman carried the Democratic banner alone. Beaufort was a Whig county. In the earlier days it had stood by General Jackson, but it had annihilated Van Buren, Polk, Cass, Pierce, and Buchanan. Its members of the legislature had been Whigs, and the county always loyally supported Morehead and Graham.

In 1853, after five years at the bar and at the age of 27, Mr. Warren rose to great heights in his profession in the case of the State against the Rev. George Washington Carrawan, a Baptist minister of great influence, from Hyde County, owning large tracts of land and a number of slaves. He had killed a schoolteacher from Perquimans County named Lassiter, and though Carrawan's slave had aided his master in disposing of the body, his evidence was incompetent and the case was built up solely on circumstances. It was removed to Beaufort County and Messrs. Warren and Carter appeared with the solicitor, Mr. Stevenson, of New Bern, while Messrs. Rodman, Satterthwaite, Donnell, and James W. Bryan defended. Mr. Stevenson placed Mr. Warren in charge of the case, and he accordingly made the last argument to the jury. Judge Bailey presided. It will go down as one of the great criminal trials of America, consuming eight days and becoming famous on account of the arguments and the immediate happenings after the verdict.

When the jury brought in a verdict of murder in the first degree (Carrawan had turned to his wife after Mr. Warren concluded his






speech and said, —That speech hangs me—), the prisoner, arising to be sentenced, calmly took a pistol from his pocket, aimed it deliberately at Mr. Warren, and fired. He was attired in the conventional broadcloth of the day, with heavy cardboard in the lapels of his coat. A large gold chain was thrown across his chest, holding a locket hanging just over his heart. The bullet struck the locket, caromed to his lapel, cutting out the cardboard, and, falling to the floor, left him uninjured. The shock knocked him down, but he was quickly on his feet, and in time to see Carrawan draw another pistol and kill himself in the court room. The speeches made by Messrs. Rodman and Warren in that case, outstanding for legal argument and oratorical ability, are published in a work well known to lawyers as Classics of the Bar. The complete history of the trial was written at the time by Mr. Sparrow, who did not appear. There is a copy in the Supreme Court Library, and the few that are still preserved are much sought after.

It was during this period that events began to shape themselves that unerringly pointed to secession. The eighth congressional district at that time was composed of the counties of Beaufort, Craven, Lenoir, Pitt, Greene, Tyrrell, Hyde, Washington, Carteret, Wayne, and Jones. For years it had been overwhelmingly Whig, and its leaders were standing squarely with Webster and Clay. The district was so pro-Union that the opposition to the dominant party was negligible. Mr. Stanly had served three terms in Congress with great ability, but in 1842 had been defeated for reelection. He returned home and was immediately sent to the House of Commons from Beaufort County for four terms, was speaker in 1846, and the next year was the attorney general of the State.

In 1848 he was again elected to Congress and served until 1853, Mr. Donnell, at the age of 26, having voluntarily retired after serving one term, and insisting that Mr. Stanly take the Whig nomination. The district had been taking no chance that anyone who subscribed to the South Carolina doctrine should represent it. But with the increased activity of Beecher, Garrison, and Mrs. Stowe in the North, the seeds of disunion were germinating even in conservative and Union-loving North Carolina; and the Democrats, taking advantage of the mistakes of the Fillmore administration, set about to seize the Whig stronghold, the eighth district. Mr. Stanly had previously announced his retirement at the expiration of his term but yielded to the importunities of his party and again became the candidate.

Months before the election the Democrats nominated Thomas Ruffin, of Wayne. Mr. Sparrow, as chairman of the district Whig committee, became the manager of his law partner's campaign and lost no time in launching it.

It was a great campaign. Sparrow, Warren, Carter, and Donnell took the stump for Stanly, all denouncing secession and breathing devotion to the Union. But Ruffin was elected and the Whig power in the district was at last broken. Beaufort County went for Stanly. Mr. Ruffin remained in Congress and went out when the State seceded. He was killed in one of the battles in northern Virginia. In 1853 Mr. Stanly moved to California, where he practiced law. His party having passed off the scene of action, he allied himself with the rising new Republican Party and was their unsuccessful candidate for Governor of California in 1857. North Carolina was to hear no more of him until five years later.

After serving as Representative from Beaufort in 1858, Thomas Sparrow moved to Arcola, Ill., where, on account of his ability, a wide field of activity had been promised him, but with the war clouds gathering and feeling then the inevitability of the approaching conflict, he sorrowfully turned toward home within a year. But the lovers of the Union were not yet giving up. By this time Mr. Rodman was openly advocating secession, was writing prolifically, and making powerful speeches. Carter, Warren, Donnell, and Sparrow were making themselves heard, and wherever one spoke he was greeted with large crowds. Mr. Satterthwaite, living then in Pitt County, was quiet, but his near neighbor, Bryan Grimes, was using his great influence for dissolution. In the winter of 1861 the question of a convention was submitted to the voters of the State. The cotton states had gone out. On every stump in Beaufort County the question was argued. The people were at fever heat, but they were urged to vote down the call. Beaufort County did. And the State did. North Carolina was still in the Union.

But events were happening fast. Lincoln had made his call for troops. Virginia had seceded, and the war was already on. The next election on a convention was held. This time they were all together, all favoring it, and Beaufort County giving it a large majority along with the rest of the State. At the same time Edward J. Warren and William J. Ellison were elected as the county'sdelegates. Mr. Ellison was a Whig and strong Union man, and exerted tremendous influence in the county.

The personnel of the secession convention has been paid due






tribute by the historians and writers. Certainly there has never been a greater or abler body of men gathered together in the history of the State, for in the crises North Carolina sent her best. Pitt County sent Bryan Grimes and Fenner B. Satterthwaite, Mr. Grimes reproaching his friend and neighbor, Mr. Satterthwaite, a few days before the convention assembled, because he did not seem to have the same ardor that he did. Martin County sent Asa Biggs, then a United States judge, and one of the State's ablest men. Hyde sent Edward L. Mann. Washington sent William S. Pettigrew. Northampton sent her able judge, David A. Barnes, and John M. Moody. On the vote for president of the convention, Messrs. Warren, Ellison, and Satterthwaite voted for Gov. William A. Graham, who was defeated by the venerable Weldon N. Edwards. Mr. Grimes voted for Edwards. After a few preliminary roll calls as to its form, the ordinance of secession was unanimously passed, the 115 members signing the enrolled parchment. North Carolina had gone out of the Union and then quickly ratified the constitution of the Confederate States.

For the duration of the war, at least, the old antagonists at the bar and in politics made their peace. Mr. Sparrow raised a volunteer company in Beaufort County. While stationed at Portsmouth, awaiting transportation to northern Virginia, he was ordered to take his company to assist in the defense of Fort Hatteras. He was surrendered there with the garrison, and was in a northern prison for six months until exchanged. He was then called to Fort Fisher and was made a major. When that last great fort of the Confederacy fell, he was at home on sick leave. In a small canoe he paddled alone 20 miles down Pamlico River, and never surrendered or took the oath of allegiance.

On May 16, 1861, Mr. Carter was commissioned as captain of Company E, Fourth North Carolina Regiment, and went quickly to the front. At the Battle of Seven Pines, May 31, 1862, his regiment suffered severely, and he himself received wounds that were feared fatal at the time. It was weeks before he sufficiently recovered to report for duty, and was then assigned as judge of Jackson's corps and made lieutenant colonel. Later he was presiding judge of the Third Army Corps (A. P. Hill's). He remained in the army until he was called home by his election to the legislature.

Mr. Rodman also raised a volunteer company of heavy artillery, which saw service in several sections. Later he was made president of a military court which held sessions in different parts of the

South. Mr. Satterthwaite was not in the army, but gave three sons to the cause. Mr. Donnell was in the legislature during the period of the war and was elected to the convention upon the death of Mr. Ellison and also to the convention of 1865.

Immediately after signing the ordinance of secession Mr. Warren was unanimously elected as captain of a cavalry company organized by his friends in the east. A similar company had been organized in another section, and it was decided to only commission one of them. Governor Clark appointed the other man, Mr. Warren always feeling that the governor had been actuated in his decision because they were political opponents. Later, when the entire convention tendered their services to the Confederacy, Mr. Warren was rejected on account of his physical condition. A brother who had remained in New England served in a Massachusetts regiment, while one who came South served in a Georgia Regiment. They faced at Chickamauga, and the southerner was killed.

The brilliant career of Bryan Grimes, who was inseparably connected with the life of Beaufort County, needs no elaboration in these articles.

PART 2

Edward J. Warren and William J. Ellison played important roles in the convention of 1861 and from the beginning were continuously pointing out the value of eastern Carolina to the future of the Confederacy, condemning the half-hearted efforts for its defense by the Davis government, and urging State action. Both of them actively participated in all of the proceedings and impressed the membership with their ability and courage. . .

Mr. Warren was elected as senator from Beaufort in 1862, 1864, and 1865. In the convention of 1865-66 Messrs. Warren and Donnell were again the delegates from the county; so they served in the dual capacity as members of the convention and as members of the legislature. He was Chairman of the Judiciary Committee during all of his terms in the senate and Mr. Donnell served in the same capacity in the house until he was elected speaker. Certainly no county in those strenuous times occupied a more powerful position in the legislative history of the State than Beaufort.

For the time being a new era began in North Carolina when on September 8, 1862, Zebulon B. Vance took the oath of office as governor, and a star of the first magnitude started its ascendency.

During the progress of the war Governor Graham, Mr. Warren,






Richard S. Donnell, Col. David M. Carter, and many others, were at times caustic critics of the Richmond government, and many of the war measures proposed both in the Confederate congress and in the legislature. They insisted upon a —vigorous constitutional war policy,— but protested throughout, both in speeches and resolutions, —against any settlement of the struggle which does not secure the entire independence of the Confederate States of America.—

On March 20, 1862, a week after the capture of New Bern by the Federals, the Twenty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment entered Washington, accompanied by a fleet of gunboats. At this time the town had been completely evacuated by the Confederates and no resistance was offered. The regimental band accompanied by several companies marched from the dock to the courthouse and raised the American flag. A banner alleged to have been placed there by citizens was stretched across Main Street, bearing the inscription, —The Union and the Constitution.— The Federal commander reported to the War Department that he had found Union sentiments among a few individuals. A garrison, consisting of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, was brought in and made permanent. A large fleet of gunboats was anchored in the river off the town. The occupation was continuous until the spring of 1864.

When Federal occupation came, there were not over 700 people who remained in Washington, all of them being old people who were non-combatants, and a few children. The feeling was prevalent that the section was being handed over to the tender mercies of the invaders, and that the Richmond government was stripping North Carolina of her manpower for service in Virginia. The county had always loved the Union, but when the step to leave it was taken, bickerings ceased, and a united front was presented.

On March 30, 1863, the Confederates, under Gen. D. H. Hill, began the siege for the relief of the town. Unfortunately, he had no gunboats, and as a result the Union garrison was constantly relieved. The besieging force consisted of the brigades of Daniel and Pettigrew on the south side of Pamlico River, and the brigade of Garnett, of Pickett's division, upon the north side. The force under General Hill numbered about 9,000. The Confederates seized the forts below the town and held in check a large fleet of Union gunboats attempting to pass them. The Federal garrison in the town at the beginning of the siege numbered 1,500, which was increased to 2,000 when the transports ran the blockade.

The Federals marched overland from New Bern with a force

of 8,000 under General Spinola, but were met by Pettigrew at Blounts Creek and driven back. Fearing to make a land assault with its consequent loss of life, the Confederates daily engaged the Union gunboats and forts, and Washington was again riddled with shells. On April 15 a large part of the Confederate forces were called to Virginia, and the siege was abandoned. Washington was to remain under Federal occupation for another year.

The brilliant feat of General Hoke in capturing Plymouth on April 20, 1864, caused General Harland, the Union commander at Washington, to receive an order to evacuate the town. On April 30 the last Federal troops, after firing the different portions of the town, embarked. The last dastardly act was setting the bridge on fire. The town was now desolate and ruined.

It is baseless calumny lodged both during and after the war that there was disloyalty on the part of the citizens of Washington to the Confederate government. It is a slander that is unworthy of denial, and though 65 years have elapsed, history is recorded truths, and there is documentary evidence to give the lie to every false charge.

The hoisting of the banner across Main Street welcoming the invading Federals can be dismissed as an act of a very few cowed and whipped citizens who felt that their government (Confederate) had deserted them. The fact that the banner was even raised by local people is not admitted, for immediately afterwards no one would take the responsibility for it.

On March 30, 1862, with the Federals in undisputed control of the town, six well-known and prominent citizens, all old men, were the guests at dinner of Captain Murray, of the U. S. gunboat Commodore Hull, lying in the stream off Washington. Every one of them had either sons or near relatives in the Confederate Army. It was a convivial affair. They pulled off a drunk that evidently required some time for recuperation. Captain Murray proposed a toast:

—Here's to the reconstruction of the Federal Union, a plantation in Georgia with 100 —niggers,— and a summer residence in North Carolina.—

The Washingtonians drank to it with great zest, their liquor at that time having taken the proper effect. It is reported that the captain ordered them oared ashore and safely put to bed. This was a shocking and horrible act of disloyalty.

On April 3, Isaiah Respess, the mayor of Washington, was arrested by a raiding party and sent to Richmond by General






Holmes, the Confederate commander, then at Greenville. Mr. Respess was an old man, long past the combatant stage. Faced by a court-martial, with seven charges presented against him, hundreds of miles from home, he successfully combatted them and was acquitted. Even then he was held and told that he could not return to eastern Carolina. He was accused of furnishing information to the enemy, or at least fraternizing with them. His arrest, contrary to the civil laws of North Carolina, and with a wanton disregard of his rights, caused an outbreak of widespread indignation. On May 1, Judge Badger, of Wake, arose in the convention and presented lengthy resolutions calling upon Governor Clark to make immediate inquiry and with a demand for his release. Messrs. Badger, Warren, and Graham made powerful speeches. After a debate of three days, the proceedings were terminated with a wire from President Jefferson Davis announcing the release of Mr. Respess. After the war Mr. Respess was a senator from Beaufort County.

During the first week of May, 1862, Edward Stanly left his California home and was received at the White House by Abraham Lincoln. He was depressed and blue, for his home state, which he loved passionately, had been invaded, and both the place of his birth and that of his long residence were in possession of a conquering army. But he had a dream that his very presence there could bring peace out of destruction, and he painted to Mr. Lincoln a glowing picture.

Were not Washington and New Bern, now held by the Union forces, former Whig strongholds? Had not their public men, even until the very last, suffered villification on account of their intense love for the Union? Was not this whole war brought on because the people had turned from their old and trusted leaders? What, then, would be easier, now that they were abandoned by the Confederacy, than to go down and wean and coax them back, and take them by the hand as erring brothers? And who, he argued with Lincoln, could better do this than Mr. Stanly himself?

It was no lust for office or for power that inspired Edward Stanly. Love for his old home, and for the Union, pervaded his being. He knew also that there was suffering in North Carolina, and he thought he could alleviate it. Mr. Lincoln was impressed. He felt that if he could drive a wedge into North Carolina that the war would quickly end. Just as he did not consult Congress when he made war neither would he consult that body now, and on May 26, 1862, he commissioned Edward Stanly as Provisional

Governor of North Carolina, with the rank of brigadier general.

Governor Stanly lost no time. He arrived shortly in New Bern, and spent a month conferring with General Burnside. He unfolded his plan. Idealism was to prevail. The military should play second fiddle, and there should be a minimum of restraint. In all of their acts they should play the part of the gentleman. They should fraternize freely with the citizens. No one should be called a rebel. The people should be told that they were simply misled, that the Union was ready to receive them with open arms and restore their property, including their slaves. This program had not been in effect three days before it clashed with the views of the Union general, and in ten days Stanly was complaining to Lincoln of the excesses of the Federal troops.

He then moved on to Washington, and set up his headquarters in the building occupied by the branch bank of Cape Fear. Mr. Stanly was a persistent, tenacious, and determined man. He forcibly presented his ideas and arguments to all he came in contact with, and there is no denying the fact that he made inroads on the morale of the comparatively few people remaining in Washington. He was received kindly in the town which was formerly the scene of his many triumphs, and his presence no doubt softened the occupation. He wrote letters to many of his old Whig friends in the convention and legislature, including Graham, Badger, and Warren; but they sent him word that his mission was futile.

Governor Stanly carried on a lengthy correspondence with Lincoln. He constantly protested the thwarting and overruling of his policies by the Army, was always mentioning the excesses of the troops, and complaining of their entire lack of cooperation with him. Soon Stevens and Sumner, on the floor of Congress, were interrogating the President as to —this man Stanly who is assuming to usurp the powers of the military.—

The provisional governor had accomplished nothing. Each day his disillusionment grew. On March 2, 1863, he resigned, no doubt upon the suggestion of Lincoln. He returned to California, entering into a large law practice, and was eminently successful. He died in 1872, at the age of 62, and was buried there. Edward Stanly was a great lawyer, and a wise statesman. He never lost his love and deep affection for the people of his native State. At least one of the votes for the acquittal of Andrew Johnson is accredited to his influence.

The banner incident, the social party of several old men on a Union gunboat, the arrest of Mayor Respess, and the visit of






Stanly, were all magnified, and mutterings were abroad that Washington was disloyal to the Confederacy. The truth is that the town and county were bled white, both of men and property, and the people displayed great stoicism and bore their sufferings heroically.

Parts 3, 4, and 5, have been summarized.

The war was now over, and William W. Holden was the provisional governor. North Carolina was to drink the bitter dregs for years to come.

While no interest was taken, there was no objection to the call for a convention in 1865. Its personnel was selected solely by white votes, and many able figures were members. It was composed largely of men who were former Whigs, and it was imbued with a spirit of cooperation, and a desire to set the house in order again. Judge Edwin G. Reade, a former Senator in the Confederate Congress, was its president. Judge Warren and Mr. Donnell, as members from Beaufort, rendered able service.

The legislature met the latter part of November, Governor Holden having submitted his cause to the voters, and being defeated by Jonathan Worth. On November 29, General U. S. Grant visited the senate chamber of North Carolina, and was introduced to the body by Judge Warren.

Little did they dream at that time that lust for office would cause General Grant to adopt a policy a few years later that placed North Carolina and other Southern States under an iron heel that no conqueror had ever before been guilty of.

The legislature immediately went about to set up a stable government under the Constitution. But Congress had decreed that the —conquered Province— must have a new constitution, and General Canby, the military commander, initiated the enrollment of the Negroes for their first suffrage. Another great convention was held in Raleigh, this time composed of the Conservatives and Democrats. They denounced the determination for a Constitutional Convention and banded themselves to oppose it. Judge Warren wrote Governor Vance, and Judge Fowle, who had resigned, that his attendance would be incompatible for judicial propriety, but that he was in complete sympathy with their movement.

The election was held, and as expected, the call for the convention carried. William B. Rodman and William Stilley were elected as members from Beaufort. (Mr. Rodman had now joined

the Republican party.) Such a conglomeration of constitution makers had never before been gathered. Carpetbaggers, Negroes, illiterate whites with deep-seated prejudices, and about fifteen upper-class men made up the assemblage. In the latter class, besides Mr. Rodman, were Plato Durham, of Cleveland, John W. Graham, and E. M. Holt, of Orange, the last three having no influence, but making memorable fights on all controverted questions. There was a dearth of lawyers in the body. It is paying no compliment to William Blount Rodman to say that he towered above everyone there. He would have been a distinguished leader in any convention or legislative body, where his legal ability and forensic powers would have been in demand. When the convention organized he must have shuddered at the colossal task confronting him, for he had fully determined to battle every question and save the State, if possible, from those who were ready to despoil her. As a former Confederate soldier, with his disabilities still unremoved, and as a former well-known Democrat, he was looked upon with suspicion by the Negroes and carpetbag element. That section of the convention immediately set up as their leader the notorious but able Albion W. Tourgee.

Mr. Rodman was immediately appointed as one of the committee of seventeen to report on the best mode of proceeding to frame the constitution and civil government. He was then made chairman of the committee on the judicial department, and it was here he best served North Carolina.

The constitution of 1868, the organic law of the State today, conceived and born in prejudice and strife, and prepared by a convention, the overwhelming majority of which was hostile to North Carolina, has, notwithstanding its conception, stood the test. It is rather singular to note that Mr. Rodman, who wrote more sections of the constitution than any other man in the convention was not permitted to vote to ratify it. (Because former Confederates were not allowed to vote.)

The spring of 1870 rolled around, and the State was so shocked at the program of pillage and plunder inaugurated by the carpetbag legislature that it was literally on fire. On June 4 there assembled in the Beaufort County courthouse one of the largest and greatest political conventions held in the East. It was composed of old-line Whigs, Democrats, and many Republicans who were already leaving that party. It was called the —Conservative Democratic convention,— and a full county ticket was quickly and unanimously nominated. It proposed for the Senate Judge Edward J.






Warren and for the House Maj. Thomas Sparrow. Enthusiasm was abundant, for regardless of past differences, the delegates were now united for a single purpose.

The legislature of redemption met in November, 1870. For another time the chairmanships of the judiciary committee in both senate and house went to Beaufort County. The Conservatives or Democrats had a wide majority in each body, and they immediately set about to undo what the despoilers had been doing for the last two years. They elected Thomas J. Jarvis, then of Tyrrell, and later to become governor, as speaker of the house.

On December 15, 1870, Maj. Thomas Sparrow, of Beaufort, appeared at the bar of the Senate and impeached Gov. W. W. Holden, in the name of all the people of the State. By reason of his commanding influence and legal ability Sparrow had been chosen chairman of the board of managers.

The trial proper of Governor Holden, with Chief Justice Pearson presiding, began on January 23, 1871. He was arraigned on eight articles for high crimes and misdemeanors, based on a gross usurpation of the duties of his office, the encouragement of the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, and a general overriding of the constitutional rights of the citizens of the State. On March 22, 1871, Holden was convicted on six of the eight articles of impeachment.

The outstanding session of the General Assembly of North Carolina in the entire history of the State was that of 1870-71, when, under the leadership of brave and courageous men, the State was rescued from despotism and her bow once more pointed to ideals that Carolinians revere.

Judge Warren returned home upon the adjournment of the legislature a hopeless invalid, his body racked with muscular rheumatism, and the wheel chair he had been forced to take in Raleigh now became permanent. But his courage did not abate, and daily he was rolled to his office and the courthouse, and the firm of Warren, Carter & Myers had a law practice requiring the time of all of them.

In 1872 Colonel Carter received the Democratic nomination for Congress from the first district, to oppose the incumbent, Clinton L. Cobb, of Elizabeth City. While dominant in a courthouse and in the legislature, he was handicapped by not knowing how to make a political speech. He and his friends made a thorough canvass of the district, but he was defeated. In the early part of July, 1876, two men rode into Washington in the same carriage,

followed by a cheering throng on horseback and foot. They repaired to a grove to address the multitude. One was Zebulon B. Vance, the greatest of all war governors of the Confederacy, and for the time denied his seat in the United States Senate by the reconstruction acts. This former Whig leader and friend of the Union was now the Democratic nominee for Governor of North Carolina. The other was Judge Thomas Settle of the Supreme Court, an antebellum Democrat and now the Republican nominee.

It was a brilliant debate and issues were discussed, each side receiving equal applause from their partisans. It was the last political act of Judge Warren. He struggled out of his rolling chair and introduced Vance, at the same time paying tribute to Settle, who had been active in 1866 in making him a superior court judge. In the election, Beaufort County gave Vance 137 majority, the first time in the history of the county that it had ever given its popular approval to a Democratic candidate for governor. Three months later Tilden got a small majority, that also being the first instance where a Democratic candidate for President had ever carried it.

On December 10, 1876, Judge Edward J. Warren died. Physical suffering had made his last years ones of torture. He was only 50 years of age but he was considered an old man. Of stern exterior, with sharp likes and dislikes, he was not a popular man as the term is generally understood. But the people believed in him and delighted to do him honor.

Upon the death of Judge Warren, his law partner, Colonel David M. Carter, moved to Raleigh, where he at once took the position his wealth, character, and capacity commanded. He became director of the Raleigh National Bank and Home Insurance Co., member of the executive committee of the Trustees of the University, the chairman of the Commission to build the Governor's Mansion, and chairman of the board of the State's prison.

Col. Carter had been wounded at the Battle of Seven Pines and left on the battlefield for dead. His Negro slave, Jim, who had accompanied him to war, found him and carried him on his back to a place of safety where he nursed the Colonel back to life.

One of the most notable trials in the Beaufort County courthouse was Jim'strial some years after the war when Col. Carter defended him so brilliantly. In a recent election Jim had voted the Democratic ticket, and had ostracized himself with the colored population. He was finally attacked on Main Street by several of them with the result that Jim wielded his knife with great dexterity and stabbed one to death. So he was to be tried for murder, and






his former master, a ferocious old lion, sat by his side. For weeks before the trial the whole county had become either pro or anti Jim Carter, and the case had assumed a political aspect in that the Democrats were for acquittal and the Republicans for conviction. Over 200 Democrats sat in that courthouse with pistols in their pockets.

When Jim was acquitted the whole town celebrated.

Col. Carter died in January 1879 at the age of 49. His was another stormy life filled with combat.

Richard S. Donnell, Edward Stanly, Edward J. Warren, Fenner B. Satterthwaite, David M. Carter and Thomas Sparrow were now all dead, and the last of the illustrious ante and post bellum bar had passed off the scene except William B. Rodman who lived until 1893. Most of them had seen the beginning of new faces coming on in their stead, for with 1870 and extending through the eighties, a procession of able, brilliant, and capable men began to constitute the Bar of Washington for another era. James E. Shepherd, George H. Brown, George Sparrow, Charles F. Warren, John H. Small, William B. Rodman, and Enoch S. Simmons made up this array and took high rank in the profession.

Mr. Warren closes with this statement:

—Actuated by county pride, and with a deep appreciation of their works, these pen pictures of her sons are presented as Beaufort County's contribution to a notable era of North Carolina history.—

CHAPTER V
BY-GONE DAYS
by
LUCY WHEELOCK WARREN MYERS

(MRS. RODMAN MYERS)

Feb. 20, 1850-Apr. 27, 1937

(The following article was written many years ago by Mrs. Rodman Myers, daughter of Edward Jenner Warren and mother of Mrs. Marcia Myers Knott. These are pre-Civil War Memories.)

Of the early days of Washington I know very little, I have heard Miss Patsy Blount say that when her father, Mr. John Gray Blount, came here to settle he found already a flourishing though scattered settlement. The members of this settlement belonged mostly to the Bonner family.

These were prosperous people, living in comfortable style in large hiproofed houses, located within sight of one another, mostly outside of the present limits of the town, on the low hills surrounding it.

One residence, however, and that I suppose of the most influential and prominent member of the family, was located on the bank of the Pamlico River, facing it on what is now Water Street. This was the home of Col. James Bonner. Later this house passed out of the possession of the family and was occupied as a tavern and known as the —old Mulberry Tavern.— It took its name from the double row of Otaheite mulberry trees standing on each side of the walk leading from the gate to the entrance. This building stood, I think until after the War between the States, and then was burned down when a warehouse next door was destroyed by fire which was said to have been set for the purpose of getting insurance






on the warehouse. The Mulberry Tavern was a two-story house, with double piazza across the front, making both the upper and lower piazzas. I remember going to this house when a small child with my mother to have some dresses made. It was then occupied by a Mrs. Pugh Whitecar, whose daughter married a northern man, a Mr. Hamilton, who built the house now occupied by Mrs. Wynne on Main Street in front of the Mulberry Tavern lot.

The house in which I now live stands in —Bonner's Old Part— of the town, on a part of the Col. James Bonner farm. I have heard that a fence ran about on the line of Bonner Street and that when Col. Bonner would be at home on a furlough from the Continental Army he would have a half-witted negro servant keep watch, sitting on this fence, for any suspicious looking parties who might possibly be British or Tories. If the negro saw any signs of danger he would gobble like a turkey, which was the signal agreed upon, and the Colonel would retreat to a place of safety.

My earliest personal recollections of the town is of its beautifully shaded streets; the English elms, which in that day were used almost exclusively for shade trees, here formed a perfect arch the whole length of the streets. I have been told that persons who visited the town before the war preserved that picture as their foremost recollection of it.

Another characteristic was its closely fenced yards. All back yards had high close board fences which shut out all view of gardens, kitchens and out-houses; of which there were necessarily many (the smokehouses very important ones) on each lot. Each family kept many servants—cooks, house servants, laundresses, stable and lot boys, most of whom lived on the lots. These fences had closely barred gates with locks and chains, and were usually locked at 9 o'clock at night, after which time negroes were not allowed on the streets without a written permit from their owners. These permits they were required to show to the watchmen who were called the patrol. The negroes had a derisive song about this, beginning —Run, nigger, run, or the patroller catch you!— Even if it were necessary to send a servant for a doctor in haste at night, he dared not venture on the streets without this permit.

Some of my most vivid recollections have to do with the water traffic, both on the upper and lower rivers, and at sea. In fact, in the early days, water communication was the principal way of keeping in touch with the outside world, except by stagecoach for the passengers, and by large canvas-covered wagons for the

inland freight traffic. In my childhood a great event of the day was the passing through of the stagecoach from New Bern to Plymouth and the reverse trip. These stagecoaches were almost as large and heavy and as gaily painted as the circus bandwagon of today. The driver felt his importance and took great delight in blowing at the foot of the bridge a large horn to herald the approach of the stage. He would come into town at a dashing gait and cracking his whip over the four, or sometimes six, horses required to draw the heavy vehicle.

In those days, too, there was only one small steamboat plying on the upper river, but great quantities of products from the rich counties of Pitt, Edgecombe and Nash were freighted down on flatboats consigned to middlemen here, called commission merchants, to be shipped away on seagoing vessels. Those merchants found this business very lucrative, and were among the wealthiest and most prominent men of the town. Among them I recall Mr. B. F. Havens, Mr. W. A. Willard, Mr. S. R. Fowle, Mr. G. H. Brown, and Mr. John Myers. The flatboats brought a very important part of the trade of the town. These boats were propelled by manpower, they were poled along by negroes who walked along a plank footway along the side of the boat. As they walked, they chanted a most peculiar mournful song. These flatboats came down the river piled high with bales of cotton, barrels of tar, pitch and turpentine, bags of corn, sides of bacon and stacks of brick, staves and shingles. The making of barrels was an important industry here, and the town was dotted with noisy cooper shops. These barrels were used by the large distilleries located here.

The commission merchants, many of them, owned large seagoing sailing vessels—two and three vessels each which traded along the coast northward to Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York and Boston, and southward to the West Indies. All the ice we had in those days was natural ice, brought from Maine in these sailing vessels. I well remember how interesting it was to watch the stevedores unloading the great blocks of ice and storing them away in the two big ice houses owned by Mr. B. F. Havens and Mr. John Myers. Then, still more interesting, was the coming of vessels from the West Indies with sugar, molasses, oranges, tamarinds, limes and a treat of sticks of sugar cane for the children—with also an occasional monkey or parrot for sale.

Foreign sailors, who came on these vessels, were one of the bug-a-bears of the little children in my day. They were a drunken, noisy crowd, swaggering about the streets, making things very disagreeable






while they were in port. Many of them were Portuguese, who looked very outlandish with their long hair and the big gold-hooped earrings they wore.

The block on which Mr. Jonathon Havens— oil mill stands was closely built up with stores kept by merchants who did a large business. On the side of Mr. Havens— mill (the lot and the buildings on it belonged at the time to Mr. Macon Bonner), Mr. Louis Labarbe carried on a business. Mr. Labarbe came here a small orphan boy whose parents had been murdered by the blacks in a negro insurrection in the French West India Island of Martinique. He and a little negro, or mulatto, boy managed to elude the frenzied blacks and made their way to a ship from this town which was lying in harbor. The captain treated them kindly and brought them with him. Mr. Lewis LeRoy (who married Miss Palmer, a granddaughter of Sir Robert Palmer) took charge of little Labarbe, raised him in his family, and Mr. Labarbe grew up to marry Miss Peggy LeRoy, daughter of his benefactor. The little negro was sold and bought by my great-grandfather, —Parson— Bowen, and became a trusted and valued servant in his family. My grandmother (Elizabeth Bonner, nee Bowen) always spoke of him as —good old Uncle Phil.—

Other refugees from these insurrected islands found their way here and had much influence upon the social life and manners in Washington. One of them, a Mr. Chapeau, a very accomplished gentleman, taught here the French language and dancing—especially the stately minuet—for which the young ladies had a skirt especially made, opened on the sides so that in one of the figures they could catch up the skirt with the tips of the fingers and hold it out at arm's length. Mr. Chapeau married a Miss Singletary, sister of the Rev. Mr. Singletary, a clergyman of the Episcopal church. After order was restored in the French West India Islands, Mr. Chapeau went to France and recovered a portion of his estates. We own some silver which belonged to Mr. and Mrs. Chapeau—marked with their initial —C,— which was bequeathed to Miss Patsy Blount by her life-long friend, Mrs. Chapeau.

CHAPTER VI
THE CIVIL WAR ERA

The following article by Charles F. Warren, father of the Honorable Lindsay C. Warren, was published in The Confederate Reveille in 1898. It is used here by permission of the Pamlico Chapter, United Daughters of the Confederacy.

PART 1
WASHINGTON DURING THE —CIVIL WAR

On March 14th, 1862, New Berne was captured by the Federal forces under General Burnside. The cannonade could be distinctly heard at Washington. Just before the battle at New Berne the bridge over Pamlico River at Washington was partially destroyed by incendiary fire, at night, to prevent the Confederates from uniting with the command of General Branch defending New Berne. Upon the fall of New Berne the town of Washington was evacuated by the Confederate forces, which included a Georgia regiment, commanded by Colonel McMillan. All that part of Eastern North Carolina adjacent to Pamlico and Albemarle sounds and the rivers emptying into them passed under Federal control, and remained until the capture of Plymouth by the Confederates under General Hoke, a period of two years. The limits of Federal occupation, however, were closely confined to the sounds and navigable streams and to the garrisoned towns upon them.

THE ENTRANCE OF FEDERALS

On March 20th, 1862, the Twenty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment, Colonel Stevenson, was sent from New Berne to Washington on the transport Guide, accompanied by the gunboats, Delaware, Louisiana and Commodore Barney. This expedition was stopped the next morning six miles below the town by the blockade which






the Confederates had placed across the river at Hill's Point. This blockade consisted of rows of piling driven into the bed of the river and sawed off about three feet below the surface of the water. The gunboat, Delaware, with two companies, passed the blockade and landed at the wharves of the town. The transport and other gunboats remained at the blockade. At this time Washington had been entirely evacuated by the Confederates, and no resistance was encountered. The two companies, preceded by the regimental band, marched from the wharf to the courthouse and hoisted the Stars and Stripes. The band played national airs and the men cheered. They then marched through the principal streets to the gunboat, and the fleet returned to New Berne. These were the first Federal soldiers to enter the town. The Colonel in his report states that he saw some evidences of Union sentiment among the citizens of the town. It was probably confined to a few individuals. Soon after the return of the expedition to New Berne a permanent garrison, consisting of cavalry, infantry and artillery occupied the town and held it until the spring of 1864. Gunboats were anchored in the river in front of the town. After the occupation of the town there were a number of affairs between outposts, including a spirited action at Tranter'sCreek on June 5th, 1862, between the Forty-fourth North Carolina, Colonel George B. Singeltary and eight companies of the Twenty-fourth Massachusetts, Lieutenant-Colonel F. A. Osborn, one company of the Third New York Cavalry, Captain Jocknick, and two pieces of Marine Artillery, Lieutenant Avery.

The gunboat, Picket, Captain Nicoll, went up the river shelling the woods between the river and the Greenville road. She was too far distant from the scene of action at Hardison's Mill, upon Tranter's Creek, to take part in it. Colonel Singeltary was killed and several wounded on the part of the Confederates. Unfortunately there are no official Confederate reports of this action published in the War Records. The Federals lost 4 killed and 11 wounded, three of them mortally. From all accounts the Federals returned to Washington much demoralized. After the death of Colonel Singeltary, fearing a landing of troops in the rear from the gunboat, the Confederates also retreated.

THE SEPTEMBER ATTACK

About 4 o'clock on the morning of September 6th, 1862, a Confederate force, consisting of infantry, cavalry and a battery of artillery, under the command of General J. G. Martin, attacked

the town. The Federal garrison then consisted of five companies of the Third New York Cavalry, Colonel Mix, two companies (G and H) of the Third New York Artillery, two companies of the Twenty-fourth Massachusetts, and two companies of the First North Carolina (Union). Two gunboats, the Picket, Captain Nicoll, and the Louisiana, Captain Renshaw, were anchored in front of the town. The Picket was just above the bridge, near the blockade, and the Louisiana just below the bridge, opposite the Havens— warehouse. The Federal garrison, including the crews of the two gunboats, numbered about 1,000 men. The Confederates had about the same number of men. There are no official Confederate reports of the engagement published in the War Records, and their strength, composition and losses are not given. The battery of artillery was the Adams battery, raised in Beaufort County. Among the cavalry was the company commanded by Captain Rufus S. Tucker raised in Wake and Johnston counties and recruited in Pitt County. There were detachments from the Seventeenth North Carolina and other infantry regiments. A number of citizens, who had moved away when the town was occupied by the Federals, accompanied the attacking force and acted as guides. The Confederates surprised the outer line of pickets, killing and wounding them, and, dashing into the town, surprised a company of artillery, in barracks at the Academy, capturing four brass 6-pounders and some prisoners. These guns had been captured from A. C. Latham's battery by the Federals at New Berne. The Confederate infantry approached the town through the Grist field and entered at the west end. The cavalry and artillery entered by the Greenville road. Just before the cavalry turned into Bridge Street from the Greenville road, Captain Booth, commanding the cavalry, was shot by one of the Federal pickets and was dangerously wounded. The command of the cavalry then devolved upon Captain Tucker. The attack was made with great spirit before daylight. There was considerable fog in the early morning which, together with the darkness, made it difficult to distinguish friend from foe. At the time of the attack there were some field works and blockhouses, but the formidable chain of forts and intrenchments around the town were constructed later in the war. The Federals were surprised, but still were not unprepared. As the Confederates entered the town from the west, four companies of cavalry and a battery of artillery from the garrison had formed and were marching from town at the east end for Plymouth to co-operate with the Federal gunboats upon Roanoke River in attacking Hamilton.






This column was just emerging from the town as the firing began at the west end. The column counter-marched at a gallop, and one company charged up Main Street, encountering some squads of Confederate cavalry near Market Street, driving them back upon the infantry, which by this time had advanced to Bridge Street. The Federal cavalry were then repulsed with loss. Two companies of Federal cavalry charged up Second and Third streets, but were driven back by the Confederates. Upon Second Street the Confederates planted a piece of artillery in front of the Methodist church and opened fire upon a Federal gun at the intersection of Second and Respess streets. The elms were in full leaf and the street between the two guns was filled with branches shot from the trees. On Main Street squads of Confederate cavalry and infantry advanced as far east as Market Street. Just after the fight opened the Picket blew up, killing her captain and nineteen of the crew and wounding six others. The cause of the explosion was not clearly ascertained, but was probably due to carelessness or accident in opening the magazine when her men were ordered to quarters. The wreck still lies in the river near the blockade. When Burnside's expedition entered Hatteras Inlet he had his headquarters upon this gunboat Picket. Colonel Potter, the commandant of the post, planted at the intersection of Main and Bridge streets a 12-pounder, supported by his entire infantry force, and opened fire upon the Confederates between Main and Second streets and around the Academy. The firing in this part of the town was very sharp and continued nearly three hours, the combatants approaching within fifty or sixty yards of each other and firing across lots from behind houses and fences. A number of men were here killed and wounded upon both sides and two sets of gunners were shot down at the Federal gun. Both sides held on with great tenacity. The Federal infantry were driven back to the warehouses upon the wharves under the cover of the guns of the Louisiana, but still kept up a hot fire. The Louisiana then turned her guns upon the town and threw shot and shell through that part from the Havens— residence westward. Few houses in the line of her fire escaped and after the fight that part of the town presented a shattered and wrecked appearance. What is now the Satchwell residence was completely riddled. At times the fire of the gunboat was silenced by the fire of the Confederate infantry. Cavalry fighting in the meantime was going on in the outskirts and different streets of the town, extending as far east as Market Street. The Federal cavalry made a dash down Bridge

Street and a hand to hand fight occurred in front of the James W. Redding and the DeMille residences. Several men were killed and wounded at this point and the Federal squadron was driven back with loss. Mrs. John Redding, in the front room of her house, was wounded. The marks of this fight are still to be seen upon the porch in front of the house. Failing to surprise the garrison by reason of the detachment for Plymouth being already formed and upon the march, and unable to silence the fire of the gunboat, the Confederates withdrew, carrying with them the four captured guns. It was a well contested action and creditable to the gallantry of both sides. The Federals lost twenty-seven killed, fifty-three wounded and four missing, according to their report. They claimed to have found twelve dead and twelve wounded Confederates upon the streets and to have captured twenty prisoners. The Confederates carried off a part of their dead and wounded. It is probable that the loss on each side was about equal. William O. Respess was severely wounded upon the porch of the Carraway residence, on the west side of Bridge Street, between Main and Second streets, while firing upon the Federal gunners serving the gun at the foot of Bridge Street.

THE SIEGE

The Confederate forces under General D. H. Hill began the siege of the town on March 30th, 1863. The object of General Hill's movement in Eastern North Carolina was to collect supplies of corn, meat and forage for the Confederate armies and to capture the town of Washington and its garrison. Unfortunately, the Confederates had no gunboats or ironclads, as at Plymouth the next year, to effectually close and command the river. This was the weak point in the investment of the town and permitted the passage at night of vessels and transports carrying ammunition, commissary stores and reinforcements to the garrison. The besieging force consisted of the brigades of Daniel and Pettigrew on the south side of Pamlico River, and the brigade of Garnett of Pickett's division on the north side. There were a number of batteries of artillery and some cavalry. In all the force under General Hill engaged in the siege numbered about 9,000 men. The Confederates seized Hill's Point, occupied the old fort constructed by them at the beginning of the war and held in check the large fleet of Federal gunboats and transports endeavoring to force the passage of the river and relieve the garrison of the town. Rodman's Quarter was also seized by the Confederates and a battery of Whitworth






guns placed in position. The brigades of Daniel and Pettigrew, extending from Chocowinity Crossroads to Blount's Creek, covered the rear of the forts and prevented the relief of the garrison by the Federal forces at New Berne. The Federal garrison consisted of eight companies each of the Twenty-seventh and Forty-fourth Massachusetts, two companies of the First North Carolina (Union), one company of the Third New York cavalry and one company of the Third New York Artillery. The gunboats, Louisiana, Commodore Hull, Eagle and Ceres were in front of the town. The garrison, at the beginning of the siege, numbered about fifteen hundred men. On the night of April 13th, the transport Escort ran the batteries with the Fifth Rhode Island, raising the strength of the garrison to about two thousand men. The fortifications around the town were well constructed and were of great strength. A deep moat, for the most part filled with water, ran along the front of the works. The woods had been felled around the town for a half mile or more in front of the fortifications to allow the play of the guns and to render attack difficult. During the progress of the siege the Federals continued at night to strengthen their works. A fort was constructed inside the town at the foot of the bridge to command the river road and the streets of the town. The fort was levelled after the war. They built forts upon the river front, above the bridge, and upon the Castle Island, situated in the river opposite the town. The Confederates did not attempt to assault the works, hoping to reduce the town by siege. The fleet of gunboats below Hill's Point daily engaged the Confederate batteries without effect. Fearing to land and to attempt the capture of the fort by assault on account of their strength, the transports with the troops returned to New Berne. The Federals marched overland from New Berne under the command of General Spinola. The forces of Spinola, numbering over eight thousand men, were met by General Pettigrew on April 9th, at Ruff's Mill, upon Blount's Creek, and were driven back. The Confederates constructed a battery in the swamp at the foot of the Old Ferry road, just opposite the town, and opened fire upon the gunboats, but were unable to hold the position. Every day during the continuance of the siege the Confederate batteries engaged the Federal forts and gunboats. Many shots and shells fell in the town especially from the battery of Whitworth guns at Rodman's Quarter. Some of the citizens constructed bombproofs upon their lots, and when the firing became hot would seek their protection. Unable to effectually blockade the river, and in consequence of orders to

dispatch a large part of the besieging force to reinforce the army of Northern Virginia, the Confederates, on April 15th, raised the siege of the town. The capture of the town by assault would not have justified the sacrifice of life required. To judge the severity of the artillery fire, the Commodore Hull was hit in the first four days of the siege by ninety-eight shots from the battery of Whitworth guns. An act of great gallantry was performed by the Federal commander, General Foster. After the reinforcement of the garrison by the Fifth Rhode Island. General Foster, at daylight, on April 15th, ran the Confederate batteries in the steamer Escort. The steamer was hit forty times and the pilot at the wheel was killed by a rifle shot. The losses on both sides during the siege were small. The brigades of Garnett, Daniel and Pettigrew were soon transferred to the Army of Northern Virginia. They formed a part of Lee's army in the invasion of Pennsylvania and sustained great losses at Gettysburg.

THE BURNING OF THE TOWN

The Confederates under General Hoke, on April 20th, 1864, captured the town of Plymouth with its garrison of nearly three thousand men. It was a brilliant operation and reflected great credit upon General Hoke and his command. The ram Albemarle soon after the surrender of Plymouth was sunk by Lieutenant Cushing with a torpedo. Had it not been for this misfortune, it is highly probable that Washington and New Berne would have shared the fate of Plymouth and all Eastern North Carolina been restored to the Confederacy. Immediately upon the fall of Plymouth General Harland, in command at Washington, was ordered to evacuate the town. On April 30th, the last Federal troops, after firing different portions of the town, embarked. For the three preceding days the town was given up to sack and pillage. The plundering was not confined to the public stores and supplies, but was general and indiscriminate. General I. N. Palmer, who is still pleasantly remembered by the citizens of Eastern North Carolina for his kindness and consideration as well as for his soldierly qualities, at that time commanded the District of North Carolina. He was an honorable foe. In the general orders issued after the evacuation, he thus characterizes these outrages: —It is also well known that the army vandals did not even respect the charitable institutions, but bursting open the doors of the Masonic and Odd Fellows lodges, pillaged them both and hawked about the streets the regalia and jewels.






—It is well known, too, that both public and private stores were entered and plundered, and that devastation and destruction ruled the hour.

—The commanding general had until this time believed it impossible that any troops in his command could have committed so disgraceful an act as this, which now blackens the fair fame of the Army of North Carolina. He finds, however, that he was sadly mistaken, and that the ranks are disgraced by men who are not soldiers, but thieves and scoundrels, dead to all sense of honor and humanity, for whom no punishment can be too severe.—

A board of investigation, presided over by Colonel James W. Savage, Twelfth New York Cavalry, among other things, reported as follows: —At about 11 p.m. on 26th of April, 1864, Brigadier-General Harland, in command at Washington, N. C., received orders to evacuate that place, and in pursuance of his instructions the post was finally abandoned about 4 p.m. on the 30th. The intended evacuation seems to have become known, or to have been generally suspected, on Wednesday the 27th of April. During the afternoon of that day there appear to have been instances of theft, and before morning of Thursday pillaging commenced, at first in the Quartermaster's store of the First North Carolina (Union) Volunteers, which during the day became general. Government stores, sutlers— establishments, dwelling houses, private shops and stables, suffered alike. Gangs of men patrolled the city, breaking into houses and wantonly destroying such goods as they could not carry away. The occupants and owners were insulted and defied in their feeble endeavors to protect their property. The influence and authority of officers, though sufficient to restrain these excesses when they were personally present, was forgotten or set at naught as soon as they were out of sight, and the sack was checked only by the lack of material to pillage, and ceased only with the final abandonment of the town. It is claimed, and may be true, that some portion of these outrages arose from a general impression that large amount of stores and property would, upon the abandonment of the place, either be destroyed or left to fall into the hands of the enemy, but this is probably not seriously regarded by any one as a justification, or even palliation, of the utterly lawless and wanton character of the plundering.—

The fire broke out at 10 o'clock in the morning of April 30th, as the last Federal troops were embarking. It burned from the river through to the northern limits of the town, extending from Van Norden nearly to Respess streets, and spreading both to the east

and west as the flames advanced. The bridge was fired and destroyed and the fire extended to that portion of the town. Quite one third of the town was consumed. Other fires were kindled, but extinguished by the citizens. No military necessity required the burning of the town. It was not necessary to cover the evacuation or to aid the escape of the garrison. No hostile force was then investing the town. The Confederates took possession in a few days and an accidental fire broke out and the flames, fanned by a high wind, consumed a large part of the town east of Market Street. After this baptism of fire the town was desolate and ruined. There were scarcely five hundred inhabitants remaining of what had been an enterprising and prosperous town of thirty-five hundred three years before. Many of its citizens left before the Federal occupation and sought refuge in the interior towns of the State and elsewhere. They remained where the chances of war carried them, as their property and homes were destroyed. The entire colored population departed at the evacuation. The streets were deserted and the stores and most of the private residences were unoccupied. No work or business of any kind went on in the town. The work of restoration has been slow. For many years the chimneys stood to mark the path of the conflagration, and, even now, after the lapse of a third of a century, the waste places have not all been built up. No town gave more freely of its men and means, and no town suffered more for the cause of the Confederacy.

PART 2
BEAUFORT COUNTY SOLDIERS, 1861-1865
(The Confederate Reveille, 1898)

When Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, within three days after the fall of Sumter called on Governor Ellis for the regiments of North Carolina troops to take part in a war against the Southern States that had left the Union, the Governor promptly refused, and by proclamation convened the General Assembly of the State to prepare for the crisis confronting her. At his request, the Assembly called for twenty thousand volunteers. Beaufort County responded enthusiastically, and before the end of January, 1862, eleven companies enlisted for periods ranging from twelve months to the close of the —Civil War. Five of these companies were artillery, viz.:






1. The Washington Grays.

2. Kennedy Artillery.

3. McMillan Artillery.

4. Rodman's Heavy Artillery.

5. Whitehurst'sArtillery.

Five were infantry companies, viz.:

1. Jeff Davis Rifles.

2. Southern Guards.

3. Pamlico Rifles.

4. Confederate Guards.

5. Beaufort Ploughboys.

The Star Boys was a cavalry company.

The Grays organized in April, 1861; elected Thomas Sparrow, Captain; and on the 25th of that month, through the Honorable W. B. Rodman, offered its services to Governor Ellis. The Governor commissioned it, May 6, and asked to have the company increased to one hundred twelve men.

The unit was ordered on May 10 to report at Ocracoke Inlet to E. Morris, North Carolina Engineers; left Washington, May 20, and was stationed at Portsmouth, N. C., until August, when Colonel W. T. Martin (Seventh Regiment, North Carolina Volunteers) requested it to join his forces at Hatteras. It surrendered with that fort, August 29, 1861, and the men were imprisoned, first on Governor's Island, New York Harbor; second in Fort Warren, Boston Harbor, until February, 1862.

Samuel Lanier, of this company, died in Fort Warren and was brought home and buried near Bath. After its exchange the company was reorganized. Captain Sparrow was promoted Major of the Tenth Regiment North Carolina State Troops; First Lieutenant William Shaw became Captain; and the Grays was attached to the Tenth Regiment as Company K. Its subsequent service was chiefly on the Cape Fear River, below Wilmington. The Tenth was one of the regiments not brigaded.

The Kennedy Artillery was raised by Charles P. Jones, a Methodist minister, in April, 1861, and was first stationed about three miles north of Washington, N. C. Z. F. Adams was commissioned its second Captain, April 21st, 1862, and it was afterwards known as Adams— Battery. The Battery was Company D., Fifth Battalion, Light Artillery. It was stationed at Fort Fisher, taking part in both battles at the fort, and made prisoner in January, 1865, at that place.

Captain W. H. Tripp, of the McMillan Artillery, was commissioned October 1, 1861. His company was drilled at Chocowinity by Lieutenants Bonner and Hardenburg. From there it was ordered to Fort Hill, on Pamlico River.

Rodman's Heavy Artillery was named for its first Captain, W. B. Rodman, who received his commission October 21, 1861. Captain Rodman was promoted Major, and John E. Leggett became Captain, March 13, 1862. It was first stationed at Swan Point, on Pamlico River.

Captain C. C. Whitehurst was commissioned January 23, 1862. His company was stationed at Fort Hill, Pamlico River.

These three companies were ordered to reinforce New Berne, in March, 1862, but, on reaching Kinston, found the Confederates retreating. The McMillan Artillery and Rodman's Artillery went into camp at Falling Creek, near Goldsboro; and Whitehurst's Artillery remained at Kinston. In April, 1862, they were ordered to the Cape Fear River—McMillan and Whitehurst to Fort Fisher, Rodman's to Fort St. Phillips.

When the Fortieth Regiment was formed, at President Davis— suggestion, these companies were ordered to Bald Head, and became Company B., Company C., and Company I., Fortieth Regiment. From Bald Head they were ordered to Georgia to reinforce General Hardee; and then, back to Bald Head, which was evacuated in 1865. They were in the battles of Fort Anderson, Town's Creek, Jackson's Mills and Bentonville; and surrendered with General Joseph E. Johnson, April 26, 1865, at Greensboro.

INFANTRY

The Jeff Davis Rifles was enlisted in 1861, the commissions of its officers bearing date May 16, 1861. In 1862, its Captain, John R. Carmer, resigned and Archibald Craige was promoted Captain. Eight of its privates were transferred to the Confederate States Navy. It joined the Third Regiment, North Carolina State Troops, at Garysburg, as Company I. This regiment, Gaston Mears, Colonel, was first attached to Ripley's Brigade, Jackson's Corps, Army of Northern Virginia.

The Southern Guards, D. M. Carter, Captain, enlisted May, 1861, and was commissioned May 16. The changes in the company were many. It had five Captains:

(1). D. M. Carter, wounded and promoted Colonel; (2). D. G. Latham, killed; (3). T. M. Allen, wounded twice; (4). J. H. Carter;






(5). C. K. Gallagher. The company went into camp at Washington, N. C., in the spring of 1861.

Pamlico Rifles was raised by W. T. Marsh, whose commission bore the date May 10, 1861. The officers and privates were principally from Richland Township, and the company's first camp was on South Creek. Its Captain, W. T. Marsh, was killed.

Southern Guards and Pamlico Rifles joined at Garysburg the Fourth Regiment, G. B. Anderson, Colonel, the Guards being Company E., the Rifles, Company I.

The Fourth was ordered to Virginia and became a part of Anderson's Brigade, Early's Division, A. N. V.

The Confederate Guards enlisted for twelve months, with James Swindell, Captain. It drilled at Chocowinity; was a part of Seventh Regiment, North Carolina Volunteers. It went to Garysburg in 1861; garrisoned Beaufort, North Carolina, and, when the town was evacuated, went to Suffolk, Virginia. When its time expired it disbanded. Twenty-one of its privates joined the Cavalry Company commanded by Captain Fred Harding (Company K., Forty-first Regiment). These did noble service in W. H. F. Lee's Division, Hampton's Corp, A. N. V. The remainder joined other companies.

Beaufort Ploughboys received its commission November 6, 1861. The company contained a full complement of commissioned and noncommissioned officers and men. Henry Harding was Captain nearly a year, when he was promoted Major of the regiment (61st), and William Stevenson became Captain. The Company was Company B., Sixty-first Regiment, North Carolina State Troops, at one time in Clingman's Brigade. Company B. was in the Battle at New Berne, after which it was ordered to Fort Fisher; then into South Carolina, and in 1864 to Virginia, being in engagements at Petersburg, Cold Harbor, and Drury's Bluff. It was at Bentonville, and surrendered in North Carolina.

The Star Boys belonged to the Second North Carolina Cavalry (Company G., Nineteenth Regiment). It was stationed at Kittrell, where its First Lieutenant, Samuel Whitehurst, died. Its Captain, Louis E. Satterthwaite, was commissioned April 30, 1861, and on his resignation William M. Owens assumed command. Four of its privates were transferred to the Confederate States Navy. It was first in W. H. F. Lee's Brigade, Stuart Division, A. N. V.

Four of Beaufort County's infantry companies and the Star Boys served in the Army of Northern Virginia. From Seven Pines

to Appomattox, Beaufort County soldiers fought in every great battle—Seven Pines, Ellyson's Mills, Cold Harbor, Malvern Hill, Second Manassas, Sharpsburg, Chancellorsville, Brandy Station, Upperville, Gettysburg, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Ream's Station, Petersburg. The Southern Guards lost heavily at Seven Pines: Captain D. M. Carter was wounded and First Lieutenant Perry, killed; at Sharpsburg its Captain, D. G. Latham, was killed. Captain W. T. Marsh, Pamlico Rifles, fell at Sharpsburg.

The artillery was engaged in no less important duty, protecting Cape Fear River, which remained open to blockade-runners after other Southern rivers were closed.

More than a regiment of soldiers entered the Southern army from Beaufort County, most of them in her own companies, but some in other companies, noticeably in the Branch Artillery, Craven County.

The only available death roll gives one hundred seventy men. Of these, seventy either were killed or died of wounds; two died at Elmira; one at Fort Delaware; one at Fort Warren; one at Fort Pulaski; the others during their periods of service.

—On fame's eternal camping ground Their silent tents are spread.—

There, with those who have since joined the —Bivouac of the Dead,— they await in peace the Archangel's Reveille.

J. J. B.

PART 3
WHEN THE YANKEES SET FIRE
TO THE TOWN OF WASHINGTON
CHARLES F. MCINTIRE

(In a history of the 44th Massachusetts Infantry, Charles F. McIntire, Company G, gives the following description of Washington upon the first entrance of this company into the town on the Pamlico River during the strenuous days of the War Between the States.

The Federal troops left New Bern on Thursday, October 30, 1862, and had been ordered to Tarboro by way of Washington.)

—Disembarking about noon at Washington we marched through the principal streets, wide and shaded with fine elms, to an open cornfield on the east side of the town, where we stacked arms and encamped to await the arrival of forces coming by land.






This town, the capital of Beaufort County, is about 40 miles from the sound. We found it to be very neat and pretty. Its streets ran at right angles and were bounded by many old-fashioned, pleasant houses with fine gardens of ornamental shrubs and trees. One house was approached by a romantic arbored walk over three hundred feet in length, of red cedars, the branches of which were so closely interlaced as to scarcely admit the rays of the sun. The place was garrisoned by a small number of Union soldiers, supported by gunboats which were anchored in the river.

—Quite a number of buildings bore evidence of the recent Rebel raid, being marred by shot and shell, and at certain distances from the streets were now barricaded by chevaux-de-frise to guard against a sudden dash of cavalry.

—On April 30, 1864, the Yankees, on the eve of their evacuation, kindled the first fire at Havens— wharf, by order of Captain Renshaw, of the gunboat, Louisiana, anchored there. This was to destroy the naval stores, cotton, etc., to prevent falling into hands of the Confederates. The fire rapidly spread north across Main Street down Van Norden Street, consuming everything to Fifth—the last street in the town. It destroyed all of Main Street east to S. R. Fowle's store on the south side of the Bank of Washington and on the north side it burned the length of Gladden and Respess streets.

—The bridge was fired at the same time, this fire consuming all on the south side of Main Street, west, to Washington Street. Every house on Bridge Street went down, except the DeMille home (J. K. Hoyt) and the old Academy, now the site of the city school.

—Beyond was the home of Mrs. Winnie Balance. She, fleeing for safety, forgot something very much desired, so she ran back for it. The fire rushed so madly in the brief space that when she attempted to cross the street she was enveloped by the flames from both sides—thus she died.

—Furiously the fire raged from Bridge Street down Second, sweeping everything in its path to Respess Street. Strange to say, here it skipped the homes of Mrs. Redding (Mrs. Baugham) and Mrs. Kate Blount; crossed Union Alley, and burned every house on the south side of the street, not one on the north side. Chimneys were all that was left of pretty homes where only defenseless, though brave, women and children had lived. In this awful conflagration the Methodist, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian

and colored Methodist churches were reduced to ashes.

—When the Yankees first came, the Presbyterians took from their church records the Bible, the cushion on which it rested and carried them to S. R. Fowle's home, corner Main and Respess streets, where the communion service always was kept. Mr. Fowle was the senior elder. Nothing was saved from the other churches. People were powerless with fire burning in every direction, and the terrible explosion of bombs on all sides.

—To the east of town, near Ft. McKibbon, were the Yankee barracks, which were fired at the same time by Quartermaster Wheeler. No houses were near these barracks, so the fire did not spread.

—The second fire was May 9, the same year. It originated—how, was never known—on the Wiswall property at the rear of what is now Early's barbershop. From here it burned both sides of Market Street to Second, leaving only the old belltower and the courthouse. Skipping Mr. E. S. Hoyt's home, where is now the federal building, it swept everything before it on East Second Street to the home of Mr. Fenner Satterthwaite, corner Second and Harvey, which was next to the last house. At the same time it was raging on East Main Street. Every building from Market Street to the home of Mr. T. H. Myers, corner Main and Harvey, on the south side, and to the old Hyatt home (Mr. J. G. Bragaw, Jr.—s on the north side) went down. Among these was the Episcopal church, then facing Main Street. By the strenuous efforts of Mr. and Mrs. Eli Hoyt, aided by a few brave boys in gray and a faithful old colored man named Abram Allen, the chancel furnishings were saved. They were kept in the Myers warehouse until placed in the present church.

—The Missionary Baptist church (on Market Street) was the only one left standing.—

PART 4
RECOLLECTIONS OF THE —CIVIL WAR
by
ANNIE BLACKWELL SPARROW
(Mrs. R. H. Lewis)

Annie Blackwell Sparrow was the daughter of Major Thomas Sparrow of the Washington Grays.






This hitherto unpublished article is used with the permission of Major Sparrow's great-grandchildren, Miss Mary Payne of Chattanooga, Tennessee and T. S. Payne of Washington.

I have been asked to write my experiences during the war between the states, and I do so, not to keep up a spirit of bitterness, but that those of our kin and country, who come after us may know something of what was endured by those who waited at home while their fathers, brothers, and other male kin fought for constitutional liberty. The young, those who have grown up in the South since the war, can never know the whole truth, can never understand as we do who passed through the terrible ordeal of a civil war. But it is our duty to leave behind us a record of such things as may make them feel something of what was done by and suffered by the southern men, women and children in a just and holy cause.

When trouble began at Sumter our family lived in a western state, having gone there from the eastern part of North Carolina to make a home, impelled by reasons not necessary to mention here, but principally family affection, our grandparents having settled there years before. My father was in North Carolina settling up his business before joining us. He wrote my mother that there would probably be war between the North and South and that he could not leave the south at such a time. Although opposed to secession, if it could be honorably avoided, he should, in case of trouble cast in his lot with his home and people. She could come south if she wished, in which case she might suffer many trials and privations, or she could remain with her family in the west where she would at least have care and comfort. My mother answered that she preferred to come south at the first opportunity, which she accordingly did — reaching North Carolina in April 1861. I just can remember what an uncomfortable and exciting journey it was. The cars were filled with angry and loud talking men. We heard much that was disagreeable to our southern ears with an occasional warm expression of a difference of opinion from one of our own people. At last my mother with her small children arrived in our southern home and from that time until the end of the glorious struggle she was a fine, staunch, brave, and loyal woman.

My father was deeply grieved at the turn of affairs and during the indignant excitement of the time, he made a speech at a public

meeting in the courthouse counseling our people to moderation and peace. But when Mr. Lincoln called for troops from North Carolina and other southern states, to fight against our own, he did not hesitate, but rejoiced when North Carolina left the union; raised a company of the best element of his town and county and was made captain. My mother made no objection but gave willingly her dearest and best to fight for truth and right. No words can describe the enthusiasm of our women. They made no complaint but went to work cheerfully to fit out their loved ones for war. They cut up their silk dresses to make flags for the companies as later they gave their carpets for blankets for the soldiers and sat on bare floors themselves. They knitted socks to send to the men who were often barefooted.

But when the day came for the soldiers to leave, what heartaches, what tears and misgivings. With proud hearts our boys marched to the boat that was to take them to Portsmouth, an island between Pamlico Sound and the ocean and then commanding the inlet called Ocracoke. A beautiful flag had just been presented by our loyal women given with smiles, tears and loving hearts. Miss Clara Hoyt presented the flag. Other ladies dressed to represent the seceding states: Misses Mittie Hancock (Mrs. Jordan), Martha Fowle (Mrs. Wiswall), Bettie Hoyt, M. A. Gallagher (Mrs. Sheffries), Jennie McDonald, Sarah Williams, Fannie Treadwell, Julia Stevenson, Helen Shaw, Martha Hawks, and Mary Perry (Mrs. Col. Wharton).

There were several companies at Portsmouth and there was a boat that plied three times a week between the island and neighboring towns; it was a not unhappy life. We could visit our fathers and brothers and friends, and many boxes of home cooking were sent out by every boat.

What a happy visit my sisters and I had to our dear father at that time. A vessel laden with fruit bound for New York from the West Indies was captured just then and we had a whole bunch of bananas sent to us by the men. There was a fort on Beacon Island, just across from Portsmouth and there they had received a new 8 inch Columbiach (cannon) which my father's men had named for me and I had the great pride and pleasure of firing it one day and wishing as I saw the ball fall in the water that it might destroy the whole Yankee nation. I was but a child and knew nothing of the deadly work before us. From Portsmouth we went to New Berne to visit an aunt.

One day my uncle came in and with blanched face and quivering






lip called my aunt aside and after a consultation my aunt came out of the room with tear swollen eyes and told us that Hatteras had been captured by the Yankees and that they might now come up to New Berne or Washington. My mother thought we had best go home. A line of stagecoaches was then running between New Berne and Washington and the following morning my sister and I were sent home in the care of friends going over. We were most pleasurably excited to find sitting opposite us in the stage, one of my father's men. Every southern soldier was a hero to us then (I thank God I've never felt any other way) and we were glad to see this one and plied him with questions about our father. He answered them all with a gloomy embarrassment that we were too young and too eager to understand.

But first, as we were crossing the bridge over the Pamlico River, a friend told us as gently as she could that Hatteras had surrendered to the enemy and that my father and his company were there and had been sent to a northern prison, they having gone over at a call from the commandant for help. I can never forget the horror of that moment nor the meeting with my mother and older brother and younger children. Our mother bore up bravely and we received much kindness. There were many aching hearts besides our own in our little town and all throughout the lands.

Hatteras having fallen, many of our people thought that the Yankees would pass on in their gunboats and come through the Pamlico Sound and Pamlico River up to our little town and take possession. Friends flocked to our stricken home to offer help to our mother. After a consultation, it was thought that we should all leave town and stay until we found out what the enemy intended. Kind friends about four miles from town opened their hearts and homes to us and we spent several weeks with them receiving much kindness. Finding at last that the enemy's fleet was coming up the river, we returned to our home town.

Then and there my mother's high courage and indomitable spirit and energy showed themselves. Deprived of the head of the family, the breadwinner, with scant means and a family to feed, I often wondered how my mother ever managed to take care of us. At long intervals we received letters from my father, then in Fort Warren, Boston Harbor. Letters from his men to their families at home, told of his loving care of them and his constant thought of their comfort, and their friends in gratitude for this did what they could for my father's family.

Colonel Dimock was then in command in Fort Warren and my father wrote of him as a gentleman, kind and considerate. There was an interesting lot of prisoners in the fort at that time, Marshal Kane of Baltimore, the mayor of Baltimore, and a great many of the Maryland legislature. Mason and Slidell, our representatives, captured while on their way to England, were carried there while my father was there and there were a great many North Carolinians. My father had repeated opportunities to be exchanged but refused to leave his men and stayed until they were all sent home or could go with him. We have letters now from businessmen in New York, former clients of his, to whom he wrote for clothes and other comforts for his men. News from his prison became very meager as they had been, after a short while, restricted to eight lines in their letters home. But my father had an ingenious mind and we received various communications from him which were not read by the commandant. On one occasion my mother answered a knock at our door and found a returned prisoner who handed her a book which my father had been allowed to send to her through him. We children were filled with a tearful expectancy, hanging on mother's words, while she with the high spirit that marked her course through all those weary years, said, with a merry twinkle in her eyes, —Children, here's a book from your father. The ruling passion is strong in death — books and pudding stones.— My father would always buy books and he was also very fond of collecting minerals which my mother called his —pudding stones.— On examining the book, we found the fly leaf pasted at the edges in such a way as excited our suspicion. Upon opening the leaf we found a most cheerful and interesting letter from our father. On another occasion an exchanged soldier brought my mother several little pincushions made of pasteboard and whipped together. There was nothing to indicate that the cushions were more than they seemed, but we felt that there was a message hidden within them. Upon ripping them open we found letters in each one.

About that time my mother had a sore trial to fall upon her. My oldest brother was then fifteen, a high-spirited lad who felt that he was shirking his duty while staying at home when so many youths of his own age were going off to fight for their country. With a burdened heart my mother yielded a reluctant consent to his urgent entreaties, and gave the last she had to our holy cause. I shall never forget the day my brother left with his battery for Fort Fisher. They marched through town, flags flying, men bright






and brave and wild with enthusiasm. My brother was sitting on one of the guns, looking so young and so ignorant of all he was afterward to undergo. We watched them from our porch, proud of the brave and willing spirit that sent them to do their duty, but with tear-dimmed eyes for the vacant places by the firesides, and the uncertainty of their coming back to fill them.

In February 1862 my dear father was exchanged and oh, what a joyful homecoming. He was not only our best loved but he was our patriot and hero, and no words can express our love and pride in him. Having little to do, our men in Fort Warren resorted to every device in their power to pass away their time. They made many ingenious articles. My father brought to each of us a ring made of gutta-percha buttons with sets shaped like diamonds, crosses and crescents cut from gold dollars. Then there was a bookmark for each, worked on cardboard with colors worsted with our names, the year and Fort Warren on it. Securing a stout wooden box, my father employed a good deal of the latter part of his time in making that box, while apparently only a receptacle for clothes, really a place to carry home with him contraband articles. Stout pieces were nailed on top and sides, apparently solid but really all hollowed out on the underside, and filled with needles, pins, hairpins, silk, cotton, buttons, tape, shoestrings etc., procured and sent to him, I don't remember how, by friends in New York and Boston. These things were most acceptable to my mother, as by this time, all such things were very scarce in our land. A lady in Boston had sent him a fruit cake at Christmas and he had saved more than half of it to bring home. It was a treat to us, who were troubled to get even meat and bread, and was especially enjoyed by the children.

I cannot leave the prison days without mentioning one incident connected with my father's company. After being captured at Hatteras, they were carried to Fort Columbus, Governors Island, New York Harbor, and after a few days they were sent to Fort Warren in a vessel carrying coal. Before leaving Fort Columbus two of my father's men went to him and told him that they had conceived a plan of escape, and he gave them letters to friends of his in New York and Baltimore, asking that they be given money and assisted in any way possible. Accordingly, after leaving Fort Columbus, the men managed to secrete themselves in the hold of the vessel, among the coal. When the vessel landed at Fort Warren, and their names were called, friends answered for them so their absence was not discovered. The vessel went

back to New York and at night our men crawled gladly out from their uncomfortable position, presented my father's letters, were assisted and after varied experiences, worked their way within our lines. One of the men is still living but the other one died many years ago.

After their return, my father's company was reorganized and sent to the Cape Fear where they assisted in building the forts on that river, being for some time at Fort French. A short time after that, my father was promoted to Major of the 10th Regiment of Artillery, and for some time, had charge of the city garrison at Wilmington, remaining at his post there during the yellow fever epidemic.

After the fall of New Berne, our town was evacuated by the Confederate forces including a Georgia regiment. On March 20, 1862, the 24th Mass. Regiment on a transport Guide, and two gunboats were sent to Washington from New Berne. This expedition was stopped by a blockade which had been erected in the river a few miles below the town by our forces. One gunboat, however, with two companies, succeeded in passing the blockade and landed at our town. I had been sent to a neighboring town to school, soon after the return of my father from prison, and was not at home at this time, but my mother was still there with her younger children. Consternation spread among our people when the dreaded enemy was at last in our midst, and we all expected little less than a general massacre. However, —even the devil is not as black as he is painted,— and some of us still live to tell the tale of life in a town garrisoned by the enemy. At this time, however, the Yankees only spent a short time, and after marching through the principal streets, flaunting their colors, they all returned to New Berne. Soon after this, a permanent garrison occupied the town and held it until the spring of 1864. The gunboats were anchored in the river in front of the town, and our people were most uncomfortable and unhappily situated. Burning with love for the southern cause, our people were obliged to be most particular in giving expression to their patriotic feelings. Ladies and girls went out very little as the rude stares of the soldiers and the often unpleasant remarks were very hard to bear as we must. Singing southern songs in private parlors was prohibited, and on one occasion, an officer called to tell my mother that if her daughters sang any more southern songs in their parlor, they would be arrested and put in jail. Considering it of all glorious things, the most glorious to suffer for our cause, I was anxious to






repeat the offense, but my mother firmly forbade it.

No letters could be sent or received except through military headquarters, and were of course, opened and read. But we were fortunate—my father being a lawyer had clients and friends in the country around the town, and they brought us letters in various ways. Of course they were all stopped, questioned, and searched as they came through the outposts. But they managed to elude the vigilance of the guards, and brought us letters hid in the bottom of a basket of eggs, and in their shoes, tacked inside their bonnets, and one colored man brought us a letter from my father tied inside his cravat. This last named affair brought us into trouble as it was reported and distorted, we supposed by our cook. A report went to headquarters that my father had written that he would slip in the town that night and spend several days with his family, hidden, of course, by them. The next day, a squad of soldiers commanded by a traitor, a low fellow to whom and to whose family my parents had often given charity before the war, came to our home and searched it thoroughly, and most impudently and offensively, being very rude to my mother. The man in charge said to the soldiers as they entered, —If you find that d________ rebel, shoot him on sight,— and before this the wife and children had been kind to him.

Across the street from us, on the corner, was a small house occupied after the town was garrisoned by a class of women whom I blush to name. They sat on the porch day and night, and always some soldiers were with them. So offensive was the proximity that we kept the windows closed next to them and passed the street by another way. But at sight of any of us in the yard or garden they would sing loudly, —Hang Capt. S____ on a sour apple tree.— My mother went on one occasion to headquarters to ask permission to spend a day outside the town with country friends, having received notice from my father that he would be near the town on that day. But the general in command had been informed that my mother was sending and receiving letters to and from friends outside the lines, not only for herself but for many others, and he could not find out how. So her request was refused in such a rude and insulting manner that she returned to her home, burning with indignation and outraged pride. Among other things the general told her that she was a —rebel mail bag.— We children were very proud of this and considered it a grand title.

The report that my father would come in to see his family

was not so improbable a thing as it seemed, for on several occasions our men outside did elude the guards and get inside the town, and on one occasion a Yankee sentinel was killed by one who slipped in at night.

About four o'clock on the morning of September 6, 1862, a Confederate Company commanded by Gen. J. G. Martin attacked the town. There was then a garrison of ten companies and there were two gunboats in the river. Our men surprised the pickets and dashed into the town, captured four guns and some prisoners. For three hours the fight waged fiercely and our men gained some advantage. Imagine our fright and our hopes when we were awakened by the noise of the fight, not knowing at first what it was. Peering through the closed shutters, early dawn as it was, we could at last distinguish dashing past, the grey uniform we loved so well. How madly our hearts beat and how earnestly we prayed. A Yankee gun was planted on our corner just a half block away, our men and another gun firing upon it. Our hopes were high, but our men labored under a great disadvantage. At one time they met four companies of cavalry and a battery all ready on their way to march to Plymouth. This with the shot and shell from the gunboats decided the day, and our brave men withdrew after a hotly contested fight. The gunboats threw many shots into the town and afterwards into the woods beyond. Our part of the town was badly injured. As the shells went whizzing over our roof, my mother assembled us all in a room downstairs. With her weeping children around her, she besought God to protect us. We were on our knees when a shell went crashing through the roof of our house and we clung together in speechless terror. But not our mother. Perfectly cool, calm, and quiet she showed not one sign of fear for herself. She thought only of her children and invalid sister. The next day, or rather that day, was a terrible time. We kept our shutters tightly closed for outside the streets swarmed with angry men, and the army's most offensive and threatening remarks were made for our ears. All day the soldiers were picking bullets from the planks of our house where they were imbedded during the firing. It was said by the Yankees that our women fired upon the Yankee soldiers from the windows on the morning of the fight. It was utterly untrue, but notwithstanding, squads of soldiers (rude) were sent throughout the town to search for firearms. My brother had left his gun with which he hunted as a boy, and fearing that its presence in the house might be construed to our discomfort, my mother carried it upstairs to the garret,






ripped off a plank from the floor and hid the gun there. Soon afterward our house was filled with rough men. Nothing was sacred to them. Bureau drawers and trunks were all opened and thrown on the floor. Everything was ransacked and then with sneers and jeers left us to restore as best we could, order in our disheveled home, for wrecked it was. The shell had so torn and shattered the roof that a hard rain demonstrated the fact that we could no longer live there in comfort. Representing this at headquarters we were allowed to move to another house in another part of the town. During the September fight, several of our men were killed; they claimed to have found twelve wounded and to have taken twenty prisoners. I never knew the truth, for we were not allowed to visit or to nurse our poor men, glad as we would have been to have spent our whole time with them, and to have given them of our best, poor and small as that was. One poor old woman who pled curiosity as her excuse, did get into the hospital, and stayed there and nursed them faithfully and lovingly, though pretending that she regarded them in the light of enemies. Her bones now rest in the cemetery near those of the men she cared for and under the shadow of the monument —To Our Confederate Dead.—

Some months after the siege, my mother received through what we called her underground mail, a letter from my brother stating that he would be in the vicinity of the town on a certain day and would wait her coming at a farmhouse three miles in the country, hoping she could obtain permission to spend the day out of town. A pass was secured for her and one of my sisters who was under twelve years of age by a friendly acquaintance who had some influence at headquarters. Going to one of our merchants who was not far from us, my mother bought a pair of boots, socks, underclothes, coffee, sugar and several other articles, all of which we conveyed to our house surreptitiously and at different times. To none of her children but the little girl who was going with her did she tell any of her plans. Early on the morning of the day they were to start, she took my sister into her room, locked the door and there proceeded to dress herself and daughter with the articles she wished to carry out. Hoopskirts were then worn and without them her plan would not have been feasible. The boots she hung, one on each side, inside the hoopskirt, and the other articles were so securely and ingeniously arranged under their clothing that after she was through, there was nothing unusual in the appearance of either of them. Thus burdened, they passed safely through the sentinel and walked three miles without any

accident. My brother was awaiting them and after they had dined with kind friends, my mother proposed a walk in the woods on the pretence of a private and uninterrupted talk. When in a pine thicket, my mother and sister began to untie and display their treasures to the delighted eyes of the half-clothed, half-starved soldier boy. They were hidden in the woods. The next morning my brother gathered his stores together and returned to the army. To the honor of the little girl in this story, be it said that she did not breathe one word of the contraband goods to any human soul until after we had left our home and were outside of the Yankee lines.

On the 30th of March 1863, Gen. D. H. Hill gathered in all, about 9,000 men around there and began a siege. He was trying, not only to capture the town and garrison, but collect supplies for our hungry armies. Our men were all around the town and had temporary forts on the other side of the river opposite the town. Our forts held in check for a while the gunboats and transports that were trying to get up to the relief of the garrison. These gunboats daily engaged our batteries. Our men guarded the roads leading from the town to New Berne so that no help could come to the garrison from that point. The Yankee gunboats threw shells across the town, hoping to hit our troops on the land side. And our own batteries across the river, in firing at the gunboats at the wharves, sometimes sent the balls too far, and they fell in the town, damaging houses, but there was no one killed.

At the beginning of the siege, Gen. Hill had asked the commandant of the garrison that the women and children be allowed to leave the town, but this was refused. So dangerous was the firing from the gunboats, and from our own forts, that the people who had cellars and basements lived in them during the whole siege, inviting as many as they could accommodate to share their security. We had no cellar, but a kind neighbor who had quite a large one, offered us a place in his. The firing began at dawn and ended at sunset, so we felt secure at night. As we could, the ladies of the two families cooked enough to last during the day, and as early as possible, we repaired to our underground retreat, where with rugs, chairs, books, and sewing, and dolls for the children, we managed to while away the days. Loving the southern cause with all our hearts, it was trying to remain inactive, afraid to say one word of what we felt, thinking of, loving and praying for, our brave men who were so near to us and yet so utterly separated from us. One morning very early as my mother was






dressing hastily in order to get down into the cellar, a ball came crashing through the front of the house, on into the bedroom, through the headboard of the bed where my little brother was lying about two or three years old, then fell into the back yard. Covered with splinters, plaster and dust, the little fellow raised up and cried out, —Oh, mamma, I'ze struck.— The ball came from a battery of Whitworth guns directly across the river, and we afterwards learned that my father, who had obtained leave to come down and see if he could learn anything of his family, was at that fort and was directing the firing of that very gun at that very time. After the siege was over my mother buried the ball in the back yard, dug it up after the war was over and we returned to our homes, and it now is in the possession of the boy who was struck. It has served as a plaything for his son, and namesake of the soldier who sent it speeding towards his son.

Being unable to blockade the river successfully, and having also received orders to send a part of the besieging forces to help the army of Northern Virginia, Gen. Hill raised the siege on the 15th of April, 1863 and our hearts were almost broken by our disappointment. Our artillery did good work. One of the gunboats was hit during the first four days of the siege by ninety-eight shots from the battery of Whitworth guns. Another steamer was hit forty times. After quiet was restored, we all came out of our holes in the ground and settled again sadder than ever in our homes. The men of the garrison were very much incensed by this attack and we soon began to feel the effects of their anger. A proclamation was issued to the effect that every Southerner over twelve years of age must take the oath of allegiance to the United States Government or leave the town within ten days. The order was sent to every Southern home, and sent consternation and dismay to all hearts. Many of our people could not go away. All they had was in our little town, and they had no means and nowhere to go when they left their homes. Those who stayed took the oath with the mental reservation that they did not mean it, that an oath under such compulsory circumstances was not binding, and they all disregarded it at the very first opportunity. Friends came to my mother urging her to submit to what they considered the inevitable, representing to her that she was more comfortable where she was and safer than as a refugee with six children to look after, and her husband and oldest son in the army and unable to help her. But she said that nothing would induce her to say that she would be loyal to the United States, and that she would

not give help to her own people. So we prepared to leave our home with no idea where we would go or what would become of us. Just before the ten days expired, soldiers, officers, I think, were sent around to the different homes to ask the result of the order for exile, and my mother expressed in most emphatic terms her determination. Every night after it was dark, my mother and her children had been engaged in carrying to the neighbors who were going to stay in town such things as we most valued and could carry ourselves. My parents had never owned but three slaves and the only one remaining to us was a poor crippled girl about my own age whom my mother had raised with her own children and who had no kin or friends but us. No Negroes were allowed to go with their owners, and it was well for us that this was the case as our poor servant would have been a great burden. My mother left her provisions to this girl and left her in the care of some Negroes who lived near us. We heard that she went to New Berne soon after we left her, and did not live long, missing, no doubt, the comforts to which she had been accustomed. On the morning of the day on which we were to leave our home, an ambulance wagon was driven to our door to carry us out of town, and a squad of soldiers came with it. We were allowed to take two trunks of clothing and two feather beds, the latter tied up in quilts. Poor Jane, the Negro girl we were leaving, clung to my mother's skirts in distress, and when obliged to let go, fell on the floor of the hall with cries of despair. We children were all crying, but there were no tears in my mother's eyes. They were bright and flashing with indignation which nothing but the thought of her children enabled her to suppress. The soldiers stood around the porch jeering and laughing in evident enjoyment of the scene. As we went out, they went in and nothing of what we left in our home did we ever see again. It was the same case at all the homes of all the other refugees. The Yankees shipped north all they wanted and what they did not care for was given to Negroes of the town. The ambulance carried us a mile from town, and there, with many other families of loyal friends, we were left to fare as best we could. We were in the large yard of a farmhouse, and it was a pitiful sight to see a family here and there all over the lawn sitting on their trunks and wondering what would become of them. The situation soon became known through the surrounding country, and farmers who could, came, or sent, for the refugees, and during the day all found shelter. A generous friend whose house was already filled, gave us a warm welcome, hospitality and






kind sympathy. But we were still far away from my father, and my mother was anxious to get within the Confederate lines so that she might communicate with him. Accordingly, she expressed with deep gratitude for the kindness of our hosts, a desire to reach Tranter's Creek, where were our nearest picket lines. Mr. G. could furnish only a cart to carry our trunks and bed, and so we all walked the seven miles to the creek, the younger children occasionally being given a rest on the loaded cart when very weary. Oh, with what joyful hearts did we see the grey coats of our beloved soldiers, all heroes to us. God bless the living and dead. But we were still separated as the bridge over the creek had been burned and the black cypress water rolled between us. The soldiers were eager to help us, and soon procured canoes and transported us onto what seemed a happy land. I remember sitting on a log and recounting to the interested men, some of them almost as young as I was, our experiences while living among the enemy. Col. Ferebec and his regiment were encamped near the creek, and hearing of our condition, he came to offer to my mother every service in his power. She asked him to send word to Col. L., an old friend of my father's, that we were there and homeless, which he immediately did. Soon after Col. L.—s carriage and a wagon for our baggage arrived and we were most warmly welcomed by the kind friends who could not do enough for us. Two of the children broke out with measles, and we were obliged to trespass on their hospitality for about two weeks. None of us can ever forget their unvarying kindness, and warm friendships formed beetween the young people, which have lasted until the present day, when grey hairs are worn by those who were children then. My father was then stationed at Wilmington, and as soon as possible, he procured a leave of absence and came to Col. L. to make some arrangements for a home for us.

CHAPTER VII
THE CLOSING YEARS OF THE
NINETEENTH CENTURY

(N. Henry Moore was a highly respected citizen who served his town and county well. Born in Norfolk in 1886, he came to Washington when he was an infant and spent his entire life here. In 1915 at the age of twenty-seven he became postmaster, serving six years during the Wilson and Harding administrations.

In 1929 he became clerk of the Beaufort County Superior Court where he served until his death.

Mr. Moore had an unusual hobby. As another man might have collected coins or stamps or fishing tackle, Henry Moore collected facts until his death in 1949. In 1971 his wife and son, N. Henry Moore, Jr., made a copy of his scrapbook and gave it to the George H. & Laura E. Brown Library where it has proved of inestimable value to those who worked on this Bicentennial book. The following article is composed of facts in the Moore Scrapbook which have been arranged chronologically with comments.—ed.)

The tragic Reconstruction period ended when Federal troops were withdrawn from the South in 1877. Since the end of the war between the states the town commissioners had been appointed by the Federal government.

It was during this period that on April 10, 1871, the Board of Commissioners met and ordered that the remains of the late Colonel James Bonner be removed from the street to the Episcopal burying grounds or to some other suitable place. The tomb can now be seen in the corner of the Episcopal churchyard.

The founder of our town had been buried in the middle of what is now Bonner Street between Main and Water. When it became






necessary to open Bonner to Water Street this grave was moved to the corner of St. Peters Churchyard.

The Jamesville and Washington Railroad and Lumber Company had been incorporated in 1869 for the purpose of holding and developing land in Beaufort and Martin counties. This organization bought 39,680 acres of timberland extending from about five miles north of Washington to approximately five miles east of Jamesville. This was considered the finest timberland in the South. As this was a Yankee enterprise headed by an Englishman, citizens of this town showed little interest in this project until 1877 when the J. & W. Co. asked the commissioners for permission to enter the town of Washington to haul its lumber to where they could get water transportation. It was granted a right of way through Washington Street. This was the town's first railroad, a narrow gauge with steel rails 4 ft. 8— in. apart. There were two woodburning engines, eighteen flat cars for hauling lumber and one small passenger coach.

With the town government back in the hands of its own citizens the Commissioners in 1880 decided that they must borrow $600.00 to try to get things going. The Bank of Washington, organized by James E. Hoyt in the fifties, had folded during the war. Since there was now no bank the money was kept in the safe of S. R. Fowle and Son.

In 1881, concerned about health problems in town, the commissioners ordered that one gallon of water be taken from the principal town pump and sent to the state medical station at Raleigh for analysis.

On May 8th, 1883, an election was held to determine if Washington should establish a graded school. At this election two hundred sixty-four voted for the graded school and thirteen voted against the measure. Two hundred sixty-four votes not being a majority of the five hundred thirty-five qualified voters, the measure was voted down.

The town hall used before the war had stood on the lot next to the Presbyterian Church on Gladden Street. Since this had been burned the commissioners felt that building a city hall was a matter of first priority. It was decided to borrow the money and ask the county's permission to use the lot next to the county jail. Additional land was to be purchased from Mrs. E. Martin.

On January 15, 1884, a building committee was appointed consisting of three commissioners, i.e. J. D. Myers, E. M. Short and

J. S. Howard plus Edmund S. Hoyt, Dr. William A. Blount and George W. Richardson. This committee was empowered to employ a competent architect to build a brick building.

The question was: Where was the money coming from? They applied to Mrs. Kate Respess, probably the only person in town who had any ready cash. One thousand dollars was borrowed from Mrs. Respess with the specification that it was to be used for construction only.

On March 3rd, 1884, the Board of County Commissioners agreed that the Town of Washington, North Carolina, be permitted to erect a building of brick on the property of the county, formerly occupied by the engine and truck house adjoining the county jail and the land of Mrs. E. Martin. The town was granted the right to occupy the said land as long as the building should be occupied for use of the said town. On June 2nd, 1884, the clerk was authorized to borrow another one thousand dollars for use in building the town hall. August 11th, 1884, authority was given to borrow still another one thousand dollars. So it appears that the city hall cost a total of thirty-five hundred dollars.

The addition now used by the Municipal Electric and Water Department and the city clerk was built in recent years.

There was no Marshall Plan to aid in the rehabilitation of a defeated South, and how the South in general and Washington in particular came back after the devastation of the Civil War, is no less than a miracle; but come back it did and if improvement was slow it was certainly steady as the records so carefully collected and recorded by Mr. Moore indicate.

On April 5, 1885, the County Commissioners permitted the town authorities to pull down the wall surrounding the county jail and to use the vacant lot between the jail and the town hall and to enclose the lot, and plant shrubbery.

In 1885 the Southern Telephone Co. was granted permission to erect poles and place wires thereon along the streets and operate a telephone system for a period of ten years. Phone rates were fixed at $15.00 per year for residents and $30.00 per year for business houses.

This was quite a forward step as telephones had been invented less than ten years before and their use was not yet general.

In 1886 the river froze over.

The minutes of a meeting held in the courthouse in 1887 show that E. T. Stewart offered to keep in order the town clock,






the fire engine, act as engineer of the steam fire engine and do police duty for $25 per month. This offer was quickly accepted by the town.

(Note: In later years Mr. Stewart served several terms as mayor. This was the grandfather of Mayor Thomas Stewart for whom Stewart Parkway is named.)

The town was growing so steadily that by 1888 it boasted three hotels, the Riverview, the Spencer House and the DeMille Boarding House. None, however, were on the grand scale of the Lafayette Hotel which had been the headquarters of the officers of the Union Army during the occupation, and which had been a war casualty. The Lafayette, on the northeast corner of Main and Market, had a forty foot dining room with ballroom above, and had extended from Main to Second counting all its out-buildings such as stables and servant quarters.

In 1889 thirty-year-old John H. Small, then in the early stages of his career as a “mover and shaker” in the community became the first man in Washington to be called “mayor.”

There had been no mayor of criminal authority in town until 1846 when by a new charter of the town, an intendant of the police was provided for. He had all the duties of a mayor and was paid $200 a year. The title of Intendant of police was changed to mayor in 1889 and John H. Small was the first to be legally entitled to be called Mayor of Washington.

In 1890 a second railroad came to town.

On April 7, 1890, the city commissioners ordered an election to be held the first Monday in May, submitting an issue to the voters on issuing bonds to the amount of ten thousand dollars for the purchase of terminal property for a branch of the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad, which is now known as the Atlantic Coast Line.

The depot, now to be used as a civic and art center, was not built immediately. Construction began in 1903 and the building was completed in 1904.

(Note: It is said that the chief engineer, Richard Neal, who lived in Washington while he was in charge of the construction of this railroad, fell in love with Washington's pretty girls, those —belles of the Gay Nineties.— When the railroad was completed there was a big celebration at which Mr. Neal invited Isabel Perry Blount to drive in the last connecting spike.

The drive was symbolic and the silver spike used is now in the

possession of Isabel Blount's grandson, John Keais Hoyt, the third.)

Captain William Ellsworth, conductor, and Captain Ed Leens, engineer, brought the first Atlantic Coast Line train into Washington on May 18, 1892. Captain Ellsworth, long a familiar figure on the streets of Washington, served this railroad as conductor for nearly forty-four years. Mr. Leens ran the train for 28 years.

The railroad built a —Wye— so the trains might be turned around and backed into town. Teenage boys often amused themselves by walking to the —Wye— where Captain Ellsworth would let them board the train and ride into town.

In 1890 the city fathers decided that if the town was to expand naturally something had to be done about all the cemeteries. There were seven of them, two of these were Negro burying grounds on Fifth Street at the corner of Respess, across the street from each other. The others were located at the corner of Fifth and Market, corner of Third and Bonner behind the present Masonic Lodge, on Market Street midway between Second and Third streets, and the Episcopal and Presbyterian churchyards.

So several acres of the Ellison farm outside of town on what is now Market Street extension was purchased and on April 7, 1890 the name —Oakdale— was officially adopted as the name for the new cemetery.

(Note: It became illegal for anybody to be buried inside the city limits. Gossip says that one prominent family was so incensed over this prohibition which would prevent Mama being buried beside Papa in the Episcopal churchyard that they decided to forego the usual funeral and to bury Mama in secret at night.)

E. F. Holmes came to visit in 1890. Later he wrote: —I was at Washington a short time ago. I found the place much changed but greatly improved. It will soon be quite a commercial city. It is constantly growing. . . . Washington has now quite a city air, fine streets and sidewalks, five churches and many fine residences.—

There was some discussion at the commissioners meeting in 1893 about whether or not saloons were to be allowed in town but no action was taken. Saloons continued to flourish but it was not until 1903 that they were legalized by a vote of the electorate. The board fixed the license at five hundred dollars. Funds collected by sale of license were used for school purposes.

In March 1893 the Kugler-Walling Mill had a terrible fire and






the commissioners voted to reimburse the thoughtful citizen who spent six dollars for whiskey to distribute to exhausted members of the fire department.

In 1895 Washington, for the second time, defeated an election to establish a public school. Not until 1897, after John Small had made a personal door to door canvass, did citizens vote for levying a special tax for a graded school.

Notwithstanding the school bond defeat, 1895 was a banner year for progress. Heretofore the town had been lighted by kerosene lamps attached to cedar posts. These were tended night and morning by an appointed —Lamplighter.— Now on August 5, 1895, the city commissioners contracted with Campen and Leach for sixty electric are lights, to light the town for a period of five years, and on September 2, 1895, a franchise was granted a local company to operate a telephone exchange.

On March 2, 1896, the Washington Telephone Company and W. T. Thomas Telephone Company ran a line from Bayboro to Washington via Aurora and were granted permission to run a wire down Main Street from Bridge to Market Street.

The Washington and Hyde County Telephone Company was granted permission to enter the town also.

In 1897 the town decided to build its own electric light plant. On August 12, 1897, the city commissioners resolved that bonds be issued for the purpose. The plant was built on Third Street opposite the gas plant. The building was a one-story brick structure equipped with two small dynamos and two steam engines. Only one engine and one dynamo were used at the time. One was held in reserve. When the plant was first built, current was furnished mainly for lighting at night. Some years later when current was furnished twenty-four hours a day, the load became so heavy that the plant was enlarged. Electricity was then put to so many uses that it was necessary to build an entirely new plant. This plant was located about two miles out on Third Street.

Later in the year, on December 9, 1897, the city commissioners passed an ordinance granting A. M. Dumay and J. P. Jackson the exclusive privilege for thirty years of erecting and operating a gas plant.

A gas plant had been built in Washington prior to the Civil War, and one of the same storage tanks and the same brick building was used but enlarged.

The gas plant built in 1859 by James E. Hoyt and Samuel Merrill had made gas from lightwood. The Yankees had destroyed this

plant in 1862. Now the new company made gas from oil.

Also in 1897 the city commissioners entered into an agreement with the Virginia Brick Paving Company to pave Main Street with brick from Market to Gladden. For many years the three principal streets had been surfaced with oyster shells. Until the shells became pulverized this was rough going for horses and buggies but when the shells were crushed they made a hard surface. Now Main was paved with brick not laid on any base, but laid on the ground after the street had been packed with a heavy roller. This was such good pavement that it lasted a quarter of a century.

Bicycles became popular in the nineties and bicycle riders began to agitate for smoother streets.

1899 was a cruelly cold year. On February 14, 1899 it was three degrees at 7 a.m. That summer there was a bad hurricane.

By 1900 Windmill Creek (now called Jack's Creek) had been bridged and it was no longer necessary to go around by the Brick Kiln Road to get to the area now known as Washington Park.

The census takers of 1900 gave the town a population of 4,842 of whom 2,292 were white and 2,550 were black. All seemed well as Washington entered the twentieth century.

Then on Sept. 13, 1900 a disaster struck which changed the face of Washington. Fire broke out in the Brabble Eating Saloon on Water Street. It was impossible to get it under control and it burned from Water up Market to Main on both sides of the street.

Let John Bragaw who remembered vividly the day of the 1900 fire tell the story in his column, —Now and Then.— He wrote:

There were two happenings which will make us recall forever the 13th day of September in 1900. Dr. Charles M. Payne, pastor of the Presbyterian church, was one of the men most beloved of all those in Washington. It would be safe to say that he and the Reverend Nathaniel Harding held the two highest places in the affection of the community. And at or about seven o'clock on the morning just mentioned the soul of Dr. Payne took its flight. I remember the awe and sorrow with which the word was passed along. —Doctor Payne is dead!—

Then just six hours later tragedy struck. Fire broke out at one o'clock in the J. S. Farren oyster cannery building on Water Street. Some say it was in Brabble's Eating Saloon. There was no stopping the spread of the flames, and by night all that part of Water Street, the market house, and both sides of Market Street






up to Main Street were in ruins. Every merchant along there—E. K. Willis, D. R. Willis, M. J. Wright, Ott Rumley, Spencer Brothers—I can't think of others now—they were all burned out. Most of them lost everything they had in their stores.

As Bob Satterthwaite said, —That fire was worth a million dollars to Washington.— It did not look so that night, the next day, nor for weeks afterwards. Some never recovered, financially, from their losses but for the town as a whole, it was a blessing in disguise. Much of the burned area consisted of one-story wooden buildings, many of them little more than shacks. The sidewalks were of planks and as Bob said, —as you'd step on one plank it would go down and the other would pop up, and it was only by the mercy of Providence that more broken legs did not occur than the occasional one.— After the fire brick buildings were put up, and the wooden sidewalks did not come back. The armory, then located at the foot of Market Street, was burned also and when the building was replaced it became known as the market.

CHAPTER VIII
EARLY CUSTOMS OF WASHINGTON

PART 1
by
RENA HARDING DAVENPORT

It is not often that a family is privileged to live in a town as long as mine has lived in Washington, and customs, traditions and facts about the town have been passed down to me and my children, who are the seventh generation to make Washington their home.

Most of what I shall tell you was told to me by my father, Edmund H. Harding. The time varies from before my father was born in 1890 until the time I was born in 1916.

My great-great-great-grandfather, John Gray Blount, built the sixth house in the town and my great-great-grandfather, James E. Hoyt, organized the Bank of Washington in 1850, and was its first president. My great-great-great-grandfather, Capt. Nathan Keais, was one of the incorporators of the town in 1782.

Now that I have told you who I am, I will tell you about some of the early facts and customs of the town, its traditions and its ways of life.

Washington was always known as a hospitable town and there were always parties, dinations and big suppers when the bishop, the judge, or some famous soldier or person came to town.

The festive board set for guests could not have been surpassed by the very rich, few of whom lived in Washington, but the folks of Washington lived and ate like royalty.

A typical dination, as the big dinners were called, would include a six weeks old suckling pig, roasted with a red apple in its






mouth, a roast turkey on one end of the table and a boiled turkey with a large bowl of egg dressing at the other.

There was always a smoked or corned ham and a fresh ham. In season scalloped oysters were served. In the winter there was a big dish of macaroni. It was poor taste to have macaroni in the summer.

For dessert there were coconut, lemon and orange puddings (now called pies), vanilla blancmange and chocolate mange. The vanilla was served with grape preserves while the chocolate was served with grated coconut and crushed pineapple. Syllabub topped off the meal.

Coffee was never served at dinner in the middle of the day; only —poor bockerers— drank coffee at any time other than breakfast and supper.

About three o'clock everything was taken off the table and underneath the white damask cloth was a turkey red, checked cloth; and nuts and raisins were brought in which were eaten while the conversation often lasted until dark over a glass of scuppernong wine.

Fried chicken was never served in winter; they only had —spring chickens— in the Spring.

For wedding suppers a great feast was prepared. Not many folks in Washington had a table that would seat more than ten; so, if fifty people were invited to the —wedding supper— it meant there must be five settings, and the table replenished each time.

Great protocol was observed to see that people were fed according to their prominence. At the first table were always the bride and groom, the mothers and fathers of the bride and the groom, the preacher and his wife, and the family doctor and his wife. Then came the bridal party and the others, and finally the children.

All the neighbors helped with the parties as they do today, but there were plenty of servants to help. A good cook received $1.50 a week and her meals, the house girls and nurses received $1.25 a week. All were allowed to —tote— which meant they could carry home enough food to feed their families. The servants came before seven in the morning and were lucky to get away at night before nine.

People bought milk from anyone who happened to have a cow. One had to go for it and take a pitcher to bring it home in. When the first dairy was started, a pitcher was left at the front door with a milk ticket in it. Later, milk was delivered in pint and quart tin cans. Henry N. Blount who ran Sans Souci Dairy (father of Mrs. Hugh Anderson and brother of Mrs. T. Harvey Myers)

brought the first glass milk bottle to town.

Ice was brought to Washington in sailing vessels from the North where it was cut from frozen ponds in winter and stored in warehouses covered with sawdust and sold in summer. After we had an ice manufacturing plant, it did not run in winter, for who wanted ice when the weather was cold? The price of ice was ten pounds for five cents and few refrigerators in town held over ten pounds.

Some housewives, to supplement their income, would send their cooks around with a ten quart covered bucket of big hominy all cooked and hot. It sold for five cents a quart.

If the family cook was sick or for some reason did not come, the wife would not go in the kitchen to cook; for the kitchen was most likely off from the house and about the dirtiest place anyone could imagine. Ladies seldom went in their kitchens. Meals for the family were ordered from Jones Hotel. Jones Hotel was a Negro hotel run by the Jones family where John Havens Moss now lives. The Joneses were good folks and they delivered good hot meals to your house for fifty cents each.

Fish carts started their rounds every morning except Sunday at five o'clock yelling —Fresh Fish.— A bunch of butter fish was ten cents, and you could buy two and a half pounds of round steak delivered to your door by 7:00 a.m. for twenty-five cents. The ice wagons did not roll until eight o'clock, and the bread wagon from the bakery shop passed by at 3:00 p.m. with hot bread at five cents a loaf.

WATER AND LIGHT AND HEATING

Before the War Between the States, James E. Hoyt and S. W. Merriam built a gas plant and most of the better homes in town were lighted by gas; the others used kerosene. There was a gas street light on all the important corners.

With the coming of the war, the gas plant was closed and Washington did not have a gas plant again until 1899 when the old gas plant was put in operation again.

The streets were lighted by kerosene and a Mr. Wynne with a hunchback son drove around each morning to put out the lights and trim the wicks; and each evening at dusk he lighted them again.

Daddy said it took fourteen kerosene lamps to light the rectory, and it was a big job to fill them all each morning, trim the wicks and wash the chimneys. These lamps were kept on a shelf in the butler's pantry, and it was not unusual to taste kerosene in the food.






When there was a reception or a party, folks borrowed standing brass lamps with crepe paper shades. Mrs. Tom Myers had one, my great-grandmother, Mrs. Kate L. Blount, Mrs. J. F. Randolph and Mrs. W. B. Morton also owned one. They were very handsome.

The water supply of the town came from a series of pumps that were mounted on bricked-in wells. Everybody took their buckets several times a day for water. There was the Wallace pump at the corner of Second and Harvey, the —Piscopal— pump on Main Street across from Lalla Bragaw's, the Courthouse Pump, the Academy Pump, the Lockyer Pump and several others.

Some of the richer folks in town had cisterns and used rain water. Mrs. Mary McDonald who lived on East Main Street had old Joe Jones, her carriage driver, turn the cistern wheel to force water in a gutter pipe through a hole in the weatherboarding to fill the bathtub. Mrs. McDonald had the first bathtub ever in Washington.

One day a man staggered in to Mr. Mallison's store and told Mr. Mallison he knew how to put down pumps. He had caught a ride on a sailboat from New York to Washington. His name was Dimmy Gautier, a Frenchman. He had graduated from Princeton at the head of his class and studied medicine but drink got him and he came to Washington as a bum. He married here, put down hundreds of pumps all over town and left descendents who have made good citizens.

BUSINESS CUSTOMS

Business houses in Washington in the long ago had long hours. The grocery stores and the butcher shops all opened at 5:00 a.m. The dry goods and clothing stores opened at 7:00 a.m., and closed at 9:00 p.m. During July and August the dry goods stores did close at 7:00 p.m. There was never a holiday except on Sunday. Drugstores stayed open until 11:00 p.m., but on Saturday night everything kept open until midnight.

Being a seaport town, there were always many boats in the harbor at Washington. The seamen and boatmen had to have their liquor and when prohibition came in 1908, these barrooms were in operation: A. J. Mitchell, Scot Bros., Bergeron Bros., John Mayo, O. B. Wynn, Smith Paul, Lockyer's Bar and Bill Bar in front of Hotel Louise.

A —short— was a small drink of locally made whiskey, and sold for five cents. A —long— was a larger drink and sold for ten cents.

Bergeron Brothers had a Government Distillery on the River Road next to where Louise Hawes lives (and Steve Corson was the Government Tax Collector).

The colored recreation center was run by Big Fat Soph who weighed over three hundred pounds. She lived at the corner of Bridge and Fourth streets.

Washington was always known as a shopping center. No —lady— in town would wear a —ready-made— dress or a —store-boughtened— hat. Silks, satins and cashmeres were brought to town by the bolt.

There were certain rich and important women in town who would not go into a store. Their carriages were driven up to the store door and the clerks brought out the merchandise to show them. The rich Short family was great on this practice. It was known as the carriage trade.

Very few of the Negroes after they had been freed knew how to sew. Mrs. Caroline Wineberg had a store where Wm. Bragaw & Co. is now located and made calico dresses to sell to these women. The dresses sold for $1.25 or $1.50 each, and calico was selling for four and five cents a yard.

PARADES AND SOCIAL EVENTS

Washington was always great on having a parade, but the greatest of all were torchlight parades to celebrate some great political victory or to honor some celebrity.

Barrels of tar lined Main Street from the bridge to St. Peter's Church, and the marchers carried sticks on which was nailed a tin can filled with rags and kerosene and lighted.

Miss Mollie Vines— was the social center of Washington. She made taffy candy in three flavors—vanilla, strawberry and molasses. At the rear of the store was her ice cream parlor. This was partitioned off in small cubicles by bed sheets and the ice cream, mostly lemon custard, was sold in saucers at five and ten cents a saucer. If a fellow bought a girl a ten-cent saucer everybody in town knew he was in love. Cousin Sarah Tripp was her assistant. She never married either.

Mr. Charlie McKeel, owner of McKeel's Pharmacy, brought the first soda fountain to Washington. It was a small thing of gray marble and Miss Polly Ann Ellison said he was just selling sweetened wind.

One of the greatest socials of the town was the dancing of the German. The Halcyon Club organized by Mr. Jonathan Havens and Mr. John H. Small in 1885 was the town's most exclusive club.






A man and his lady would arrive at the dance hall on foot, but each had a slipper bag in which their dancing shoes were carried. No one would dance in shoes in which they walked on the street. No man ever appeared on the street in evening clothes, even the hottest night in summer, without a topcoat. It was considered vulgar. No man in town had a tuxedo until after 1920.

Before the couple went to their respective dressing rooms upon arrival at the dance they stopped and spoke to all the chaperones. The chaperones were invited by the club and consisted of the most dignified, cultured and aristocratic ladies of the town.

The German was a lovely dance and everybody had to keep their minds on dancing. The music was furnished by an Italian Band secured from Norfolk or Richmond consisting of violin, flute and harp. First there was the Grand March with your partner. The leader must always have a new figure. Then came the waltz. In the first half of the evening the men asked the ladies to dance. After intermission the ladies asked the men who had —led them out— to dance. It was called —returning the lead.— For a girl not to remember to return a man's lead was an insult. When the German was over, no couple left without saying goodnight to the chaperones. After the dance there were late suppers all over town, often lasting until 4:00 a.m. Some of these parties were quite formal and others were quite gay. There never was such food.

TRANSPORTATION

In the early days of Washington most everybody walked. A few had carriages and horses and many of the young ladies had saddle horses. The Shorts and McDonalds had pairs of horses hitched to their carriages. Mr. C. M. Brown had an old black horse named Pet and his carriage was painted tan. Everybody in town knew when Preacher Harding's old Josephine came puffing down the street. Josephine was wind broken. Fannie, the Bright's old horse, dragged one foot and —Miss Lizzie— Bryan always led the Prohibition Parade with her little pony named Joe.

Some did not have enough room on their lots for a stable so they boarded their horses. There were many livery stables in town—Harvey Carrow, George Hill, Howard Winfield, Tom Howard, J. E. Winslow, Joe Chauncey and Ben Susman. In 1900 the price for boarding a horse and having him delivered to your house whenever you wanted him was $15.00 a month. By 1917 when

the automobile was taking over, the price had gone up to $30.00 a month.

The two outstanding rigs in town were owned by Miss Pattie Baugham (Mrs. Harry McMullan) and Miss Bessie Short. Miss Baugham's was a yellow straw trap with yellow wheels, while the Shorts— outfit was a very high vehicle and known in town as the Nearer My God to Thee.

If anyone had a pony or a cow it was tied in the front yard to eat the grass. All the yards grew up in weeds which were cut once a year. The John Fowles did have a lawn that Jacob Grimes kept cropped with a sickle. Daddy brought the first power lawn mower to Washington in 1935 to cut the grass at Sunnyside.

The town was full of drays. A drayman was a man, white or colored, with an old horse and cart who paid the town $1.00 a year for a license to operate. The fee charged to carry a load or a bundle was 10 cents. There were dozens of transfers in town. These were horse-drawn surreys driven by white men and the fare for a ride anywhere in town was 35 cents. They met every train and every boat.

It was a great evening pastime for the man of the house to get the daily paper. The News and Observer came in on the Atlantic Coast Line train at 8:00 p.m. It was usually late but it gave the man of the house a good excuse to go downtown. It was a great event when a small boy was allowed to stay up and go to the post office with his papa.

WEDDING CUSTOMS

Church weddings were much more of a show than today. At St. Peter's there was always a flower covered wedding bell hanging from the crystal chandelier, and a floral rope was draped to the four corners of the chancel.

At Bess Hatton's wedding (Bessie Conoley Bonner's mother) the bridesmaids carried parasols covered with pond lilies out of Bagatelle Pond, now Macswoods. At Mag Hoyt's wedding (Margaret Studdert's mother), Mrs. Annie Short, the dame of honor, drove the bridesmaids out of the vestry room down the center aisle to meet the bride using a harness of rose-colored ribbons. When they reached the front door, they shed the harness and trotted back up the aisle with the bride. When Hannah Laughinghouse was married to Carl Richardson an arch was built all the way up the center aisle. and covered with flowers. Martha






Tripp was married the day before Thanksgiving and the church was decorated with fruit, pumpkins, corn stalks and collards.

Mary Hoyt had no money to buy flowers for her wedding; but fortunately snowballs were in bloom, so the church was decorated with great armfuls of snowballs. The bridesmaids carried field daisies and the flower girls carried buttercups. At Marjorie Hoyt's wedding (Mrs. Clay Carter, III) there was such a crowd that Aunt Belle, the bride's mother, could not get in the front door so the ushers brought her in through the Vestry room.

One wedding in the Presbyterian Church that attracted a lot of attention was that of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Moss (John Havens Moss— father and mother). Cousin Bonner had for her bridesmaids the five wise and five foolish virgins. Mr. Moss had made a lover's knot (nearly sawed one finger off doing it) where the lighted candles carried by the bridesmaids were to be put. On the way up the aisle Miss Fannie Bryan's and Miss Annie Jarvis— lights went out, and they were nicknamed the —Foolish Virgins.—

HEALTH AND SICKNESS

When sickness occurred everybody helped with the nursing. Members of one's church or lodge would come and sit with the sick all night. The family nursed in the daytime. Refreshments were always served at midnight. If someone was very ill signs were placed in front of the houses —Sickness — Quiet Please— and sawdust was put over the oyster shell streets to keep down the noise from the buggies and carts.

The first trained nurse ever to come to Washington was Miss Violet Meredith. She came here to nurse Mrs. John B. Respess who had typhoid fever. People who had typhoid fever always died, but Mrs. Respess got well.

Everybody in town was scared to death when word got out that somebody had smallpox. The patient was removed at once to the Pest House, a wooden shack where Dan Smith's Packing House now is. There the patient stayed until he got well or died. Only the doctor went in and carried food.

On the first black beacon down the river below the Norfolk Southern Bridge there was a frightening yellow flag where all but local boats had to stop and anchor until the doctor who was Superintendent of Health went out in a rowboat to see that there was no smallpox or typhoid fever on board.

FUNERALS

Funerals were a very special thing in the early days of Washington. Friends of the family always —shrouded— the dead. The only thing the undertaker did was to sell the coffin and rent you the hearse and the pallbearer wagon, which was really a surrey with four seats. The body was always laid out on a bed and the sheet must not have a seam as this was an ill omen. The cost of the coffins was not high. Many coffins sold for $25.00 and as late as 1915 the highest price casket sold in Washington was $75.00.

When the funeral was in a church six pallbearers carried the coffin up the aisle and placed it on saw benches at the front of the church. All the women in the family of the deceased wore long black veils that reached the floor and the widow always had black crepe on hers. As an expression of grief, the blinds of the room where the person died were tied from the outside with black crepe and left there until the weather caused it to rot and fall off, and then the period of mourning was over.

At a Grist funeral (my folks) there was much crying and carrying on and at least two of the ladies would faint and have to be carried out.

Miss Marcia Rodman had a greenhouse and grew sago palms. These she sold for $1.00 for two, tied with a piece of purple ribbon. It was a mad rush to see who could send the palms. It was the greatest tribute one could pay the dead. Miss Mary Smallwood was Washington's first florist. She sold a sheaf of wheat tied with purple ribbon for $1.00. She never sold but one sheaf for a funeral and the question was always asked —who sent the wheat?—

Flowers were sent to the residence of the deceased in great profusion from the flower gardens of friends. These flowers were sewn on a piece of cardboard about 8 — 10 inches and just before the funeral hour, two specially invited friends would tack these pieces on the wooden coffin. The undertaker did furnish the two tack hammers and the tacks.

In very hot weather disinfectant was put under the casket. It was always put in soup plates. Daddy says he never did like soup in those days.

Mrs. Joseph F. Tayloe (Lalla Clark) had the first white casket ever in Washington. She died in childbirth.

The funeral notice was a very special thing. A colored man in






his Sunday clothes was given a notice of the funeral on white paper interlaced with black ribbon and placed on a silver waiter. He took this to the homes of those invited to the funeral. Sylvester Dibble, Andrew Brown and Dave Price were always used for this job.

NEIGHBORHOOD FUSSES

Neighborhood fusses were the order of the day. One of the greatest causes of friction was when some woman hired another woman's washwoman or cook. A woman was perfectly welcome to another lady's husband but not so with her cook. Sometimes neighbors who did not speak to each other sang in the same church choir.

GARDEN HOUSES

The toilet facilities of a house were always placed in the back of the garden and hence called the Garden House. The size of these buildings depended on the size of the family. Some were nicely built and painted and some were even plastered. The one my father tells me about was built before the War Between the States by a Mr. Hanks who owned the house where Mrs. Robin Hood lives now—the house where my father was born. It was an eight-holer, four for grown folks, two for children and on the other side of a partition were two holes for the servants. A box of newspapers and a keg of lime were regular equipment. Several men or several women would visit the facility at the same time, but never in mixed company. Bishop Watson brought the first roll of toilet tissue that my father ever saw.

SCHOOLS

Before the War Between the States, the Academy was a private school at the corner of Bridge and Second streets. During the Yankee occupation of Washington the Academy was used by the Yankees as headquarters and it was many years after the war that it was used as a school.

Washington people sent their children to Miss Weller at Sans Souci, the Thomas H. Blount home (where Beaufort County Hospital is now located), to Mrs. Dimmock, Mrs. DeMille and Miss Mary Moules. Years later the town was full of private schools, as late as 1900. Miss Bettie Robinson taught in the Masonic Lodge and other private teachers were Miss Sarah Russell, Miss Annie Quinn, Miss Sallie Havens, Miss Kate Carroway and Miss Hattie Griffin.

About 1895 Mr. W. C. Mallison, Mr. J. G. Bragaw and Mr. W. Z. Morton founded a free school and paid the teacher out of their own pockets. This little free school was on East Third Street between Bonner and Harvey. These men, however, sent their children to the private schools.

Efforts to establish a public free school for the town were always defeated by Judge Brown who had no children to send to school. There was no Negro school in Washington until 1896. It took a long time after the War Between the States for feeling to die down. Some people in town sympathized with the North; many of these fought with the Yankees and still more made money out of the Yankees. A Southern man who fought on the side of the North was called a Buffalo and a loyal Rebel never spoke to one of these for many a year. Miss Polly Ann Ellison would not go to church as long as Mr. Isaac Harrison rang the bell. He was a Buffalo. Nor would she eat any of Mr. Buck's pork sausage; he, too, was a Buffalo. Aunt Bet Hoyt would not go to church when the United States flag was displayed in St. Peter's during —World War I. She died a loyal Rebel and her casket was draped in a Confederate flag.

RECREATION

In summer, moonlight excursions on the R. L. Myers were popular. Churches used this means for making money. The old boat could carry about fifty people and the tickets for adults were 50c and children 25c. Ice cream was served at 5c and 10c a saucer and cake at 5c a slice.

The boat went down the river about three miles and turned around. Old man Carty, the engineer, was so bow-legged he had to be raised out of the engine room with a rope.

Once a year Babbitt's Soap Magic Lantern Show came to town advertising Babbitt's Soap and would show in the middle of Main Street.

The first carnival ever to show in Washington used the whole of Main Street. The Knights of Pythias sponsored it. This was in 1901 and the show was the Hatch Adams Carnival.

Lawn parties were often held as benefits. The Mortons— yard (now the First Baptist Church) and Elmwood at the west end of Main Street were used. Japanese lanterns and homemade lanterns made out of shoe boxes with lighted candles were used. When the candles burned out it was time to go home but many couples remained after the lights were out.






CHRISTMAS CUSTOMS IN WASHINGTON

Christmas in Washington was always jovial. All the stores in town remained open until ten o'clock from December 1st until Christmas. Mr. Scott Frizzle's Store was a great institution. All the things for Santa Claus came from either Scott Frizzell's Store or Willie Buckman's. Stores which sold fruit and candy had tables on the sidewalks. Mr. Archbell always ordered celery, parsnips and cranberries by the barrel for the Christmas trade. These luxuries were never available in everyday grocery stores.

Christmas parties and dances always came after Christmas.

Decorations at St. Peter's Church at Christmas were famous all over eastern Carolina. Church women met in the old Telfair kitchen in the Mortons— yard and worked for a week to make the decorations. Everybody in the church who had a farm or a horse and wagon sent a load of evergreens. Hundreds of wreaths were made and yards and yards of roping. Stringing long pine needles was the most tedious of the jobs.

Each Christmas John Kooners rode about town in a horse and buggy dressed in grotesque costumes and wearing masks. They sang and blew horns. Any house that gave them a drink would have good luck in the new year. They always rode Christmas afternoon.

The Christmas trees were mostly dressed with homemade ornaments and candles in little holders were put on the tree, but seldom lighted because of the danger of fire.

Big family dinner parties were held all over town.

My father borrowed Mr. Floyd Berry's dray to take us caroling on Christmas Eve night.

Christmas is a great time at our house, and my father is very fussy about his Christmas tree. It must be the biggest one we can find and decorated with all the ornaments it will hold.

PART 2

(Edmund Harding (1890-1970) in his time wore many hats. He was secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, Supervisor of the Washington Tobacco Market, District Governor of Rotary, St. Peter's organist and so on ad infinitum. Nationally known as a humorist and after dinner speaker, Edmund loved everybody, and everybody loved Edmund. The governor of the state commissioned him to be North Carolina's Ambassador of Good Will.

In spite of the fact that he had a heavy speaking schedule, making approximately one hundred sixty speeches a year in every

state in the Union he never refused a request from his hometown. He was heavily involved in many civic projects and more often than not he initiated the project.

Edmund was responsible for having the town decorated for Christmas. He had a hard time selling the idea to the city fathers who thought the project expensive and unnecessary. Eventually he and Mr. Ernest Meredith, superintendent of the light plant, got something worked out and together they designed the first garlands and stars which went up over Main Street. None since has ever been so graceful. Local merchants were so enthusiastic that they ran a full page advertisement in the newspaper thanking both Edmund and Mr. Meredith.—ed.)

Let Edmund himself tell us some of his memories of Christmases past in Washington. In an article written a number of years ago he said:

—I have been interested in doing something at Christmas since that Christmas afternoon when I was seven years old when Sam Forbes and Leon Durant took me to ride in a buggy with all three of us dressed as John Kooners. The John Kooner custom came to us from the slaves who on Christmas Day would dress in grotesque costumes and either ride or walk around town asking for a handout.

—As a small boy, one of the jobs I secured was to hand evergreens to the ladies making decorations for St. Peter's Episcopal Church at Christmas time. Every member of the church who had a horse and wagon sent a wagonload of evergreens and the women met to make wreaths and ropes for the church. There were big canton-flannel banners on the church walls with Christmas texts such as —Unto Us a Child Is Born.— The letters were of various colors of velvet and at the bottom was green fringe made by stringing long leaf pine needles. The Star of Bethlehem, ten feet across and placed to the front of the church, was always made by Miss Betty Hoyt, and Henry Rumley always sent the biggest load of evergreens.

—I remember the Christmas Sunday School party—always a highlight of the season. This was usually held in the courthouse or Town Hall. One year Santa Claus was to come from the tall chimney made of candy boxes to look like brick, and just before he got out the chimney fell forward on the floor, nearly scaring all the children to death. The fruit was put into bags made of mosquito netting drawn with a string.

—From the time I was 16 until the Christmas I was 50 years old, I rang the church bell for Christmas. The Christmas peal, as it is






called in bell ringing, is to turn the bell over and over again to give the Christmas peal.

—Another Christmas must, for me, when sixteen years of age, was to gather little cedars about four feet high and decorate them for all the old ladies in town more than eighty years of age.

—The Rodman children always gave a big Christmas party in the Armory. The Rodmans owned the Armory and they invited all the kids in town. It was always a big event. This was the Hon. William B. Rodman, now judge of Supreme Court, and his brothers and sisters.

—And then came a change—electricity came to Washington. Trees were always decorated with small lighted candles which were always catching fire.

—The first outdoor Christmas tree in Washington was the handiwork of —Miss Katie— and me on the Bragaw yard on East Main Street. It was a holly tree and Ed Cooper, one of the most outstanding Black citizens that ever lived in Washington, made the ornaments and stars out of tin. A local electrician made the lights that had to be painted in days before colored bulbs.

—I think our little group was the first to go Christmas caroling. We sang carols for the shut-ins, the aged and the hospital. Mr. Floyd Berry furnished the horse and dray from his business firm and old Luther was the driver.—

[The first prize ever offered for house decoration was won by the Edmund Hardings, for a tin Santa Claus coming out the chimney top. It was made by Edgar Martin and painted by George Taylor. Carl Goerch won the second prize with silhouettes at each window of Christmas scenes. . .

A Community Christmas tree on the courthouse lawn was his next project.] Of that first municipal Christmas tree Edmund says: —It was erected in front of the jailhouse and all the choirs in town came to sing. We were not as familiar with the words of Christmas hymns as we are now, so we had to have books. I remember John B. Sparrow brought the Presbyterian hymnals. There was a wire fastened from the back of E. W. Ayers store on Main Street, to the top of the lightning rod on the Town Clock. Before the tree was lighted the choir was to sing —Silent Night,— and a lighted star on that wire was to travel across from Ayers store to the Town Clock. We forgot there would be no lights to see the hymnals. Zoph Potts could always meet any situation, and I remember he sang, —Ump de dum dum de dum de afar——I've forgotten what it is but it's something about a Star.—

There was always Christmas entertainment at the Beaufort County Home, and we practiced weeks getting ready, directed by Miss Bettie Farrow, God rest her soul. I've sung and recited out there many a time, never dreaming that I'd wind up as an entertainer.

The Halcyon Club Dance club was organized in Washington in 1885, and it always gave the children of Washington a dance at Christmas time. It was always a great dance and all the little girls usually received a new party dress for Christmas.

Many, many years ago Scott Frizzle's store was headquarters for Santa Claus. All stores having Christmas confections put tables and counters out on the sidewalks and M. T. Archbell, who was the only one who handled real fancy groceries, always put in an order for parsnips and celery. Christmas was the only time oranges were carried in stock.

To bring business to Washington at Christmas time the Washington parade was started by J. K. Hoyt, J. F. Buckman, S. B. Etheridge, Heber Winfield, Jess Harrington and Frank Bowers. I was asked to take charge of the feature; and the night the Christmas lights were turned on, all the rolling stock engaged in business in and around Washington rolled down Main Street in review before the mayor. After the parade hundreds of dollars worth of prizes were given away. Many times the parade, under the old parade marshal, himself, Frazier McDevett, reached the length of two miles or more.

One year Washington had a Santa Claus band. Twenty Santa Claus suits were purchased, and the band, under the direction of Jake Jacobson, went from store to store to play Christmas music. The stores started staying open nights then on December 1 and stayed open until 1 a.m. on Christmas morning for late shoppers.

One year we had a painted window contest. Jesse Allen Giles was quite the artist and every window not in use to show merchandise had a Christmas scene painted on it. Stowe's won the first prize.

Another year a big community sing was staged with the balcony of the post office being used as the choir loft with the people out on the street.

When my first grandson, Rusty Hodges, was seven years old, his grandpop gave him a Christmas theatre party. His birthday is December 21. We rented the theatre and had Christmas shorts and cartoons and invited everyone in town, both white and black. His father was a clown usher and Mrs. John H. Bonner was old






Mother Goose. There were other nursery rhyme characters to act as hosts.

—and since I am telling this Christmas story, I then got into the Christmas card game. Since 1936 the card list has grown to 3,000 to say thank you to my friends who are so nice and have done so much for me and mine. The personal Christmas cards have featured everything from Miss Katie's house to the Roman Forum and Pirate Teach at Bath.

CHAPTER IX
THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY IN WASHINGTON

[James Ellison, a prominent citizen of this community, wrote his recollections of his hometown in 1967. These were published in the Washington Daily News and are used here because they are such a splendid source of firsthand information by one who has lived through the period described, and is still living, his memory vivid and his mind keen.

Mr. Ellison was born on June 26, 1886 and has lived in Washington all of his life with the exception of winters spent in Florida since his retirement.—ed.]

RECOLLECTIONS OF WASHINGTON
by
JAMES ELLISON

Between 1895 and 1900 Washington began growing, became thrifty and prosperous and quite a distributing center, and was one of the nicest towns in North Carolina in which to live.

In 1898 we became involved in a war with Spain to free Cuba from its tyrannical domination. It lasted only a short while, however the effect was inflationary, and business of all kinds in Washington increased, especially the sawmill business.

Farmers and businessmen were prosperous, business began booming and there were many wealthy and prominent families.

Pamlico River, Pamlico Sound and its tributaries were filled with sailboats of all sizes, bringing farm products and seafood to Washington and returning with merchandise of all kinds from the many wholesale and retail stores here.

Sailboats crossing Pamlico Sound and the mouth of Pamlico River were always at the mercy of storms, wind and rain. Pamlico Sound was known as the roughest inland body of water on






the east coast. Navigation by such sailboats, some quite small, was very hazardous, and the captain and crew lived a hard life, constantly exposed to danger and extreme hardships, with scant rations. Their drinking water was usually kept in an old keg, very hot in summer and often frozen in the winter. They were unable to figure the length of time required for a trip, because they were dependent upon the weather, wind and tide. When approaching landing rocks they had only long poles to assist in slowing and maneuvering without damaging other boats lying and tied at the wharfs. Often they were compelled to tie to other boats, and wait until they unloaded and reloaded.

Later gas boats replaced many sailboats and were extensively used, also steamboats.

The old Dominion Steamship Company, with John Myers Sons, agents, operated very fine steamboats (for their time). The Hatteras ran a regular schedule from Washington to Belhaven, stopping at Aurora, South Creek, Makleyville and Bayside, connecting at Belhaven with the Norfolk-Southern Railroad and bringing freight from Norfolk and other places. Capt. Dave Hill was captain and Herbert Bonner Sr., was mate.

A larger steamer, the Ocracoke, ran from Elizabeth City to New Bern and Washington, with Captain Eugene Willis. Also the R. L. Myers with Captain Parvin made daily trips up the Tar River to Greenville and intermediate landings. This was operated with a large stern, revolving paddle wheel and had a flat bottom, also the steamer Shiloh with regular trips to Tarboro and intermediate points and landings. The Old Dominion operated from a large warehouse, over the water, where the Pamlico Fertilizer Co.—s warehouse is now located, at Main and Gladden. It necessarily had a large cat population to partly subdue the larger population of wharf rats, which were so very destructive. The town's first railroad was a log road from Jamesville (called the Jolting Wiggler) with its tracks down Washington Street to the depot at the river. Captain Littler was the agent. His wife, a French lady, spoke very broken English. She operated a millinery store. Then the Atlantic Coast Line (with Captain Ellsworth as conductor and Ed Leens as engineer) began operation around 1895, with a daily schedule to Parmele and return. Trains from Kinston, Greenville, Rocky Mount, Plymouth, Weldon and Tarboro met at this junction and exchanged passengers and mail. These trains would stop frequently along their routes to fill the tanks on their engines with water and their tender with wood.

Later the Norfolk-Southern Railroad took over the log road (which was narrow gauged) from Pinetown to Washington, and owned and operated by Surry Parker, who ran a sawmill at Pinetown. The Norfolk-Southern was operating a standard gauge road from Norfolk to Belhaven. They widened the road to standard gauge and extended their operation to Washington. Later they further extended it to Greenville, Farmville, Wilson and on to Raleigh. This was around 1900. This now gave the town excellent rail passenger and freight facilities to all points north as well as through eastern North Carolina. This meant a tremendous increase in passenger travel as well as freight, which in turn boosted and greatly increased the wholesale distributing business.

Also around 1895 we had two large three mast sailing vessels or schooners owned and operated by S. R. Fowle & Sons, which made regular trips to the West Indies and Cuba, bringing back large hogsheads of delicious West India molasses, which they sold and shipped through eastern North Carolina. They also brought fruits and other commodities and occasionally a few monkeys and parrots. One was named the Cora whose captain was David Gaskill. This was the larger, finer and best equipped, with three masts. The other one was also a large fine three master. It was an exciting occasion when they arrived.

From 1890 to 1920 Washington became a large distributing center. Merchandise was received by sailing vessels and barges in addition to railroads. We had ten large wholesale grocery establishments, one wholesale fruit and produce concern, one wholesale hardware and one wholesale dry goods business. They all covered a large territory, some of them having five or six salesmen. This was before the day of paved roads and automobile trucks. Shipments were made only by boat and railroad. Until 1907, 1908 or 1909 the salesmen travelled by horse and buggy and (or) train. The deflation or recession of 1920, following inflation because of the first world war, plus the advent of paved roads and trucks vitally effected the wholesale business.

SAWMILLS

Beaufort and Hyde counties were filled with virgin timber, principally pine, and Washington was the seat of the big sawmill industry. However, there were also large sawmills at Belhaven, Makleyville, South Creek, Bath, and Bayside.

It was customary for the loggers to saw the large pine trees with hand saws (a strong man on either end), haul them out






of the woods down to the water's edge, with a —carry log— and oxen, occasionally with mules or horses, and make what was called —rafts,— tying the logs together with spikes and chains. Sometimes such rafts would consist of several hundred large logs, floated and pulled to the mills by steam tugboats and gas boats, and impounded, in what was called a log pound. After the logs were sawed the lumber would be loaded, in the hole and on the decks of large cargo barges, and pulled by tugboats through Chesapeake Bay to Baltimore, Philadelphia and other northern cities.

Washington had five or more very large sawmills.

SEAFOOD

Another large industry here at this time was the fish and seafood business. We had four or five large fish houses, which owned stoutly built seafaring boats, which would bring the fish from Pamlico Sound, usually at night, lift them out of the hole with fall and tackle, dumping them on a concrete floor, then separated by size and kind, and packed in heavy pine boxes (made for the purpose), with crushed ice, and loaded in refrigerator cars in the early morning (they worked all night, every night) and shipped by express in many directions. We also had an oyster canning factory located between the Maola Ice Cream plant and Evans Seafood place on Water Street. They would buy whole boat loads of oysters, but generally the larger and better quality were sold at the city dock. It was the custom for people to drive down to the city dock, purchase towbags full to take home and many would take trays of vinegar with pepper and buy a peck or two. The dock was filled with young colored boys, who would open and serve them to you on a fish box. The oyster canning factory was owned by Baltimore people. It had a terrible sounding whistle, which blew early every morning, waking their employees and telling them it was time to come to work. It not only awoke their employees, but most everyone else.

SHIPYARD

Next to the oyster factory at the foot of Bonner Street was Chauncey's Ways, for taking out and repairing boats of all sizes. They would pull the boats out of the water with what was called a —turnstile— using a large heavy rope, with a mule going around and around. This was owned and operated by William Chauncey. Most older people will remember him; his home was on the corner of Bonner and Fourth Street.

IRON FOUNDRY

Next to the shipyard was a large iron foundry, owned and operated by Ed Stewart, grandfather of our former mayor, Thomas Stewart.

FARMING AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES

Farming was by far the largest business in the county, principally cotton, corn, beans and later tobacco. However, around the Aurora section on the south side of the river, also in the Pantego section, in the Tranters Creek section and in other parts of the county, the big money crop was Irish potatoes, which were raised in abundance and marketed beginning in the early part of June. Many buyers representing large produce houses and dealers in Pittsburgh, New York, Philadelphia, Norfolk and other cities would come to Washington and bid very spiritedly against each other, and make up cars for shipment. The farmers would bring them to the Atlantic Coast Line dock (with shed) in all sizes, quantities, and in every conceivable conveyance, including sailboats, gas boats, large flats, long bodied carts and wagons. This was before the day of automobile trucks. They were all packed in slatted barrels, with towbagging top. In the height of the season thirty, forty or fifty cars would be shipped, sometimes more, every day, making whole trains of potatoes only, using ventilated cars. A brush and lampblack was used to write the name and address of the buyer or the consignee on top of the barrels. This was an exciting period for Washington and Beaufort County.

Then in the fall the tobacco market would open and the warehouses would be filled with the golden weed, and sold at auction to the buyers representing the different tobacco companies and other tobacco dealers.

Jonathan Havens operated one of the largest cotton gins here. Located near the river or on the river. He was equipped to unload from the hole of sailboats (and other boats) by lowering a pipe and by compressed air could unload in a jiffy, gin and bale it quickly. He also operated a feed and grist mill, making high quality meal, mixed feed and flour.

OTHER INDUSTRIES

In other industries, during this period, were several large fertilizer factories. They were the Phillips Fertilizer Co., The Virginia-Carolina Chemical Co., Bragaw Fertilizer Co., and the Pamlico






Chemical Co., managed and organized by John F. Cowell from Bayboro, Pamlico County. The first two have been out of business for a number of years but the Pamlico Chemical Co., was continued upon the death of John Cowell, by his son, Charles, and under his able management the business has grown and expanded.

A shirt factory, employing quite a large number of people, was located on North Market Street, and owned and operated by M. A. Smith. Upon his retirement the plant was moved to Sixth Street and owned and operated by Fred Moore.

Hackney Brothers from Wilson established a buggy manufacturing plant here. It was located at the corner of Hackney Avenue and Third Street and managed by George Hackney, Jr. and his brother, James Hackney. They had a very large output and covered a large territory. After this business was discontinued James H. Hackney started the manufacture of truck bodies, in a small way, but has since grown to tremendous proportions.

BANKS

We had several strong banks, which were all locally owned. It was considered somewhat of an honor to be a stockholder. However, every stockholder sustained a double risk, because in case of failure he would stand to lose not only what the stock had cost him, but was assessed a like amount in addition. The Bank of Washington was the oldest. Seth Bridgman was president and was succeeded by John Havens. The First National Bank, with James L. Fowle president and A. M. Dumay, cashier. The Savings and Trust Co. with Beverly Moss president and J. B. Sparrow, cashier. A few years later the Beaufort County Building and Loan Association was organized, their office being located in the Bank of Washington building with J. B. Ross as secretary. The Home Building & Loan was organized just a little later, with offices in the Savings & Trust building. J. B. Sparrow was secretary. These associations, in helping people build and own their own homes, could be rated as Beaufort County's most valuable asset.

NEWSPAPERS

We had two unusually good papers for a town of this size, the daily paper called The Evening Messenger was owned and edited by John Arthur, Sr., and his son John Arthur, Jr. (John Arthur, Jr., was the father of Frederick Arthur), also a weekly

paper The Washington Progress owned and edited by W. K. Jacobson and after his death by Carl Goerch.

HOTELS

The town was also proud of its hotel facilities. Around 1895 we had the Nicholson Hotel located on Main Street where the Charles Store now operates. The Ricks Hotel on Gladden Street across from the Atlantic Coastline passenger station which was then located where the Blount-Midyette building is today. The Pamlico Inn located next to Mallison's Hardware store, and several boarding houses. Later M. T. Archbell built the Louise Hotel and just across the alley was the Key's Hotel.

The hotels in those days had good large buses, with a long seat on either side, drawn by a double team of horses. There was a step on the rear, on which the hotel porter stood. He wore a clean white coat. The porters were chosen for their personality, diplomacy and impressive line of talk. They would meet every passenger train, and make every effort to get as many drummers or travelling salesmen as possible. For instance, one would holler out —Louise Hotel.— Another would exclaim equally as loud —Key's Hotel.— Each would try to outfox the other in an effort to get more in his bus than his competitor.

TRAVELLING SALESMEN

Travelling salesmen had a hard life. Before automobiles came, they travelled long distances, over large areas, visiting customers in villages and country supply stores, over terrible muddy roads in winter and sandy roads in summer. Frequently they would be away for a week, leavng Monday morning and returning Friday afternoon. Often in the summer they would sit in their buggies with mosquito netting wrapped over them. Mosquitoes were terrible, especially in the low swampy sections. In winter they nearly froze, and often carried heated bricks in the foot of their buggies and used heavy buggy robes and heavy woolen gloves.

HORSES AND BUGGIES

Another flourishing business in our town at the turn of the century was the livery stable business with the sale and exchange of horses and mules.

We had a good size buggy and carriage factory, owned and operated by Ed Long (who was Julian Davenport's uncle). He






built unusually fine buggies and carriages, employing twenty to twenty-five people and had a reputation for excellent, careful workmanship. His plant was located on the corner of Second and Market streets across from our present post office.

SERVICES

The town was lighted with kerosene oil lamps on every corner, and the city would have a man go around with a stepladder on his shoulder to clean and light the lamps. Later we had gas lights and a man would ride a horse around to light them.

The first telephones were hung on the wall. Usually one had to ring several times before he could get the central office to answer. There were so few that had this luxury, in fact so few phones, for a long while we would ask to speak to Mrs. John Jones or Bill Smith's residence. There were no numbers.

We had excellent volunteer fire companies. The fire chief and firemen were paid nothing. They made many sacrifices, experienced hardships and frequently risked their lives. We had a steamer company and a hook and ladder company. The steamer was first operated by Ed Stewart and subsequently by Ed Pilley. We also had a colored volunteer fire company, organized by one of the town's most prominent colored men, Sylvester Dibbles.

We had no water or sewage. The town installed wells with round concrete tops and a large handled pump at five or six (maybe more) locations for drinking water. There were also several covered wells, for use in case of fires, by the fire companies. Most people had hand pumps, usually on their back porches. Some of the larger and better homes installed cisterns under their back porches. However, it was difficult to keep bugs, wiggle tails and frogs out, and it was a big job to clean them.

There were a few who had wells in their back lots which were used for drinking water for themselves and horses, and for keeping milk cool in summer. Many people had stables for horses on their lots, also barns for their carriages and buggies and a room for hay and feed.

MERCHANTS

The town boasted of many substantial and reliable merchants. The following will be remembered by many elderly citizens: S. R. Fowle & Son, J. F. Buckman & Sons, J. K. Hoyt, Seth Bridgman, Fred Rowe, Spencer Brothers, Knight & Cooper, A. W. Thomas, H. B. Clark, A. S. Kelley, H. Susman Furniture Co., Suskin &

Berry, E. W. Ayers, Scott Frizzele, M. T. Archbell, C. M. Little, E. K. Willis, Bowers Brothers, Dave Willis, A. J. Cox, J. F. McCluer, W. D. Buckman, Southern Furniture Co.>, Phillips Furniture Co., Jack Cherry, Tom Lewis, Mrs. Wineberg, Miss Mollie Vines and many others.

Few were conscious of taxes of any kind. City and county were very, very small. No tax on stocks of merchandise. No income tax, federal or state.

A minimum of bookkeeping and (or) records were kept by stores or professional men. If they had money in the bank at the end of the year, they felt they had lost nothing, and were doing all right.

When the automobile came, some merchants installed gasoline pumps in front of their stores on the edge of the sidewalks. Tanks were filled by rotary hand pumps. Mr. B. Kear operated the first gas station.

Some of the well-known wholesale concerns were: Southern Distributing Company, E. Peterson Company, E. R. Mixon & Company, C. T. Cordon, H. M. Jenkins, W. R. Roberson, E. E. Phillips, Pippin & Woolard, James Ellison & Company, Ellison Brothers Company, Fulford Hardware Company, and others.

Many things regularly sold in those days, by local merchants, but unknown today were: R. & G. corsets, embroidery and lace (special counters), long hat pins, fancy garters, high button shoes, shoe buttoners, high standing collars, bow ties, derby hats, suspenders, sleeve holders, stick pins, straight razors, mustache cups, shaving brushes, shaving mugs, lamps and lamp chimneys, wicks and burners, hall racks, hall lamps (raised and lowered by chains), bowls and pitchers, and other bedroom requirements. Also, feather beds, washboards, Mother Hubbards, Dukes Mixture, calomel and quinine, asafoetida, castor oil and turpentine were household remedies. Ladies hats were made to order by milliners: Misses Penny and Jane Myers, Mrs. Littler, Mrs. Bell; also Hoyt's, Ayers, Buckman's, Bowers, Kelly and others.

PRICES

Flour sold for around four dollars for a one hundred ninety-six pound barrel (or less). It was not packed in small bags or cartons as of today; however, grocery stoes would weigh out any amount for a customer. Sugar came in two hundred pound barrels only, and was weighed out, and sold for six to ten cents per pound; dry salt meat for six to ten cents per pound; pure lard came in fifty pound tins and tierces of around three hundred pounds; butter






was packed in thirty and sixty pound tubs and sold for twenty to thirty cents per pound. Few if any foods were packaged, all were sold in bulk and weighed.

Cakes and crackers were packed loose in wood boxes only and the price was very cheap. Stick candy was very much in demand. It was packed in two and one half pound thin paper boxes (two hundred pounds to a wooden barrel) and sold for ten cents per pound, or a cent a stick. Penny candies of all kinds, especially different flavored suckers on a stick were very popular. Candy kisses, especially Miller's violet kisses, were popular and in demand. Fancy grocery stores carried large pickles in vinegar and in wooden barrels. They sold for one cent each.

Many grocery stores would send a man around every morning to call on their customers and take the housewife's order and make delivery by noon.

There were several ice wagons, drawn by horses or mules going all over town, especially the residential section. They would have a loud gong and could be heard for a block away, so you could be out front with a dish pan and buy ten pounds for five cents, or twenty-five pounds for ten cents. If you bought more than ten pounds the ice man would take it inside and place it in your refrigerator. Children would follow the wagon for a block or more to get a small piece of ice.

The milk man, driving his milk wagon, would deliver your regular order of milk on your front porch early every morning, price ten to fifteen cents per quart; buttermilk and clabber five cents per quart.

Fish were sold from door to door from regular fish carts pushed by hand. He had no bell, but would holler in a loud voice —fresh fish.— The housewife would hear him and go out to his cart with a pan. All kinds of fish were very plentiful and very cheap.

Farmers living not too far from town, would drive in town with their cart or wagon (often with their wives and/or children) with all kinds of fresh vegetables, fruits, watermelons and cantaloupes, in season. Watermelons would sell for five, ten and fifteen cents each according to size. Peaches and apples were sold by the peck.

Women in the country and in town did a lot of preserving and canning fruit and vegetables, especially fruit, and were indeed proud of their accomplishments. They would sweet-pickle press peaches and were they delicious. They would preserve soft open peaches, also pears.

Meat markets had large ice refrigerators, but the temperature never was very low and when the ice melted and got low, they would often lose their meat. The market stalls were not screened and flies were in abundance.

Help of all kinds, including household servants was plentiful. A good many families had three servants, a cook, a nurse for the children and a man servant. They would take pride in their horses, harness, buggies or carriages and kept the horses well groomed and harness and buggies shiny and clean.

Wages were very, very low, especially compared to today's prices. Cooks, nurses and household servants received an average of two dollars to three dollars per week and men from three dollars to four dollars per week, and quite frequently less. But everything they had to buy was comparatively cheap.

DOCTORS

We were fortunate in having excellent doctors. Frequently, the doctor's children and grandchildren would follow in the profession. The Tayloe family was an example. Dr. David Tayloe, Sr. was a fine family and country doctor. His son, by the same name, was one of the finest doctors and surgeons in all East Carolina. He had three sons who became excellent doctors, each specializing in different lines, and one of their sons, by the same name, viz. Dr. David Tayloe, Jr., is an outstanding pediatrician today.

And the Nicholson family were excellent doctors. Doctor Sam and his brother, Dr. Plum, were general practitioners for many, many years. Dr. Sam's son, Jack, followed in his footsteps, and was recognized also as an excellent surgeon; also the Rodman family. Dr. John Rodman was an excellent doctor, and was succeeded and followed by his son, Dr. Clark Rodman, who is outstanding in his profession. Then Dr. William A. Blount was a beloved family doctor and his son, Dr. John Gray Blount, was considered a very excellent doctor and he was followed and succeeded by his grandson of the exact same name, who carries on the family tradition and fine reputation. Other outstanding physicians included Dr. Ed Brown, and Dr. L. H. Swindell. We also had two very good black doctors: Dr. Lloyd and Dr. Beebe, who administered so well and so charitably to the black people.

The doctors in those days had a mighty hard life. They travelled both far and near, with their horse and buggy, by day and by night, over unkept, narrow, muddy roads, never failing to answer






a call, and very often without hope or expectation of recompense. Their country patients would frequently give them a ham or a chicken or two, and maybe fresh meat at hog killing time.

LAWYERS

We also had a very outstanding bar, which consisted of as fine lawyers as any place in the entire state of North Carolina. I cannot resist mentioning a few of them by name. Many of our older citizens will well remember them. Judge George Brown, Col. W. B. Rodman, Judge Sheppard, Judge Stephen Bragaw, Charles F. Warren, Angus McLean, Enoch Simmons, Hallet Ward, Mr. Scott, John H. Small, Clay Carter, Harry McMullan, John Mayo and others. When they would be pitted against each other in an important case, the fur would fly.

CHURCHES

The town and its citizens around the turn of the century were justifiably proud of its churches. Most families took an active interest and pride in the denomination of their choice. Most all churches were filled on Sunday mornings and Sunday evenings. Sunday school was at four o'clock in the afternoons in the main body of the church. There were no picture shows, or golf courses or automobiles to absorb their attention. It was the custom and habit for practically all grown people to attend church services on Sunday, and children their respective Sunday schools. It was not only customary but they felt it was an obligation. This also applied to the farmers and country people. They usually attended the nearest church to them, by buggy, wagons, and (or) carts. We might be safe in assuming there were actually more devout Christians in those days than today.

The churches were also the center of social life; seeing, meeting and talking with friends. There were few diversions.

Washington had very pretty and impressive churches. The Methodist church frame building was high from the ground, with wide high steps going up to the main rotunda. The bell and tall belfry was in the corner of the churchyard close to Second Street. The conference sent many fine preachers to the church here, including Dr. Nash and many others. The present church was built in 1899, by Mr. Hartge, a highly skilled architect and builder. He also built our two story brick market house.

The Presbyterian church was built in 1823, restored and renovated in 1954. Its lovely but simple architecture closely resembles

the style architecture used in many Presbyterian churches throughout the country. It had such outstanding preachers as Dr. Payne, Dr. Henry Searight and Dr. Lawson.

The Episcopal church with its beautiful stained glass memorial windows, has always been considered as one of the finest and prettiest churches in the East Carolina diocese and second in size, next to St. James in Wilmington. The Right Rev. Nathaniel Harding served the church as minister for over forty-five years, and was greatly beloved, not only by his congregation but by members of all churches. He was succeeded by the Rev. Stephen Gardner who served for over thirty years.

The Christian church was one of the younger and smaller churches, but has experienced an amazing growth since 1920.

The First Baptist Church was located on Market Street, across the street from the post office. It was a very nice frame building, Since that time it also has had phenomenal growth. It was burned and a new large fine church was built on the corner of Main and Harvey streets.

We also had many fine colored churches in that period. One of the largest and most outstanding was the Beebe Memorial Methodist Church. It was founded by Bishop Beebe, who was not only a fine preacher, but a leader of his race, and was greatly beloved by everyone.

There were other churches but space prohibits descriptive comments. For many years prior to 1900 it was customary, upon the death of a member of a family, to send a waiter, with black ribbon around to all homes all over town, announcing the death. It was taken by a highly respected colored man, dressed in a black suit, with a white shirt and standing collar, and with either a derby or a high silk hat. It was also customary for women to show added respect by going in mourning, wearing long black dresses, for thirty to sixty days or longer, and while they were in mourning they would refrain from all social activities. The men of the family would wear black crepe arm bands.

SCHOOLS

During this period our schools could hardly be rated much better than fair. The first public school was built by the town around 1890. This was the MacNair School. A two story frame building, with not over six rooms, was located where the Christian church now stands. I believe they had six teachers, including the principal, who also taught. The first principal was Mr. Walter Seaton Dunston






(Ralph Hodges, Sr.—s uncle). A small tuition fee was charged, and each pupil bought their own books from a private downtown store, operated by a Mr. Crumpler. Also other supplies, such as slates, tablets, pencils, pens and ink. But we had several real good private schools. The largest was in the old Academy building, corner of Bridge and Second streets. They had two large rooms, one upstairs and one down. Miss Betty Robinson taught downstairs and Miss Mame Blount upstairs. Also Miss Annie Quinn ran a private school in the Mason lodge building, corner of Third and Bonner streets.

RECREATION

We had a very good and well equipped theatre on the second floor of the Brown building and owned by C. M. Brown, father of the late Mrs. Charlotte Kugler. We had excellent stock companies to play one week stands mostly during the winter months; also many local talent plays and an annual talent minstrel show. The end men were Sam Forbes and Zoph Potts, Sr. They played to packed houses with a repeat performance. We also had excellent colored minstrel shows which would come to town once or twice every year with an exciting street parade and a very fine band. These shows were held in large tents which they would bring themselves.

We also had large, nationally known circuses to visit the town once a year. They came in the fall months, after the crops were harvested. We had Barnum and Bailey's circus, probably the largest in the country, on one occasion, and it rained in torrents. They were unable to parade or even put up their tents. They made every effort, however the mud was deep and heavy. The cages became stuck and not even the elephants could move them. Finally with many large circus horses pulling and elephants pushing, they managed to reload on flat cars and leave. They never returned.

But we had the John Robinson circus to come every year for a number of years. This was considered the third largest in the country, with three rings, wonderful trapeze and high wire acts, a big menagerie, many beautiful horses and exciting bareback riding, funny clown, lion and tiger acts. A second show and many sideshows ran together with a night performance. But probably the most exciting thing was the big street parade, sometimes nearly a mile long; with several colorful bandwagons; a hundred or more fine horses all dressed up with fancy plumes in their bridles, beautiful ponies; twenty-five or more clowns and a calliope or steam organ

bringing up the rear. Hundreds of children with their parents would get up before day to watch them unload. Every family in the county that could possibly come would be here. Sidewalks all through the business section were filled from the curb to the buildings with men, women and children. It was truly the biggest day of the year.

OCRACOKE

During the summer months the Old Dominion Steamers, Hatteras and Ocracoke, as well as several sailboats made regular trips to Ocracoke, usually leaving about seven o'clock Saturday nights and arriving at Ocracoke early Sunday morning. They were loaded with vacationers and passengers from Washington, Greenville, Rocky Mount, Williamston, Kinston and other places.

Ocracoke Island in those days was very much more interesting, exciting and pleasurable than today. It had three very good hotels and many boarding houses, which served excellent homecooked food, especially freshly caught seafood, including large bedded oysters, scallops, shrimp and all kinds of fish. Their oyster and clam fritters were simply out of this world, also their hushpuppies.

People would inhale the fresh salt air and feel a sense of freedom soon after arrival. They would fish and swim in the daytime and square dance every night. To say they all, including children, enjoyed it, and —a big time was had by all— is putting it mildly.

The island was crude and undeveloped, the natives were friendly and would go out of their way for everyone to have a good time. They had a brogue peculiar to the coast and the sea, which the visitors loved, but could rarely imitate or impersonate.

COUNTY OFFICERS

In our county offices, Sheriff Robert Hodges was our much beloved, honored and respected sheriff for many years. He was extremely friendly, lenient, soft-spoken and charitable. He was succeeded by sheriffs Windley, Ricks and Rumley and others.

Gilbert Rumley, father of ex-sheriff William Rumley, was Register of Deeds and was also greatly beloved by everyone. Mr. Mayo, from South Creek, was Clerk of the Court, followed by George Paul and others.

We had no funeral homes. Wilse Farrow conducted funerals and sold coffins (frequently homemade) in the small brick building on Second Street now occupied by Attorney William Mayo. The two






largest funerals held in that period, were Sheriff Hodges— and the Rev. N. Harding's. The processions, all buggies and carriages, were over a mile in length.

Most of the events and happenings in Washington between the years of 1895 to 1920 have been enumerated and described. Also, many have been omitted. It will give this generation some little insight into what life and living in Washington during this period was like, and to the older generation will bring to mind memories of the past.

PART 2
GOERCH REMEMBERS

James L. Mayo bought the Washington Gazette in 1909 and changed its name to The Washington Daily News. In 1913 in a trade journal Mr. Mayo saw an advertisement saying, —Wanted: a job as reporter.— The boy who advertised was from Poughkeepsie, New York and his name was Carl Goerch. Mr. Mayo sent for him and gave him a job on the paper.

So many fine men and women have made contributions to Washington through the years that it is difficult to pinpoint specific individuals after the passage of years. But Carl Goerch stands out because as a journalist he put Washington, N. C. on the national map.

At the age of twenty-two Carl came to Washington where he lived for twenty years before moving on to Raleigh. The author of six books about North Carolina, as owner and editor of The State Magazine, as a well-known radio broadcaster, he was designated by the North Carolina General Assembly as Mr. North Carolina.

Before he died in 1974 at the age of 83 Mr. Goerch jotted down his impressions of Washington when he first arrived in 1913.

—I first came to Washington in May, 1913. . . The first glimpse I had of the town was as the Norfolk-Southern train swung out onto the bridge across the Pamlico River. It was a pretty sight, and I knew at once that I would like living in this part of the country. . . The Daily News office was located on Water Street right near where the Coca-Cola Bottling Company plant is now located, second floor, I believe. . . I succeeded in getting a room at Mrs. W. A. Blount's boarding house on East Second Street. Cost of the room, with three meals a day, was five dollars per week. . . The only paved street in town was Main Street, from the Coast Line tracks down to Market Street. J. K. Hoyt's

store was at the corner of Main and Respass. The post office was in Hugh Paul's building on West Main Street. The First Baptist Church was a small frame building on North Market Street, where Bennett's is now located. Both high school and grammar school were in the building on West Second Street.

—Washington at that time had the reputation of having more pretty girls in it than any town of its size in the state. . . Among the leading businessmen were Captain George Leach, A. M. Dumay, E. W. Ayers, Charlie Flynn, Beverly and Frank Moss, J. K. Hoyt, George Spencer, Carl Richardson, Worthy and Etheridge, John Sparrow and Jim Buckman. There were, of course, many others, but space doesn't permit mentioning all of them. . . Edmund Harding's father was rector of St. Peter's Episcopal Church. Steve Gardner did not get here until about 1918 or 1919. I have forgotten exactly which date it was, but he will probably write a piece for the paper, correcting it, so it does not make much difference. . . Dr. N. C. Newbold, now head of education for Negroes in North Carolina, was superintendent of the city schools. . . Bowers and Lewis had a store located in the building where the Keys Hotel now is. . . —Miss Lizzie— Windley was chief clerk in Captain Clark's store, and John D. Calais was in charge of the men's department in the same store. . . . Among the popular young ladies in town were Mae Blount, Evelyn Jones, Olivia Jordan, Sally and Elizabeth Carrow, Sybilla Griffin, Elsie Wright, and once again I will have to plead limitation of space, because it is impossible to name them all. . . . The town went all out for Chautauquas in those days, and if you did not buy at least one ticket, you were not a public-spirited citizen. As I recall, we usually lost money every year. . . Lee Davenport ran a drugstore at the corner of Main and Market streets. . . S. R. Clary was local agent for the Coast Line, and T. Harvey Myers served in the same capacity for the Norfolk-Southern. . . Good heavens: I have almost forgotten to mention some of the other old-timers—Jonathan Havens, Jesse Warren, old Dr. Dave and Dr. Josh Tayloe, John H. Small, Frank Bryan and Ed Stewart and W. K. Jacobson. . . There were no paved roads, and if you wanted to go to Greenville, you went by train. . . . Surry Parker, of Pinetown, was one of the first owners of an automobile in this section, and he used to drive between Pinetown and Washington at a furious rate of speed. . . George Hackney was head of the Washington Buggy Company. . . Dr. John Blount, in addition to his medical activities, ran a drugstore.






. . . There were three banks: First National, Bank of Washington and Savings and Trust Company. . . . Washington had a baseball team in a semi-professional league. The field was located in Washington Park. There were only three or four houses in the Park at that time. Reg. Fulford's mother was the champion rooter in town.

—It was a great old town in those days, just like it is today, and I think the outstanding thing about it then and today is the friendliness of its people.—

Carl Goerch and Edmund Harding became close friends. They made a wonderful team as both were full of ideas.

They put on a hilarious publicity campaign, which received attention all over the country, to get Washington, D. C. to change its name because it was such an inconvenience to residents of Washington, N. C. to have the mail continually going astray.

Carl Goerch was a great traveler. He visited fifty-two countries before he died but he never changed his mind about the sentiments expressed in the songs he and Edmund composed in their youth.

I
George Washington, good old GeorgeLed his troops at Valley ForgeChoppd down his daddy's cherry treeChased the British clear across the sea.He was our first presidentIdolized where ere he wentAnd when he died so great was his fameThat numerous towns adopted his nameThere's a Washington in AlabamaThere's a Washington in TennesseeThere's another one—In Oregon,But none of them suit me,There's a Washington in MinnesotaIn Maine and Delaware, BUT—After all is said and done,There is really only oneWashington in Carolina—Down on the PamlicoGOERCH AND HARDINGII
An expert swimmer was Billy McGeeSwam the Atlantic and Baltic SeaBathed in France, Italy and GreeceBut nowhere could Billy find peace;So he swam at last to his native landWaded ashore and raised his hand—And what did he say?—I'd rather wash-wash-wash in WashingtonThan to bathe in ancient RomeOh my gosh-gosh-gosh how I've been stungSince last I left my home,I'd rather splash on the banks of the PamlicoThan to swim to Peru or Mexico,I'd rather wash-wash-wash in Washington,WASHINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA.GOERCH AND HARDING




CHAPTER X
REMINISCENCES
MEMORIES OF PATTIE BAUGHAM McMULLAN
(Recorded By MARY MCILHENNY TOLER)

Foreword:

—A fascinating book could be written about Washington and her people in the early 1900's,— Mrs. Harry McMullan said in an interview with Mary Bell McIlhenny Toler in 1951. Mrs. Toler, who has been Woman's Editor of the Washington Daily News since 1948 says, —In considering local residents to ask about the social life of Washington in the early part of the twentieth century I do not think I could have found a more charming person than I did in Mrs. McMullan, the former Pattie Baugham, a lovely belle of Washington in her girlhood, and at that time (1951) the still lovely wife of Harry McMullan, Attorney General of North Carolina.—

Time flew by as Mrs. Pattie and I sat in her comfortable living room in Washington Park while she talked of the gay experiences of her youth. —What shall we talk about?— she asked. —Any and everything— was my quick reply and we very nearly did.

* * *

—Washington is not so pretty and picturseque in 1951 as it was in early 1900. Then it was a lovely, quaint small town. Huge elm shade trees on nearly every street formed a green canopy over the narrow streets and broad sidewalks. In those days the pedestrian was given the consideration. The stately old trees have been sacrificed for the march of progress. Motorists speed down the wide paved streets while pedestrians struggle along on narrowed sidewalks. And in summertime, the cool of the shade of the old trees is but a memory.

—Up until 1900 the Pamlico River was Washington's —Main— Street. Up the river came all the good things of life, or so Washington youngsters thought. Delicious foods and fresh fruits came straight from the West Indies. As many as four or more ships made weekly arrivals, and as many cleared the port. Old-timers can remember when the waterfront from old Kugler's mill to the Atlantic Coast Line dock was lined with seafaring vessels.

—Naval intelligence was the most important item in the daily paper. With the head —Navy Intelligence,— it listed the daily arrivals and departures of vessels. A large number of vessels carried on trade between Washington, North Carolina, and the West Indies.

—I remember Capt. Monroe and Capt. Gaskill; my home was at the corner of Respass and Second streets, three doors away from the home of Capt. Monroe. Whenever we chanced to meet he always greeted me with —Daughter, what do you want me to bring you from the West Indies?— And my answer was always the same, —A parrot that will talk, or a canary that will sing.— He always did—as soon as one of my cherished pets would pass away, another bird would be forthcoming.

—Not many families in those days were without a parrot, a canary or love birds. The cage would stay on the porch, and parrots were allowed to roam the garden, always returning to the cage at night.

—All the children in town, white and colored, looked forward to the arrival of the ships, this being the only means of fresh fruits. Tables were bountifully spread. Molasses was the main item, together with oranges, coconuts, pineapples, Bermuda onions, and whole bunches of bananas—the ships were ladened.

—Many carried exchange cargo of expensive silks, laces, scarves, novelties and other costly items. Also included was Jamaica rum, bay rum which was used as a skin lotion, and Florida water used as any toilet water of today. The fragrance of tropical blossoms was a heavenly scent.

—The ships docked at Fowle's wharf back of the J. B. Fowle building. The warehouse is built of stones brought from the West Indies as ballast. The incoming vessels brought in a lighter cargo than they took away, the export being lumber, tar, pitch and turpentine. Large, strong West Indies Negroes served as deckhands. I clearly remember the bright bandanas they wore and the large golden rings which hung from their ears.

—This was the day of days for Washington's girls and boys! In unloading the molasses hogsheads, the movement caused a






foam, making it necessary to knock the bung from the hole. The escaping golden brown foam was eagerly caught in little tin buckets by children from all over town. Mr. Fowle was very kind to all the youngsters, both white and colored. That night molasses taffy pullings would take place all over town. By adding a little butter and vinegar to the molasses, and cream of tartar to make it brittle, the delicious taffy would melt in your mouth.

—Memorable events of the years 1895-1900, were the Sunday school picnics held by each church in the summer. Flats were rented and fences erected around the edge for safety of the children. Benches were arranged crosswise the length of the flat. This was towed to the —Public Landing— by Mr. Walling's tugboat. Each family would take a basket of delicious picnic foods—fried chicken, baked ham, homemade pickles, chicken salad, slices of country ham, deviled eggs, beaten biscuits, and every variety of homemade cakes imaginable.

—Each church had its own day, the custom being to invite children of other Sunday schools. The one stipulation was to furnish food for your invited guests.

—The duty of the men of the church was to concoct huge wooden tubs of lemonade. Dozens upon dozens of lemons, pounds of sugar, and cakes of ice went into the drink.

—Late in the evening the flats returned to Washington, loaded with happy, tired children, simply dead from overeating and drinking gallons of lemonade.

—In the early 1900's before the day of house delivery, children ran most of the short errands. The storekeepers always had a friendly pat or word, a humorous remark or maybe a stick of penny candy or sucker. Through the years, and as many stores as I have visited, I'll never forget the kindness extended children in those early days of my youth. I would like to pay special tribute to the merchants of those unforgettable days. They were the kindest, most considerate and patient mortals I have ever known.

—Miss Mollie Vines, Mrs. Wineberg, and Mr. Scott Frizzle were the delight of all the children in town. Miss Mollie sold ice cream, coconut and chocolate squares and taffy candy, all of which she made herself. Also penny pickles were her specialty. Mrs. Wineberg sold penny candy. Their stores were located across from the courthouse on Market Street. Between the two stores was Ed Long's carriage shop.

—Scott Frizzle (Pauline Berry McLean's grandfather) was also

a great friend and dearly beloved by all the children of the town. His store stood where the present Bank of Washington stands. Mr. Frizzle sold not only candy, but toys, books and hundreds of other objects.

—In his basement were perfectly harmless yellow back books known as —dime novels.— These he would not sell to children. Members of the older generation will also remember Mr. Frizzle's pet monkey named —Tom.—

—I well remember the five cent dolls with china heads, feet and hands, and the bodies stuffed with sawdust. These he had in various ages, lady-dolls, baby-dolls and gentlemen-dolls sporting black mustaches.

—Starting at the corner of Main and Market (where Corner View Barber Shop stands) was the mercantile establishment of Mr. Ab Thomas (Thomas Stewart's grandfather). It was well known as he carried the finest of merchandise, satin, silks and laces.

—Over Mr. Thomas— store was Brown's Opera House where plays were presented, both local and plays by stock companies.

—Next came Mr. Dave Bogart's store which was filled with the most wonderful books for adults and children. It was heaven to get in there with the most beautiful china that could be bought. (This was Frank Rollins— grandfather.)

—Across the street where Welch's was located was the lovely old home of the Martins, grandmother of Mrs. Charlotte Kugler.

—Later on, in the basement of this home (on the Market Street side), was the barber shop of Sylvester Dibbles. Sylvester was known to everyone, and highly respected. A colored gentleman who plied his trade as a barber, and was pressed into duty for weddings and social functions. He was valet to the bridegroom and butlered at large social events. But Sylvester will be best remembered by some of the older Washingtonians for his service at the time of deaths. In his Prince Albert coat with pinstripe trousers, white shirt and tie, always wearing a tall black silk beaver hat, Sylvester would call at each home of friends of the family. He carried a silver tray on which was placed the notice of the death, time and place of the funeral services.

—The handwriting of those notices was the most beautiful, flowing Spencerian I have ever seen; in the upper right hand corner a ribbon was run through slits in the paper. The two-inch black grosgrain ribbon was used for an elderly person; and always for children a white ribbon was used. A delicate spray of lily-of-the-valley,






narcissi, or a rosebud was pinned at the top, or any dainty flower that the local garden afforded.

—Sylvester's approach was always dignified. After a single knock, if a servant answered she was given the tray to show to the head of the family. I will always remember the moment of quiet dignity and no conversation on the part of Sylvester or the person who received the tray.

—Other than his barber shop and faithful service on all occasions, Sylvester Dibbles was captain of the —Salamander Fire Company,— a colored organization. He held a high station with the white and colored people alike.

—In memory I can walk down Main Street and still see the business establishments that lined the street. There was the old Nicholson Hotel, well known to early travelers; the old Cape Fear Bank building (Turnage Theatre site) which was a handsome stone building with a porch supported by stately columns. Beyond the bank building was Brad Morton's furniture store, the best furniture company in this section. (This was Bee Morton's grandfather.)

—The Adams House, another hostelry, was located about this point. W. C. Mallison and Sons Hardware Company, McCluers, Dr. Snell's Dental Parlor and Scott Frizzle, all extended to the corner of Main and Respess streets.

—Across the corner was J. K. Hoyt, which at that time was Washington's leading fashion center. —Miss Pennie— Myers— hats at Hoyt's were the heart's desire of every girl in Washington.

—After Hoyts came the Bank of Washington, then Major Archbell's and Joe Tayloe's, well known for groceries.

—After passing Dave Carter's was the home of —Miss Mag— Call with its plank sidewalk. This was at the Phillips-Wright location and was a quaint little place like its owner. Mrs. W. H. Call, known better to her many friends as —Miss Mag,— was a person one could never forget. She was on call to arrange weddings, funerals and all other functions whether social or civic. And her plays! She not only directed but wrote the script and composed all the music including the words. Rehearsals were held night after night until the lines were perfect.

—Perhaps Miss Mag's most outstanding virtue was her ardent love for the Confederacy. She organized the —Children of the Confederacy— in 1897 with a membership of eighty-eight children. Her winter costume was a regular uniform, a Confederate grey cape and a —pill box hat.— On the tenth of May members of the Children of the Confederacy marched to McNair Street (then known as

Old Field) where a large memorial service was held around the Confederate monument. The monument stood on the location now occupied by the Norfolk Southern Railroad station, and was later moved to Oakdale cemetery where Confederate memorial exercises are held today.

—The cannonball monument at the Market Street entrance to the cemetery was erected by the Children of the Confederacy. The cannonballs were actually fired by the Yankees during the —Civil War. They were collected around 1900 and placed in a mound at the cemetery entrance.

—One can not think of Miss Mag without remembering her pet pug dogs. Never have I seen dogs so well trained or more like human beings. The dogs— names were —Ruby Rhinestone— and —Truby— and were as well-known as anyone in town. Miss Mag had an oil painting of these two pugs, draped in red velvet and placed on an easel in her living room. The dogs had their individual seats in the room which they mounted when entering. —Ruby Rhinestone— and —Truby— were taken out for a daily airing in a baby carriage purchased especially for them. They were covered with a baby spread and behaved perfectly. On windy days the fringed parasol on the carriage was tilted to keep Ruby Rhinestone and Truby from becoming chilled.

—On the other side of Main Street at the corner of Main and Respess was the lovely home of the Fowles, a beautiful brick home with a wrought iron railing front and back. The gardens extended to the Pamlico River at the back and were lovely with numerous flowers and stately old magnolia trees. Also at this point were the Fowle stores and warehouses.

—On the Jowdy Radio Company location was the Howard Wiswall store, which burned, and I remember so well how we used to love to play in the ruins of the old cellar. James E. Clark had the big dry goods concern next door.

—Where the Hotel Louise stood was one of Washington's oldest shops, selling millinery to the ladies of the town. This hat shop was owned by Mrs. Ann Bell, who also lived there with her family. The property extended back to the river. (Mrs. Bell was Mary Bell Toler's grandmother.)

—Blount's Drugstore, McKeel Richardson Hardware, the Gardner home and the home of Miss Lida Rodman and its garden carry us back to Main and Market. Where Wachovia now stands Spencer Bros., known as the Racket Store, was located.

—One of my happiest childhood memories is of wading in the






gutters where the waters from the town pumps overflowed. The best known and most widely used of these pumps which supplied the town with water was that at the courthouse. This was located on Second Street near the corner of Main. The pump at the corner of Second and Harvey streets (in front of Mrs. Morgan's home) served the east end of town. Another city pump was at the corner of Second and Bridge, where the high school building was. This was for the convenience of the west end of town and was known as the Academy pump. The fourth pump on Main Street was known as the Episcopal pump. This was located halfway between Bonner and Harvey. The sidewalks were wide and elm shaded. The pumps were between the street and sidewalk and spilled the overflow into a small gutter. These gutters made the most wonderful wading ponds for the town children. The elm trees made a lovely green arch and at that time paving consisted of ground oyster shells, whose whiteness formed a lovely contrast to the greenery overhead. This pump water was excellent and supplied water to those people preferring it to the water in their cisterns.

—Speaking of water, one of the interesting sources of water for Washington in the old days was Cow Head Springs. This spring was between two and three miles from town. You went out Market Street and turned left (at what is now Spring Road). (The spring is on the property of Fred Mallison.) The water was considered very healthy. Colored men would bring this spring water into town in barrels and sell it. It was a custom on Sunday afternoon to ride out in the horse and buggy with demijohns and take home a week's supply of spring water. This was supposed to be an excellent tonic as it contained a brown precipitate which we were told was iron water and was always shaken up before drinking to be sure you got your iron. Legend said that a visitor to town, once taken to Cow Head Springs to drink that water, would always return. Consequently young men made a habit of taking popular visiting girls to drink at Cow Head Springs. It was a lovely Sunday afternoon ride.

—About the most outstanding, thrilling and memorable occasions of my young ladyhood were the Halcyon Club dances. This dance club was most exclusive and one of the oldest of its kind in the state, being organized in 1885. One —black ball— cast against a person would keep him from becoming a club member. The first officers of the Halcyon Club were: J. H. Small, president; Col. W. B. Rodman, Sr., secretary, and leaders were D. P. Blount and William Bragaw. Later Jonathan Havens served as president,

and some of the early organizers, other than those mentioned, were L. M. Blakely, J. K. Hoyt, Churchill Perkins, W. H. Smallwood, S. F. Telfair, John B. Fowle, F. Bryan Satterthwaite, C. C. Calais, E. S. Hoyt.

—There were normally six dances a year. The affairs were always strictly formal card dances. Your escort filled out your card for the evening. Intricate German figures were featured and during a grand march attractive favors were always given. A gentleman never danced with a young lady without keeping a handkerchief in his hand to keep from soiling his partner's evening gown.

—It was a custom of the club that children were never forgotten. The children were favored with a dance earlier in the evening. Their dance dresses were as well planned as were their big sisters—.

—In the earlier days of the Halcyon Club, an Italian string orchestra would come to Washington to play for the dance. After the dance was over any young man wishing to do something especially nice for his ladylove would hire the orchestra to sit on her lawn and serenade her. The orchestra would visit around town for several hours as hired. Different young ladies about town took turns in providing sumptuous intermission suppers when these dances took place. The rules of the club were very strict. If whiskey was even detected on a gentleman's breath he was asked by officers of the club to leave the ballroom.

—These were the days when Ocracoke was in its heyday as a vacation spot. On Saturday nights, during the summer, a big boat left for Ocracoke loaded with vacationists. The local band was composed of prominent men around the city. A few of them were: Zoph Potts, Sr., Sam Forbes, Carmer Cordon, E. W. Ayers, J. F. Buckman, Sr., George Morton, George Buckman, Ed Stewart, and Charlie Forbes (who was a well-known composer, having some of his compositions played by Sousa), and other local men. The band would parade and play all the way down Main Street, followed by a crowd of friends going down to the boat to wish those leaving —bon voyage.— Both white and colored joined in the procession.

—If you were taking the trip you usually went down to the boat in late afternoon to arrange your hammock, deck chairs and folding chairs. It was an overnight trip, and groups of friends would make the vacation trip together. Gay band music was played as the boat sailed from port, amid cheers and farewell messages. Early in






the morning the boat docked at the pier in front of Hotel Pamlico at Ocracoke. This was a large square building with verandas entirely around the first and second floors, overlooking Pamlico Sound. Atop the hotel was a cupola.

—There was a lovely ballroom in the hotel, and each night an orchestra would furnish music. In the dining hall colored waiters in white coats and white gloves served the tables with delectable seafoods.

—Each afternoon small boats would carry hotel guests over to —Pointer Beach,— the favorite spot for surf bathing. And oh, those bathing suits, quite different from the 1951 swimsuits.

—Ocracoke was visited by people from all over the state. This hotel later burned to the ground. To spend one's vacation on Ocracoke Island was pure joy especially for courting couples on moonlight nights.

—Those were the days!—

CHAPTER XI
WORLD WAR I

PART I
WORLD WAR I CHRONOLOGY FOR BEAUFORT COUNTY

Washington and Beaufort County were far from idle during the length of time that the United States was engaged in warfare against her enemies. In order that the people of the county might have a definite idea of the work accomplished in the county the Daily News compiled a chronology of events.

1917

March 17—Red Cross Auxiliary organized in Washington. Miss Marcia Myers, Chairman; Miss Elizabeth Mallison, Secretary; Miss Virginia Bonner, Treasurer.

April 3—Two companies of Home Guards organized: W. C. Rodman, Major; W. W. Baugham, Adjutant; S. M. Pollard, Captain Co. A.; Frank H. Bryan, Captain Co. B.

April 8—Washington Detachment of Naval Militia leaves for Norfolk. Given big send-off by local citizens.

April 9—Doctors of Beaufort County organize themselves into Auxiliary Medical Defense Committee: Dr. S. T. Nicholson, President; Dr. H. W. Carter, Secretary.

April 11—Local Negroes meet at courthouse and pledge loyalty to government.

April 12—Home Guard Company organized at Bath: Rev. J. C. Crosson elected Captain.

April 13—Home Guard Company organized at Edwards. Another also formed at Blounts Creek.

April 13—Negroes of Pantego meet and pledge their loyalty.

April 14—Loyal Food Club organized in county.

May 4—A. G. O'Neal, W. F. Bonner, Henry Morgan,






Horace Cowell, John Cotton Tayloe, C. L. Midcap, Jamie Williams, Fred Moore leave for Fort Oglethorpe; first from this section.

June 5—Registration day. 2556 registered in Beaufort County.

June 13—W. C. Rodman receives order from B. S. Royster, Adjutant General, to organize battery of field artillery.

June 16—Beaufort County goes over the top in Liberty Loan Campaign.

June 19—Jim Baugham leaves for France.

June 26—Mayor Stewart, Harry McMullan and Dr. John Blount appointed local exemption board.

July 16—Washington contributes to purchase of two ambulances.

July 19—First drawing in draft. 258 was first number drawn.

July 23—Fred G. T. Hill walks 20 miles to join Battery.

July 26—Appointment of Soldiers Business Aid Committee: Lindsay C. Warren, chairman.

August 2—Physical examinations of drafted men begins.

August 28—Big picnic at Washington Park for the Battery.

September 2—Red Cross busy making comfort bags.

September 7—First men leave here in answer to the draft.

September 15—Battery B leaves for camp.

October 2—Beaufort County Council of Defense organized: J. D. Grimes, Chairman; Carl Goerch, Secretary.

October 27—Red Cross organized at Aurora.

October 29—Second Liberty Loan Campaign ends. County's quota was $320,000. Went over top by $30,000. Beverly Moss, Chairman.

November 13—Reserve Militia organized in Washington. Z. M. Potts elected Captain.

November 19—Washington goes over the top in Y. M. C. A. campaign. J. G. Bragaw, Jr., Chairman.

November 22—Questionnaires received for registrants.

November 27—Silk flag sent by people of county to Battery B.

December 5—Hubert O. Ellis died at Camp Jackson.

December 19—Red Cross campaign for 100 members is successful.

December 22—E. R. Mixon elected Chairman of W. S. S. Campaign in county.

1918

January 26—W. G. Privette appointed County Food Administrator.

February 12—Colored people organize Red Cross. Willie Edwards, Chairman.

March 11—Local businessmen subscribe to uniforms for Reserve Militia.

May 4—Over the top in the Third Liberty Loan. Quota was $175,000. We raised $216,000.

May 21—Belhaven makes up Red Cross quota in one day's time.

May 28—Battery B sails for France.

June 1—County goes over the top in Red Cross campaign.

June 18—Reserve Militia secures uniforms.

June 21—Red Cross members work in potato fields, digging potatoes, and sell spuds for $403.

July 2—Aviator James Baugham killed in action.

July 8—Daily News receives letter from Colonel Fries commending paper's work in W. S. S. Campaign.

August 26—Jewish relief campaign. B. L. Susman, Chairman. Over the top.

September 1—Walter Goddard killed in France.

September 23—Letter from Captain Wiley C. Rodman telling of activities of Battery B at the front.

October 11—Daily News wins prize for writing best editorial on Liberty bonds. 636 papers competed.

October 21—Over the top in the Liberty Loan campaign. B. G. Moss, Chairman.

November 7—Washington has big prayer meeting over —fake— armistice.

November 9—Captain Horace Cowell killed in action.

November 15—United War Work Campaign a success. J. G. Bragaw, Chairman.

1919

March 20—Battery B landed at Newport News from France on transport St. Theresa.

March 29—Beaufort County welcomes Battery with big celebration in Washington.

PART 2
BEAUFORT COUNTY CASUALTIES IN WORLD WAR I

Horace CowellHoward JacksonAllen Cuthrell
James BaughamRobert GattisJoseph Brooks
Edward DoughtyDavid BoydWilliam B. Ebron






Roy HootenJames CarterDavid Swain
Robert RespessJohn JudkinsArthur Little
Hubert EllisAlston GrayJohnnie Johnston
Walter GoddardDavid TettertonStephen Johnston
Thaxton GibbsGilbert BonnerSolomon Tuten
Julius TettertonAlfred G. Davis

PART 3
BATTERY B
by
CAPT. WILEY C. RODMAN

(Written for The History of the 113th Field Artillery, 1920. Used with the permission of Charlotte Rodman Andrew and W. C. Rodman, Jr.)

This battery was organized at Washington, N. C., during the month of June, 1917, and was composed largely of boys under twenty-one from the counties of Beaufort, Washington, Pitt, Pamlico, and Hyde, with a few from other counties and some from other states. The organization was accepted by the government as of July 20th, and was formally mustered into the service on the 25th day of July, 1917.

It remained in Washington, N. C., from that time until its departure for Camp Sevier, S. C., in September, and during its stay in Washington was quartered in a building on Market Street, known as the Armory.

During its stay in Washington the organization was given primary instruction in infantry drill, partially uniformed by the government and entirely inoculated for all the ills that flesh is supposed to be heir to.

It was the recipient of many favors and gifts from the city and county, the citizens individually and the local societies for aiding the soldiers which had already sprung into existence and activity. Among the gifts was a Victrola, a pet coon and a battery flag which was carried by it throughout the war, and has been returned by it to the city of Washington as a gift.

Early in September the battery received its first pay from —Uncle Sam,— squared up the many debts which had accumulated during July and August, to the great satisfaction of all concerned, and shortly thereafter departed for a long and tedious sojourn, but notwithstanding a happy one, in the State of South Carolina.

The officers of the battery at this time were: Wiley C. Rodman, Captain; Enoch S. Simmons, First Lieutenant; William E. Baugham, First Lieutenant; George S. Dixon and Robert H. Lawrence, Second Lieutenants.

Up to the time of the departure from Washington for Camp Sevier there had been two hundred ten men recruited for the battery, and of these there were one hundred seventy-eight actually carried to the camp—the remainder having been discharged for various reasons. At Camp Sevier the battery was consolidated with the other batteries comprising the regiment and as a battery did the work assigned to it during the stay there. With the regiment it departed for overseas service and arrived in England at Liverpool on the 7th day of June, 1918. It arrived at Le Havre, France, on the 13th of June, and from there proceeded to Coetquidan, France, where it underwent the hardest kind of training until the twenty-third of August.

At this camp it was equipped for the first time with the French 75's and two Hotchkiss machine guns.

The battery arrived at Toul on the 26th of August and was immediately marched to the regimental echelon in the —Foret de la Reine.— It took part in the St. Mihiel offensive, having three men wounded at Thiacourt, and from there marched with the regiment to its position for the Argonne offensive.

In this latter, in front of Montfaucon, it had two men killed and several wounded and gassed.

The battery took part in all the battles in which the regiment was engaged, and in front of Montfaucon it, with Battery A, was nearer to the German lines than any other batteries in the brigade of which it formed a part. After withdrawing from the Argonne it was sent with the regiment to the Meuse Plains, and while occupying positions in this sector, it was for thirteen days stationed at a little abandoned French village called Avilliers. This position was nearer to the German lines than the position of any other battery in the brigade, and during this period it was constantly under observation from hostile airplanes and was subjected to daily shelling by the enemy without being allowed to return the fire. It was the most dangerous position occupied by the battery during the entire war, and while no one was killed there the escapes were more than fortunate.

On the night that orders had been given to retire, the infantry got out first and for three hours this battery was the front line of the army at this place. The Germans in some way got wind






of this and just as the battery was withdrawing subjected the position to the heaviest shelling which it underwent during the war.

The signing of the Armistice found the battery in position on the heights above the Meuse Plains and here it remained until the 7th of December, when it took up the march with the regiment for Luxemburg and the shore of the Moselle River. The battery proceeded with the regiment on its various marches and returned with it to Le Mans, France, and thence to America and was mustered out at Camp Jackson, South Carolina, on the 28th of March, 1919.

The members of the battery who were originally from Beaufort and surrounding counties proceeded to Washington, N. C., as an organization and there received from the assembled citizens of the entire surrounding country the greatest —welcome home reception— that Washington had ever witnessed. The Victory Arch erected by the citizens stands today as a beautiful tribute to commemorate the battles in which the battery participated and as a monument to the fallen heroes from the county of Beaufort.

Of the original 178 men who had departed with the battery only 110 returned to enjoy the celebration, as some had given up their lives, some had been transferred to other organizations and many had been discharged for various reasons.

The battery had from time to time been supplied with replacements from different sections of the state, United States and the world at large, and generally it might well have been called a cosmopolitan organization.

Too much credit cannot be given to these replacements, so called, and some of the best men in the battery were thus secured.

The officers who served with the battery during its period of service were as follows:

Captains: Rodman and McLendon.

Lieutenants: Simmons, Baugham, Dixon, Lawrence, Meares, Harrison, Ashcraft, Moore, Covington, Beaman, Roberts, Wood, Taylor, Boswell, Crenshaw, Adler, McKinnon, Hand, Hedden, Suplee.

First Sergeants: Gardner, Loris W.; Hand, LeRoy C.; Blount, Wm. A. Jr.; Latham, Jesse H.

Battery Clerks: Ausbon, Clarence S.; Ramsey, Claude S.; and Goldsmith, Clarence D.

The following deaths occured:

Pvt. George H. Frady—Killed in action near Montfaucon.

Corp. Glenn S. Cowgill—Killed in action near Montfaucon.

Pvt. Julius L. Tetterton—Killed in action in the Woevre.

Pvt. Robert H. Gattis—Died from pneumonia, Le Mans.

The battery had fifty horses killed by shellfire.

During the time that the battery was engaged in action with the enemy the following officers served with it: Captain Wiley C. Rodman; First Lieutenant Charles H. Wood; Second Lieutenant William C. Adler and Second Lieutenant Ernest M. Hedden.

The battery was joined a few days before the signing of the Armistice by Lieutenant Irwin Suplee.

PART 4
JIM BAUGHAM

The monument to the Lafayette Escadrille and the Lafayette Flying Corps is in the forest of St. Cloud, a park eight miles outside of Paris. This Memorial Arch was dedicated in the summer of 1928. At that time Mrs. W. P. Baugham accepted an invitation to be the guest of the French government because high on the side of this beautiful memorial is inscribed the name of her son, James Henry Baugham, who lost his life in the service of France during the First World War.

The names of three North Carolinians are on the Monument at St. Cloud: Kiffin Rockwell of Asheville who was killed over Verdun in September 1916; James McConnell who was killed in France in March 1917 and James Henry Baugham who was fatally wounded on July 1, 1918, and died the next day.

Rockwell and McConnell were in that small group of fifteen American pilots who formed what was called the Lafayette Escadrille. An escadrille is a squadron, a single unit in the French Air Force. Officially the original Lafayette Escadrille was known as Spa 124 since the pilots were flying Spads. When Jim Baugham went to France he was posted to Spa 157 and then transferred to Spa 98 when he became a member of the Lafayette Flying Corps.

The United States had not yet entered —World War I when Jim, fired to fever heat over accounts of the feats of aviators in France, left State College and enrolled in one of America's first flying schools. The airplane as a machine and aviation as a science were both in their infancy. Nevertheless these embryo aviators managed to learn a good deal about flying.

On April 6, 1917, the United States entered the war. Jim tried to get into the U. S. Air Force but was turned down because he was too young. He was just seventeen, having been born on January 12, 1900.






It was not easy to enlist in the French aviation service, but Jim Baugham managed to do it and sailed for France in June 1917 to become the youngest pilot who ever flew with the Lafayette Flying Corps.

Two hundred and nine American boys fought under the French tricolor and sixty-seven of them lost their lives. In gratitude the French government named the American fliers in honor of the French general Lafayette, who had served America during the —Revolutionary War.

James Norman Hall (author of Mutiny on the Bounty), writing in his history of The Lafayette Flying Corps, says of Jim (page 115), —He was a fine type of Southerner; keen, alert and full of courage. He came from old American stock, the kind that loves danger for its own sake and fights to the last ditch.—

Daring and courageous, Jim did not know the meaning of fear. After a spectacular feat during which he downed his first German plane, France gave him the Croix de Guerre for bravery in action. Later a Palm, a separate recognition of valor, was added to the Croix de Guerre.

For a remarkable adventure during which he made a forced landing in No-Man's Land between the French and German lines and then miraculously excaped, he won the Medaille Militaire which is awarded only for acts of supreme heroism, or to generals for feats of supreme strategy.

In March, 1918, Jim was transferred from the Vosges sector to the Champagne country where he joined a combat unit for reconnoitering enemy territory.

On July 1, 1918, the French War Office announced to the world increasing air activity along the western front. Rumors reached Washington that Jim Baugham had been captured and was a prisoner of war. But Jim had not been captured. The History of the Lafayette Flying Corps reads:

—On July 1, 1918, exactly one year after his arrival in France, he made his last flight. It was at 4:30 in the afternoon. Flying over the Forest of Villers-Cotterets, he attacked, single-handed, three Germans, and during a very fierce point-blank combat received two grievous wounds. Faint from loss of blood and pain he managed to reach the French lines, but he was beyond human aid and died on July 2.—

After his death, James Henry Baugham was awarded the Harmon Trophy, a token of recognition given only to those who have won international fame in aviation.

P.M.W.

PART 5
FIRST TO RETURN

Sergeant Frazier T. McDevett was the first man to come home from —World War I. Frazier was met at the train by a brass band and a huge crowd. In an open car he rode with his father and Mayor Sterling at the head of a parade in his honor. His native town had been waiting for months to know whether he would live or die.

McDevett was terribly wounded in the famous battle of September 27, which broke the Hindenburg Line. After being hospitalized in Paris, in London and later in New York, he returned home to a hero's welcome.

After serving with General Pershing on the Mexican border as a member of the National Guard, McDevett joined the Regular Army and went overseas early in 1917. He was demobilized in 1919.

PART 6
SPECIAL COURIER

Young Sam Blount, aged nineteen, left Chapel Hill in March 1918 and joined the Army. His was war service with a difference. He joined the Second Division of Engineers and was sent immediately to France where he spent the entire war on a motorcycle carrying dispatches from various headquarters to and from the artillery at the front.

It was difficult and dangerous. When the war was nearly over Sam crashed one night near Neuf Chateau, breaking both arms and several ribs. After his hospitalization he was given a choice of going to Germany with the Army of Occupation or to Paris for duty at the Peace Conference. By this time the war had ended and Woodrow Wilson was making plans to go to Paris for that historic conference. Sam elected to go with the company that chose Paris.

Woodrow Wilson arrived in Paris on December 13, 1918, to receive the greatest reception in history. Two hundred men had been selected from Medal of Honor winners to be the Honor Guard for the President. From Sam's motorcycle corps sixteen boys were picked to drive cars for the Presidential party and seven were chosen to serve as Special Couriers attached to the President. Sam was one of the seven. His job was to deliver mail in person to General Pershing, to Clemenceau, to Lloyd George, and other bigwigs. He remembers especially taking notes to King George V of England






and King Victor Emanuel of Italy. One day he witnessed the attempted assassination of Clemenceau.

Through his personal contact with General Pershing he received permission to return to the States after six months in Paris. It took thirty-eight days on an oil tanker to get here but he made it, and he has been here ever since.

P.M.W

CHAPTER XII
BETWEEN WARS

PART 1

—World War I was a watershed in history. Although it was not realized until long afterward, that shot at Sarajevo was really heard around the world. After —World War I life was never the same again.

Attitudes, manners and customs of the Victorian Age had, to a great extent, lingered on through the early years of the twentieth century. The war changed all that. Girls who had never worked outside the home, except in such a ladylike occupation as school teaching, were lured outside during the man power shortage of the war and took all kind of jobs. Moreover, they bobbed their hair, shortened their skirts and began to smoke cigarettes in public.

Men came home from France, where they had been introduced to all sorts of things they had never heard of before, and Prohibition was the spur that launched a drinking binge.

Automobiles changed the country's way of existence. Beautiful old trees which lined the streets of Washington were cut down to widen the streets of the old town so two cars could pass each other.

Washingtonians suddenly discovered that their country was a World Power. Its attitudes changed and its old customs withered away along with those of the rest of the nation. A period of inflation followed —World War I and the nation, released from the tensions and anxiety of war, went on a pleasure binge. Spending was high, wide and handsome.

The Wall Street crash of 1929 plunged the country into a depression so severe that it cannot be imagined today. Great economic distress engulfed the country and by the early thirties Beaufort County was caught up in a worldwide situation which has gone down in history as The Great Depression.

P.M.W.






PART 2
THE GREAT DEPRESSION
by
LONNIE SQUIRES

October 29, 1929, Black Tuesday, is a date in American history that will never be forgotten. This was the day when more shares of stock were dumped on the market and more money was lost than any other day in the history of stock exchanges. It was the end of rugged individualism and the beginning of a certain form of socialist government.

There is a phrase in stock market terminology known as —discounting the future.— It means the stock has been bid up and is selling very high because it should pay off in the future. Many stocks were at a very high price when the crash came. Fred Allen, radio genius, said the investing public had not discounted the future, it had discounted the —HEREAFTER.— Will Rogers said when Yankees lost their money in the stock market they either jumped out of windows or blew their brains out with a gun, and they did. A Southerner, however, in some cases, could calmly lie down beside the depression and go to sleep.

The great depression was no joke; it was grim reality day in and day out. Banks closed all over America. Millions of people were out of work. There was no financial assistance from federal or state governments. Anyone who had employment was fortunate indeed.

Washington, North Carolina, had three banks. Two closed. The Bank of Washington stood alone to serve the financial needs of our little community. In 1929, Mr. Jesse B. Ross was elected president of this institution although he had been in charge of its operations for many years. Mr. Ross had his bank ready to meet the demands of these terrible times. It was in excellent liquid position. However, each and every day there was a possibility of a run on the bank which could have ruined it. On several occasions Mr. Ross and one or the other of his directors would ride all night to the Federal Reserve Bank in Richmond, Virginia and bring money back just in time for the next day's operations. Day after day it was touch and go.

Edmund Buckman described the situation on Main Street very well. He said you could take a loaded shotgun and fire it in the front door of every business establishment in town and never hit a

customer. In other words, all customers had disappeared. One merchant gave up altogether and played cards in the back of his store. One day during a hot bridge game the front door opened and the merchant said very softly to the other three bridge players, —Now, boys, be very quiet and maybe the customer will go away.— This same card playing character would never keep his books posted to date. In fact they were several years in arrears. One of his friends said he actually had the best bookkeeping system in the world, for he didn't know the depression was ON until it was OVER.

When Franklin Roosevelt became President in March 1933 every bank in America was closed. That is every bank except one. The bank in Hyde County did not get the word and stayed open the entire banking holiday.

But life had to go on and the young people had a good time. The Christmas dances were held in an unheated tobacco warehouse in Greenville, North Carolina. If it was twenty degrees outside it was not over ten degrees in the warehouse. The boys and girls danced in their overcoats. They enjoyed themselves and no one thought about overthrowing the government.

Values were quite different during the nineteen thirties than today. People stayed at home more. They went to church more often. They listened to the radio. Eddie Cantor went off the air every Sunday night with the song —Try a Little Tenderness.— The lyrics, in part, went like this: —She may be weary, Women do grow weary, wearing the same shabby dress. So when she's weary, try a little tenderness.—

Americans in all walks of life dug in and sweated it out. They so clearly demonstrated why they were the greatest nation on earth. They had the intelligence, the fortitude and the determination to support their government regardless of present hardships and bleak conditions.

In one sense, the Great Depression of the nineteen thirties may have been one of America's finest hours.

PART 3
THE WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION

When Franklin D. Roosevelt was inaugurated as President of the United States on March 4, 1933, Mr. Hoover's depression was at its lowest ebb. Millions of people were unemployed. Thousands were on the verge of starvation. Every town and city in






the nation had bread lines and soup kitchens which were taxing local welfare facilities beyond the breaking point. When F.D.R. took over the reins of government he announced a New Deal and began immediate steps to try to reduce the national emergency by creating such agencies as the Works Progress Administration (WPA), the National Youth Administration (NYA), the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), the National Recovery Act (NRA) and numerous others. These were known to everyone as alphabetical agencies, as they were always designated by initials. Beaufort County participated in them all.

Perhaps the most useful and productive of the New Deal agencies was the WPA. This agency was created in 1935 and was designed to provide employment for skilled and unskilled workers and for white collar workers as well. The federal government provided funds for public works projects and all money was designated to be used for work of permanent benefit to the country. The variety of projects undertaken, and in most cases carried through successfully, was astounding.

In Washington the WPA built the Armory and the Recreation Center as well as the annex to the courthouse now called the Agriculture Building. The Old Ford School was built by WPA workers and other schools in the county were repaired. Dilapidated structures in use at the county home for the indigent were torn down and clean new dormitories built.

Rural electrification was high on the agenda as well as the construction of telephone lines throughout the countryside.

Road construction and repair crews were provided and many farm to market roads were improved. Ditching crews cleaned out Broad Creek and other creeks in need of such improvement. Land owners in the county gave permission for wooded land to be cut by WPA workers. It was delivered to those who could not afford to buy fuel.

Sewing rooms, manned by women workers and supervised by Miss Lizzie Windley, were set up to make garments for the needy from materials furnished by the government.

Instruction in crafts, under the direction of Miss Lyda Wilkinson, gave opportunity to produce many needed articles such as quilts for the indigent and small woven things to be sold for pin money.

Lunchrooms were set up in schools to feed children who came to school without breakfast or who would go home to no supper.

Homemakers were trained to go into poverty stricken homes where illness was a problem of both finances and ignorance. Matrons were paid to clean the toilet facilities in schools where janitors could not cope.

A bookmobile was brought into the county in order that bookmobile service might be demonstrated to book hungry readers who had no place to go and nothing interesting to do. The demonstration was so successful that at its end Beaufort, Hyde and Martin counties pooled their resources to buy it at a cost of one hundred dollars. Today a bookmobile costs twenty-two thousand dollars.

Because schools and libraries could not afford to buy new books, the WPA taught workers to repair old ones in order that they might be put back into circulation. Library workers were paid where libraries were either understaffed or not staffed at all. The Brown Library owes a particular debt of gratitude to the WPA for the fine service of Mrs. Una T. Jones who served for so long under this sponsorship.

This WPA district covered twenty counties and had headquarters in Williamston. It was necessary to appoint as supervisors of the many projects persons not on relief rolls. Lee A. Wallace was overall director for this district.

Mrs. I. P. Hodges was director of all women's activities. Mrs. Daisy Stancill directed the lunchroom project and Miss Elizabeth Flynn directed library activities.

Mrs. Harriet Brown Harris was head of adult education. This program was designed to give work to unemployed or retired teachers. Illiterates were sought out and classes organized to teach them. There were also kindergarten classes.

A clerical force did a mammoth job in the courthouse under the direction of C. C. Duke. They re-indexed all the old Beaufort County records from 1696 to 1917.

WPA activities were seemingly unlimited. They ran the gamut from planting oysters in the sound to teaching midwifery so well that Kathleen Bragg, who took care of all medical needs at Ocracoke during a critical period, was presented an award by the North Carolina Medical Association.

Beaufort County was vastly benefited by the work of the WPA. While the many and varied projects were all —cussed— by those who did not need them, they were a God-given lifeline to those who did. The WPA not only put buying power into the hands of the needy, it taught skills and it put money into circulation,






eventually helping everyone. It continued until —World War II raised the employment level to a point where it was no longer needed to sustain the economy.

P.M.W.

Information for this article furnished by Mrs. Olivia Hodges, Mrs. Daisy Stancill, Mrs. Betty Ellis Thompson and others.

PART 4

In spite of the fact that their parents were strapped for money during the Depression years, and many people would have gone hungry if it had not been for the WPA and the Welfare Department which worked around the clock, Washington was still a good place for young people to grow up. There was water to swim and fish in. There was the Bug House which kept hands and minds on the qui vive; and there was —Webs,— a recreation center par excellence.

LONNIE SQUIRES REMEMBERS
THE OLD SWIMMING HOLE

In the nineteen twenties and thirties all small town boys had a swimming hole and Washington boys were no exception. The west end youngsters used the Washington and Vandermere drawbridge. It was a railroad bridge crossing the Tar River just west of the old Eureka Mill site. The water was about twenty feet deep which assured coolness and a good current. The drawbridge afforded diving at any height.

A hot summer day would find some forty or fifty boys at this spot. Now it is possible that the more sophisticated boys had seen a bathing suit in a Sears & Roebuck catalog, but certainly none had ever worn a bathing suit. At the old swimming hole it was nature in the raw.

Several times a day passenger trains would come over this bridge bringing the people from the Aurora section to Washington. One of the nude swimmers got the idea that the passengers should be greeted, for after all, they were coming to our town.

Shortly thereafter when passenger trains came by all naked boys would dive in the water head first and come up in the opposite direction. Now this gave the dear lady passengers a near stroke and it was duly reported to the railroad officials. Unfortunately, railroad officials have no sense of humor whatsoever. In a fit of rage they commandeered the entire Washington police force and

both cops raced to the scene of the crime as fast as their flat feet would carry them. They caught the boys in the act. The youths were in the water and their clothes were on the drawbridge. Soon all boys were dressed and marched down West Second Street where they were lodged in the city jail.

Now throwing these boys in jail was like throwing Bro— Rabbit in the brier patch. The youngsters went wild—screaming, hollering, a free-for-all fight—they nearly broke up the jail. Businessmen came running from all directions. A very prominent man came by the jail and thought the screams were —for real.— In a rage he stormed in to the station and shouted —Let those boys out—let them out—I will sign every one of their bonds.— And while he meant well, he broke up the party.

Every time this writer goes over the county bridge he slyly looks westward and tips his hat to the old swimming hole. How fortunate to grow up in a small town even if the local Keystone Cops do give you a going over every now and then.

PART 5
THE BUG HOUSE
(Largest amateur Field Museum in the Nation)
by
ELIZABETH YERT STERLING
and
MARY SHELBURNE MCLAURIN

The Bug House Laboratory, sponsor of the Washington Field Museum, was started in 1923 by four boys collecting, studying and mounting specimens of insects, reptiles, and mammals in a tent located in the back yard of a member. A young girl looking at the collections one day remarked that it looked like a bug house to her. The boys thought this a fine name and adopted it for their organization.

The Bug House Laboratory grew in membership, and between thirty and forty people, both boys and girls, were at one time either associate, junior, or full members. Young people in Washington, thirsty for more knowledge and with the determination of an inspired group, worked together to build and improve their museum. George Ross, one of the original four, was a human dynamo and kept things moving forward. Dr. B. B. Brandt,






science teacher in the high school, was an inspiration and helped with scientific problems too difficult for the boys and girls to handle.

Since the name Bug House was not a proper name for a museum, the group decided to use the name Washington Field Museum, to be sponsored by the Bug House Laboratory. The museum was accepted as a member of the American Association of Museums, and grew to be the largest amateur museum in the United States.

The museum moved from a tent to an old kitchen, then to an abandoned wooden structure and finally to spaces located over the city hall. When WPA help became available, the city suggested the Bug House erect a building to house their museum on city property located on Jack's Creek. Money had to be raised. Members sold tags on Tag Day. A model of the proposed building was built with names of people who donated to this cause printed on the logs and roof. Special field trips were held to collect frogs to sell to Duke University for use in laboratory work. Frog legs were shipped to the House Restaurant in Washington, D. C. whenever enough were collected. A musical called —The Dixie Blackbirds— was sponsored, which proved profitable. Enough money was finally raised; and the building, a log structure, was built with WPA assistance.

It was a gigantic task to set up the new exhibits and organize the museum in an interesting and attractive manner. Parents came forward and extended help needed. There was no generation gap here; everyone worked to achieve the desired effect. Fish ponds were built, brick walks laid in the park, cages for animals built and trees planted. The grand opening was in November 1934. City dignitaries were invited and a banquet was held in the hall of the new building.

The museum grew in fame. It began to receive state publicity and then its fame spread to the national press. A pamphlet called —The Reporter— was published quarterly, giving the public information on the activities of the museum, the donations received, and news in general. Thousands of people came to visit the museum and enjoy the surrounding park. Cages held various native animals and birds, including a pair of Great Horned Owls, who were destined to become famous. The first known hatching of a baby Horned Owl occurred in the park and the Associated Press spread the news. The museum held the honor of having, at one time, the largest collection of living reptiles in our state, numbering four hundred twelve specimens. This remarkable collection was

largely due to the efforts of Churchill Bragaw, an expert reptile collector.

When Washington celebrated the Tulip Festival, Bug House boys and girls bordered the creek with huge candles made of glass jars, set on posts. These were lighted at night, making the park a fairyland to be enjoyed by all. A unique windmill was erected on rocks in the center of the creek, carrying out the Dutch theme. The original name of Jack's Creek had been Windmill Creek.

When —World War II began, the men of the organization were called to arms and the museum had to close its doors. During the war the city took the building for a recreation center and moved the entire contents of the museum into a room in the Armory close by. After the war, the Bug House Laboratory gave to the City of Washington the entire contents of the museum to be used to the best advantage of the public. As it happened, no use was made of this material, so lovingly and painstakingly collected and classified. The city disposed of everything and turned the Bug House into the city recreation center.

The remainder of the log structure now stands decaying, lean-tos attached, parts cut off for the passage of a street, the park cut in half. Soon the entire building will be disposed of and the Bug House will be only a memory. This unique building that once stood proud in the center of a lovely park, visited by thousands, enjoyed by all, known nationally as the largest amateur museum in the United States, is now past history.

PART 6
JACK SWANNER REMEMBERS WEB'S

If a Washingtonian is of an age that his memory of the Great Depression and the recession that followed is painless because he lacks a comparison, he is also a product of the Shoreview generation. Added to all the other blessings of growing up on the Pamlico was this wholly unique institution—this training school for adulthood.

In 1932 or 1933 Webster Alligood left the South Market Street grocery business of Alligood and Killingsworth and opened on East Main Street, where the Norfolk Southern trestle crosses Jack's Creek, a sandwich shop. But the fare, memorable though it was, was only part of what he served up to those pre-war teenage appetites.

Then in his forties, it is hard now to understand how Web so






coolly managed the successive crop of youngsters that each year were —admitted,— usually around their high school sophomore year. A benevolent, witty, caring, loving sort of an authoritarian, he simply presided over the establishment in such a way that his unspoken rule of behavior seemed better to observe than to challenge.

There was another discipline. There were always those who were a year or two older, who, when things seemed they might get out of hand, somehow became visible (even if home for a weekend from college) and order again prevailed.

But one was never aware that he was behaving. He was totally enjoying the five cent jukebox, the fifteen cent hamburger, the Sunday afternoon Gay Guts— concerts, his date, or his opportunity to show off any new clothes he or his family might somehow have afforded. It was a bountiful pursuit of happiness for which parents were as bountifully thankful. It was a time when —keep off the grass— meant stay off the lawn. Sheer enjoyment needed no stimulants. Its wholesomeness remains untarnished through all the later years of hindsight.

Those who shared it, however little they may realize it, were touched by the remarkable gift of a truly uncommon man, Webster Alligood.

PART 7

Taylor Koonce, who was a member of the —Shoreview— generation, penned this tribute to —Web's.—

—His place stood by the riverbut no one said —Shoreview—His name was Webster AlligoodWeb's was the only one we knew.There was a jukebox in the cornerA song cost a nickel then.We felt our young hearts beatingBy that nickelodeon.A couch secured the middleWhere we could sit and joke;And a bar across the west wallWhere the strongest drink was coke.Web spread magic in his kitchenWhere he made his great creations,His burgers were a special treatAs were his roast pork combinations.The place had ample parkingOut in back around the creekWhere we could go, hold handsAnd sit there, cheek to cheek.When we would all behaveWeb would bless us with his smile.But just act rowdyAnd he could scorch you from a mile.—PART 8
THE TULIP FESTIVAL
1937-1941
by
ISABEL CARTER WORTHY

Every action has its reaction; both man and nature compensate. So it was that a Washington emerging from the luxury-starved years of the Great Depression sought to make up for what it thought it had missed by staging a giant extravaganza: a two day celebration of life known as the Tulip Festival. Looking back on it now, we can see that because of the five-year span it covered, 1937-1941, it served as a dual purpose binge; a joyful farewell to hard times and a final fling before the sobering clout of —World War II.

The Tulip Festival was the inspiration of Mrs. Olive Rumley, who from her desk at the Washington Daily News, one day noticed a truckload of spring flowers for sale at the curb. The color, aroma and form of the masses of blossoms spoke to her senses and an idea bloomed. She knew about that group of Dutchmen who had attempted to form a colony in eastern Beaufort County a number of years before. Difficulties had forced most of these early settlers back home, but at least two families had remained: the George Hoogendorn family had settled in Bath and the Henrik Van Dorp family had settled in a community fifteen miles east






of Washington. They planned to raise vegetables, but a bulb salesman persuaded Mr. Van Dorp that the rich moist soil of Terra Ceia (Heavenly Land) would be ideal for growing the flowers of his homeland. In 1926, therefore, a modest crop of twelve thousand tulips and daffodils was planted. Success followed, and by 1939 the Van Dorps, Hoogendorns, and others who had joined them had more than two hundred acres under cultivation.

Mrs. Rumley's idea was for a folk festival in the spring to salute both the Dutch colonists of the area and the flowers with which they had beautified their new home. The Washington Chamber of Commerce, the Beaufort County Schools, the Washington City Schools, the Washington Park Garden Club, the Daughters of the American Revolution, the American Legion Auxiliary, the Lions Club, the Rotary Club, all the book clubs in town and many other groups cooperated to make the first annual Tulip Festival on April 6 and 7, 1937, a total community endeavor.

From the very beginning, Lee (Togo) Wynne made things go. He served as general chairman each year the festival was held, with Mrs. Rumley always at his right hand as chairman of women's activities. The format was established with the first festival in 1937 and remained basically the same each year with features added from time to time. It was a two day event scheduled for the peak bloom of the tulips in April. Practically every householder in Washington planted tulips and prayed for blooms at the proper time. The opening day exercises featured speeches by the mayor and other dignitaries, folk songs sung by the Dutchmen of Terra Ceia, dressed in their native costumes, band concerts, boat races, a pet parade, a baby parade and the grand parade where pretty girls from each community in the county displayed their beautiful costumes as they rolled along on elaborately decorated floats each of which was sponsored by some business firm or community group. The 1941 festival had as its theme —The Spirit of 1776— and many floats carried out this theme.

The town was dressed to the hilt for this affair. From the oldest to the youngest almost everyone in town wore a Dutch costume. Feminine dress consisted of starched white bonnets and aprons worn over billowing flowered skirts while men and boys wore ballooning trousers with colorful vests. Hundreds of pairs of wooden shoes were ordered from The Netherlands and many blistered feet were the result.

The courthouse lawn was transformed into a flower mart with costumed Dutch ladies selling their colorful wares. Other spots of

color were provided by vendors of the red wax-covered Gouda or Edam cheeses, not then readily available in grocery stores. Windmills graced the corner of Market and Main streets as well as on the east bank of Jack's Creek (Windmill Creek). Downtown store windows were decorated with Dutch scenes painted by Jesse Giles, local artist. Flags of the United States and the Netherlands were in profusion, the latter having been made by women in the sewing room of the WPA. The WPA sewing room also made, under the sponsorship of the PTA, costumes for school children who could not afford to furnish their own. These costumes were laundered and saved from year to year with new ones added as needed. Other decorations were large painted cut-out figures of Dutch boys and girls which were made by the young people in the NYA.

The final event of the festival was always a dance honoring the tulip queens. To be queen of the Tulip Festival was more important then and there than to be crowned —Miss Universe.— Tay Fowle (Mrs. Sam Tim Carter), Edna Baugham (Mrs. Alex Bonner), Helen Mishoe (Mrs. Cam Rodman) and Florence Jean Ross (Mrs. Sam Riddle of Long Beach, California) reigned in successive years as hostess queens.

Festival queens were chosen for beauty and poise from the county entries. In 1937 Parthenia Boyd of Bath was the choice. In 1938 it was Dorothy Williams of Aurora. In 1939 it was Marie Hardie of Aurora and in 1940 Ersell Taylor of Chocowinity was chosen. Then in 1941 Aurora won for the third time with Mattie Potter.

One year rain took the starch but not the spirit out of the parade. As the girls— costumes grew limp and the crepe paper colors on the floats all ran together to make new and surprising colors, the queens continued to smile and wave while spectators and paraders took things in high good humor.

In addition to the official events on the schedule, all of Washington put out the welcome mat to the many dignitaries, guests and sightseers who attended the festival. In 1938 Governor Clyde R. Hoey was guest of honor, and in 1941, Governor J. M. Broughton. Council of state members and other government officials attended each of the festivals and were entertained both by official and private parties. Year by year the crowds grew, and in 1940 it was reported that the traffic was so heavy that it took two hours to drive the 20 miles from Greenville to Washington. Continuous streams of traffic moved to Terra Ceia to view the tulip fields.






If truth is composed of facts and the way our memories perceive these facts, then the Tulip Festival was much more than a Chamber of Commerce-type promotion of long ago. Instead, it was a savory blend of all the elements of childhood. I remember the color of the flowers and the costumes and the sounds of Dutch songs, choral groups and many high school bands.

I remember the pageantry of kings and queens, flags and pennants and the fantasy of Little Boy Blue, Snow White and Little Bo Peep on the floats. I remember the fun of Lions and Rotarians all in costumes, sweeping the streets to music. I remember hearing Edmund Harding and Carl Goerch broadcasting the events on radio; and then the peak of excitement when the prizes were presented for the best float, the smartest pet, the prettiest baby and the fastest boat.

Then there were the Coast Guard cutters open to the public, the planes flying overhead, the holiday from school, and, of course, the people—the thirty thousand estimated in attendance in 1940.

All these I remember, and these I wish I remembered: Miss Liv Carmalt celebrating her ninetieth birthday in complete Dutch costume; Mayor Ralph Hodges in his elaborate burgomaster's costume; James Hackney III winning the baby contest, dressed like his grandfather, on a float entitled —His Honor, the Mayor—; Josh Tayloe representing his kindergarten dressed as —Uncle Sam,— Betty Bonner Britt and Ada Ellen Hoell being selected as princesses of the baby parade; Ardis Messick driving her billy goat and winning the award in the pet parade, with Joe Whitehead and his ducks, and Beth Paul on her pony coming in as runners-up.

—World War II brought an end to the Tulip Festival and after the war the tradition was never revived. For five successive springs, though, it brought Beaufort County people closer together as they cooperated in putting on a spectacle of color and excitement that was a true celebration of spring.

PART 9
SHOWBOAT

The Showboat which was the prototype from which the idea of the fabulously successful musical of that name was fashioned was built in Washington, N. C. in 1913 and gave its premiere performance here on February 19, 1914.

About every five years it came back to Washington where it had been built in the old Farrow Shipyard at the foot of Bonner

Street. By 1913 this shipyard was owned and operated by Mr. Bill Chauncey.

In 1912 a showman, James Adams from Michigan, came to Washington and commissioned Chauncey to build a substantial floating theatre. And substantial it was. The timbers in the hull were sixteen inches square and the planking four inches thick. It was 128 feet long and thirty-four feet wide. It was towed by a fifty foot tug.

Christened —The James Adams Floating Theatre,— it was always referred to simply as —The Showboat.— Probably few of the people who flocked to the performances on board ever knew it had an official name.

It always came at night, a huge vessel lighted from stem to stern moving majestically up the river. A thrilling sight!

There was no live theatre and no TV to absorb the universal hunger for drama so when the Showboat came —A good time was had by all.—

The shows presented in the well equipped theatre, which had 522 seats on the main floor and others in the balcony, were done by well trained actors and most of them were delightful comedies which kept the audiences laughing.

The boat was kept immaculately clean. There were accommodations for 32 persons traveling with it, many of them professional actors. Charlie and Beulah Hunter usually had the leads.

By the time the Showboat made its last trip to Washington in the late thirties, there were only three showboats left in existence. One operating on the Mississippi, another on the Ohio, and this one plying the waters along the Atlantic coast. The Saturday Evening Post called showboats the most unique theatrical enterprises in America.

It was THIS Showboat on which Edna Ferber spent four days in 1925 to get information and atmosphere for her famous novel, Showboat.

Beaufort Countians were inclined to resent the fact that Miss Ferber laid the scene of her book on the Mississippi when she did her research on the Pamlico River. She even used Beaufort County names for some of her characters and quoted verbatim the inscription on the grave of Mistress Margaret Palmer in St. Thomas Church at Bath.

The James Adams Floating Theatre had many ups and downs through the years. On one trip to Williamston it struck a log in the Roanoke River and sank, but it was raised and the shows went on.






Another time it had a similar accident in the Dismal Swamp Canal. But the show went on! Finally the old craft which had given so much pleasure to so many people was burned in the Savannah River in 1941 not long before Pearl Harbor.

PAULINE WORTHY

PART 10

Between the two World Wars the most popular type of entertainment in the country was going to the movies. In the following paper C. A. Turnage recalls Washington's movie theaters.

NO BUSINESS LIKE SHOW BUSINESS

In the early nineteen hundreds Washingtonians saw their first moving picture, —The Great Train Robbery.— It was shown as part of a carnival in a tent pitched at the corner of Main and Telfair streets.

Not long after that Mr. Sugarman began to show crude one reel pictures (the only kind then available) in a little place near where Renn Taft is located.

The first real —moving pictures— were shown in Brown's Opera House, which was over Brown's Drugstore on the corner of Main and Market, where the Corner View Barber Shop is now.

Road shows came to Brown's Opera House several times a season. These, plus home talent plays and the offerings at Chautauqua, an annual summer highlight, were the only dramatic offerings in town before the introduction of —the movies.— Live shows at the opera house were available only to those who had the price. Movies made dramatic entertainment available for everyone who could afford the ten cent admission fee. Even as the price rose from twenty-five cents to fifty cents and on up and up, moving pictures played a tremendous part in the recreational life of small towns where entertainment outside the home was severely limited.

In 1913 C. A. Turnage came to Washington, and thereafter, Turnage and moving pictures became synonymous terms. In a letter to John Bragaw, Mr. Turnage once recorded the history of movies in this town.

He wrote: —When I came to Washington, N. C. in 1913, Harley Sparrow was operating the Lyric Theatre in the building now occupied by the Charles Store. N. E. Saleeby operated a fruit store, and I a shoe store in the same building. I was told that the first theatre was over the present Corner View Barber Shop.

—In 1913 the New Theatre was completed on the second floor of

the H. E. Hodges building. One half of the first floor of this building was occupied by the Lewis Company, and one half by J. D. Calais. The New Theatre was operated by a stock company made up of the following: R. E. Hodges, Jay M. Hodges, J. L. Capehart, Sam Etheridge and Tom Blow. In 1914 I purchased Sam Etheridge's interest. In 1915 or 1916 Caleb Bell and Ike Morris opened the Belmo Theatre. It ran about one year.

—In 1920 Norwood Simmons and Pat Whitaker opened the Strand Theatre.

—In 1921 I purchased the Strand Theatre, and bought out my partners— interest in the New Theatre. The New Theatre was the leading theatre in Washington, N. C. from the day it opened in 1913 until 1930.

—In 1929 I secured a long lease from Mr. Hodges on the store formerly occupied by J. D. Calais and the lot behind the Lewis store, and there I built one of the most modern theatres in eastern North Carolina, The Turnage Theatre. The Turnage opened on February 28, 1930, and the first picture shown was Lord Byrum of Broadway.

—In 1937 I leased the Strand Theatre across the street and erected a modern theatre named for my wife —The Reita—.—

One thing that ">Mr. Turnage found especially convenient was a unique —pulley— system that he rigged high above Main Street. It was hand propelled and could carry across the street from one theatre to another whatever film was needed.






CHAPTER XIII
—WORLD WAR II

PART 1

The years of —World War II brought out unsuspected strengths in the people of Beaufort County. Faced with a frightening national crisis, as well as real or potential personal losses, the population was forced to unite to form a strong local front. Scrap metal and rubber drives, war bond campaigns, and rationing programs became integral parts of community life. USO and Red Cross Centers flourished as community meeting places. Men and women functioned as air raid wardens, civilian defense workers, and airplane spotters. And facing the ultimate threat of war fought on the home front head-on, citizens organized emergency road repair and electrical units, decontamination squads, and emergency medical forces.

The following is an attempt to document this unique period in Beaufort County history. Using the Washington Daily News files as source material, a chronology of local events during World War Two has been compiled at the George H. and Laura E. Brown Library in Washington, North Carolina. Headlines, dates, and concise summaries of front page articles (in many cases merely the lead paragraphs) have been gathered from the period covering December 1941 through September, 1945. However, because of the limited amount of space available here, the entire chronology cannot be reproduced. What follows is intended to be a representative sampling of the material. Important people and events are covered, although not in as much detail as in the complete chronology.

At approximately 7:55 on the morning of December 7, 1941, Japanese fighter-bombers and submarines launched a surprise attack upon a United States Naval installation located at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Occurring as it did during American-Japanese

peace negotiations, the attack shocked and stunned the American public. The United States Government regarded the attack as an overt act of war against the nation. On December 8, 1941, America declared war upon Japan. For the people of Beaufort County, the war had begun.

A.K.G.

CHRONOLOGY
by
ANN KIMBERLY GLOVER
and
JULIA JONES

10-Dec.-41 Large Group in Hawaii Sector

Three Beaufort County young men, Edward S. Chauncey, Bryan G. Dixon, and Howard D. Hodges, are members of the crew of the battleship West Virginia which was reported the victim of a Japanese attack in Pearl Harbor last Sunday.

11-Dec.-41 Aircraft Warning Stations Active

Indicating that Washington's aircraft warning observation posts, as well as other observatories in the section, had been put on twenty-four hour activity for the duration of the emergency, District Chief Frank Millar, Jr., today issued a call for volunteers to help the county chiefs conduct their stations.

12-Dec.-41 Defense Council Will Be Formed

Mayor Ralph H. Hodges stated today that plans were being made to organize a local defense council in Washington for the duration of the emergency.

12-Dec.-41 Rodman Makes Impressive Talk

An impressive plea to the civilian populace to keep cool and calm in the present conflict and to prevent their emotions from besting them, was uttered last night at the weekly meeting of the Rotary Club by William B. Rodman, Jr., of the city.

Speaking briefly following the after dinner period, Mr. Rodman told his hearers that the community may be called upon to make many sacrifices—that it may lose some of its young men—and that he believed the club as a whole could perform a splendid service. He stated his belief that the club could form a strong community nucleus and as a unit put its shoulders collectively






to the wheel—which it may be called upon to turn, in the days to come.

16-Dec.-41 Beaufort County Man is Wounded in Hawaii Attack

Word of the first casualty of the war so far as Beaufort County is concerned, was revealed today with the announcement that Archie R. Gurkin, of Pinetown, who is attached to the Eleventh Quartermaster regiment at Fort Armstrong, Honolulu, had been wounded, presumably in the Japanese raid of Sunday before last.

18-Dec.-41 Army to Induct Fifteen from County

Washington's first Selective Service quota since the outbreak of the war includes fifteen men from the Number One Board.

20-Dec.-41 Weather Reports Will Be Limited

Mrs. Mary E. Gallagher, displayman, stated today that all wind and weather forecasts for ocean, coastal, and marine areas have been discontinued during the emergency except small craft, storm, or hurricane warnings or advisories thereof.

22-Dec.-41 USO Seeks X-Mas Dinners for Army

The United Service Organization took steps today to see that all members of the Engineers Battalion which recently took headquarters at the armory, be invited into Washington homes for Christmas dinner. A committee, headed by the Reverend Hugh Powel, is interested in obtaining the names of families who would like to entertain the soldiers.

27-Dec.-41 Air Raid Wardens to Hold Meeting

Air Raid Warden, Frank Millar, stated today that rapid progress was being made toward setting up air raid warning systems throughout Beaufort County. There will be a meeting of the wardens at Millar's Tidewater power office, Sunday afternoon at 2:30. Senior wardens are as follows: E. T. Buckman, A. C. Cutler, Thad Hodges, James McKeel, Harold Yert, and Richard Dunston.

30-Dec.-41 Receives Word from Soldier Son

Mr. and Mrs. A. S. Cratch, of Edward, received a letter from their son, Phillip A. Cratch, stationed at Schofield Barracks, Honolulu, that he is well and suffered no injuries during the attack of December 7.

31-Dec.-41 Red Cross Campaign Headed by Roberson

Members of the Red Cross and other leaders in the drive to

secure the county defense quota of $7,500 last night selected W. R. Roberson as chairman of the Beaufort County War Funds Campaign.

1-Jan.-42 Farm Leaders to Discuss Drives on Monday Night

Agricultural council workers and members of the Board of Agriculture in Beaufort County will meet at the Agriculture Building Monday night at 7:30 to discuss the scrap iron campaign in the county and measures to be taken for repairing farm machinery.

3-Jan.-42 Tire Rationing Board to Meet

William Carter, chairman of the Beaufort County National Defense Council and representatives of both of Beaufort County's tire rationing boards, C. Morgan Williams for Board Number One and Hiram C. Jones of Aurora for Board Number Two, met with delegates from twenty-one southeastern North Carolina counties at Windsor yesterday to discuss the tire rationing system for the county and for the state.

5-Jan.-42 Want Volunteers for Auxiliary

Volunteers are needed for the local auxiliary fire department which will function in time of possible air raids, it was announced today.

5-Jan.-42 Bed Cloth for Weed Provided

Congressman Herbert C. Bonner stated that he had received word from the Office of Production Management that arrangements had been made for the delivery of tobacco cloth promptly and for the handling of the problem that has arisen from a shortage of the material in the section.

5-Jan.-42 Vehicle Owners Urged to Record Number on Tires

Sheriff William Rumley and Chief of Police Wallace joined today in issuing a request that all owners of motor vehicles in the county and city record the serial number of the tires of these machines. They warned that the tire rationing program to be effective throughout the nation may cause the loss or theft of some of the tires in the county.

5-Jan.-42 Ladies of Church to Aid in Drive

The women of Zion Episcopal Church, noted for their skill in quilt making, have consented to sponsor a Red Cross quilt-piecing project in their community.






6-Jan.-42

Mayor Ralph H. Hodges announced today that Chief of Police H. D. Wallace had been appointed air raid warden of the district. Mayor Hodges stated that the civilian defense headquarters of the state had suggested such an appointment as communication from that office was available twenty-four hours a day. The chief is to issue the signals of air raids.

7-Jan.-42 Army Recreation Center to Open

Today at ten o'clock Washington's USO Army Recreation Center will open for the use of any man in the armed service of the United States. The Center, located on West Main Street a short distance from the county bridge and adjoining the Buoy Yard, will be open for the use of men in the Army, Navy, or Marines.

9-Jan.-42 Air Observation Force Is Active

George Phillips, chief of the Washington air observation post, located on the extension of North Market Street, stated today that over eighty residents of the county had volunteered to serve post duty at the observation quarters.

13-Jan.-42 Paper Campaigns Now Emphasized

Mayor Ralph Hodges urged that the organizations seeking to secure waste paper throughout the country redouble their efforts and that people who are solicited do their part toward saving old papers and contributing.

14-Jan.-42 Urge Purchase of Dance Tickets

Members of the Spinsters— Club who are sponsoring the Red Cross Benefit Dance to be held Friday night from nine until one o'clock at the Firemen's Hall on North Market Street, today urged all Washington and Beaufort County residents to purchase tickets and help meet the Red Cross Emergency Fund quota for this county.

14-Jan.-42 Defense Courses Given Students

Washington High School has set out to prepare the school students for some phase of the defense program. Some of the courses which have been emphasized are: an advanced mathematics course, a Red Cross first aid course, training for those who do not plan to attend college after graduating from high school, a safety education course, and a home nursing course for senior girls.

15-Jan.-42 Auxiliary Police Group Will Meet

Chief of Police H. D. Wallace, air raid warden for this section, stated today that he is holding meetings tonight and tomorrow night for members of the auxiliary police department. Identification cards will be issued, they will be informed of their duties, and they will be assigned to various sections to act in case of a raid.

16-Jan.-42 County Does Part in Metal Drive

Red Cross flags have been posted on school grounds or near some place of business throughout the county. Every piece of scrap metal of any kind except galvanized material should be disposed of by selling it to one of Beaufort County's two licensed junk dealers or by piling it around one of the posted Red Cross flags. The scrap iron will be used for the defense and the money obtained through its sale will be added to the treasury of the Red Cross.

17-Jan.-42 Doll Show for the Red Cross

An announcement was made today that a doll show will be held here February 6 with all proceeds going to the Red Cross Emergency Fund.

19-Jan.-42 Air Raid Drills Prove Success

Scout officials reported today that the air raid first aid practice yesterday afternoon (in Washington Park) was successful in every way.

20-Jan.-42 Beaufort Youth Is U-Boat Victim

M. U. Hodges, well-known resident of the Old Ford section, received official notification from the Standard Oil Company that his son Vernon, member of the crew of the ill-fated tanker, Allan Jackson, torpedoed and sunk off the North Carolina coast Sunday morning, was missing and believed to be lost.

20-Jan.-42 Hears from Son

Mrs. H. T. Whitley, of this city, has received word from her son, Jack, who participated in the Pearl Harbor attack. The letter was mailed from this country. He described various details of the attack and told his mother he was sending a younger brother a piece of a destroyed Japanese dive bomber which was shot down.

21-Jan.-42 Mrs. Godley Is Airplane Spotter

Mrs. L. W. Godley of Bath goes on duty Thursday as an airplane spotter at the observation post in Bath. She volunteered in






the absence of her husband who was called on for the responsibility. She is the first woman in the county to offer her services for this duty.

24-Jan.-42 Farmers Urged to Assist With Scrap Iron Drive

Farmers were urged today by W. L. McGahey, county agent, to make arrangements for the delivery of all scrap iron to one of the community centers designated by the Red Cross flags.

30-Jan.-42 Signal for Air Raid Announced

Chief of Police H. D. Wallace, air raid warden for the district, stated today that air raid and all clear signals had been arranged for the city. Wallace stated that the raid signal consisted of the two-minute long blasts which are to be broken to correspond to regular marine distress signals. The all-clear signal will be a continuous blast of a solid minute.

2-Feb.-42 Tire Rationing Board Concludes Month of Work

Beaufort County tire rationing boards rounded out the first month of their rationing services today. Eighty-nine tires and seventy-seven tubes were distributed.

3-Feb.-42 Draft Plans in Country Revealed

Selective Service boards stated today that tentative plans had been prepared for the handling of the third draft registration in Beaufort County for young men between the ages of twenty and forty-five except those who registered in either of the two preceding draft registrations.

4-Feb.-42 Victory Gardens Planned in County

Farmers in several areas of the county are forming organizations to meet any defense requirements. The first program to be undertaken will be the victory garden, and much interest has been shown by farmers participating in the agricultural program.

7-Feb.-42 Wool Received

Mrs. D. E. Ford, Red Cross production chairman, today announced that five hundred pounds of wool to knit Army and Navy sweaters had been received and asked those who wished to make garments to come to her home for material and to bring knitting needles.

10-Feb.-42 Tolling for Peace

At a meeting of the local Ministerial Association yesterday, it was decided that the church bells of the town will ring for one

minute each day at twelve o'clock noon, calling people to pause in silent prayer for peace throughout the bounds of this war-torn world and for Divine guidance in the cause of righteousness.

12-Feb.-42 Scouts Forming Emergency Corps

Boy Scout officials in Beaufort County sent out the plea today for all boys twelve years of age in Washington and Beaufort County to join a scout troop at once. All boys over fourteen years of age will have a place in the Emergency Service Corps.

18-Feb.-42 Huge Red Cross Sum Turned Over to Treasurer

The final total for the Red Cross Fund Drive is $10,319.24.

19-Feb.-42 Major Hudnell Named to Staff

Major William T. Hudnell, Jr., of Washington, N. C., has been named to the staff of Colonel William E. Kepner, commanding officer of the First Air Support Command, as material officer. Major Hudnell is the son of Mr. and Mrs. William I. Hudnell formerly of Washington.

19-Feb.-42 Teacher Shortage Being Felt Here

There is becoming a very definite trend towards a shortage of high school teachers, and the Washington City Administrative Unit is no exception. The City Administrative Unit has lost three instructors and may lose two more because of the draft as well as volunteer service.

24-Feb.-42 Seven Pass Naval Physical Exam

Naval officials stated today that seven men from this area passed the preliminary exams for service in the Navy. Among them were: J. D. Beacham, Washington; Harry E. Wilson of Greenville; George L. Pugh of Greenville; Clifton H. Woolard and Carl B. Jones.

25-Feb.-42 Committeemen to Meet Farm Group

W. L. McGahey, county agent, announced that all Beaufort County farmers are being notified of meetings with Agricultural Adjustment Administration committeemen concerning the planting of peanuts and soybeans to be used in the manufacturing of essential war materials.

28-Feb.-42 Moore Appointed License Agent for Explosives

N. Henry Moore, clerk of the Superior Court of Beaufort County has been appointed License Agent for explosives.






28-Feb.-42 Officers Seen Riding on Bikes

Members of the local police force were observed patrolling their posts today on bicycles, indicating that the law enforcing agents too, had taken up the fad that has swamped the nation since the announcement of rubber shortage and the rationing of tires.

2-Mar.-42 Bill by Bonner Given Approval

Congressman Herbert C. Bonner, a member of the Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee announced today that the committee has reported favorably a bill which he sponsored providing war risk insurance for fishermen and fishing craft.

6-Mar.-42 Light-Dousing Urged by Mayor

City authorities have already taken steps toward meeting a recent appeal made by the regional Office of Civilian Defense for the elimination of lights that cannot be blacked out at a moment's notice, Mayor Hodges stated today. Such lights could be hazards if they are not eliminated.

9-Mar.-42 Defense Board Plans Make Improvements

Members of the Beaufort County Civilian Defense Board laid plans for improving the area's defense capacity. Representatives from Aurora, Belhaven, Washington, and Bath have decided to obtain a new warning system and purchase more equipment.

11-Mar.-42 Bonner Claims Gurkin's Spirit Typical of Army

Congressman Herbert C. Bonner made the following remarks on the floor of the House of Representatives Monday:

—Yesterday there appeared in The Sunday Star, a picture of a splendid North Carolinian who typifies the young manhood of today who are now defending our nation. The picture is of Private Archie R. Gurkin, of Pinetown, son of one of North Carolina's outstanding families. He was the first casualty at Pearl Harbor. Though shot through the chest and back, Gurkin has recovered and returned to duty, thanks to good medical attention.

—The spirit demonstrated by this North Carolinian, who was born and reared near my home town of Washington, North Carolina, is the same spirit that will win this war, and I say Godspeed to him and others engaged in this mission.—

16-Mar.-42 School Building Model Planes

The industrial arts department of the high school began this morning the construction of two hundred or more model airplanes

for the Army. The school is one of the ten so designated in the state. All types of planes will be built and will be used for target practice by the air corps.

19-Mar.-42 Defense Group to Be Organized

The initial step in the formation of a civilian defense organization in Belhaven was taken at an enthusiastic and well attended meeting in the town hall last night.

19-Mar.-42 Beekeepers Place in War Effort Subject of Meet

Defense-important beekeepers of North Carolina will give thorough study to new demands thrust upon them when they meet here tomorrow for their annual consolidated meeting.

23-Mar.-42 Officers School

W. A. Blount, Jr., captain of the Washington Home Guard unit stated today that all non-commissioned officers of the unit had been instructed to meet at the Elk Lodge tonight at eight o'clock for an informal meeting. The school will be conducted at the same time for the next few weeks.

27-Mar.-42 Price Increases

Local filling stations and oil dealers this morning announced a price increase in gasoline, fuel oil, and kerosene. Gasoline will increase by one-half of a cent per gallon, fuel by four-tenths of a cent per gallon, and kerosene by four-tenths of a cent per gallon.

28-Mar.-42 Farmers to Plant Peanuts for Oil

To insure an adequate supply of seed peanuts to be planted for oil this season, W. L. McGahey, county agent, stated today that a carload of the runner type peanuts has been ordered and will be made available to farmers upon certification that the seed will be used solely for the purpose of planting 1942 peanut acreage.

28-Mar.-42 Women Volunteers

George Phillips, plane observation warden, today issued the first call for women volunteers to serve at the observation post in Washington.

1-Apr.-42 Draftees to Get Questionnaires

In order to determine the status of registrants of the third selective service in the county, B. C. Homes, chairman of Selective






Service Board Number Two, has ordered the distribution of occupational questionnaires to all the men in his service.

1-Apr.-42 Farmers Discuss Planting Plans

At a meeting held at the request of the State Agricultural Extension Board last night, Beaufort County representatives were appointed to inform the public of the special need for soybean and peanut oil as a vital part of the all-out defense effort (in light of the cut-off of vegetable oils from the Pacific war area).

7-Apr.-42 Aurora Residents Get Demonstration in Use Gas Masks

Over one hundred residents of Aurora, all of whom are members of the four Red Cross first aid classes being conducted there, received a practical demonstration of the hazards of various poisonous gases in the Aurora high school gym last night.

10-Apr.-42 Victory Gardens Being Planted

In order to strengthen county food productivity, leaders in civilian defense and other drives are urging that all available land be planted with food producing crops.

11-Apr.-42 Men Classified for Best Jobs

The approximately nineteen hundred men in Beaufort County who registered for the Selective Service on February 16 will soon be receiving their special Occupational Questionnaire forms. These forms are a special survey being conducted by the U. S. Employment Service and the Selective Service System to classify each man into the job or kind of work he is best suited to do.

11-Apr.-42 Real Gas Will Be Used Tuesday

A selected group of approximately one hundred city police, regular firemen, Red Cross first aid instructors, and civilian defense workers are scheduled to undergo a test next Tuesday evening in which real tear gas instead of harmless gases will be demonstrated.

13-Apr.-42 Purse Strings of City Revealed

Washington's growing wartime significance as a leading trade center is shown in a recent survey prepared by research experts of Sales Management magazine. It shows a steady increase in retail and wholesale sales in Beaufort County with Washington representing 70.7 percent of the county.

16-Apr.-42 Large Group Draftees Leaves Friday Morning

The largest contingent of young men from Beaufort County since the outbreak of war will board buses in Washington on Friday morning en route to Fort Bragg for induction into the military service.

18-Apr.-42 Rejections Made in Draft Group

Nineteen of the men who left with the large contingent of selections from this city and county returned to their homes last night following rejection at Fort Bragg.

22-Apr.-42 Registration Is Set for County

All men between forty-four and sixty-five years are required to be present for the fourth registration of the Selective Service board Monday.

24-Apr.-42 Registration for Sugar Allotment for County Set

Beaufort County's thousands will have their first taste of war rationing on food products during the next two weeks when consumer, wholesale, and retail dealers will be called upon to register for the sugar rationing program.

25-Apr.-42 Use of Quinine Is Restricted

Because of the great demand for quinine in the armed forces, all cold remedies containing the drug will pass off the market unless a substitute can be found.

27-Apr.-42 Tire Allotment for May Small

Beaufort County's two tire rationing boards announced today that the May allotment for the county is even lower than for the preceding months (10 tires).

27-Apr.-42 House Cleaners in Salvage Drive

Mayor Ralph Hodges, in urging all housecleaners to save any materials that might be useful to the defense effort, stated that while this material was waste to housewives, it was usable —salvage— to the defense effort and would go far into the flow of industry that will ultimately gain victory for the country.

28-Apr.-42 Tire Shortage More Apparent

After three months of rationing the evidence of the shortage of rubber is becoming more apparent on the highways and in equipment which has been placed under rubber restriction. Passenger cars have slowed from a speed of sixty to seventy miles per hour






to thirty to forty miles per hour to save wear on the tires, and many travelling salesmen are taking buses and trains.

28-Apr.-42 Youthful Sailor Thanks Hostess for Kindness

About two months ago, a young merchant marine sailor, Johnny Riggs, native of New York State, who had been on leave of absence and was returning to his post, stopped in Washington for a brief stay and was attracted to the USO Center on Main Street. Mrs. D. E. Ford, who was at the center, became interested in the young man, about twenty-one, and invited him to the Ford home to check on bus schedules, and to give him supper, an invitation which was gladly and speedily accepted. Due to limited time the hostess served a duplicate of the family dinner, the main dish of which was steaming hot corned beef hash, a dish which proved to be a favorite of her guest.

Before leaving cards were exchanged and Mrs. Ford several weeks ago wrote Mr. Riggs wishing him the best of luck and this morning received a reply. The youthful guest, judging from his communication, carried the memory of his short visit in Washington and the delicious repast with him throughout a perilous voyage. Following is a copy of a letter which had been censored:

Chester, Penn.

Dear Mrs. Ford,

I got your card today, was glad to hear from you. I am sorry I haven't written before now, but I have been to Hawaii and on the way back we were torpedoed off the North Carolina coast and I just got in port, so that is the reason I haven't written before now. Yes, I still remember that good corned beef hash, and I wish I had some now. I have been through a lot since I saw you all. On my ship there were twenty-two saved out of one hundred four, but we sank the sub and we will do the same next time. I must close, my address is on the back. Wish me luck.

A hash lover, JOHNNY RIGGS

29-Apr.-42 Plans Made for War Bond Week, May 4-9

The first step in planning for the War Bond Week campaign, which will be observed throughout the county May 4-9, was taken at the committee meeting yesterday in the Chamber of Commerce, when a setup was devised for contacting each resident of the county to ascertain how much of his or her income will be loaned to the government by buying savings bonds.

30-Apr.-42 Edwards to Lead USO Drive Here

Dr. Z. L. Edwards has been appointed to lead the USO War Fund Campaign for Beaufort County this year in reaching its quota of $1,980.

5-May-42 Sugar Rationing Registering Fast (city)

6-May-42 Registering for Sugar Is Slow (county)

8-May-42 Three Gallons Gas Weekly Says Leon Henderson

Price Administrator Leon Henderson stated today that motorists on the eastern seaboard will be issued between two and three gallons of gas per week under a government rationing program.

9-May-42 Gas Situation Shown Drivers

City and county employees will not, as has been popularly believed, receive an —X— (unlimited) gasoline rationing card.

11-May-42 Registration for Gas Cards Starts Tuesday

City and county car owners will register for gas rationing tomorrow, Wednesday, and Thursday in preparation for the beginning of the eastern seaboard rationing program on May 15.

13-May-42 First Aid Class Passed by Five Hundred Seventy-Five

Beaufort County has five hundred seventy-five First Aiders, but it is believed that at least one thousand are needed for a city the size of Washington, alone.

16-May-42 Gas Hiding is Very Dangerous

Mayor Ralph H. Hodges has issued a warning against the hoarding of gasoline in reaction to the gasoline rationing program. If residents continue violating the laws, the mayor has stated that punitive action will have to be taken against them.

20-May-42 Observation Post Moving to Bank

Aircraft observers for the city area will move their observation point to the top of the Bank of Washington because of its increased convenience to all watchers.

20-May-42 Farmers Urged Collect Metal

The United States government is urging all farmers to turn over all scrap metal to war industries for the production of guns, planes, tanks, ships, heavy trucks, etc.






20-May-42 Aurora Has Ball for Navy Relief

Aurora is holding a naval relief dance tonight, featuring a former star drummer in Tommy Dorsey's band and a former big time magician.

26-May-42 Gurganus Named Chapter Chairman

Harry S. Gurganus was unanimously elected chairman of the Beaufort County Chapter of Red Cross in a meeting held yesterday afternoon.

26-May-42 Firms Will Sell Stamps and Bonds

Beginning July 1, in a plan called —Retailers for Victory,— all mercantile establishments will temporarily suspend regular trade, and for the following fifteen minutes sell only War Savings Stamps and Bonds.

1-June-42 Beaufort Exceeds Bonds, Stamps Quota by Great Margin

Chairman J. B. Ross of the War Bonds and Stamps Sales in Beaufort County today revealed that with two points still to be heard from, Beaufort County has exceeded a quota of $21,000 with a $54,000 turn in so far.

8-June-42 Motorists to Get Four Gallons Gas Weekly Under New Program

East Coast motorists will get an average basic ration of nearly four gallons of gas a week under the regular coupon book system starting next month, Joel Dean, Office of Price Administration administrator said today.

10-June-42 Barbecue Feast, Dance Planned for Navy Relief

Plans were rapidly maturing today for the gala barbecue feast at Pantego Thursday and the big square dance at the Firemen's Hall on Friday night, officials in the naval relief drive stated today.

11-June-42 Plain Talks With Men in Service

Information in a letter received at the American Red Cross headquarters indicates that the Red Cross, in cooperation with the Mutual Broadcasting System and the Australian Broadcasting Commission has originated a daily series of programs in which American troops in Australia are allowed to speak to their families in the United States. Recordings are made of the talks and sent

to the Red Cross Chapter in the soldier's hometown with instructions to deliver it to his family.

At the present there are several from Washington in Australia, among them being Lieutenant Virgil Lindsey, of the air corps, who recently talked with his family from Australia; Lieutenant —Wooky— Nunnelee, a nurse with American forces in Australia; and Robert Mann, who enlisted with American forces in Australia.

13-June-42 Belhaven Youth Service Casualty

Beaufort County's known toll of dead or missing in the present war rose to five today with the receipt this morning of a message from the Navy Department to Mr. and Mrs. E. H. Brooks, of Belhaven, that their son, Leon Murl, had been lost in action.

13-June-42 Rubber Drive Begins Monday

In step with every other city and county in the United States, Washington and Beaufort County Monday will begin the accumulation of old rubber as requested by the government.

17-June-42 Missing

Beaufort County's list of hero casualties of the present war rose to a possible six this week with the information from the Navy Department listing Dupree Edwards, of Blounts Creek, as missing in action May 8.

23-May-42 Negro Contingent Leaves for Army

A vast crowd of colored residents were on hand at the post office this morning to see the largest contigent of colored men to leave the county for the Army since Pearl Harbor board buses for Fort Bragg.

24-June-42 Hopes of Glider Base in County Are Shattered

Hopes that were built around repeated reports in recent weeks that this county might be designated as the site of a large Marine glider base were shattered yesterday in an official announcement from Washington, D. C. that Edenton had been selected as the base.

24-June-42 Bruton Reported Among Missing

In Casualty List Number Five released by the Navy Department yesterday is included one dead and sixteen missing whose next of kin are residents of eastern North Carolina.

Among the group missing is Harold Glenn Bruton, whose wife is Mrs. Vera Pearl Bruton, of Chocowinity.






27-June-42 Ladies Chosen As Plane Spotters

George Phillips, chief of the aircraft observatory, announced today that ninety-six ladies of the city had qualified as aircraft spotters for the aircraft warning system.

29-June-42 Registration of Youths Tuesday

Registration of the nation's manpower will be completed tomorrow when youngsters from eighteen to twenty years old are listed by the Selective Service.

3-July-42 Chapter to Make Medical Dressings

H. S. Gurganus, chairman of the Beaufort County Chapter of the American Red Cross, announced today that the local chapter had been called on to prepare two hundred thousand dressings for the Army.

7-July-42 Owners of Trucks Can Get Retreads

Truck owners needing tires today were urged to apply to the rationing board for retreaded tires, if their use is possible, as the supply of new truck tires is far from enough to meet demands.

8-July-42 Registration for Gasoline July 9-11

Registration by all car owners for gas rationing will take place July 9-11, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, at all high schools in the county. The registration is for the rationing program which goes into effect throughout the East Coast states on July 22.

14-July-42 Rubber Drive Is Big Success Here

E. P. Rhodes, chairman of the scrap rubber drive in Beaufort County, announced today that three hundred ninety thousand pounds of scrap rubber had been collected in this county. This amount is far above the quota set forth in the national program launched by President Roosevelt.

18-July-42 New Sugar Rules Are Disclosed

The Beaufort County Rationing Board announced today that several new rules on sugar rationing regulations had been made. They indicated that Stamp Number Seven is good for a bonus of two pounds of sugar from today to August 22. Stamp Number Five is good for two pounds of sugar until July 25 and Stamp Number Six will be good for two pounds of sugar from July 26 to August 22. One of the new rules permits institutional users (hospitals, restaurants, hotels, drugstores) and like users of sugar,

seventy-five per cent of their original base and industrial users eighty per cent of their original base for the rationing period of September and October.

21-July-42 Housewives Help in Scrap Drive

Housewives were told today that an average of one thousand pounds per household of iron and steel parts which are unusable in their present form could be used in the community's Scrap Salvage Campaign. An example of one use of old metal in the homes would be the accumulation of enough of the stuff to make several bombs for Berlin.

22-July-42 Strict Rationing of Gas to Begin

Starting today all persons will be allowed only four gallons of gasoline a week on the basic —A— cards and a few will receive extra rationing gas for business operations.

25-July-42 First Military Plane at Field

The first military plane to touch down at this city's new airport landed there yesterday afternoon about 2:30 during the height of a heavy rainstorm. The plane, a Navy S-N-J scout ship, was piloted by Lieutenant Commander David Nichol Logan, of Anacostia, Virginia, enroute to Cherry Point.

25-July-42 County Schools Will Open Early This Year

Frank A. Edmonson, superintendent of Beaufort County schools, announced today that the Board of Education was calling for county schools to open between August 13 and 20. The war effort is one reason for the early opening. Since the old school buses cannot be replaced, their use during the harsh winter will be impossible.

30-July-42 Post Office Has V Stationery

The post office here now has a quantity of —V mail— stationery for residents of the county with relatives or friends overseas.

31-July-42 County Gets Six Cars in August

Beaufort County has been allotted a quota of six new passenger automobiles for the month of August. The state's automobile ration quota for August is three hundred nine. Beaufort County is one of the forty-nine counties to be allotted automobiles.

1-Aug.-42 Legion to Begin Record Canvas

The American Legion, working in cooperation with a group of






nationally known musical artists, has mapped a campaign for a nationwide canvas for old victrola records as a means of providing a steady supply of new records for America's fighting men.

6-Aug.-42 Air Corps Arm Bands Are Ready

The Army Air Corps, Ground Observation section, has announced that all observers on the observation posts who have completed a total of twenty-five hours on watch are entitled to one of the Air Corps arm bands, and that they should make application through their chief observer for one of these bands.

11-Aug.-42 Supplemental Gas Must Last User

Rationing and board officials indicated today that they had completely exhausted their —E— and —R— supplemental gasoline rationing cards and would have no more until next week. The above named coupons are for non-highway users. Also, it was noted that a second supply of fuel will not be available until the end of a three month period.

11-Aug.-42 J. Boyd Flynn Directs Rescue of Two Sailors

Editor's Note: Word received here today indicated that Ensign John Boyd Flynn had become one of Washington's first heroes of the second world war. Flynn, son of the late Charles A. Flynn and Mrs. Flynn, is well-known and popular in this city. Following is a news story telling how he commanded a whaleboat in a severe windstorm and rough sea to rescue two men who were forced overboard.

An entire whaleboat crew of a destroyer escort vessel plying the Atlantic has been commended as a result of the thrilling rescue of two men in heavy seas.

The rescued, James Tierney of Beverly, Massachusetts, and Neil Harte, of Fall River, Massachusetts had fallen from their ship's deck as a heavy sea and severe windstorm came up. Both were being driven to sea and darkness was settling over the scene.

In spite of the fast running sea and the heavy blow, the whaleboat from the destroyer, then forming a convoy, put over the side and with Ensign J. B. Flynn of Washington, North Carolina, in charge, and Edward A. Lancaster, coxswain, of Orlando, Florida, at the helm, the canopied boat alternately rose and fell in the troughs of the swelling waves.

By dint of excellent maneuvering, however, the boat finally got to leeward of Harte and picked him up. Tierney, meantime, was being swept farther to sea. Bringing his boat around Ensign Flynn

maneuvered to the leeward of the Beverly boy and rescued him. Both were exhausted.

15-Aug.-42 Credit Group to Issue War Bonds in Five Counties

According to E. L. Greene, Secretary, the Washington Production Credit Association has recently qualified as an issuing agent for war bonds.

1-Sept.-42 Tire and Tube Quota Announced

Beaufort County during the month of September will be allotted seven new passenger car tires, no grade eleven tires but thirty-four recapped tires, and twenty-six tubes. For trucks seventy-one new tires have been allotted along with seventy-eight recaps and seventy-eight tubes.

2-Sept.-42 Police Force Is Ready for Action

The Washington Police Department now possesses a small arsenal of shooting weapons, Chief H. D. Wallace stated today. Several types and makes of shotguns, pistols, and rifles, a submachine gun, and a riot gun will be useful to the department in performing any duty that might fall their lot during the entirety of the war.

3-Sept.-42 Barrington Youth Killed in Action

Lloyd Thaddeus Barrington of the United States Navy has been added to Beaufort County's ever increasing list of heroes killed in action. Barrington, about twenty years old, was employed at the Western Union here prior to enlisting in the Navy two years ago. He was the son of Mrs. Margaret Barrington and the late James Barrington.

3-Sept.-42 Emergency Medical Center to Be Set Up in City

At its regular monthly meeting last night, the Beaufort County Medical Society voted that an order for $500 of equipment be purchased to equip an emergency medical center here. The Board of Commissioners had given $250 and the City of Washington had given $250.

5-Sept.-42 Salvation Army Holds Meeting for Servicemen

The Salvation Army Services will be dedicated to the men in uniform. A very special invitation is given to the United States Army boys, who are in Washington, over the weekend, to attend these meetings.






7-Sept.-42 War Bond Quota for Month Set

The United States Treasury Department today set the September War Bond quota for the state at $9,750,000. In connection with the announcement, the department set $59,300 as Beaufort County's quota for the month.

7-Sept.-42 Frazier Woolard on Destroyer Blue

Frazier T. Woolard, son of Mrs. F. T. Woolard, is reported to have been a member of the crew of the U. S. Destroyer Blue which was reported destroyed in the Pacific last week by Japanese action. It is assumed that he was among the many survivors as his family has received no information to the contrary from the United States War Department.

8-Sept.-42 Tire Situation Handicaps Mail in This Section

No relief is in sight for the mail situation, in this area, which has been greatly impeded by the lack of tires for the Star Route, Postmaster S. R. Fowle, Jr., disclosed in a statement today. Since the morning of September 2, the Star Route, which is under contract to P. E. Calloway, has been unable to operate due to lack of vitally needed tires.

10-Sept.-42 Mail Is Resumed

Postmaster S. R. Fowle, Jr., announced today that operations of the Star Route, temporarily discontinued September 2, would be resumed tonight at 7:30. Tires have been awarded P. E. Calloway, operator of the Star Route, and now he is able to effectively deliver mail to territories covered by his contract.

14-Sept.-42 Farmers Urged to Sow Legumes

Farmers are urged by W. L. McGahey, county agent, to plant winter legumes such as Austrian winter peas, vetch, and crimson clover this fall to grow a portion of their nitrogen for next year's crop. Fertilizer material such as nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia used as side and top dresser by farmers, will more than likely be scarce or not available for next year's crop.

15-Sept.-42 —Victory Pig— Movement Begins

Victory Pig clubs are being organized in the county with farmers becoming members who pledge to designate at least one pig as a Victory Pig. This pig is to be sold later and the proceeds invested in War Bonds and stamps.

19-Sept.-42 Blackout Test Nearly Perfect

Within two minutes after the sirens sounded the air raid warnings at 9:25 last night the entire city was darker than the moonlit night itself. Forty-five minutes later, when the minute long blast of the four sirens indicated that all was clear, the lights seemed to flash on as if one hand conducted them all.

21-Sept.-42 Books Must Be Given to Board

The Beaufort County rationing board announced today that persons having supplemental gas rationing books must return those books to the rationing board for new ones.

25-Sept.-42 Rodman Leaves Race for Senate

John C. Rodman, prominent Washington attorney and Democratic candidate for the State Senate from the Second District, announced today that he had been compelled to withdraw as a nominee for that office. The local attorney, who was unopposed in the primary, has enlisted in the United States Navy.

30-Sept.-42 Blackout Best Ever Held Here

Washington's third blackout, which came as part of the statewide test, was even more successful than the two previous drills, according to reports.

2-Oct.-42 New Quarters of USO Open October 3

The Beaufort County USO headquarters, now located over Roebuck's Fruit Market on Main and Market streets and formerly located on West Main Street, will officially reopen tomorrow evening to servicemen, after having been closed for several weeks while repairs were being made and the new rooms refinished.

3-Oct.-42 Victory Show Is Set for Reita

R. P. MacKenzie, chairman of the Scrap Campaign for Washington, announced this morning that C. A. Turnage had offered a Victory Show on the evening of October 13 to all those who will bring in one hundred pounds of scrap any date before the show. The show will be at 11 p.m.

5-Oct.-42 Dressing Room Re-Opened Today

The Red Cross surgical dressing room, which has been closed for several days due to the lack of materials, re-opened this morning. A large quantity of materials has been received and the quota for October has been set at sixteen thousand two hundred.






6-Oct.-42 Rubber Boots, Shoes Rationed

Yesterday marked the first day that consumers could apply to the local rationing board for certificates to purchase rubber boots. Because of the rubber shortage all sales of rubber boots for men were frozen.

8-Oct.-42 New Contingent Selectees Called

Early Friday morning, October 16, the largest group of white men ever assembled from this county for military service, will gather at the post office where they will board buses for Fort Bragg.

9-Oct.-42 Tire Quota for October Given

Rationing officials indicated that the quota for October is as follows: passenger cars, seven new tires and twenty-three tubes, fifty-one retreads; trucks, seventy-four new tires and sixty-four tubes with seventy-one retreads.

13-Oct.-42 Business Blackout Is Called in Scrap Drive

Thursday from nine until one o'clock has been designated as a business blackout for scrap metal collection. Business establishments and employees will donate these hours to giving a careful survey of all places of business in quest of articles that will help swell the scrap pile.

13-Oct.-42 Large Contingent Colored Draftees

A large contingent of colored selectees from Washington and Beaufort County will leave here early Wednesday morning, October 21, for induction into the United States Army.

15-Oct.-42 Scrap Blackout Is Huge Success

Around one hundred tons of scrap has been placed on the courthouse lawn as a result of the business blackout. The pile continues to increase in size.

15-Oct.-42 Merit Award Is Given Webster

Webster's Junk Yard has been awarded the War Production Board's Merit Award for shipping one hundred eighty-six tons of scrap metal.

16-Oct.-42 With the Men in Service

In releasing its casualty list Number Fourteen today, the Navy Department announced that John Wahab, Jr., Mess Attendant

Second Class, United States Coast Guard, is missing in action. He is the son of Mrs. Rosa Wahab of Belhaven.

21-Oct.-42 Registration of Trucks October 22

Farmers owning trucks and persons engaged in hauling produce to and from the various farms in this county must obtain —certificates of war necessity.— These certificates must be carried on all trucks after November 1. No gasoline, tires, or repair parts can be obtained without it.

22-Oct.-42 Many Rationing Books Are Void

The Beaufort County Rationing Board announced today that all —C— ration books for gasoline issued on July 22 were void after today and added that some —B— books were also void after this date.

23-Oct.-42 Servicemen's Day First Baptist

Servicemen's Day will be observed at First Baptist Church Sunday. At this time the honor roll of boys from the church in service will be read and a plaque with their names and a service flag dedicated will be recognized. The pastor, J. R. Everett, will preach from the subject —The Marks of a Good Soldier.—

27-Oct.-42 X-Mas Gifts to Men in Service Must Be Mailed

Residents of the county who have sons and boyfriends overseas and who desire to make their Christmas enjoyable with gifts had better get the packages in the mail by Saturday—the last day on which Christmas parcels and cards can be mailed with the certainty that they will arrive at their destination by December 25.

27-Oct.-42 Our Boys with the Colors

PFC Jarl E. Bowers of 1001 N. Market Street is a successful candidate for admission to the Antiaircraft Artillery Officer Candidate School at Camp Davis.

28-Oct.-42 Idle Tire Plan Is Working Here

The Idle Tire Purchase Plan, put into effect October 15 by the Office of Price Administration, provides a way by which passenger car owners with more than five tires per car may sell their excess casings before mileage rationing begins on November 22. Gasoline rations will be denied to those with more than five tires for each passenger automobile.






29-Oct.-42 Farmers to Buy Wheat for Stock

W. L. McGahey, county agent, stated today that arrangements have been made for farmers to buy wheat for feeding to livestock and poultry from the Commodity Credit Corporation through the county Agricultural Adjustment Administration office. This arrangement was made possible to supplement the shortage of corn.

31-Oct.-42 Tire Tube Quota for Month Given

Beaufort County has been awarded nine of the one thousand three hundred seventy grade tires for passenger automobiles. The county will receive thirty-eight of the state's five thousand one hundred seventy-seven new truck tires.

2-Nov.-42 Old Ford Youth in Crew of Wasp

It was learned today that Joseph Rodgers, son of Mrs. J. M. Rodgers, of Old Ford, was a member of the crew of the American aircraft carrier Wasp, which was destroyed in the Solomons area by the Japanese forces September 15. Young Rodgers was saved after being afloat for three hours and is resting at home at present.

6-Nov.-42 Elections Board Indicates Vote Light in County

The lightest vote in years in Beaufort County was cast in Tuesday's elections according to the official figures released by the Board of Elections today. Only one thousand three hundred thirty-nine ballots were cast by the eligible voters of Beaufort County and is compared to the usual figure which is around four thousand. The light vote is attributed to several factors: the large number that have left the county to be inducted into the military service, the fact that it was an off-year election, and the little interest in politics due to the war picture throughout the world.

10-Nov.-42 Nearly $500 Is Given for Scrap

R. P. MacKenzie, chairman of the Beaufort County Scrap Drive, today announced that $495 had been realized from the pile placed upon the courthouse lawn, and that the entire amount would be divided among the Red Cross, Salvation Army, USO, and Boy and Girl Scout organizations. Mr. MacKenzie also made known that over one million pounds had been assembled in Beaufort County.

16-Nov.-42 Coffee Will Be Rationed Soon

Starting November 29, the United States, the world's greatest coffee drinking country, will ration its coffee so that no one will

receive more than a pound of the beverage once every five weeks. The reason for the rationing of this item is the fact that ships which usually carry coffee are carrying war materials and have no room for the luxury.

18-Nov.-42 Holiday Lighting Eliminated Here

Washington will celebrate the holiday season this year without the decorative street lights and outside home decorative lighting, according to an announcement today by Dan Smith, Superintendent of the Light and Water Department. Smith says that the step was taken in cooperation with a plea from the War Production Board that such measures be taken.

1-Dec.-42 Soldiers Receive Gifts Here Today

Today two Army trucks and a special Red Cross truck under the supervision of R. B. Beach, Red Cross Field Director, arrived in the city from Cherry Point to collect various items of furniture, games, and reading matter, to be placed in the day and hospital day rooms at the Marine Base.

8-Dec.-42 Savings Quota Set at $62,925

Mrs. Hallett S. Ward, Beaufort County Chairman of Women at War Work, today announced that the county's December quota for the sale of War Bonds has been set at $62,925.

9-Dec.-42 Kit Bags to Be Made for Soldier

Mrs. Sam Mallison, Production Chairman of the Beaufort County Chapter of the American Red Cross, announced today that the local chapter had accepted a quota of one hundred fifteen essential items to be used in kit bags for departing servicemen.

10-Dec.-42 Four Thousand Register at ABC Stores

Approximately four thousand persons registered Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday in the three Beaufort County Alcoholic Beverage Control stores for sales permits under the rationing plan which is now in effect. A coupon book holder may purchase one quart per week until the end of January and thereafter the ration will drop to a pint per week.

14-Dec.-42 Is There Room?

Have you room in your home for a serviceman for Christmas? Perhaps your son is on the other side of the world and you would welcome the opportunity to entertain the son of someone






else. Or maybe you do not have a boy in service but want to lend a hand in this great conflict. If so, telephone the Reverend Hugh Powel, Chairman of Recreation of the USO.

15-Dec.-42 Fine Response to Appeal for Britons

Generous evidence of the warm hospitality for which this city is noted, was evidenced again yesterday when following an appeal of the USO to residents to take into their homes at Christmastime a group of British sailors, no less than twenty-six were made, with the householders eager to entertain either one or two of the lads from far away but closely allied land.

19-Dec.-42 Fenner T. Paul New Defense Head

An announcement received here late yesterday afternoon revealed that Governor Broughton yesterday appointed Fenner T. Paul, of this city, as Beaufort County Defense Chairman. Mr. Paul succeeds Charles F. Cowell, who in turn succeeded William Carter.

22-Dec.-42 Dealers Must Turn in Coupons

All —B— and —C— coupons in dealers— possession as of 12:01 a.m. Monday, December 21, must be delivered to suppliers by hand or registered mail or exchanged for gasoline by 12:01 Wednesday, December 23, the local rationing board was notified today.

1-Dec.-42 New Observation Post Chocowinity

Following the example of many communities throughout the United States, and realizing the need and importance of such an installation, residents of Chocowinity have erected an airplane observation post in that community.

31-Dec.-42 Beaufort County Allotted Nine Cars for January

The quota of new passenger automobiles for rationing in North Carolina in January has been set at seven hundred fifty-nine. Of that total, nine new automobiles have been allotted to this county.

5-Jan.-43 Gasoline —Scare— Is Merely Rumor

Local and sectional filling stations did a rushing business late yesterday evening following a false widespread report that all gasoline rationing coupons would be frozen at 12:00 today.

12-Jan.-43 Vital War Foods Highly Necessary

Z. T. Koonce, Food Service Administration Supervisor for Beaufort

County, believes that farmers can greatly aid war production by increasing production of vital war foods.

13-Jan.-43 Plan Observer Film at Bath

On Sunday, January 17, at 3:30 p.m., in the auditorium of the Bath High School will be shown a moving picture explaining the operation of the vast network of observation posts which are located throughout the entire Atlantic seaboard and which are being manned twenty-four hours a day by some seven hundred thousand volunteer civilian observers.

13-Jan.-43 County Can Save Steel for Two Thousand Eight Hundred Twenty-Two Machine Guns

Beaufort County housewives can save enough steel for two thousand eight hundred twenty-two machine guns simply by replacing one can of fruits or vegetables a week during the coming year with fresh or home-packed produce, a leading food distributor estimated.

14-Jan.-43 Miss Cox Gets WAAC's Commission

Miss Geraldine Cox, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. G. H. Cox, has just graduated from Officers Training School of the WAAC in Des Moines, Iowa, and was commissioned second lieutenant.

15-Jan.-43 Miss Harding Joins WAVE'S

Miss Grace Harding, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Harding, left this morning for Smith College where she will receive a four month probationary training course before being assigned to active WAVE duty.

16-Jan.-43 Pleasure Driving Rule Has Teeth

In a statement today by a member of the local War Price and Rationing Board, it was revealed that the board is charged with the responsibility of revoking the gasoline rations of motorists driving in violation of the recent measures adopted by the Office of Price Administration for the prevention of pleasure driving.

27-Jan.-43 Victory Book Campaign Starts Here Tomorrow

The 1943 Victory Book Campaign in Washington and Beaufort County is being held beginning January 28 through February 8, and is being sponsored by the American Red Cross, the American Library Association, and the USO. The Victory Book Campaign is designed to collect reading matter from civilians for the benefit of men in the armed forces.






27-Jan.-43 Two Local Ladies in SPAR's

Miss Sophia Credle and Miss Zada Braddy have enlisted in the SPARS, Women's Auxiliary to the U.S. Coast Guard.

28-Jan.-43 Latest Ruling by Office of Price Administration Office

Regular hostesses and chaperones may use gasoline to attend the weekly dances at Fort Bragg, Camp Butner, and other camps in the state, but young women going to dances may not.

8-Feb.-43 Merchants Urged to Attend Meeting

The announcement has been made of a district meeting that will inform retail grocers about point rationing.

13-Feb.-43 Development of Local Airport is Seen

Further development of the local airport by the Navy as an outlying training field for the Marine Corps Air Station at Cherry Point has been proposed, it was learned today from the office of Representative Herbert C. Bonner in Washington, and the matter will be taken up in the next week or two by the Civil Aeronautics Administration board.

13-Feb.-43 Beaufort Farm Families Win Merit Certificates

Twenty-six families in Beaufort County who are cooperating with the Farm Security Administration have earned 1942 Merit Award Certificates from the Federal Government for the patriotic production of foods needed in the war effort, according to Zachary T. Koonce, County Supervisor, and Miss Mildred A. Horton, Home Supervisor of the County FSA office.

16-Feb.-43 Prices of Peanuts Will Be Supported Uniform Levels

Peanut growers of Beaufort County who increase production of peanuts this year in response to the government's appeal for more vegetable oil crops are assured of the same support prices for oil peanuts as are paid for edible nuts, according to Henry H. Hill, chairman of the County United States Department of Agriculture War Board.

17-Feb.-43 Some Farm Machinery Is No Longer Rationed

Purchase certificates may be issued to farmers by county rationing committees for certain types of equipment provided these items can be found for sale by dealers, distributors, or mail order houses, as no quotas have been established for these items, according

to Henry H. Hill, Chairman of the County United States Department of Agriculture War Board.

18-Feb.-43 Registration Plan for City Given in Detail

The point rationing system to buy canned or bottled fruits, vegetables, soups and juices, frozen fruits and vegetables, and dried fruits will be introduced to all persons, both old and young, in Beaufort County with a six-day registration, February 22 to 27 inclusive.

16-Feb.-43 High School Has Doubled Quota in War Bond Drive

The Washington High School students will end two weeks of championing the sale of war bonds and stamps today, with a net gain of over $1,000.

20-Feb.-43 Beaufort Car Owners Are Congratulated, Assistance

Car owners in Beaufort County were congratulated today by C. Morgan Williams, chairman of the local War Price and Rationing Board, for their part in helping the East Coast save thirty thousand barrels of gasoline a day through the ban on non-essential driving.

26-Feb.-43 Blackout in County Is Most Successful Yet

Although not fully familiar with the new signals and regulations, Washington had its first blackout under the Army plan Thursday night, and according to Mayor R. H. Hodges, commander and chairman of the Civilian Defense in Beaufort County; Thad Hodges, chief air raid warden; and H. D. Wallace, chief warning officer, almost perfect coordination between civilian operators and local residents combined to make it the most successful ever held.

27-Feb.-43 Records Impressions as Airplane Spotter

Mrs. Guy Small, a member of the staff of the local airplane observation post, derives much pleasure in standing a three-hour daylight trick once each eleven days, so much so, in fact, that she has put her impressions into words.

Today she takes readers on a tour of duty in an article entitled, —Daytime at the Post.—

Those who have never acted as Army plane spotters in our town do not realize the delight, suspense, and charm connected with the experience at the post. We watchers cannot understand why more do not volunteer for the job—three hours at a stretch every






eleven days. Let us relate one day's experience and you can see how much pleasure goes with this real, honest-to-goodness responsibility.

We arrive at our post just a few minutes before the actual time designated to relieve our predecessors who have been faithful for three hours. If it is a noon hour, which happens to be mine, I often take sandwiches with me to the post, a thermos bottle of hot coffee or cocoa. We don our head shawls, draw on our badge over the left sleeve—the embroidered —band— which proclaims us official plane spotters. Then we say —good-bye— to the earnest quitters, and prepare for watch duty.

The air all round the post is cool, sweet, and pure—how lovely to breathe it in from all sides. The sun shines down so delightfully warm on a day like today. We can see the water at the east, and south and the north. It has dark clouds above it; and as clouds are reflected in the water, so the cloud reflection is a satiny gray. Gulls are wheeling in all directions. Is that a plane? No, more gulls. We can pick out the gulls from the planes, because the birds dip and turn and do not go as swiftly, as business-like, as the planes. The plane forges straight ahead as a die; the gulls wheel, drop, rise, and skim—they have no special place to go. It must be such fun to be a gull or drive a plane we think.

Over towards the southwest, there looks like an old, white medieval castle, a monastery with columns on all sides. On closer inspection there seems to be a moat in front—what a day for the imagination! We have to admit, however, it is the Standard Oil Plant—but how pretty it all looks—not a bit sordid way across the beautiful Pamlico stretch of water.

The railroad bridge up the Tar River is first closed at the draw. Then it opens in answer to a shrill whistle from an impatient tugboat that wants to go through. Then the draw closes again for a train to pass by. Way over at the extreme south, we see several trains passing, looking so tiny—like toy trains. (I remember as a little girl I thought the trains across Dorchester Bay were little trains—not regular size, diminished in bulk because of the great distance.)

Way down towards the southeast we can see the stretch of river with —Hill's Point— clearly visible on the horizon.

Now we look towards the north—no river here but roof and

tree tops. It is such fun trying to dig out the landmarks—the rounded silver mosque-like dome of the Baptist Church; the likewise silver top (like a gigantic mushroom) of the water tower; the lovely stately post office with its glorious flag always floating so quietly and so valiantly in the breeze. From our vantage ground we can pick out the high school all red; the Presbyterian Church with its little white tower; and then wonder what that little building is nestling in the trees? It is all so intriguing like a picture puzzle on a big scale.

We look to the north—to the south—we scan the sky overhead. Listen—again that peculiar metallic sound—can we pick up the plane? There it is to the east coming towards the post. We can detect the two motors as the sun shines on the wings. This time, because we had practiced half an hour ago, we report our plane clearly, quietly with deep conviction; as we call the Army post—this time we have done it well. All is quiet again—we walk towards the south—again we feel that delightful breeze right from the river—how good it smells. The gulls seem to be flying in off the river, as if bad weather might be on the way. A dark cloud is floating high up in the heavens above the post. Just as to say, —every cloud has a silver lining,— so our cloud there has such a beautiful, bright, silver lining, for the sun is just underneath it on the other side. No more planes. We look at our watch—our three hours are up—the next watch at the post appears. Our work is over. It has been a wonderful three hours out-of-doors and we have helped—we have done our little bit—to keep unbroken that continuous chain of —plane spotters— on the Eastern front.

1-Mar.-43 Total of Fifteen Thousand Eighty-Three Register in Unit

A total of fifteen thousand eighty-three persons registered for War Ration Book Number Two in the Washington City Administrative Unit last week, it was officially reported today by E. S. Johnson, City Unit Superintendent, who was in charge.

19-Mar.-43 Seven Beaufort Young Folk Placed in Essential Work

War production training projects of the National Youth Administration, War Manpower Commission, in North Carolina placed seven youths from Beaufort County in employment in industries holding essential war contracts during the first six months of the current fiscal year.






23-Mar.-43 Assistance of Farmers Asked

Farmers and livestock butchers of Beaufort County requested to lend their assistance in stopping —Black Market— operations in livestock and meats.

24-Mar.-43 Here's a Story of Group Beaufort Farm Families

Here's a story of what a group of Beaufort County farm families have done this past year after the government's call for help in the war effort for increased food production was passed on to them. The facts themselves are noteworthy of praise in the accomplishments made. They are even more forceful when it is known that just a few years ago these same families came out of the depression of 1932 so scarred and wounded financially that it was next to impossible for them to obtain adequate credit through regular channels and they had to call on the government for this help. Financial help—yes and even more. They actually needed help in planning their farm and home operations.

To put it briefly, they had begun to lose confidence in themselves and were about ready to throw in the sponge and call it quits.

But let's look what happened this past year on these three hundred five farms. They increased their milk cows from three hundred fifty-seven to four hundred twenty-eight and now have one and four tenths milk cows per farm. Milk produced totalled two hundred two thousand, one hundred thirteen gallons. Heifers for future milkers were increased from seventy-one to two hundred eighty-six.

Poultry flourishes in Beaufort County and these families had thirty-five thousand, nine hundred fourteen hens that produced two hundred twelve thousand, five hundred three dozen eggs. They also raised sixty-nine thousand, five hundred eighty-four baby chicks. This made an average per farm of one hundred seventeen and seven tenths hens, six hundred ninety-six dozen eggs, and two hundred twenty-eight baby chicks raised, or enough surplus to feed four thousand, three hundred eighty-nine soldiers all the eggs needed for one year.

Hogs were produced at the rate of eleven and one tenth per farm, making a total of three thousand, three hundred ninety-seven hogs that would feed four thousand, two hundred forty-seven soldiers all the pork and lard they needed for a year above the needs of the families.

Garden and truck crops, including Irish potatoes, one of the

Army's standbys, were substantially increased. Fruits and berries, canned fruits and vegetables, peanuts and soybeans for oil, crops and other food items came into the picture with varying amounts of increase.

In all these three hundred five families sold over $90,000 worth of livestock and livestock products during 1942 that went into channels of trade. This was in addition to their crop sales. For 1943 their plans show that this figure is to reach $129,228.

This story came from the summary of the records of Farm Security Administration borrowers in Beaufort County.

29-Mar.-43 Employment Service Here Needs One Hundred Men

One of the most critical material shortages in the South today is that of lumber and pulpwood. These materials occupy a place of importance to the war effort along with steel, iron, munitions and guns. Shipments of vital materials to the war zones are being delayed daily due to the lack of wood and paper containers. The United States Employment Service office in Washington announced this morning the urgent need for one hundred woodcutters, truck drivers, truck helpers, and saw filers in this industry.

1-Apr.-43 Community Committeemen to Aid County Farmers

In order to assure farmers adequate gas with which to carry on essential farming operations and to relieve some of the burden on the local gas board, community Agricultural Adjustment Administration committeemen will fill out applications for supplemental gas for farmers.

3-Apr.-43 Plane Spotters for Coming Week

Small's Book Store in this city rates one hundred percent with reference to its plane spotters. The store has a regular staff of four people and each has served sufficiently long to be entitled to wear the official arm band.

7-Apr.-43 Students Buy Over $2,000 in Bonds and Stamps

The student body and faculty of the Washington High School, which has manifested a great willingness and desire to contribute to and participate in all phases of war work, has also attained a splendid record in the purchase of War Savings Stamps and Bonds with a total of $2,075.10 for the month of March.

10-Apr.-43 Community Sing Is Big Success

The Red Cross War Fund mass meeting and community sing held






last night in the auditorium of the John Small School was an outstanding success and netted the County War Fund Drive an additional $1,287.75. Total contributions for the drive have reached $15,475.79.

10-Apr.-43 War Loan Drive Quota $500,000

Plans are being completed today for Beaufort County's participation in Uncle Sam's great Second War Loan Drive which will officially open Monday. The government is seeking $13,000,000 and of this vast amount the county's quota is $500,000.

19-Apr.-43 Private Gowers Dies of Wounds

Henry Gowers, of near Pantego, received official notification Friday of the death of his son, Private Hilton Gowers, who was serving —somewhere— in North Africa with the United States Army. Private Gowers was seriously wounded in action on February 22.

20-Apr.-43 Farmers Get Fuel for Oil Burners

Farmers of the First Congressional District who have petitioned Representative Herbert C. Bonner to —clear up— the problem of fuel oil allotments for oil burners to be used in curing tobacco, were assured today of an ample supply provided the burners were purchased and installed prior to December 19, 1942.

27-Apr.-43 Merit Certificate Is Received by John Small School

The John Small School today received a certificate of merit from the United States Treasury and from the State Administrative War Saving Staff offices in acknowledgement of the school's outstanding record of having contributed $14,000 to the —Schools at War— Jeep Campaign. The local institution entered the campaign on April 1 and set a goal of $800. At the close of the campaign nineteen days later the remarkable sum of $14,000 had been raised by the school, a sum which represents the purchasing power of thirteen jeeps with which to arm American forces.

1-May-43 Camporee for Beaufort Scouts Next Weekend

Because of gas and tire restrictions, the big Camporee usually held each year by the East Carolina Council of Boy Scouts of America will not be held this year.

3-May-43 War Bond Total Is Near $600,000

J. B. Ross, President of the Bank of Washington and Beaufort County Chairman of the Second War Loan drive, announced today that a total of $590,000 worth of bonds had been sold during the

month of April, considerably exceeding the quota which was set at $500,000.

6-May-43 —Cotton Week—

—Cotton Week— will be observed by Washington merchants from May 17 to 22. The theme of the week will be —Cotton Fights on Every Front.— Emphasis will be placed on the importance of raw cotton production to the nation's war effort, as well as its many versatile roles on the home front.

14-May-43 Ceiling on Potatoes

The Chairman of the local War Price and Rationing Board was given definite instructions today from the State Office of Price Administration in Raleigh to the effect that the ceiling price on white potatoes is seven cents per pound. Persons who violate this regulation will be penalized.

14-May-43 Post Office to Distribute Cards

It was announced today that blank applications for Ration Book Number Three will be distributed by local postmen.

24-May-43 Reverend Everett Is Army Chaplain

Members of the congregation of First Baptist Church were deeply moved at the eleven o'clock service Sunday morning when their beloved pastor, the Reverend J. R. Everett, who for almost thirteen years has filled the pulpit of the church, announced that he had been commissioned as an Army chaplain.

27-May-43 Group of Forty-Two to Fort Bragg Today

A group of forty-two white men from the county left this morning for Fort Bragg for physical examination prior to possible induction into the armed forces.

12-June-43 Permits Required Potato Shippers

Ralph M. Woodside, Deputy Order Administrator of the War Food Administration, announced today that permits for shipment of potatoes in carlots and in trucks will be necessary. No potatoes will be shipped without a permit. The action is to enable the armed forces to obtain essential supplies and to provide for more equitable distribution of military purchases among producing areas and individual growers and shippers.

16-June-43 Surprise Test Is Success Here

Coming as a complete surprise to officials as well as residents,






Washington last night held its third blackout under the recently inaugurated Army rulings. The first warning was heard at 9:30 and the all-clear signal was given thirty minutes later.

23-June-43 Sailors Mix It at Bus Station

Considerable commotion and confusion was occasioned yesterday afternoon at the local bus station shortly after four o'clock. A group of sailors aboard a bus which had stopped here for transfer of its passengers engaged in a round of warfare among themselves with casualties ranging from cut heads and black eyes to bruised faces.

9-July-43 Service Folk to Be Honored Sunday

The sixty-eight men and one woman who are serving in the armed forces from First Christian Church of the city will be honored Sunday morning at the regular services.

21-July-43 Guard Plunges Into Training

Company Three, First Infantry, North Carolina State Guard, Washington's own first line of defense, arrived at the State Guard Encampment Area Sunday afternoon at three p.m. and immediately established itself in preassigned quarters.

28-July-43 Thirty Leave for Fort Bragg

A group of thirty Beaufort County men left this morning by bus for Fort Bragg for physical examination and possible induction into the armed services.

2-Aug.-43 Victory Gardeners Urged to Plant Fall Gardens

People in Beaufort County, both town and rural, have done a wonderful job this year with victory gardens. Each and everyone that has a victory garden is to be congratulated. It is hoped that everyone will plan to plant a fall victory garden.

4-Aug.-43 J. B. Ross Is Made Permanent Finance Chairman

J. B. Ross has been appointed permanent County Chairman of the War Finance Committee for the sale of —E,— —F,— and —G— bonds and other local activities.

9-Aug.-43 Molly Pitcher Day Successful

Molly Pitcher Day, observed in Washington and Beaufort County Saturday, was very successful with slightly less than $3,000 worth of War Savings Stamps and Bonds sold by Minute Maids.

10-Aug.-43 Nineteen Men to Fort Bragg

One of the smallest groups of men from Beaufort County yet ordered to Fort Bragg for physical examination and possible induction into the armed services left by bus this morning.

31-Aug.-43 Phelps Lost Life Strafing Enemy

—When I have to go that's the way I want it—I want to go out gloriously. . . .—

Thus wrote Lieutenant H. A. (Brother) Phelps, of this city, in one of his letters home before he was called upon to make the supreme sacrifice in aerial battle in the Southwest Pacific, August 7.

That was the way he would have wanted it and after many anguished days and nights, during which his loved ones waited to learn the details of his passing, there has come a sympathetic and moving letter from one of his flying mates. Youthlike, however, he neglected many details, but in his closing paragraph he does reveal the manner in which Brother gave his life. Simply, he said: —His death this morning was in the line of duty. His ship went down into the water near the boat he was strafing.—

In his last letter to his mother he thanked her for a pen which he probably never received. It was a boyish letter, couched in obviously cautious terms in order to spare her worry for his safety.

2-Sept.-43 Long Blackout Entire Success

Civilian Defense Officials were high in their praise today for the cooperation in making last night's blackout the most successful ever to be conducted. They stated that, despite the long period over which the blackout lasted, residents, as though by one accord, observed all rules and manifested perfect understanding of signals.

14-Sept.-43 War Rationing Guide for Week

(Note: The Raleigh District Office of Price Administration compiles this thumbnail ration guide from official sources weekly for The Daily News as a public service.)

Blue Stamps

Blue Stamps —R,— —S,— and —T— are good until September 20.

Blue Stamps —U,— —V,— and —W— are good until October 20.

Gasoline

—A— book coupons Number Six good for three gallons each and must last until November 22 in North Carolina.






Red Stamps

(For meat products, canned fish, most edible oils and cheeses) Red Stamps —S,— —Y,— and —Z— good through October 31

Shoes

Number Eighteen in War Ration Book One good for one pair until October 31.

Sugar

Stamp Number Fourteen, good for five pounds, is good through October 31.

Stamp Number Fifteen and Sixteen in War Ration Book One now are valid through October 31. Housewives may apply at local board for supplementary sugar rations for home canning, if essential.

Loose Stamps

Loose stamps (except accompanying mail orders and the one-point red stamps used for change) are worthless.

24-Sept.-43 Twenty-Five Leave for Fort Bragg Today

Twenty-five Beaufort County men left by bus this morning for Fort Bragg where they will undergo physical examination prior to possible induction into the armed forces.

29-Sept.-43 Youngsters Sell $100,000 Bonds

The bond selling contest conducted by the Washington High School and the John Small School came to a close at eleven o'clock Tuesday morning and both schools made outstanding marks in the sale of bonds and stamps. The high school had set its goal at $50,000 in bonds and stamps and the total pledge during the drive totalled $52,537.50. The John Small School, vying closely for first place, had a total pledge of $41,221.05.

29-Sept.-43 $30,000 in Bonds Sold at Belhaven

When the show that went to Belhaven last night was finished, the Washington Caravan staged a bond sale that sold over $30,000 in bonds.

30-Sept.-43 Andy Noe Is War Prisoner

The Reverend and Mrs. A. C. D. Noe of Bath have recently been notified by the War Department that their son, Technical Sergeant Alexander B. Noe, is a prisoner of war of the German government.

2-Oct.-43 Blounts Creek Soldier Decorated in Pacific

The Navy and Marine Corps Medal has been awarded to Corporal John A. Cutler, United States Marine Corps, for preventing great property damage and probable loss of life in a Marine Corps ammunition area at Noumea, New Caledonia.

Corporal Cutler, son of Mr. and Mrs. John B. Cutler, of Route One, Blounts Creek, North Carolina was a member of a fire fighting detail which went to the scene after a fire had broken out in a bundle of ammunition. After he had pushed the burning ammunition away from a supply of shells he joined with other members of the detail in extinguishing serious grass fires.

5-Oct.-43 Observer Post Work Restricted

Telegrams were sent from the Norfolk Fighter Wing last night to all chief observers not only in Beaufort County, but throughout the entire Ground Observer system notifying them that twenty-four hour continuous observation and reporting of planes should cease immediately. However, the Army Air Force does not wish to disband the organization of observers. They request that these loyal workers stand ready for instant reactivation of the post.

6-Oct.-43 Apply Now for Gasoline Ration

Applications for renewal of Basic Mileage Ration A or D may be secured from authorized Tire Inspection Station, or from the War Price and Rationing Board. The present expiration of the —A— Book is November 8.

12-Oct.-43 Kit Bags for Overseas Men

The Beaufort County Chapter of the American Red Cross is cooperating with other chapters throughout the United States in making and filling kit bags to be given to men in the armed services who are embarking for service overseas. Each bag contains such necessary items as toothpaste, shaving necessities, shoe laces, polishing cloths, Bibles, small books, miniature games, and other items.

13-Oct.-43 Forty-Eight Men Report at Fort Bragg

Forty-eight Beaufort County young men left yesterday for Fort Bragg where they underwent physical examinations prior to possible induction into the armed forces.

26-Oct.-43 President Awards Posthumous Medal

The President of the United States has awarded the Silver Star






Medal, posthumously, to William Jay Jones, fireman first class, United States Navy, of Belhaven, it was announced today.

Jones was the son of Mr. and Mrs. Radford Jones, of Main Street, Belhaven. He entered the Navy on September 16, 1941.

1-Nov.-43 James O. Hassell Dies of Wounds

—The Secretary of War desires I tender his deep sympathy. . . .— Thus ran a fateful telegram from the Adjutant General Ulio to Mr. and Mrs. Ed S. Hassell, of this city, early this morning, informing them of the death of their son, James, who died of wounds received in Italy September 22.

Young Hassell, who would have observed his twenty-first birthday this month, was a veteran of the Battle of Sicily and apparently was among the van of American troops which landed on the Italian mainland. Beyond extending condolences and stating that a letter would follow, the telegram contained no details.

11-Nov.-43 Colored Citizens Give Generously War Fund Drive

A total of $1,889.11 was reported by Dr. Haywood Dowdy, Chairman of the War Fund drive among the Colored. This amount represents the combined efforts of the Colored people of the City of Washington and Beaufort County as a whole.

24-Nov.-43 War Prisoners

The first contingent of Italian prisoners of war ever to be employed in Washington, began work as common laborers Monday morning at the Moss Planing Mill and this morning a second group arrived to work at the Roanoke Lumber Company here.

The group of war prisoners, who are encamped at Windsor and range in ages from thirty-five to lads of seventeen, were captured in the North African and Sicilian campaigns and speak no English, their only means of communication being by sign language.

Accompanying the group, which is comprised of fifteen men to each group, for the first day's work, was an interpreter who explained their duties, hours of employment, and otherwise translated the wishes of their employers. Two guards are on constant duty with each contingent and the war prisoners are permitted ten hours leave daily, leaving the Windsor Camp at seven o'clock in the morning and returning in time to report to officers in charge that evening at six o'clock.

The men, it was said by local employers, are of a happy and a genial disposition.

1-Dec.-43 Letter from Sergeant Smith Compliments Red Cross Workers

Mrs. E. P. Rhodes, executive secretary of the Beaufort County Chapter of the American Red Cross has received a letter from Staff Sergeant J. B. Smith, who is stationed in England with the United States Army. In his letter Sergeant Smith pays high tribute to the work being done by Red Cross workers and their willingness with which they perform their duties during this time of international crisis.

2-Dec.-43 Sixty-Three in November Unit

A group of sixty-three Beaufort County men reported to Fort Bragg Monday morning for examination and possible induction into the armed forces.

7-Dec.-43 Group Leaves for Fort Bragg

Beaufort County's second group of fathers, which totalled fifty-two, left this morning for Fort Bragg for examination and possible induction into the armed services.

8-Dec.-43 Beaufort Youth Dies in Action

The announcement was made today that Alonzo Paul Cutler, of Blounts Creek, son of Mr. and Mrs. J. B. Cutler, was killed in action in the Italian theater of the war on November 6.

9-Dec.-43 Recruiting for Office Workers to Begin Here

The War Department Army Service Forces, with the cooperation of the Fourth United States Civil Service Region, has launched a direct recruiting program to secure vitally needed stenographers, typists, and clerks. The salaries for these positions ran from $1,752 to $1,971 per year, including overtime.

10-Dec.-43 Test Drill Is Most Successful

The latest in a series of blackouts which encompassed the South Atlantic coast from Wilmington to Elizabeth City, held last night beginning at 9:30, found this city, as usual, cooperating to a hundred percent extent in seeing that Washington was cloaked in total darkness.

1-Feb.-44 Hoell Made Chairman for Red Cross Drive

Herbert Hoell, prominent local automobile dealer, well-known






throughout the county, will be general chairman of the annual Red Cross War Fund drive which will start in Beaufort County on March 1.

9-Feb.-44 Legion to Help Veterans to Get Muster Out Pay

Forms are being prepared by Beaufort County Post Number Fifteen, the American Legion, for use by veterans of —World War II discharged honorably since December 6, 1941, in making applications for mustering out pay.

12-Feb.-44 One Hundred Nine Men Depart for Induction Center

Beaufort County's ranks of young men, many of them fathers, were further reduced today when one hundred nine departed for Fort Bragg for physical examinations preparatory to induction into the armed forces.

17-Feb.-44 County Goes Over $805,000 Quota in Fourth War Loan Drive

—Over the top of Beaufort County's $805,000 Fourth Bond Quota, and then some,— announced Harry Gurganus, bond chairman, today when releasing facts concerning the drive concluded February 15.

8-Mar.-44 Store Survey Is Begun Today by Rationing Board

The —Emergency Price Check— campaign will go forward this week here in Beaufort County. The goal of this campaign is to reach all stores handling food items at retail in the county, and determine the extent of their compliance with price regulations.

21-Apr.-44 Sergeant Snell Gets High Army Honor

Staff Sergeant Williard E. Snell, twenty-five, of Washington, North Carolina, has received one of the highest honors given to members of the Army Ground Forces—the Expert Infantryman's Badge. The badge is probably the most difficult for a soldier to earn. It demands that he be a first class fighting man, in top physical condition and skilled in every phase of ground fighting and close combat.

21-Apr.-44 Van Dorp Says 1945 Victory, Tulip Year

Henry Van Dorp is neither a prophet nor the son of a prophet, but Henry Van Dorp of Terra Ceia is selling no tulip bulbs this year. As he harvests his crop of loveliness and puts in a more mundane crop of corn and beans where the tulips were blooming, he is carefully storing all his bulbs.

—Next year,— says the Hollander, —will be victory year and a tulip year.—

25-Apr.-44 MacKenzie Asks Support of Recruiting Campaign to Retain Company Three

An appeal to the citizens of the city and county to interest themselves in a recruiting campaign to prevent the removal of the Third Company of State Guard from Washington was made today by Mayor R. P. MacKenzie. The mayor stressed the fact that the State Guard Company is one of the most vital of local organizations, explaining that it was created solely for the purpose of home protection in the event of an emergency.

2-May-44 Washington to Know When D-Day Arrives

When D-Day comes all of Washington will know about it, even if it begins at three o'clock in the morning, Mayor R. P. MacKenzie announced today.

The city's chief executive announced that he has issued instructions to the Police Department to sound the city's sirens and fire whistle for ten minutes the second they get official word that the second front has been opened in Western Europe.

In this connection, The Daily News has made arrangements for the news to be flashed over its Associated Press teletype machines and is completing arrangements for publication of an extra edition carrying the preliminary details of the final blow to crush Hitler.

—I think that when the invasion comes, every citizen in Washington should know about it and we're going to do all that we possibly can to inform them,— Mayor MacKenzie said.

He said that he understood that all of the city's ministers are planning to have —open church— at their churches beginning immediately and continuing until after the invasion. Prayer services will be held daily.

9-May-44 Sirens Will Not Sound for D-Day

There will be no sounding of sirens and blowing of whistles in Washington on D-Day, it was decided today. It had been announced that Washington would be informed of the beginning of the invasion by this method but many complaints resulted in abandonment of the plans.

15-May-44 Six Hundred Twenty-One Applicants Seek Two Hundred Seventy-Nine Tires

Eligibility for Grade One tires is not a guarantee that such






tires are available, since a recent flood of applications by newly-eligible drivers far exceeds the Beaufort County ration board's quota of two hundred seventy-nine, C. Morgan Williams, Chairman of the Beaufort County War Price and Rationing Board said today.

19-May-44 Aurora Flier Awarded DFC

Captain John S. Litchfield of Aurora, Squadron Commander in the top scoring fighter group in the Mediterranean theater of operations, has been awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross.

19-May-44 Eighteen Thousand Fifty-Five Pounds of Paper Taken

Reporting that eighteen thousand fifty-five pounds of paper had been collected during Thursday's waste paper collection, Chairman Bryan Grimes today expressed his appreciation to the Boy Scouts and other workers and to the general public for their cooperation.

19-May-44 Renewal Forms to Be Mailed Soon

Renewal application forms for fuel oil for the 1944-45 heating season will be mailed to consumers in the next few days, the Local War Price and Rationing Board announced today.

2-June-44 Willie Gray Wall Killed in Action

Willie Gray Wall, son of J. G. and Lossie Wall of Chocowinity was killed in action in Italy on May 12, his family has been notified by the War Department.

6-June-44 D-Day Arrival Finds Most of City Asleep

Arrival of D-Day found most of Washington asleep this morning but by seven o'clock the news had been spread around and all but a comparatively few late risers were either reading the extra edition of The Daily News or listening to their radio.

Official notification was given The Daily News and radio station WRRF around four a.m. and within a short time work on the special edition was begun and Uncle Nat Royster began broadcasting.

Through the cooperation of the Police Department, the Associated Press teletypes at The Daily News were switched on almost immediately after the telephoned announcement from Raleigh and were clicking out the history-making story.

The Daily News went to press at seven a.m. and within a few minutes carrier boys were on the streets in most sections selling their paper.

The city's churches opened during the morning and will remain open for special prayer services.

The story was a scoop for this newspaper over the morning papers which circulated in this community and the extra edition carried all of the reported developments from 3:32 a.m. to seven a.m.

8-June-44 Lieutenant Richard L. Mann Is Killed in Action

Mrs. Mary Thomas Cherry has received a telegram from the War Department that her son, Lieutenant Richard L. Mann, has been killed in action over Europe.

14-June-44 Fifty-One Accepted for Service in Navy

Fifty-one Beaufort County young men became members of Uncle Sam's Navy today as they departed for Raleigh for assignment to naval training stations.

21-June-44 Employers Get Ceiling Forms

Employers have been receiving applications for the establishment of Employment Ceilings for the past few days, and these are expected to be completed and returned prior to July 1, stated P. B. Pollock, Area Director of the War Manpower Commission for the Northeastern Area, today.

21-June-44 Pinetown Soldier Cited for Heroism

With the Fifth Army, Italy, June 21—A fifth Army combat engineer on the Anzio section of Fifth Army's front, Corporal James L. Hardison, Route 1, Pinetown, North Carolina, recently drove his bulldozer through German shellfire to extinguish a flaming British gasoline dump.

Sighting the flames shooting skyward in the gasoline dump, Hardison voluntarily drove across a shelled field to within a few feet of the fire. Slamming his huge bulldozer against the flames for thirty minutes, Hardison extinguished the fire.

He received a special citation from the Fifth Army British unit for heroism. He was credited with saving huge stores of gasoline supplies, and protecting the lives of nearby soldiers from the explosion.

Hardison has driven his bulldozer through four Mediterranean invasions, landing on D-Day in Africa, Sicily, Salerno and Anzio. He regularly drives his bulldozer along front line roads, clearing roadbeds and rebuilding knocked out bridges. On the Fifth Army






front his combat engineer regiment has fought as infantrymen, making combat patrols into German lines.

24-June-44 Hilton R. Chauncey Is Killed in Action

Mr. and Mrs. Rob R. Chauncey of 115 East Main Street were informed by telegram today that their son, Private Hilton R. Chauncey, has been killed in action in Italy.

24-June-44 Captain Litchfield Is Nazi Prisoner

Mr. and Mrs. Thompson Litchfield of Aurora, received a wire today from the office of the Adjutant General in the War Department that their son, Captain Thompson Litchfield, Jr., who was reported missing in action on May 20, is a prisoner of war in Germany.

24-June-44 Pick-Up Stations for Service Men

Those little shelters by the bridge at Main Street and by the Knotty Pine Inn are pick-up stations for service men. They offer the service men seeking rides shelter from the sun and rain and posters on the stations call the attention of the motorists as to their purpose. The stations, familiar to Western Carolina, are the first to be erected in this area and were sponsored by the Elks Club.

27-June-44 Use Irish Potatoes for Livestock Feed

Surplus Irish potatoes are being utilized here to help relieve the shortage of livestock feed, according to Hillman Moody, State Supervisor of the War Food Administration's Office of Distribution.

29-June-44 War Prisoner Captured Here

Rudolph Wahlich, twenty-seven, German war prisoner who has been working at the Moss Planing Mill, made an unsuccessful attempt to escape yesterday afternoon.

He was captured near the buoy yard at Bridge and Main streets after having swum from the mill where he entered the water.

Police reported that Wahlich had been gone for more than an hour before his absence was noticed by officers at the mill.

Army officers joined with city police, the sheriff's force and State Highway Patrol in searching the docks along the river.

At the police station following his capture Wahlich, who can speak some English, said, —I was just taking a swim.—

20-July-44 Thirty Selectees to Fort Bragg

Thirty selectees from Boards One and Two of Beaufort County

left this morning for Fort Bragg for their pre-induction physical examinations.

25-July-44 Twenty-Seven Are Sent for Induction

Twenty-seven Beaufort County young men left this morning for induction into the armed services. These men have already passed their physical examinations and are to be replacements in the various branches.

26-July-44 First Vessel Launched at Pamlico Shipyards

Pamlico Shipyard's first completed fishing trawler slid into the waters of the Pamlico River late Tuesday afternoon after being christened in an informal ceremony at the shipyard.

The new sixty-foot vessel was christened the Gale by Miss Jane Griffen, secretary to the Pamlico Shipyard, following an informal talk by Congressman Bonner of Washington.

Congressman Bonner, who was introduced to the workmen and a few visitors, praised the men for their splendid work and impressed on them the importance of their jobs—the value of fishing boats in the food battle of the war.

29-July-44 Worth E. Baker Gets Air Medal

Flight Officer Worth E. Baker has been awarded the Air Medal, in recognition of meritorious achievement while participating in aerial flights in the European theater of operations during the recent invasion. Baker is the son of Mr. and Mrs. Guy W. Baker, 414 East Second Street, Washington, North Carolina.

4-Aug.-44 Lieutenant E. T. Harris Killed in Action

Word was received this morning from the War Department of the death of Lieutenant Edgar T. Harris, Jr., twenty-four, of Washington, who had previously been reported missing in action in France. He was the son of Mr. and Mrs. E. T. Harris, Sr.

5-Aug.-44 Belhaven Soldier Killed in Action

Corporal Tch. Five Jack H. Noble, son of Mr. and Mrs. H. F. Noble, of Belhaven, was killed in action July 10 on Saipan, according to a message received Thursday from the War Department.

7-Aug.-44 Navy Enlistments Here Increasing

An increase in the number of enlistments in the Navy from this recruiting area has been the result of the recent announcement that a temporary increased quota for seventeen-year-old young men






has been given the New Bern station, Harry Gatton, petty officer in charge of this district, said today.

9-Aug.-44 Aurora Soldier Killed in Action

Private Floyd B. Peede, twenty-five, of Aurora, was killed in action June 6 while participating in the invasion of France, according to a message received by his wife from the War Department. Private Peede is the son of Mr. and Mrs. O. J. Peede.

10-Aug.-44

Absentee ballots to be voted in the November 7 general election are being mailed out from the office of the Beaufort County Board of Elections to the men and women in the armed service who are overseas and who made application for ballots in the May primary. After those overseas have been served, ballots will be mailed to those in this county.

11-Aug.-44 Forty-four Thousand Surgical Dressings Needed from Beaufort County

Washington and Beaufort County must produce forty-four thousand surgical dressings by the end of August, Mrs. Mary Rhodes, executive secretary of the American Red Cross, said this morning in an appeal for more aid in this work.

14-Aug.-44 Office of Price Administration to Survey Local Stores

During the week of August 14 through 19, the retail grocery stores in Beaufort County will be visited by Merchant's Aids through the local War Price and Rationing Board. These Merchant's Aids are composed of men and women who volunteer their services to help the retailers —keep prices down— here on the Home Front.

23-Aug.-44 Washington Boy Gets Soldier's Medal for Saving Crew Members

An Eighth Air Force Bomber Station, England—Staff Sergeant Eugene C. Watkins, nineteen, of Washington, North Carolina, has been awarded the Soldier's Medal for his heroic action when the B-24 Liberator bomber in which he was flying as ball turret gunner, crashed and caught fire at this Eighth Air Force Heavy bombardment base.

Sergeant Watkins, who also holds the Air Medal with one Oak Leaf Cluster for —meritorious achievement— during bombing

attacks on Nazi military and industrial installations, completely disregarded his own safety and helped one crew member to escape from the waist window of the plane, which was partially blocked.

Once outside the plane, he turned to another crew member, whose clothing was on fire, threw him to the ground and rolled him over several times to extinguish the flames.

He then turned back to the blazing aircraft and, without the slightest hesitation, proceeded to the nose of the bomber where the navigator was trying frantically to free himself of his entangling parachute which had accidentally opened to trap him in the aircraft. After cutting the navigator free, Sergeant Watkins led him to a safe place away from the still blazing bomber.

The son of Mr. and Mrs. F. O. Watkins of 121 McNair Street, Washington, the Army Air Force gunner was a student at Washington High School before entering the armed forces in April, 1943.

24-Aug.-44 Sergeant Nunnelee Given Cluster

An Eighth Air Force Bomb Station, England—An Oak Leaf Cluster to his Air Medal has been awarded to Technical Sergeant James S. Nunnelee, twenty-three, son of Mrs. Ellen P. Nunnelee, West Main Street, Washington, North Carolina, for —meritorious achievement— while participating in several bombing attacks on German military and industrial targets. He is the radio operator and a gunner on an Eighth Air Force B-17 Flying Fortress in the heavy bombardment group.

26-Aug.-44 Local Soldiers, Members of Famous Thirtieth Division, Fight at Saint Lo

Washington soldiers, members of the Thirtieth Infantry Division——Old Hickory— of —World War I fame, shared in the glory of the capture of Saint Lo, hardest American clash with the Germans in the battle for France, according to press dispatches.

Men in the —Old Hickory——many of them sons and nephews of soldiers who fought in the same units in the last war and were the first to break through the Hindenburg line—met and knocked out the oncoming tanks with bazooka guns and never yielded a single one of their hard-won acres.

26-Aug.-44 Local Soldier and Buddy Demonstrate Versatility at Play Writing in Pacific

With the Fifth Air Force somewhere in the Southwest Pacific—If you like to sit around and speculate what will happen to the United States when the servicemen return, cross Master Sergeant






Goddard Light, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Master Sergeant John F. Butler, Washington, North Carolina, off your worry list. They have demonstrated enough versatility to fit themselves for any situation and for their efforts have recently been promoted.

Though their pre-service backgrounds are wide apart, they have been tentmates, collaborators and inseparable friends for more than two years with the Fifth Bomber Command in the Southwest Pacific.

Shortly after landing in Australia they set to work writing a play, —Army and Navy Daze,— which scored a big hit when presented by Yanks in Melbourne Town Hall in honor of Lady Dougans, wife of the King's representative to Victoria. Proceeds were given to charity.

New Guinea was the scene of their next triumph. Bombs have their own thrill, true, but a need was felt for a different sort of entertainment. Light and Butler filled the gap with —Hellzapapuan,— a show that the —Guinea Pigs— still remember as one of the best seen this side of San Francisco.

John Butler is the son of Mr. and Mrs. R. F. Butler of 514 East Main Street of Washington, North Carolina.

2-Sept.-44 Sergeant Russell Elks Killed in Action

Word was received Friday by W. F. Elks, of the Old Ford Section, of the death of his son, Sergeant Russell Elks, on August 10, in action. He had been with American Troops in France.

16-Sept.-44 German Equipment Put on Display

A scene of much interest in Washington is the display of German war equipment in the windows of the Cherry Furniture Company on West Main Street.

The articles were largely sent to Washington by Major Wiley C. Rodman, of this city, who is with the One Hundred Thirteenth Field Artillery. They were taken from dead Germans on the Normandy battle front.

In addition to the articles sent by Major Rodman, there are others, including a German naval flag, sent home by Lieutenant Rodney Latham, Jr.

The articles on display include a shelter tent, mess equipment, first aid kit, trench shovel, pack, gas mask, rifle, bayonet, shoulder insignias, cartridge belt and many other items.

25-Sept.-44 Wounds Fatal to Sergeant Morgan

Mrs. George F. Morgan received word from the War Department

Sunday stating that her husband, Sergeant George F. Morgan, died from wounds in France on August 4. Sergeant Morgan was the son of Mrs. Belle Morgan and the late George Morgan of this city.

26-Sept.-44 County Airman on Shortwave

Staff Sergeant Sam J. Williams, son of Mr. and Mrs. H. D. Williams, of Washington, Route 2, near Williamston, sent a message over the German shortwave radio recently, according to a number of messages his parents received from various shortwave listening posts.

Sergeant Williams, who was a tail gunner on a big bomber flying from a base in England, was shot down about two months ago. After being reported missing for several weeks the War Department informed the family that he was a prisoner of war in Germany.

According to the broadcast, the sergeant was well.

26-Sept.-44 Local Soldier Writes from Guam

Sergeant Gordon S. Lynch, son of Mr. and Mrs. M. B. Lynch, of Washington, writes of his experiences on Guam, in letters to his parents and his sister, Mrs. John Wynne, Jr.

Things were not so well to start but now that he has a cot to sleep on it seems to be all right, he writes. His letters in part are:

—There is very little to say about the invasion, the only thing I can say is if you saw the picture of the invasion you have seen everything that I could tell you about it. It was not quite as bad though when I came ashore.

—As for having a nice place to live, I am down on the beach, and the water puts me to sleep each night. When I first came ashore I had to sleep on the ground but I now have a cot to sleep on and it is very hard for me to get up mornings. I do not know what I would do if I was back home in my bed.

—You read something about sleeping in a foxhole. When I first landed we slept in a foxhole. There were three men to each hole and while one was on guard the other two slept. It was very nice until it rained, and it rained every day and night when we first arrived here in the rainy season. It is not so bad now because we only get a little rain every other day.

—You asked me if I went in with the Marines. I did not go in with them. I went in D-Day plus three. When I reached shore everything was quiet except a few snipers which they soon






found. If you saw the invasion in the show you know what I mean. In one of my mother's letters she asked me if I got hurt. I did not. With the will of God I have been through one invasion without even a scratch.

—When I first arrived we picked out a spot where we could put the rations and then the work began. I have worked hard back home but never like I did here. This went on for quite a few days while the infantry pushed their way inland. There was no sleep to be had while we were just on this side of a hill from the front lines. I was so busy with the rations I did not have time to think of Japs until I would hear their snipers fire but after a few days not even that bothered us.

—Some of the natives were very interesting to talk to and you will find quite a number are highly educated and are one hundred per cent American. They had been under the Japs for two and a half years but each one said we're only looking for the day the American soldiers would invade the shores of Guam.—

28-Sept.-44 Leland F. Brooks of Bath, Wounded

Technical Sergeant Five Leland F. Brooks, of Bath, was wounded in action in France September 7, according to a telegram received by his parents, Mr. and Mrs. B. A. Brooks of Bath. He was sent overseas in April of this year and was with General Patton's armoured division. His outfit is known as —The Ghost Patrol.—

3-Oct.-44 Bath Soldier Dies of Wounds

Mr. and Mrs. B. A. Brooks of Bath, who received notice from the War Department Saturday, September 23, that their son, T-5 Leland F. Brooks, was seriously wounded in action in France September 7, received further notice from the government Saturday, September 30, that he died from the wounds September 11.

13-Oct.-44 Governor Urged to Revoke Order to State Guard

Citing the acute shortage and urgent need for labor in the harvesting of crops, crowded tobacco warehouses and other problems, Congressman Herbert C. Bonner yesterday urged Governor Melville G. Broughton to revoke his order directing members of the State Guard to report to Fort Bragg this week for a ten-day camp.

21-Oct.-44 War Prisoners to be Available

County Agent W. L. McGahey stated today that there will be in the near future a limited amount of Prisoners-of-War labor available for general farm work in Beaufort County.

30-Oct.-44 Private First Class Carl Kelly Gurganus Killed

Mr. and Mrs. Otway Gurganus of Route Two, Washington, have been notified by the War Department that their son, Private First Class Carl Kelly Gurganus, was killed in action on September 28 on the island of Palau.

2-Nov.-44 Route One Sailor Reported Missing

Mr. and Mrs. Dan Leggett, of Route One, Washington, received a message from the Navy Department Wednesday informing them that their son, Clarence J. Leggett, M. M. 1-C, is missing in action. The telegram came the day after the Leggetts had received a notice of commendation for the missing sailor.

3-Nov.-44 Sergeant Wiley Hawkins Reported Missing

Mr. and Mrs. H. T. Hawkins, of Route One, Washington, were notified Thursday that their son, Technical Sergeant Wiley R. Hawkins, twenty-one, has been missing in action over Italy since October 16.

7-Nov.-44 Red Cross Can Now Communicate in Philippines

A telegram released today by Mrs. E. P. Rhodes, the executive secretary of the Beaufort County Chapter of the American Red Cross carries an important announcement concerning Red Cross communications to the Philippines.

The telegram reads as follows:

—Red Cross now prepared to expedite communications to Philippines. One Red Cross message on Form 1616, will be accepted from any person in this country to any prisoner of war or United States civilian internee. We cannot guarantee delivery but messages will be handled by Army Postal Service.—

11-Nov.-44 Technical Sergeant James Nunnelee Awarded DFC for Part in Bombing Attack

The Distinguished Flying Cross has recently been awarded to Technical Sergeant James S. Nunnelee, Washington, North Carolina, for —extraordinary achievement . . . courage, coolness, and






skill— while participating in numerous bombing attacks on military and industrial targets in Germany and enemy installations in the path of the advancing Allied armies in Western Europe.

19-Dec.-44 Fourteen Leave Today for Armed Forces

Fourteen more Beaufort County men will not be able to enjoy Christmas at home this year. They are the men sent to Fort Bragg this morning by Local Board Number One for induction into the United States armed forces.

4-Jan.-45 General Mark Clark Writes to Mother of Local Soldier

—What one does speaks much louder than what one has to say,— is probably an overused quotation but those eastern Carolina folks who had the pleasure of meeting Mrs. Mark Clark, wife of —our— illustrious general who has written history for himself and the Allies in the Mediterranean theater of war, termed her a charming and gracious lady because of the —THINGS— she did during her short stay here in the Original Washington.

One of these —THINGS— had to do with her turning away from a long line of John Small auditorium hearers whom she received on the stage there after making a splendid talk when visiting here to open the United War Fund Drive. She turned aside to speak with a troubled local mother, Mrs. Taylor Harris, whose son was with General Clark's Army and from whom she had not heard in months.

Mrs. Clark, excusing herself from the receiving line, stepped to the edge of the platform and after being introduced to Mrs. Harris asked that she come up on the stage.

While talking with her, Mrs. Clark took down the name of Mrs. Harris— son, listing his address in detail. She told her interviewer she always tried to follow up all requests and that she would write General Clark immediately asking that he find out how the young man was getting along and where he was.

Very soon after this interview Mrs. Harris heard from her son, believe it or not. Mrs. Harris received a letter from General Clark himself.

We think she should frame the communication and keep it as a recommendation of the humaneness of the great General.

Mrs. Clark visited here in the early fall, being entertained at a luncheon given in the auditorium of the Parish House of Saint Peter's Episcopal Church, the event being sponsored by members of the Business and Professional Woman's Club. She

made a splendid talk there following the luncheon and spoke again in the afternoon at the John Small School.

Folks from all over eastern North Carolina who came to this city to hear Mrs. Clark and Dr. Yang, noted Chinese educator, who accompanied her to this city, and spoke at the school following the address she made, realized how understanding and humane the General must be, for his wife unconsciously announced the calibre of the man when relating certain stories having to do with his —living— outside military circles.

General Clark's letter to Mrs. Harris, a V-Mail communication, follows:

December 5, 1944

Dear Mrs. Harris:

Mrs. Clark has written to me, saying that she had met you and that you were greatly worried concerning your son, Private James T. Harris. His unit is no longer with the Fifth Army. However, I have inquired of him. His commanding officer informs me that he is in excellent health and is doing a fine job with his battery. I am informed that he has been writing home regularly, so you no doubt have heard from him before now. I am happy that it is possible to give you such a good report concerning him.

With best wishes, I am

Sincerely,

MARK W. CLARK

Lieutenant General, United States Army Commanding

5-Jan.-45 Airman Tells of War Travels

Leaving his country eighteen months ago, landing in Casablanca in North Africa, then going on to Italy, landing at Salerno three days after the invasion started, dive-bombing and strafing the enemy there, then on to China for further bombing and strafing, then back to his home for a short leave covers in a few words a year and a half of adventure on the part of Major Sam Tim Nicholson Carter, son of Mr. and Mrs. H. Clay Carter of this city, as he sketched it last night at the meeting of the Rotary Club.

9-Jan.-45 Lieutenant James M. Fowle Carries on Fighting Career of Family

—Like father, like son,— said many local residents when they heard that First Lieutenant James M. Fowle had been recommended to receive the Distinguished Service Cross, the Nation's






second award for valor, for many here know of the illustrious record possessed by Captain Daniel Gould Fowle, United States Army retired, father of the young flier.

Lieutenant Fowle shot down four Messerschmit 109's in one day over Germany and France on December 23, having previously brought down his first enemy plane, a Messerschmit 109 in November and a Focke Wulf 190 in December.

Lieutenant Fowle's parents, Captain and Mrs. Daniel Fowle reside here at the home of Miss Betty Harvey at the corner of Van Norden and West Main streets.

12-Jan.-45 Forty-Five Selectees to Fort Bragg

Forty-five Beaufort County young men left this morning for pre-induction examinations at Fort Bragg, North Carolina.

15-Jan.-45 Captain Edwards Prisoner of Germans

Two postcards with but little writing received here Sunday morning brought great joy to Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Edwards, North Market Street residents, who recognized the handwriting of their boy, Captain Ernest L. Edwards, reported missing in action in Germany during early December by the War Department. The cards, written December 6 and 13, announced that Captain Edwards was getting along okay as a German prisoner of war.

16-Jan.-45 Bonner Named on Un-American Activities Group

Congressman Herbert C. Bonner, of Washington, representative from the First Congressional District of North Carolina, has been named a member of the committee to investigate un-American activities, it was announced in the Nation's capital recently.

30-Jan.-45 Farmers Are Urged to Eliminate Unnecessary Travel by Trucks

The Office of Defense Transportation has made a very careful survey regarding the critical shortage of trucks and gasoline, Henry H. Hill, chairman of the Beaufort County Agricultural Adjustment Administration Committee, announced today. This survey revealed that —unless all unnecessary travel by farm trucks is eliminated there will not be sufficient gasoline to take care of the critical needs,— he declared.

1-Feb.-45 Aurora Sailor Presumed Dead

Mr. and Mrs. Grady Stevens of Aurora, received a message this week from the Navy Department informing them that their

son, William Grady Stevens, Jr., Aviation Metalsmith First Class, who previously had been reported missing in action, was presumed dead after a —careful review of all the facts available.—

2-Feb.-45 Private First Class Lester Hill Wounded in Saar

While fighting in the Saar River sector in Germany with his Infantry company, Private First Class Lester C. Hill, twenty-one, of Blounts Creek, North Carolina, suffered a fractured knee when he was hit by an enemy rifle bullet. He is now recovering at the United States Army General Hospital in England. He holds the Purple Heart for a shrapnel wound he received earlier while fighting in Germany early in December. Private Hill is the son of Mr. and Mrs. L. B. Hill of near Blounts Creek.

6-Feb.-45 Jones to Head Colored Drive

Fred A. Jones, Jr., Negro County Agent, has been named to head the 1945 Red Cross War Fund Drive among the colored residents of Beaufort County.

7-Feb.-45 New Warehouse Will Not Start

Washington will not have a new tobacco warehouse this year recording to Wayland Sermons, owner of Sermons Warehouse, who had planned to build. Mr. Sermons said this morning that he had made an investigation of the possibilities, consulting state officials of the War Production Board, and was told that it would be impossible to obtain materials for a new building at the present.

7-Feb.-45 Colonel Hudnell Started Successful Plane Repair Service in Philippines

An article of interest to many local residents appeared recently in New York papers and told of the outstanding work being done by a unit of the Air Service command of the Far Eastern Air Force, of which Colonel William T. Hudnell, is the commanding officer. Colonel Hudnell is the son of Mrs. W. R. Hudnell and the late Mr. Hudnell, of Washington, North Carolina.

The article is as follows:

—Advance Headquarters Leyte, Philippine Islands, January 12—A successful experiment in making major repairs to battle-damaged planes immediately behind the front lines, frequently under bombing attacks, has been carried out for the past six weeks by the Air Service Command of the Far Eastern Air Forces. It is a system which has already proved its value in the Leyte campaign and will undoubtedly be duplicated farther north, where






Lieutenant General George C. Kenney's bombers and fighters are slashing Japanese positions on Luzon.

—The experiment has enabled many ships to return to active service which under the previous arrangement would not have been available for a considerable length of time and it has sent back into the air several which otherwise would have been completely junked.

—The successful test of the plan was made here by the Fifty-Ninth Service Group, under the command of Colonel William T. Hudnell, former Southwest Pacific fighter pilot. It is now headed by Colonel Troup Miller, former deputy chief of staff to General Kenney.

—Known as the Fourth Echelon of the Service Command, the group formerly operated at Townsville, in northern Australia, effecting heavy repairs to planes damaged in the New Guinea fighting and flown to the rear for overhaul.

—The process was an expensive one as far as planes were concerned for many ships holed by antiaircraft or crippled in dogfights were unable to make the long flight back to Australia and had to be discarded. With the opening of the Leyte campaign when American troops smashed into the Philippines it was proposed by Colonel Hudnell to move his outfit behind the active front.

—Minor repairs had previously been made by advanced echelons of the Special Service Command but what Colonel Hudnell proposed was to set up a machine shop capable of making the most extensive repairs, rebuilding planes right on the Talcoban air strip, the first air base on Leyte secured by the First Cavalry Division the day after the landing on October 20. The proposal was accepted by General Kenney and on November 27 five weeks after the initial beachhead had been won, the Service Group was in operation in the Philippines.

—Appropriately enough, it was planes which enabled Colonel Hudnell to establish his advanced repair base, for the only available transportation was a fleet of C-47's of the Troop Carrier Wing of the Fifth Air Force. Seven of these were packed with five thousand pounds each of necessary equipment and flown up from Australia. In their capacious fuselages were packed five hundred pounds of sheet-metal stock, a tractor, a compressor, five hundred pounds of tools, a one hundred ten-volt generator and two thousand two hundred pounds of food for the mechanics.

The fifty men making up the outfit also carried twenty pounds of tools each.

—The machine shop was set up on the edge of the Talcoban air strip, which at that time was constantly subject to Japanese sneak air raids, and the men immediately went to work with a bulldozer, fishing out of the shallow waters of Leyte Gulf, fringing the strip with the wrecks of American planes which had crashed or were shot down in the earlier days of the campaign.

—On some of these planes they built new wing tips, on others they replaced entire fuselages torn to ribbons by antiaircraft fire. On some occasions they tore planes to pieces, building new ships by combining parts of old ones. One of their biggest jobs was the complete building of a Liberator bomber which had come back from a long-range attack on Japanese positions with one of the crew dead, the others wounded and the plane just able to stay in the air. They made a new plane out of it in seven days. A number of P-61 night fighters flying over the Philippines today and C-47's bringing in troops and supplies are there only because they were completely rebuilt by mechanics of the Fifty-Ninth Service Group.—

13-Feb.-45 Sixty-Nine Sent for Pre-Induction Physical Exams

Sixty-nine men were sent from Beaufort County draft boards this morning for pre-induction physical examinations at Fort Bragg.

14-Feb.-45 Thomas A. Bateman Prisoner of War

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas A. Bateman, of Route 2, Washington, received a telegram from the War Department advising them that their son, Staff Sergeant Thomas A. Bateman, who was reported missing on a bombing mission over Hungary on December 11, was a prisoner of war of the German government. Sergeant Bateman was a radio operator and waist gunner on a B-24 bomber.

19-Feb.-45 Lieutenant Colonel Crawford, Who Was Killed in Philippines, Recently Decorated

The name of Lieutenant Colonel William R. Crawford, United States Army, General Staff (Infantry) Parachutist, has been added to the illustrious roll of the nation's heroes. Colonel Crawford died in action in the battle for Manila on February 8. On Friday, February 16, the War Department notified his wife, the former Mary Shelburne of this city. Mrs. Crawford has been making her home here with her parents during the war.






Colonel Crawford was decorated recently for meritorious action during the siege for Leyte.

23-Feb.-45 Bath Sailor Missing Since Sinking of USS Houston Writes Brother

A Bath sailor, who has been reported missing since the sinking of the USS Houston in the Java Sea on February 27, 1942, is a prisoner of the Japanese, his brother learned today when he received a card from him.

The sailor is W. E. Tetterton, fireman first class, of the United States Navy. His brother, C. C. Tetterton, of Bath, received a Japanese Imperial Army official card and he reported his health good and that he was —working for pay.—

28-Feb.-45 Sergeant W. E. Snell Killed in Action

Mrs. Carl M. Snell, of 118 West Third Street, was notified Monday by the War Department that her son, Staff Sergeant Williard E. Snell, was killed in action on Luzon Island in the Philippines on February 4.

8-Mar-45 Canned Milk Supply to Be Sent to County

Congressman Herbert C. Bonner informed The Daily News this morning that he has been advised by War Food Administration officials that additional supplies of canned milk are being rushed to Beaufort County to relieve the acute shortage now prevailing.

10-Mar.-45 Daily News Found in Trench in Italy

On a battlefield somewhere in Italy a copy of the Washington Daily News was picked up by Private First Class Henry L. Hodges who saw the paper being blown about by the wind. He wrote Mrs. Hodges asking that she find out which one of the Cratch boys was serving in Italy as the first part of the address had been torn away.

—I can see that the last name is Cratch,— Private Hodges stated in the letter written to Mrs. Hodges, the former Miss Katherine Harding.

A check of the mailing list in the News office this morning showed that the paper had been mailed to Private Murray D. Cratch, who was with the One Hundred Thirty-Fifth Infantry.

12-Mar.-45 Mother of Route Three Airman Receives Award for Son Who Is War Prisoner

Mrs. Alice Williams, Route Three, Washington, received the Distinguished Flying Cross and the Air Medal with three Oak

Leaf clusters for her son, Staff Sergeant Sam J. Williams, a prisoner of war.

13-Mar.-45 Gasoline Violators in County Punished

Violators of gasoline regulations were recently summoned before the Gasoline Hearing Panel of the Local War Price and Rationing Board and two were punished for alleged violations.

14-Mar.-45 Thirty-Eight Leave for Physical Exams

Thirty-eight men were sent to Fort Bragg this morning by Local Board Number One for pre-induction physical examinations.

14-Mar.-45 Canned Milk Supply Is Reported Critical

Beaufort and several adjoining counties are still having a serious shortage of canned milk, according to Dr. D. E. Ford, Beaufort-Hyde County health officer. In spite of the fact that relief had been promised, there is only a meager supply of milk in the city today and there is no definite information as to when the supplies will be replenished. A check of the stores of Washington, Dr. Ford said, revealed that only a few cases were available and that this is being sold only to families with small babies.

15-Mar.-45 Fourteen Leave Today for Induction

Fourteen men left today for Fort Bragg for induction into the armed forces. The group was sent by Local Board Number Two.

16-Mar.-45 Fifty-Three Today for Physical Exams

Fifty-three inductees were sent to Fort Bragg this morning by Local Board Number Two for pre-induction physical examinations.

17-Mar.-45 —Check Your Tire Week— Starts Monday

Local tire dealers and filling stations of Washington and Beaufort County are joining with the nation next week in observation of —Check Your Tire Week— in an effort to help motorists get the greatest possible wear out of their present tires for never has car tire conservation been more necessary than now.

20-Mar.-45 Captain Clark Rodman Escapes After Being Taken Prisoner

Captain Clark Rodman, of Washington, who was reported missing in action Saturday by the War Department, is safe, according to letters received this morning by his mother, Mrs. Olzie C. Rodman and his brother, Archie.






Captain Rodman wrote that he was in an Army hospital in Paris, resting after escaping from Germans who had taken him a prisoner.

The young medical officer wrote his brother of his experiences but only related a portion of it because of censorship rules.

The letters were received at the local post office at seven o'clock this morning and created a mild riot because Archie, who is a rural carrier, happened to be on hand and it was only a few minutes before his mother got the good news.

21-Mar.-45 Former Local Man Dies of Wounds

Mrs. A. Jason Civils, who for the past few months has been residing in Portsmouth, Virginia, received word yesterday from the War Department advising her of the death of her husband, Corporal A. Jason Civils, who died of wounds in Germany March 6. Corporal Civils was a native of Washington, and the son of Mr. A. N. Civils, East Seventh Street, and a member of the First Christian Church.

23-Mar.-45 Belhaven Soldier Killed in Luzon

Mrs. James C. Russ, of Belhaven, received a message from the War Department Tuesday, March 20, informing her that her husband, Sergeant James C. Russ, was killed in action on Luzon, in the Philippines, on February 13. Mrs. Russ and baby are now living at Belhaven.

26-Mar.-45 Selectees Leave to Begin Service

Twenty-six men left here this morning for Fort Bragg for induction into the armed services.

28-Mar.-45 Chocowinity Soldier Prisoner of Germans

Staff Sergeant David E. Chandler, who was reported missing in action on January 9 in France, is a prisoner of war of the German government, according to a message received by his wife who resides at Chocowinity.

31-Mar.-45 E. C. Spain, Jr. Seriously Wounded

Mr. and Mrs. E. C. Spain, of Chocowinity, were notified by the War Department Friday that their son, E. C. Spain, Jr., was seriously wounded in action in France on March 15.

31-Mar.-45 Clarence Jarvis Killed in Action

Private Clarence Alexander Jarvis, of Aurora, was killed in action overseas on February 28, the War Department notified his

wife on March 15. Private Jarvis is the son of Mr. and Mrs. E. C. Jarvis, of Aurora.

5-Apr.-45 Red Cross War Fund Goal Passed

Beaufort County has passed its goal in the 1945 Red Cross War Fund drive, it was announced today by C. O. H. Jordan, drive chairman. The county has collected $24,731.37, passing the $22,000 quota set for the community, by a wide margin.

6-Apr.-45 One Hundred Four Selectees Sent for Exams

Two of the largest contingents of selectees in recent months were sent to Fort Bragg Thursday and this morning for pre-induction examinations. Board Two sent seventy-two Thursday while thirty-two were sent from Board One this morning.

9-Apr.-45 Johnnie Guthrie Killed in Action

Mrs. Minnie E. Guthrie, of Ransomville, has received word from the Navy Department that her son, Johnnie D. Guthrie, Gunner's Mate First Class, has been killed in action. Guthrie was about twenty-five years old and had been serving aboard a destroyer in the Pacific. He was a brother of J. D. Guthrie of Washington.

21-Apr.-45 Ashley G. Toler Killed in Action

Word was received Friday of the death of Ashley Glenn Toler, Chief Gunner's Mate, United States Navy, by his parents at Chocowinity. Toler had been on duty in the Pacific for more than two years.

21-Apr.-45 State Guard Seeks Recruits

This city stands in danger of losing its State Guard Company unless the present drive for recruits is successful. Officers of the company pointed out that a large number of the men had been called into the armed service and others have dropped out, depleting the ranks to a dangerous low. An urgent plea has been made for men not subject to the draft.

24-Apr.-45 Fred M. Mallison Seriously Wounded

Staff Sergeant Fred M. Mallison, son of Mr. and Mrs. S. M. Mallison, of Washington, was seriously wounded in action on April 8, according to a telegram received Monday from the War Department by his parents.

1-May-45 Joseph Woolard Dies in Germany

Technical Sergeant Joseph E. Woolard, son of Mr. and Mrs.






Claude E. Woolard, of Route One, Washington, was killed in action in Germany on April 14, his parents were informed last week by the War Department.

1-May-45 Private First Class Ermon Garris Wounded in Italy

Mrs. Ermon Garris received a message from the War Department yesterday stating that her husband, Private First Class Ermon Garris, had been wounded in action in Italy on April 16. At the time he was wounded he was with the Thirty-fourth (Red Bull) Infantry Division.

2-May-45 James Brinson Killed in Italy

Private First Class James W. Brinson, Jr., son of Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Brinson of Water Street, was killed in action in Italy on April 17, his parents were notified this morning by the War Department. He had been sent to Italy with General Mark Clark's Fifth Army.

2-May-45 Private First Class R. T. Warren of Washington, received a telegram from the War Department this morning informing her that her son, Private First Class R. T. Warren, Jr., had been seriously wounded in action in Germany for the third time.

3-May-45 Recreation Items to Be Collected

A Tar Heel Camp and Hospital Council appeal for checkers and checkerboards, cribbage boards, dominoes, poker cards, pinochle cards, books, etc. has been received here by local council chairman, Mrs. Graham Ramsey, and Beaufort County residents are asked to contribute them without delay. The items are urgently needed for servicemen and will have to be collected right away. Members of the Business and Professional Woman's Club are sponsoring the project.

4-May-45 Four Thousand Three Hundred Ninety-One Pounds Clothing Donated

Washington's residents responded generously to the recent clothing collection, donating four thousand three hundred ninety-one pounds of used garments to be used for needy persons of warstricken countries.

5-May-45 Lieutenant Selby Jones Flying Over Tokyo

Lieutenant Selby Jones, Jr., son of Mr. and Mrs. Selby Jones, of Washington, was a member of the first P-51 Mustang fighter outfit to fly over Tokyo, according to a letter received by his parents.

The fighter pilot said the Japs —always run— when they see the Mustangs coming.

7-May-45 Ninety-Five Selectees to Fort Bragg

Another large contingent of Beaufort County boys left Saturday, May 5, for Fort Bragg for their pre-induction examinations. Board One sent twenty-five and Board Two sent seventy.

8-May-45

A Victory In Europe edition of The Daily News was printed symbolizing the Nazi surrender and the end of the war in Europe.

9-May-45 Memorial Service at Rotary Meeting

A special memorial service for Beaufort County men who gave their lives in this war will be held at the regular weekly meeting of the Washington Rotary Club Thursday evening.

11-May-45 Henry C. Harding Is Awarded Distinguished Flying Cross

Flight Officer Henry C. Harding, recently awarded the Air Medal, has in addition, within the past few weeks, been awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. Both decorations reward outstanding ability and performance as a transport pilot on the hazardous India-China run over the difficult and dangerous Himalaya Mountains.

16-May-45 Killed in Action

Mr. and Mrs. J. J. Windley, of Pinetown, Route One, received a message recently that their son, Private James G. Windley, twenty-seven, was killed in action in Germany on March 24, 1945. He was serving with General Patton's Third Army when killed.

19-May-45 Sergeant Alexander Noe Freed in Germany

The Reverend and Mrs. A. C. D. Noe of Bath, have been notified through the Red Cross, that their son Technical Sergeant Alexander B. (Andy) Noe, who has been a prisoner of war in Germany for the past twenty-one months, has been liberated and is on his way home.

22-May-45 Corporal Sidney Godley Receives Discharge

Beaufort County's first soldier to be reported discharged under the Army's point system is Corporal Sidney Godley, son of Mrs. Annie Godley, of West Third Street. Corporal Godley received






his honorable discharge, having a total of one hundred twenty points.

24-May-45 Local Draft Board Gets Instructions

B. C. Homes, chairman of the Beaufort County Draft Board Two, said this morning that Board Two had received instructions from state headquarters on the new ruling for inductees over thirty years of age.

Mr. Homes said that inductees for Board Two over thirty years of age who have been notified to appear for induction would be notified not to appear until further notice unless they are —farm-jumpers or leaving a necessary industry without permission of their draft boards.—

24-May-45 Slaughter Must Register Now

All farmers wishing to slaughter cattle, calves, sheep, lamb, or swine must register with the local War Price and Rationing Board before June 1, it was announced today.

28-May-45 Three Washington Airmen Among Group Cited by General Doolittle

Among the one hundred eighty-five thousand men and women of the Eighth Air Force congratulated after V-E Day by Lieutenant General James H. Doolittle, their commander, were Major John D. Gorham, Jr., 603 West Main Street; Captain Harvey C. Elliott, 113 West Tenth Street; and Sergeant Samuel R. Fowle, III, 718 West Main Street, Washington, North Carolina.

30-May-45 Private First Class Merril Alligood Hurt on Okinawa

Mrs. Merril J. Alligood has been notified that her husband, Private First Class Merril Alligood, United States Marine Corps, was wounded in action on Okinawa on May 19. Private First Class Alligood said, in a letter to his wife that he was getting along nicely. Private Alligood is the son of Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Alligood, Route Two.

2-June-45 Wounded Need Cookies, Flowers

Beaufort County rural women and girls have been called upon to render an outstanding service to the wounded boys at Camp Lejeune on Father's Day, June 17, announces Miss Violet Alexander, Home Demonstration Agent. The Tar Heel Council of the American Red Cross has asked that three thousand six hundred cookies and enough flowers for every ward in the hospital be

donated. The cookies and flowers will be collected at the Curb Market on Saturday, June 16.

2-June-45 Sergeant Neil Ross Being Returned to United States

Mrs. Zelota T. Ross received the following telegram a few days ago in regard to her son, Neil, who was a prisoner of war in Germany for eighteen months:

The Chief of Staff of the Army directs me to inform you that your son, Staff Sergeant Ralph N. Ross is being returned to the United States within the near future. He will be given an opportunity to communicate with you upon arrival.

5-June-45 Captain Litchfield Returns Home

Captain Tom Litchfield, Jr., of the American Air Force, arrived at his home in Aurora last Friday night after being liberated from a German prison camp by the victorious Allied forces.

13-June-45 Private First Class George Gardner Wounded on Okinawa

Private First Class George Gardner, of the United States Marine Corps, son of Mrs. Coley Tankard, was wounded on Okinawa recently, according to a letter received by his mother Tuesday. Private Gardner, who is with the Sixth Marines, stated he was not seriously wounded and was in a hospital.

13-June-45 Federal Stamps for Autos on Sale

Federal stamps for automobiles are now on sale at the Washington post office, Postmaster Sam Fowle announced today. The stamps must be purchased and put on automobiles by July 1.

14-June-45 Automobile Sellers Must Be Registered

All sellers in the Motor Vehicle Business who wish to sell used automobiles, used commercial motor vehicles, and used motorcycles at warranty prices must call at the local War Price and Rationing Board for an application from 694-2163 titled —Application for Dealer's Authorization,— within the next week.

18-June-45 Labor Situation on Farms Serious

County Agent W. L. McGahey announced today that the farm labor situation in Beaufort County will probably be serious again this year, and called on the general public to help out with the farm work when the need arises. Farm people themselves are working harder and longer hours than ever before; however, in






spite of this, town and city people again will be needed if war crop demands are met. The needs of the armed forces have made it necessary that farmers maintain their high rate of production, which last year established a record. Farmers of the county have planned their crops with the expectance that emergency help will be available, especially at harvest time. Food is important in the prosecution of the war and the production and harvesting of crops is an essential war job. If you can spare the time don't forget your services are needed and will be paid for on the farm this year.

21-June-45 People Won't Starve but Must Change Eating Habits, Local Merchants Say

—People aren't going to starve, but they must change some of their eating habits,— said one grocery store dealer when interviewed today on the local food situation. The food shortage is becoming acute, but observing the ceiling price and doing away with the black market will make what food there is go farther, it was pointed out.

Some food dealers say that they are selling more than they did before the war and others say they notice a considerable drop, especially in foods that are plentiful. For example, one merchant said that he sold more cigarettes since the shortage began than ever before. He is allotted approximately twenty-five cartons a week, and sells them almost as soon as he gets them.

The shortage of soap and soap powder is being felt by everyone. A local merchant said that he sold, in normal times, between one hundred and one hundred fifty cases of soap powder and his allotment for this week was only one package. Canned milk allotments have dropped about ninety-five per cent.

Some merchants report that butter allotments have increased over the amount that they received six months ago, although seventy-five per cent less butter is available now. Canned fruits and vegetables are practically off the market, some dealers say, especially okra and tomatoes.

One of the most acute shortages of all is that of meats. In some communities housewives are forced to stand in line for hours, finally to obtain only a small amount of meat. So far the attempts of the Office of Price Administration have not made any more meat available to the public. Local markets are getting about one-sixth as much meat as they did in peace time.

Some blame the shortages of food on the lack of transportation in this section of the state, and others say that it is —just the

war in general.— Each citizen is urged to buy only what he needs and to conserve as much food as possible.

22-June-45 Magazines Will Be Sent to Hospitals

According to Mrs. James A. Hackney, Sr., chairman of the county unit of the Tar Heel Camp and Hospital Council, magazines are to be sent each month to the wounded and sick soldiers undergoing treatment in the nearby government hospitals.

28-June-45 Twenty-Two Men Sent to Fort Bragg

Twenty-two Beaufort County men were sent to Fort Bragg this morning for induction into the armed forces.

29-June-45 Pantego Marine Dies on Okinawa

Private John J. Bishop, twenty, of the United States Marine Corps, died of wounds suffered in action on Okinawa Island, his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Ernest H. Bishop, of Pantego, were notified recently by the Navy Department. Private Bishop was with the Sixth Marine Division.

29-June-45 Winifred Hudson Killed in Action

Private First Class Winifred Hudson, twenty, son of Mrs. E. P. Hudson and the late Mr. Hudson of Old Ford, was killed in action on Okinawa May 25, according to a telegram the family received last Sunday. Private Hudson took part in the invasion of Okinawa as a member of an infantry unit.

30-June-45 Beaufort War Bond Sales Quarter Million Over Quota

Beaufort County's war bond sales in the Seventh War Loan Drive went past the overall quota. The total sales to date are well over one million dollars, the county's quota being $793,000.

30-June-45 Captain Heber Winfield, Jr. Holds Silver Star and Purple Heart Medals

Captain Heber G. Winfield, Jr., son of Mr. and Mrs. Heber G. Winfield of Washington, North Carolina, has been awarded the Silver Star medal for gallantry in action against the enemy. He also has the Purple Heart medal for wounds received on April 9 near Hanover, Germany. Captain Winfield commands Company —A— of the Seven Hundred Seventy-first Tank Destroyer Battalion and has directed its operations in the United States, Great Britain, France, Belgium, Holland, and Germany.






2-July-45 Thirty-Four Leave Today for Fort Bragg

Thirty-four Beaufort County men left this morning for Fort Bragg for pre-induction physical examination.

3-July-45 Three Hundred Forty-Eight Veterans Get Assistance

Assistance to veterans was emphasized in a report of its monthly activities issued by the Beaufort County Chapter of the American Red Cross today.

—Though our Home Service Department has so far been called upon to help three hundred forty-eight veterans,— Mrs. Lonnie Squires, chairman, and Mrs. W. B. Harding, co-chairman said, —we expect an increasing number each month. A staff of trained workers are ready to help local men and women when they are discharged.—

5-July-45 Swimming Trunks Needed at USO

A swimming party is being planned for Sunday afternoon at the USO. A number of swimming trunks are needed for the visiting servicemen and an appeal is being sent out for them.

6-July-45 Sugar Shortage Acute in Local Stores and Wholesale Houses

In this community recently the sugar shortage has become acute. Two weeks ago local merchants were fairly well supplied but now there is little sugar or none to be had.

One grocery store received a shipment of one thousand two hundred pounds of sugar this morning and every pound was sold within four hours.

Some merchants say that they had no sugar for two weeks and before that time their allotment was the same as in normal times. In some cases, grocers say their allotment was reduced before the acute shortage began.

A local druggist reports that he has sold approximately fifty thousand saccharin tablets this week and his supply is completely exhausted. Saccharin is being widely used by housewives as a sugar substitute, although its taste is somewhat dissimilar to that of sugar.

Sugar allotments for canning have been made to applicants but several report that their fruit is going to waste because of the lack of sugar.

Not only are retail merchants short of sugar, but also wholesalers. One firm reports that they ordered two carloads from a

refinery about two months ago and have not been able to get any yet.

The cause of this acute sugar shortage has not been determined. It can be traced back to the refinery, and perhaps even farther. Local folks are hoping that it will be relieved soon.

19-July-45 Meat Shortage Here Is Getting Serious

A serious situation is in the making in Beaufort County unless some relief is given in the meat shortage.

Butcher shops are getting only a small portion of the people's needs, being able to get a necessary supply.

Most seriously affected are the laboring classes who need meat in their daily diets to keep them going. Many have been reported unable to get any meat at all in four or five weeks.

The situation became so serious at the mill of the Eureka Lumber Company this week that an appeal was made to the War Production Board in Raleigh. Frank W. Cox, president of the company, said that the War Production Board had promised relief for the mill workers but first an estimate had to be made as to how much would be needed and a dealer selected to handle the goods for the workers.

Restaurants are also faring hard with some serving only one meal daily and the others having limited menus with fish as the main meat dish.

It was pointed out that fish are rather plentiful but that the scarcity of lard is causing many to refrain from buying it as they do not have sufficient fats in which to fry it.

26-July-45 Forty-Seven Men Leave for Induction

Forty-seven men from Beaufort County left this morning for Fort Bragg to be inducted into the Armed Services. They have already passed their physical examinations and will be assigned to various branches of the service.

30-July-45 Mayhew Woolard Dies in Germany

Corporal Mayhew Woolard, son of Mr. and Mrs. A. Claude Woolard, of Route One, Washington, died on July 3 in Germany, his parents were notified last week by the War Department. Corporal Woolard served with the Seventh Army in England, France, Belgium, and Germany.

13-Aug.-45 Aurora Soldier Gets Bronze Star

For helping to knock out two Japanese positions and killing






fifteen enemy soldiers during the battle for Baguio, summer capital of the Philippines, in northern Luzon, Private First Class Archie D. White of Aurora has been awarded the Bronze Star Medal.

14-Aug.-45 Two War Veterans on Police Force

Two ex-servicemen of —World War II are now members of the Washington police force. They are Phillip Paul and J. R. Tripp, who were both honorably discharged from the Army on the point system.

14-Aug.-45 Firemen Celebrate Early in Morning

Washington's volunteer fire department did things up right this morning when word came through that the Japanese had surrendered.

The fire bell started ringing between two and three o'clock and then the firemen started making rounds in the fire trucks. After making no less than a half-dozen trips through sections of the city, with the bells and sirens going at full blast, they finally tired out but by that time they had the entire city awakened and informed of the surrender news.

At noon today they had apparently realized they had celebrated enough as none could be found in the usual haunts in the city.

15-Aug.-45 Washington Residents Join Victory Celebration

A tide of joy swept over —Little Washington— Tuesday night and within a few minutes after President Truman made the momentous announcement that the war with Japan was over the celebration started.

In just a short time a victory parade started in the city with the fire department leading the way. Not only did they get out their three trucks but they hauled out the old —smoker— and fired it up. They finally worked up enough steam for the whistle but it was making only a weak —peep— as the parade ended.

Many thought the firemen had worked up the town early Tuesday morning when the first announcement was made by the Tokyo radio that the Japanese were quitting. They paraded through the streets with their sirens screaming and bells ringing. Their enthusiastic mood continued; however, when the official announcement came through they were right in front of the parade Tuesday night.

Hundreds of persons, many of whom had been hoarding up their —precious— gasoline coupons, joined in the victory parade.

There was a constant roar of automobile horns, shouts, and joyful screams as they paraded through the city.

One well-known city resident, who gathered his —grand-babies— up in his auto, supplied them with paper horns, was later seen tooting on a dilapidated bugle on one of the street corners.

Another was dragging a dishpan behind his car as a means of adding to the din of the occasion.

Police reported everything quiet with only a minor skirmish or two that amounted to nothing.

Several hundred others quit the parade early and went to the circus showing on Fifth Street Extension.

Washington returned to normal today with the streets practically empty as businesses were closed. Stores will reopen tomorrow (Thursday) and will observe another holiday when President Truman officially proclaims V-J Day.

Mayor R. P. MacKenzie issued a proclamation today setting aside the two holidays and urged that places that sell beer and wine also close in observance of the two holidays.

15-Aug.-45 Mayor's Proclamation

The war with the Japanese has been brought to a close with the announcement Tuesday night by President Harry S. Truman that the enemy has accepted our surrender demands. No date has been set for V-J Day but the President announced that this will come later.

Our businesses are at a standstill today and we are beginning our celebration. As we celebrate let us renew our efforts toward making this a better world in which to live and pray for a just and lasting peace.

Now, therefore, I, R. P. MacKenzie, Mayor of Washington, do proclaim today, Wednesday, August 15, 1945, and the day the President officially proclaims as V-J Day as holidays and urge that all places of business be closed on these days in honor of our gallant fighting men and women.

R. P. MACKENZIE, Mayor of Washington

25-Aug.-45 USO Dance Tonight for Members Only

Tonight's USO Victory Dance at the USO Social Hall will be a closed affair with only the members and servicemen and discharged veterans admitted. Sunday's Open House at the USO Center will be open to the public.






7-Sept.-45 War Fund Will Have to Continue

Belief was expressed here by James M. Silverthorne, chairman of the Beaufort County Community War Chest and War Fund, that the work of the National War Fund will have to continue for at least one year after V-J Day.

12-Sept.-45 Bath Sailor Freed from Japs

William Ellodious Tetterton, Fireman Second Class, United States Navy, of Bath, North Carolina, is reported as among the survivors of the cruiser Houston liberated from the Japanese in Thailand. Tetterton is reported safe in Calcutta, India.

19-Sept.-45 Red Cross Home Services Ready

With the end of the war the armed forces are ready for the greatest demobilization in history. The American Red Cross stands by to assist Beaufort County's returning veterans in securing the government benefits to which they are entitled, and to help them with the many problems they face in their return to civilian life, W. D. Welch, Jr., chairman of the Beaufort County Chapter, said today.

27-Sept.-45 Missing Airman Presumed Dead

Sergeant John H. Moore, son of Mr. and Mrs. T. L. Moore, of Bath who has been missing in action since April 9, 1944, has been presumed dead by the War Department.

The above is not a complete chronology of the home front during —World War II, but is an effort to present a representative view of the humdrum life of rationing, self-denial, intense effort and patriotism experienced by all those of town and county. This was broken by news, both sad and happy, from the men at the front. Many heroes— names are missing. If all had been included an entire volume would have been needed. We are sorry that any name had to be ommitted.

The information was compiled from only the front page of the local newspaper, Washington Daily News, for the period from December 7, 1941 to September 1945 when peace returned.

U.F.L.

PART 2
GENERAL HUDNELL

General William Thomas Hudnell, son of W. T. Hudnell, Sr. and Minnie Latham Hudnell, was born in Aurora on November 28, 1908.

Since his retirement after thirty five years in the United States Army Air Force, General Hudnell lives today in San Antonio, Texas. His parents moved to Washington when Bill was a small boy and he grew up here, graduating at Washington High School in 1926. After attending the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill he enlisted in the Air Corps, receiving his first commission and his pilot wings in 1933.

In 1937 he married Virginia Keusink. By this time he had already been selected for a Regular Army Air Corps commission and had been awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross.

From July 1943 until the end of —World War I he remained in the operational theatre of the southwest Pacific where he was Chief of Staff for materiel for the Fifth Air Force. His activities in the Pacific won for Colonel Hudnell the Legion of Merit Medal for —exceptionally meritorious conduct.— He was also awarded the Oak Leaf Cluster to the Air Medal for combat missions and during the same period awarded an Air Medal for destruction of enemy aircraft over Cebu Island, Philippine Islands. Here his plane was destroyed in aerial combat.

In 1946 the Colonel was appointed Wing Commander of the 56th Fighter Wing at Selfridge Air Force Base in Michigan. In 1952 he was promoted to Brigadier General after a period of service as Assistance for Logistics in the Office of Chief of Staff for Materiel at United States Air Force headquarters. In 1954 he became Vice Commander of the Far East Logister Force at Tachikawa Air Force Base in Japan and was appointed Commander of the Air Materiel Force in the Pacific Area the following year. He was promoted to Major General in 1957 and moved to Hawaii where he remained at Wheeler Air Force Base until June 1958. He served at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio until 1960 when he assumed Command of the San Antonio Air Materiel Area at Kelly Air Force Base in Texas.

In recognition of his services in improving their logistics structures, General Hudnell has been awarded decorations by Korea, China, Japan and Thailand.

PART 3
ADMIRAL McILHENNY

Rear Admiral Harry H. McIlhenny, son of William Whiting McIlhenny and his wife, Lena Bell, is another son of whom Washington is proud.






Harry McIlhenny was born in Washington and after finishing Washington High School received an appointment to Annapolis. Here he graduated with the Class of 1927.

When the Japanese made their surprise attack on December 7, 1941, Lieutenant McIlhenny, United States Navy, was at Pearl Harbor. For his distinguished career during —World War II he was awarded the Navy Cross, the Silver Star, and the Legion of Merit.

A letter from the Secretary of the Navy says that the Navy Cross was awarded for —extraordinary heroism and intrepid devotion to duty as Commanding Officer of the U.S.S. Reid in action with an enemy submarine off Nazan Bay in August 1942.—

The Silver Star was awarded for —conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity— in protecting his convoy when a group of destroyers, which he was commanding, was attacked by ten enemy torpedo bombers. This was in New Guinea in 1943.

In the Okinawa area Captain McIlhenny was Commanding Officer of the U.S.S. Charles S. Sperry. In 1945 he was awarded the Legion of Merit —for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services to the Government of the United States.—

After the war Captain McIlhenny was sent to Brazil as Senior Naval Adviser to the Brazilian Naval War College. For his services there Brazil conferred upon him the Order of Naval Merit.

This distinguished son of Washington was Commanding Officer of the U.S.S. Worcester until he retired as a Rear Admiral in 1957.

PART 4
THE WASHINGTON SHIPYARD IN WORLD WAR II

It was almost a miracle how the United States went into action after Pearl Harbor and prepared itself in record time for all out war. There was a sense of urgency in the air. Every village and town was involved in some way in producing men or material, often both, for the war effort.

It had been a number of years since Washington had been in the business of shipbuilding. But now a Washington Shipyard sprang into action in the area of North Shores. It employed six hundred seventy-five men in ten hour shifts for seven days a week and sent an average of one barge a week down the ways.

There were eight ways at the Washington Shipyard and one

launching way. On Wednesday, May 19, 1943, the Gahagen Construction Company, which held a two million dollar contract with the Maritime Commission, sent the first of thirty barges down the way into the Pamlico River.

These barges were designed to carry crude oil along the inland waterways thus releasing regular oil tankers for shipping fuel to troops overseas. They carried the oil along inland waterways to avoid the submarine hazards off the coast of North Carolina.

Built from Douglas fir shipped from the West Coast because local timber was found to have too high a moisture content, these barges were one hundred seventy feet long and thirty-four feet wide with a ten and a half foot draft. Each had a capacity of six thousand barrels of oil, equal to approximately twenty-five tank cars.

P.W.M.






SECTION TWO





CHAPTER XIV
SHIPPING
by
YSOBEL DUPREE LITCHFIELD

Early colonists of North Carolina settled on sounds, rivers and creeks to enable them to import necessities and export the results of their labors. But due to the shifting sands of the outer banks, passages were treacherous and constantly changing and commerce to and from the settlements was limited to local trade and small ships from longer established New England traders. Thus, the colony grew slowly as there were no ports for heavy shipping, and, without ports, there were few towns and little commerce.

In a letter to the Lords Proprietors written Nov. 23, 1720, Mr. Joseph Boone and Mr. John Barnwell, agents for South Carolina, discussed North Carolina: —. . . Tho— there is a great quantity of good Land there and the Country very healthy, yet its situation renders it for ever uncapable of being a place of any consequence, for there lies a vast sound of 60 miles over between it and ye sea which break into the same thro— a chain of sand banks with barrs so shifting and shallow that sloops of five feet water runs great risqs, and it sometimes happens that they have 8 or 10 feet water the next storm may alter it so, and perhaps in the very chanell rise an island of sand as is really dreadful and surprising. This renders the place uncapable of a Trade to Great Britain and what is carried on is by small sloops from New England who brings them cloathing and Iron wear and exports Pork and Corn of late they made about 6000 barrells of pitch and tarre which the New England sloops carry first to New England and then to Great Britain. . . .1

1Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. 2, p. 3, 96




As early as 1699, Charles II issued —orders and instructions— to the Lords Proprietors relating to trade and navigation with the Carolinas. John Dunstan Esq. was appointed by the Lords Proprietors —to be naval officer of that part of our Province of Carolina that lyes North and East of Cape Fear—2 on June 3, 1723, and he is assumed to be the first customs officer of this area. His duties were to record ships entering and leaving his jurisdiction and to collect fees, record country of vessel, check lading and record information concerning seamen aboard.

A letter from Sir Richard Everard, Edenton, dated May 3, 1728, to the Lords of Trade and Plantations in England, complained of laws enacted by the crown that were —detrimental and destructive to the trade of this Province.—3 The regulations on pitch and tar, the main exports of the colony, were such that there was no trade to depend on except beef and pork —driven alive to Virginia and the Virginians brought in neither molasses, sugar, nor rum, the Chief Support of this Province.—4

—Chief productions of the Province during Gov. Dobbs— administration (1754-1764) were naval stores of all kinds, lumber of all kinds, pork, beef, hides, deerskins and furs, bees and myrtle wax, rice, Indian corn, cotton and indigo. The cultivation of tobacco increased so much that in 1756 warehouses were established for its inspection before being exported from the Province by sea.—5 One of these warehouses was located at Bath Town in Beaufort County.

Gov. Dobbs wrote the Board of Trade on Feb. 8, 1755 asking that —Acts of Navigation or other restraining acts be repealed with proper restrictions so as to enlarge the Trade of the Colonies—6 with England. He suggested that there be a Revenue Officer stationed at —Oracock Inlet to examine all ships and take a Manifest of their Cargoes upon both that came over that Bar, for the Sound within is so large with many numerous Navigable Creeks on each side in Albemarle Sound, Pamticoe and Neuse Rivers that they may discharge great parts of their Cargoes Spirits Wine etc. and all prohibited goods before they come to the discharging Ports and by landing them they Swear only to the remainder of their Cargoe.—7 (This was one of the uses for small boats called —lighters— which assisted the larger vessels by carrying a part of the cargo over the shoals.) Also, in 1755, a bill was passed in the Colony granting his Majesty a duty upon tonnage of ships and other vessels coming into the Province. In 1758 Gov. Dobbs was ordered to —lay an Embargo upon the

2Ibid., p. 4973Ibid., p. 7614Ibid.5Ibid., Vol. 5, p. XLIII6Ibid., p. 3317Ibid.

shipping of this Province . . . until further orders.—8 This order was a result of England's troubles with France.

By 1763 only two hundred ninety-six ships (mostly small), tonnage eleven thousand, eight hundred sixty-two pounds, and about fifteen hundred seafaring men, were recorded for approximately a 10-year period. The proportion of the several ports were as follows:

PortsShipsTons
Brunswick904830
Beaufort732740
Bath301163
Roanoke973052
Currituck677

Not above fifty of these vessels were owned in the Province and the tonnage above is estimated to be about one-third short of real burden of the vessels, being taken from registers in which it was usual not to insert above two-thirds true tonnage.9

With limited commerce and development of ports, shipbuilding had not yet become an important addition to the economy of the Province. Gov. Tryon reported to the Board of Trade on Jan. 30, 1767: —The shipbuilding is not considerable, the largest built vessel not exceeding two hundred tons burden.—10

Ocracoke Inlet was closer to Bath County but since there was no city or town in Bath County or on the Pamlico River where shipping could concentrate and business be conveniently transacted the Albemarle area continued to dominate any commercial trade. The town of Bath was finally established in 1704 on Old Town Creek, now Bath Creek, off the Pamlico River, which developed into a commercial center.

Prior to 1716, the coast was divided into two districts for the collection of customs, the district of Currituck and that of Roanoke. Later, the increase in population to the south and decrease in water at Currituck and Roanoke Inlets made the establishment of other Ports of Entry a necessity. By order of the Lords Proprietors, —Bath Town in the County of Bath— was made a Port of Entry on August 1, 1716, —being the most proper place within the said Province for ships to take in Masts, Pitch, Tar Turpentine and other Naval Stores for the use of His Majesties Fleet,— and where may be purchased —such merchandizes and Comodities, as are of the Growth, Production and Manufactory of His Majestie's Kingdom of Great Britain . . . also considering what great Tracts of Land

8Ibid., p. 9929Ibid., p. XLIII10Ibid., Vol. 7, p. 429




lye contiguous to the said Bath Town which may afford great quantities of Naval Stores.—11

—Port Bath, which during the proprietary period had comprehended both Neuse and Pamlico Rivers, after about 1730 included only the latter. Its officials were in the town of Bath. Though of some consequence during the early part of the 18th century when it included the Neuse River, it had so declined by 1750 that it was of small importance. It was often urged, especially by Governors Burrington and Dobbs that a port of entry be established at Ocracoke (because all shipping to or from Albemarle or Pamlico sound passed there), and that ports of New Bern, Bath and Edenton be abolished.—12

An act to facilitate the navigation and regulating pilotage for several ports of the state including Port Bath in 1783: —Whereas the commerce of this state has been greatly injured by the imposition, extortion, insufficiency and negligence of pilots and for want of staking out the channels . . . Nathan Keais, Thomas Alderson, Richard Blackledge, John Bonner and John Gray Blount— were appointed Commissioners for Port Bath (Col. C. Wingate Reed in Beaufort County also named Honorable Robert Palmer, Esq., Thomas Respess, Wyriot Ormond and Peter Blinn, Esqrs. as Commissioners later.) . . . —to contract with proper persons to examine situation of the swash and keep channels leading from Occacock bar to Washington, sufficiently staked out.—13 This act also prescribed taxes to be collected at Port Bath: 50-100 tons, 20 shillings; above 100 tons, 30 shillings. The act also regulated examination, certification and pay of pilots, methods and pay for those collecting taxes, expense of setting up beacons and staking channels and penalty for pulling down, and, —no master or persons belonging to any vessels trading to this State shall cast or throw overboard into any channel or rivers within this State, any stones or other ballast, oysters or oyster shells.— William Brown was named as Naval Officer for Port Bath in 1777 and in 1784 Nathan Keais was named as Collector for Port Bath.

On November 30, 1771, James Bonner first presented the —Petition of Sundry of the Inhabitants of the Counties of Beaufort and Pitt, for altering the Dividing Lines between said Counties, and praying a Town may be Erected at the head of Pamlico, on the plantation of Major James Bonner and William Boyd, a Minor.—14 It wasn't until Apr. 29, 1782 that a bill was finally passed erecting a town at the —Forks of the Tar River— on the lands

11Ibid., Vol. 2, p. 23612 Crittenden, The Commerce of No. Carolina 1763-1789, p. 42, 43.13Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. 24, p. 502.14Ibid., Vol. 9, p. 152

of Col. James Bonner. Early references to —Washington— as a port were in the Journal of the Council of Safety, Sept. 27, 1776: —the brig George Washington now lying at Washington . . . proceed with all possible speed to Ocracoke Bar—; in July 25, 1781, in a letter from James Coor of New Bern to Gov. Burke: —Mr. John Jones of this town, merchant, is gone to Washington on Tar River where some prizes are lately arrived. . . .—15 Again, in 1784, in an act to set pilot fees —Washington— is mentioned. Also, that same year, an act to —Establish in the Townes of Edenton, Washington, New Bern and Wilmington, Courts for speedy decisions of Mercantile Transactions with Foreigners and Transcient Persons and Maritime Affairs—16 was passed. In 1788 a Jonathan Loomis Esq. was appointed Judge for Marine Court in Town of Washington.

Due to location on the Pamlico and —Forks of the Tar River,— advantageous navigation and maritime laws and regulations, and availability of naval stores and food products to export, Washington developed and grew as a center of trade. In 1790 Congress declared Washington a Port of Entry and a Customs House was established about the end of the —War of 1812. Thomas Harvey Blount, son of John Gray Blount, was a Collector of Port of Washington in 1819-1920.

According to Miss Lida T. Rodman, during the Revolution —vessels brought supplies for the American Army up the Pamlico River to Washington, from whence they were transported to Suffolk via Edenton and on to the troops. This caused Lord Germaine to complain to the British Board of Trade that the contemptible port of Ocracoke should be closed. To safeguard this important point, the Caswell, under Capt. Willis Williams, was dispatched by the state authorities and the port remained open.—17 And, during the Revolution, —Hazards of Pamlico Sound became a blessing for fast sailing, light draft ships which could slip through English men-of-war to trade with New England and the West Indies. A schooner, owned by Capt. William Shaw, ventured to the Windward Islands during this period.—18

As the population moved inland and small settlements grew up the Tar and Pungo rivers and along South Creek, Durham's Creek, Blount's Creek and others, farm produce and other products were freighted down river and creek on flatboats consigned to commission merchants in Washington, to be shipped to other states and abroad on sea-going vessels; drygoods and other products were carried back. Thomas and John Gray Blount established

15Ibid., Vol. 15, p. 57316Ibid., Vol. 24, p. 68617 “Washington Progress,” Feb. 18, 1932, Article “Historical Beaufort County” by Lida T. Rodman18 Reed, Beaufort County, Two Centuries of Its History, p. 162.




warehouses on Shell Castle Island, off Ocracoke. Their heavy draft vessels (see Appendix 1) discharged cargo from Europe and other ports here and loaded naval stores and food products for export. The office of Collector at the Port of Ocracoke was held at various times by Mr. Sylvester Brown, Col. Joshua Tayloe, Mr. Thomas Harvey Blount and Mr. Jasper Blount.19

Shipbuilding became one of Beaufort County's most important industries. Thomas Harding of Bath Town was the first shipbuilder of record in the county, also William Powell of Bath. Henry Tuley and Benjamin Russell of Pungo Sound and John Winfield of Hyde County were also early shipbuilders for Beaufort County shipowners.

The first shipyard in Washington, located on Water Street at the end of Bonner Street, was owned by William Farrow and later, by his son, Joseph Farrow. John Myers— shipyard was located on Water Street at the foot of Harvey Street. Abner P. Neal also built ships as did Hull Anderson, a free Negro, who in 1830 bought land on what is now the West Main Street site of the home of Judge William B. Rodman, Jr. On December 4, 1794, Jonathan and Daniel Marsh commissioned John Winfield of Hyde County to build a Brig and on Dec. 8, 1815, Josiah C. Fowle contracted with Jonathan Havens to build a vessel. William L. Lavender was referred to as —master builder— in ship papers. The Steamer, Wilson was built by the firm of Havens Wiswall and Havens in 1855. Abner P. Neal, Benjamin Hanks and R. L. Myers and Son built ships as did A. W. Styron at the old Farrow shipyard on Water Street. There were certainly others but no record has been made available of their activities.

Ship owners and commission merchants were instrumental in the continued growth of Beaufort County. Trade on the east coast of the United States, the West Indies, Barbados, and other Atlantic ports gave the citizens a ready market for their products. Many of the ship owners were also commission merchants but records are conflicting. John Gray Blount and Thomas Blount, John Wallace, Jonathan and Daniel G. Marsh, Josiah and Samuel R. Fowle, John Myers and R. L. Myers, John Tyler, Jonathan Havens, George H. Brown, Eli Hoyt, Benjamin Hanks, Mr. Monroe, Mr. Windley, W. B. Morton, George Darden, A. W. Styron, Lawrence Clark, Benjamin F. Havens, Joseph Potts, William Shaw, D. R. Brooks, William Farrow, Mr. Tannahill, Mr. Saunders, Lewis LeRoy, Charles Moules, William H. Willard, George A. Phillips, Fenner Rhodes, Henry Ellison, Hadrius Van Noorden, Henry Ross,

19 “Washington Progress,” Feb. 18, 1932, “Historical Beaufort County” by Lida Tunstall Rodman

Richard Grist, Welcome Hoell and George Nicholson were among those owning vessels; many were also commission merchants.

Jonathan and Daniel Gould Marsh of Rhode Island were among the early merchants and ship owners of Bath and Washington. The first Marsh deed in Beaufort County records was dated January 18, 1793 (Deed Book 6, Page 528) and referred to —Jonathan Marsh, Hyde County, Mariner.— In 1797 Jonathan and Daniel G. Marsh bought lot number 26, located at the corner of Carteret and Water streets, in Bath —bounded on south by large house where said Jonathan Marsh now lives . . . said lot has warehouse upon it, Turpentine distillery of said Marsh's and the old wharf.— This property is located across Water Street from the location of the —Marsh Wharf— on Hoyle's 1807 Map of Bath. Jonathan Marsh married Ann Bonner and purchased what is now known as the Palmer-Marsh House. He lived and died in Bath. Jonathan and Daniel Marsh are thought to have built the Telfair house in Washington in the late 1790's. In September, 1795, they purchased the west half of lot number 55, Bonner's Old Part, from John Gray Blount. Samuel R. Fowle married Martha, and after her death, Anna, daughters of Daniel G. Marsh, (a brother, David W. Marsh, is mentioned little in records and never married) thus uniting two prominent shipping families. A complete listing of Marsh ships is not now available. (See Appendix 2)

Josiah Fowle and later, his brothers, Samuel R. Fowle and James L. Fowle, operated their shipping firm on Castle Island below the bridge in Washington and later erected a building which stands today. For over 100 years this firm contributed to the business, culture and social life of the county, owning many ships (See Appendix 3) with trade to Boston, New York, West Indies, South America and other countries.

John Myers, and sons, T. H. B. Myers and Joseph D. Myers, began in 1825, operated extensively to northern points and the West Indies, and later, had lucrative river trade to Greenville and Tarboro. Prior to the —Civil War, the Myers Commission House and Boat Line also operated a marine railway and built several steamboats, tugs, schooners and barges. In 1872 the firm leased and sold to the Old Dominion Steamship Co. (See Appendix 4)

Many vessels, when returning home, had to load stones and dirt for ballast when their cargo was not felt to be heavy enough for smooth sailing. Many of the old homes and old business






houses, many walls, and most of the old basements in Beaufort County are constructed of this stone. And, the dirt from northern ports and foreign countries was used to fill in the wharves and docks.

The Register of Deeds office, Beaufort County Courthouse contains —Instruments of Protest— to officials in Bath concerning storms and piracy at sea. October 30, 1749, a protest was made by William Downs, Master, Philip Galaway, Carpenter, and George May, Mariner, of the schooner Dolphin sailing from Boston to Bath and then to London. The complaint stated that —storms, winds and seas— caused the ship to be driven on the shoals of Ocracoke Bar and, finally, on shore on Ocracoke Island, and were responsible for all damages to the ship. (Deed Book 3, Page 24)

Another, dated July 6, 1748, is made in Bath by Samuel Wakely, Mate, Jonathan Hodgkins and David Tory, Mariners, belonging to the sloop Sarah. These men stated that May 24, 1748, while at anchor in Lyn Haven Bay, the sloop was taken by a Spanish Privateer Schooner. The protest gives details of the capture and their rescue by —Ezekiah Farrow, Richard Barber, George Scarborough, Jacob Farrow, Francis Lawson, William Scarborough, James W. (obliterated), Joshua Wall and Francis Pub, inhabitants of North Carolina.— (Deed Book 3, Page 25)

Also, January 10, 1749, Joseph Wadley, Master, and Samuel Holyoak, Mariner, of the Brigantine Two Friends, protested. They stated that November 24, 1749, they sailed from Boston, —met with a very hard gale of wind and shipped very much water,— and —wind, weather and seas— caused damage to their cargo. (Deed Book 3, Pages 25 and 26)

Among the old, established Beaufort County shipping firms, losses were numerous, heavy in both life and money. Capt. Thomas Smith wrecked his ship on the rocks off Bermuda in December, 1796. Four married men of Washington were on board and were lost. Josiah C. Fowle, age 31, and bride, Mary Carr, age 22, of Tarboro, were returning from St. Thomas, W. I., aboard the schooner Henrietta, Capt. Blair, from their wedding trip about the 25th of September, 1822 and were never heard of again. The C. A. Johnson commanded by Capt. Jack Harris and owned by Samuel R. Fowle, was wrecked at Hatteras while making a return trip from New York. Capt. George Darden and his son, James, were lost off Hatteras when their ship went down with all aboard in August, 1839. The Brig Edward Tillet was lost

when it hit rocks leaving a South American port. A complete file of the Friends, also a Fowle ship, which was stranded on the beach one mile south of Chickamacamico Banks, 26 miles north of Hatteras Light on June 15, 1855, is in the manuscript collection at Brown Library, Washington. The Governor Morehead, a Myers ship, was taken to Tarboro and burned rather than have it fall into Union hands during the —Civil War. The Cotton Plant, also belonging to the Myers firm, was taken by the Union Forces, put back in service after the war and finally burned at Tarboro about 1880. The Annie, owned by the Old Dominion Steamship Co., was sunk in the Tar River in 1895. The schooner, Mary Jane, owned by Benjamin F. Havens, was wrecked about 1843.

Steamboat traffic brought with it an increase in river traffic since perishable goods could be shipped more rapidly and thus prevent spoilage. On May 26, 1836, the following appeared in The Star, Raleigh: —A steamboat, from Washington, with freight and passengers, arrived at Tarboro on the 13th instant. It was the first appearance of a steamboat there, and she was received with salutes of cannon, and every other demonstration of joy.—20

After the —Civil War, due to losses incurred, many shipping firms closed. According to Mr. T. H. B. Myers in 1884, —Prior to 1860 exports were mainly of naval stores, corn and cut lumber and after the war cotton and rice took the place of corn and cut lumber and shingles took the place of naval stores.— Trade soon flourished again and Beaufort County prospered.

In 1872 the Myers firm leased and sold to the Old Dominion Steamship Co. (See Appendix 5) who operated steamboats between Washington, Norfolk, Va. and New York, and between Washington and Ocracoke. Mr. T. H. B. Myers continued the agency after the death of his brothers and, at his death, his son, T. Harvey Myers, took over as agent. The Old Dominion Steamship Company bought the property on Main Street in Washington where the old Pamlico Chemical Co. stands.

The Clyde Steamship Company of Philadelphia, Baltimore and Norfolk, operated and had its wharves behind Harris Hardware, now part of Stewart Parkway in Washington. (See Appendix 5) Capt. George H. Brown was for many years agent for this line.

In 1891 the Norfolk and Southern Railroad took over steam propeller vessels of the Albemarle and Pantego Railroad, owned previously by John L. Roper Lumber Company. Belhaven became a major port as water traffic declined out of Elizabeth City. In the early 1900's Norfolk and Southern Railroad became the

20 Wallace Papers on shipping, Brown Library, Washington, N. C.




leading water carrier on sounds and rivers of eastern North Carolina. Old Dominion Steamship Company sold several of its steamers to Norfolk and Southern in 1905 and they were used on former Old Dominion Line runs until Norfolk and Southern replaced water routes to most of these points.

With the coming of hard surface roads and automobiles, and railroads into the area, water commerce became unprofitable and finally ceased as impractical. An era had come to an end but many old-timers can look out on the Pamlico, Tar and Pungo, and remember, and those younger can imagine, the sails fluttering in the breeze, the puffs of smoke from the steamers and the churning foam of the stern and side-wheelers, and recall the glory of the shipping days of Beaufort County. And, many can think with pride of their salty sea captain ancestors!

Appendix 1
BLOUNT SHIPS

Owned by John Gray and Thomas Blount (some in partnership with John Wallace and others). Located Shell Castle Island near Ocracoke.

Brigantine TULEY—built at Slades Creek, taken in 1799 by French privateers. Capt. John Smith and Capt. William Gorham, Masters.

Brig YOUNG—bought in 1782, 70 tons.

JOHN

Brigantine RICHARD—Capt. John Denisen, Master.

Brigantine RUSSELL—Built by Benjamin Russell on Pungo Sound. Taken in 1797 by French privateers and condemned at island of Guadaloupe.

GREAMPAS—taken in 1799 by French privateers.

Brigantine ANN—Cox Coart, Master

BEAVER—used for lightering. Capt. William Gorham, Capt. Valentine Wade, Capt. John Pinkham, Masters.

Brig POLLY—John Smith, Supercargo

Schooner REGULATOR—Capt. J. W. G. Prescott, Capt. Ryan, Masters.

THE TARBORO PACKET—Capt. Nathan Keais, Capt. Knox, Masters.

Brig JOHN—Capt. John Cooper, Capt. William McDaniel, Masters.

SALLY—Capt. William McDaniel, Capt. Hammond, Masters.

Brigantine BELL—Capt. John Smith, Master.

Schooner FELICITY—Anthony Davis, Master and Purser.

Sloop ANN—Capt. Andrew Arthur, Master

Schooner POLLY—Lost at sea with Capt. Brown, Master; Capt. Freeman, Capt. Brown, Masters.

Ship CAROLINE—owned with Henry Montfort of Warren Co. Capt. Montfort Stokes, Master.

Other Blount Captain: James Webster.

Appendix 2
MARSH SHIPS

Owned by Jonathan and Daniel Gould Marsh.

Schooner MATILDA—Owned by Jonathan and Daniel G. Marsh and Fenner Rhodes. Peletiah Wescott, Master. Sailed for Liverpool England, Oct. 7, 1801. Benj. Atkinson of Penny Hill requested one-half space in ship to send to Antigua with turpentine, Nov. 29, 1801.

Brig DORCAS—Built by John Winfield, Hyde Co. Traded to Liverpool, England in 1796, Capt. Brattell, Master. Sept., 1797, Nathaniel Mitchell, Master. Bill, Oct. 10, 1797, signed “John lace, Shell Castle,” charges for supplies, “Literage Beaver load over swash, swash pilotage, 7 hands heaving Brig off shoal.”

LUCY—Capt. Erek Barton, Master—Sailed to St. Vincents, 1799.

Other Marsh Captains—Capt. Gilbert Chase, Capt. Midgett.

Appendix 3
FOWLE SHIPS

Josiah C. Fowle started the firm on Castle Island. Samuel R. Fowle in firm by June 14, 1819.

OCEAN WAVE—Sold by R. L. Myers to Fowle, May 26, 1857. Captured by Union Forces as entered Hatteras Inlet from West Indies shortly after Civil War declared.

Schooner CORA — 104 tons. Built at Farrow shipyard and launched Sept. 28, 1880. Traded to West Indies. Sold.

1886—Capt. David Gaskill, Master. Crew: B. Gaskill, age 30; Ephraim Williams, age 21; Franklin W. O'Neal, age 26; John Gaskill, age 21; John W. O'Neal, age 23.

April 20, 1894—William C. Thomas, Master. Crew: Henry Wahab, age 23, mate; Robert B. B. Shaw, age 17, cook;






Robert Hamery, age 25, seaman; Robert Tolson, age 21, seaman; Henry Patrick, age 21, seaman.

Nov. 15, 1894—W. C. Thomas, Master. Crew: W. D. Gaskill, age 25, mate; B. D. Gaskill, age 23, cook; Wm. H. Williams, age 21, seaman; Roland Tolson, age 22, seaman; Robert A. Rue, age 31, seaman.

March 2, 1895—W. C. Thomas, Master. Crew: W. D. Gaskill, age 24, mate; Wm. T. Rue, age 38, seaman; J. E. Moran, age 24, seaman; N. Guidley, age 20, seaman.

March 12, 1896—W. C. Thomas, Master. Crew: W. D. Gaskill, age 26; T. L. Williams, age 30; J. L. Gaskill, age 20; Geo. W. O'Neal, age 26; H. J. Williams, age 18.

Dec. 5, 1896—W. C. Thomas, Master. Crew: Franklin W. O'Neal, age 35, mate; Ephraim Williams, age 32, cook; Wm. M. Gaskill, age 25, seaman; Jordan Williams, age 18, seaman.

March 18, 1897—W. C. Thomas, Master. Crew: J. L. Gaskill, age 21; H. J. Williams, age 19; James H. Garrish, age 26; Amasa Fulcher, age 21; Uriah Garrish, age 22.

Oct. 20, 1897—W. C. Thomas, Master. Crew: J. L. Gaskill, age 21; D. G. Williams, age 22; Amasa Fulcher, age 25; Uriah Garrish, age 22; James H. Garrish, age 20.

Feb. 5, 1898—W. C. Thomas, Master. Crew: J. L. Gaskill, age 22, mate; B. G. O'Neal, age 19, cook; W. W. Garrish, age 23, seaman; Richard O'Neal, age 21, seaman; George Gaskill, age 26, seaman.

Schooner GREENVILLE—Built 1835, Hyde Co., N.C., 137 tons. (Will. L. Lavender called “Master builder” in ships’ papers.) Owned by Samuel R. Fowle, Wash., N.C. and Samuel L. Mitchell and Edward Nielson of N. Y., N.Y. and later by Samuel R. Fowle, Wash. and Samuel L. Mitchell, E. Taylor and N. B. Bleeker, N. Y., N.Y. David R. Brooks, Master and Capt. George Darden, Master. Lost.

WILLIAM AND MARY—James Gray, Master, July 24, 1819—Lost.

HENRIETTA—Lost at sea. Josiah C. Fowle, age 31 and Mary Carr of Tarboro, age 22, his bride, when returning from St. Thomas, W. I., aboard, Capt. Blair, Master, about Sept. 25, 1822. Also, Capt. John Clark, Master.

JAMES G. STACY—Mentioned in Fowle papers, March, 1833. Abandoned at sea.

PAMLICO—Mentioned 1843, Capt. Fulford, Master. West Indies. Lost.

MELVILLE—Rebuilt as MECKLINBURG. Mentioned 1843.

MARION

MARTHA M. FOWLE—Mentioned Mar. 28, 1842 through Nov. 16, 1842, Washington to New York. Lost.

Brig HELEN—Josiah C. Fowle sold to Richard Grist for $3300 Feb. 13, 1819. Abraham Russell, Master. Built Hyde Co., 1818, 82 ft. long, 217 tons.

Schooner FRIENDS—E. H. Putman, Master, Jan., 1855. 149 tons. Ships papers, May 17, 1855, E. H. Putnam, Master. W. H. Tichenor, Mate. Same date Capt. James Longman took over as Master. Stranded on beach 1 mi. south Chickamacamico Banks, 26 mi. north of Hatteras Light, June 15, 1855. Capt. James Longman, Master; W. H. Tichenor, Mate; Geo. Ryder and William Adams, seamen. Sailed from Ocracoke Tuesday, June 12, 1855, laden with naval stores and cotton bound for New York. Strong winds, vessel leaking fast, two feet water in hold, pumps working continuously. Threw over deck load, “thought best to run vessel on beach for preservation of life and limb.”

Schooner RANGER—Leased to Reuben Freeman for trip to Martinique, Jan. 1, 1818.

C. A. JOHNSON—Capt. Jack Harris, Master. Wrecked on beach at Hatteras.

MECKLINBURG—Lost

MALVINA—Lost

CHAS. ROBERTS—Sold

Brig PHOENIX—Capt. James G. Sheffield, Master, May 11, 1815, when in Ocracoke preparing for trip to Antigua. All Spanish crew. (Ship's papers say “of Boston.”) Sold.

Brig ADELINE—Mentioned May, 1843. Sold

SOUTHERNER—E. H. Putnam, Master, Dec. 11, 1854. Sold.

PETRELL—Lighter. Sold.

NETTIE R. WILLING—Sold.

CAROLINA—3 masted vessel, built in Bath. Sunk in collision in Chesapeake Bay.

Schooner PATTY HOLLAND—Capt. Jones, Master. Mentioned in Fowle papers Mar. 29, 1820. Also letter from Arthur Bailey at Ocracoke on board Jan. 4, 1821.

Brig EDWARD TILLETT—Mentioned 1843. Lost when hit rocks leaving a South American port.






Brig LIVERPOOL—William Wallace, Master.

NELLIE POTTER—Built after 1865, abandoned at sea.

ELIZABETH—Lighter. Taken in Civil War.

Schooner DOVE—Abijah Adams, Master; Joseph Miller, Mate. Bound for Curacao and back to Wash., March, 1816.

Brig MARGARET—Owned by Josiah C. Fowle and James G. Sheffield. James G. Sheffield, Master, Oct. 28, 1816. Built at South Creek, Craven Co., N.C., 1810, 106 tons, 71 ft.

Schooner MARCELLUS—Capt. A. Adams, Master; James Fowle, Supercargo, Dec. 18, 1817.

Appendix 4
MYERS’ SHIPS

John Myers and Sons was located on Waterfront in Washington between Bonner and Harvey streets at foot of Harvey Street. Ships sailed to northern ponits and West Indies and, before Civil War, operated ship railway, and built steamboats, tugs, schooners and barges. In 1872 they leased and sold to Old Dominion Steamship Co. This was an extensive operation but little information is available.

R. L. MYERS—River Steamer, Capt. Parvin.

AMIDAS—Steamer built for river traffic, 1849. Carried no freight, used to tow flats tri-weekly to Tarboro.

GOV. MOREHEAD—1853—Made trips to Greenville. Taken to Tarboro and burned rather than fall into Union hands during Civil War.

COTTON PLANT—1860—Flatboat, stern wheel, to Tarboro in opposition to GOV. MOREHEAD. Ran until Civil War when engaged in transporting troops until fall of Roanoke Island. In engagements at Hatteras and Playmouth. Captured by Federals, loaded with cotton and sent to Norfolk where taken as prize. Sold by U. S. Government and brought back to Washington in 1866. Finally burned at Tarboro (1880?).

EDGECOMBE—Still in operation in 1878 when owned by Capt. A. W. Styron and Lawrence Clark.

BEAUFORT

TAR RIVER

ANNIE MYERS

LUCY—Built in Washington, 1856. Sold to Isaac L. Farrow. Capt. Erek Bartons, Master.

Steamer WILSON—Built by Havens, Wiswall and Havens in 1855

and ran to Greenville. In 1859 bought by Myers and sold off line.

Appendix 5
OLD DOMINION STEAMSHIP COMPANY

The Myers firm sold and leased to Old Dominion Line in 1872. Mr. T. H. B. Myers remained agent and later, his son, T. Harvey Myers, continued. These steamships ran between Washington, New Bern, Ocracoke, Norfolk and New York. Norfolk and Southern Railroad absorbed the operations of the Old Dominion Line.

OLIVE—Steamer, later sold to Albemarle Steam Navigation Co. and rebuilt as HERTFORD.

PAMLICO—Capt. Bateman, Master. Semi-weekly run to Norfolk, 1884.

ANNIE—Built 1861, 185 tons, ex. H. J. DEVENNY, and sunk in Tar River in 1895.

EAGLET—Built 1884, 386 tons. Sold to Clyde Line in 1891.

NEWBERNE—Built Chester, Pa., 1875. Operated between New Bern, Norfolk and Washington. Semi-weekly runs to Norfolk, 1884. Sold 1906 and rebuilt as barge.

VESPER—Built 1871, 331 tons. Sold to Clyde Line in 1891.

NEUSE—Built Delaware, 1890, 720 tons, passenger. Operated between New Bern, Elizabeth City, and later, Belhaven.

ALBEMARLE II—Built Delaware, 1891, 509 tons, passenger. Service between New Bern, Washington, and Norfolk. Sold to Norfolk and Southern RR in 1905.

HATTERAS II—Built New York, 1896, 276 tons, passenger. Ran to points along intercoastal waters. Herbert C. Bonner, as young boy, accompanied his father, “Capt. Mac” (Capt. Herbert Macon Bonner), Master.

KINSTON

R. L. MYERS—Built Washington, N.C. for Old Dominion Line, Tar River service to Greenville. Sold to Norfolk and Southern RR in 1905, dismantled May, 1908.

SHENANDOAH

TAR RIVER—Built Washington, N.C., 1896 for service on Tar and Pamlico rivers. Hull became Norfolk and Southern RR barge in 1905.

From John L. Roper Lumber Co.:

HAVEN BELLE—Passenger steamer, built Pa., 1885, 119 tons, iron construction. Service from Belhaven to Bayboro, Aurora and Washington.






NORMAN L. WAGNER—Passenger steamer.

GEORGE W. ROPER—Built Norfolk, 1880, 40 tons. Later rebuilt as PAMLICO.

RANGER—Steam barge, built Delaware, 1883, 85 tons. Burned and lost Apr. 28, 1896.

Appendix 6
CLYDE LINE

Wharves located on Water Street behind Harris Hardware. Later built warehouse and dock where old Pamlico Chemical located. (Little information has been made available on this operation.)

Capt. George H. Brown, Agent.

JOHN S. IDE

GEORGE H. STOUT

DEFIANCE

GREENVILLE

EDGECOMBE

EAGLET—Built 1884, 386 tons. Purchased from Old Dominion Line in 1891.

VESPER—Built 1871, 331 tons. Purchased from Old Dominion Line in 1891.

(One source wrote that A. W. Styron built several steamers at the old Farrow shipyard on Water Street and operated in connection with Clyde Line.)

Appendix 7
EASTERN CAROLINA DISPATCH CO.

GREENVILLE—Riverboat (same as Clyde Line?).

EDGECOMBE—Riverboat (same as Clyde Line?).

MARJORIE—Named for Mr. A. W. Styron's daughter, Mrs. R. R. Handy, which she christened when a little girl.

AMIDAS—Sternwheeler built for river traffic between Washington, Greenville and Tarboro. (same as Myers?).

(Sources included only above information. Is confusion here.)

Appendix 8
OTHER BEAUFORT COUNTY SHIP OWNERS

Benjamin Hanks—Said to have owned 8 canal boats carrying lumber from Washington to Norfolk and Baltimore.

Abner P. Neal—(and Elijah Pegatt) owned Schooner MARY JANE, built Carteret Co., 1838, 81 tons, Edward C. Guthrie, Master. Papers surrendered Washington, N.C., Nov. 22, 1843, vessel wrecked.

Jonathan Havens—Owned Schooner ALPHA, March 5, 1827, John W. Fisher, Master. Built Washington, N. C., 1826, 75 feet long, 136 tons.

Benjamin F. Havens—Owned Schooner MARY JANE, Leman D. Crabtree, Master. Havens, Wiswall and Havens built WILSON in 1855, ran to Greenville. Bought by Myers in 1859 and sold off line.

Tannahill and Saunders—Owned Steamboat EDMUND D. McNAIR which ran Tar River in 1835. Was a sidewheeler built at Myers shipyard.

John Tyler—Owned ANACONDA, built Washington, N.C., 1838, 63 tons, P. Cornell, Master Carpenter, John A. Gray, Master, Sept. 26, 1839; Jacob Williams, Master, Jan. 16, 1840; Joseph Stewart, Master, Apr. 20, 1841; John S. Gaskill, Master, Sept. 15, 1841; Jacob Williams, Master, Apr. 4, 1842; Samuel M. Pugh, Master, Sept. 28, 1842; James Longman, Master, July 10, 1843; Mr. Fulford, Master, 1843.

(In John Tyler correspondence, dated 1856, in Warren Collection, Brown Library, he referred to following ships: WIDE WORLD; RIO; E. J. RUDDUM; PATHFINDER; FANNY, Henry Ellison, Master; DEBORAH; MARCY.)

William Farrow—Owned PARAGON, David Gaskill, Master. Trade to Barbadoes and West Indies. Also, Capt. Green, Master. Owned ANNIE FARROW.

Henry Ellison—Owner of Schooner CHARLOTTE.

Hadrianus Van Nordon—Owner of Brig LYDIA, John Jackson, Master.

Henry Ross—Owner of Schooner ROYAL CAPTAIN, Capt. Thomas Nemmo, Master.

George Nicholson—Owned Ship ANN, Capt. Douglas Richmond, Master.

Mr. Windley—WATAUGA.

Mr. Monroe, and later, William Shaw—Schooner W. S. WEDMORE.

Joseph Potts—MARY LOUISE.

D. R. Brooks—Schooner IDA. In 1860 court ordered Brooks estate to give to I. R. Selby and R. Lupton.

Richard Grist—Bought the Brig HELEN from Josiah C. Fowle,






Feb. 13, 1819. Built Hyde Co., 1818, 217 tons, 86 feet. (Adrian H. Von Hokkelin, N. Y., N.Y., sold this ship to Welcome Hoell, Aug. 3, 1819, Abraham Russell, Master.)

Welcome Hoell—Brig HELEN (above).

Oscar F. Adams—Owner and Master of Schooner ALLEN GRIST, 1852. Built Beaufort Co., 1845, 59 feet long, 46 tons. (Deed Book 28, Page 456).

Bryan Tripp Bonner—LOVE D. COBB, VIRGINIA DARE.

C. A. Litchfield and T. A. Litchfield—Owned two-masted Schooner, COBB (Capt. Neriah Berry) which hauled freight in early 1920's, was later sunk in Pamlico County. Also, owned freight boat, DEPENDENCE, Capt. Neriah Berry, and Tug, LOLA.

Appendix 9
Ships Bound for or In Port of Washington
(Some of this information provided by Lee Wallace.)

H. H. TALLMAN, Capt. Young, Master, 1849

GRIS, James Brooks, Master, 1853

Schooner ST. ANN, John Joseph Cremony, owner, 1806

OSPREY, 1861

Brig POLLEARY, Capt. William Williams

J. M. TAYLOR, 1859, 1860

Schooner BETSY, Capt. Ashley

GEORGE HENRY, 1859

Schooner ALBERT, John Mason, Master

HERNDEN, 1861

Schooner, MARINAH N., 1861

Schooner, BEELINE, Capt. Crosby, 1819

Sloop, BILLY, Samuel Lewis, Master, 1796

Schooner, NANCY, Mr. Francis, Mr. John West and Flahanen and Wilcox, Phila., owners; Eli Bailey, Master, 1801

E.S. WILLETS, 1853

Schooner PLANET, Capt. Gaskill, Master, 1846

Schooner CLAUDIA AND MARY, Capt. Meekins, Master, 1846

Schooner ONSLOW, Capt. Davis, Master, and Capt. Spencer, Master, 1846

Schooner SARAH, Capt. Longman, Master, 1846

Schooner SWALLOW, Capt. Roberson, Master, 1846

Schooner CHARLESTON, Capt. Forbes, Master, 1846

Schooner MELVILLE, Capt. Allen, Master, 1846

Schooner PACTOLUS, Capt. Simmons, Master, 1846

Schooner TWO BROTHERS, Capt. Richardson, Master, 1846

Schooner THOMAS AND NANCY, Capt. Allen, Master, 1846

Schooner ISAAC TOWNSEND, Capt. Worth, Master, 1843

Schooner DANIEL BAKER, Capt. J. Baker, Master, 1843

Schooner COMET, Capt. Ireland, Master, 1843

Schooner HOPE W. GANBY, Capt. Ganby, Master, 1843

Schooner A. B. COOLY, Capt. Camp, Master, 1843

Schooner WASHINGTON, Capt. Dixon, Master, 1843

Schooner LYON, Capt. Leming, Master, 1843

Schooner PEGGY, Capt. Francis Midgett, Master

Sloop PATTY, Capt. William Worth, Master

Sloop FANNY, Capt. Miles, Master

ANNIE WAHAB, Capt. Wahab, owner

Brig WILLIAM, Capt. Brown, owner

Brig LA ISABEL, Francis Rosa, Master (Did this become the PHOENIX owned by the Fowles?)

Schooner E. ANN, 1853

Steamer, SOUTHERN ARGUS, between Washington and Norfolk, 1860

Schooner FRIENDSHIP, Capt. Watson, Master, 1843

Schooner MYERS, Capt. Fowler, Master, 1843

Schooner MARY AND ELIZABETH, Capt. Watson, Master, 1843

Sloop JANE AND RACHEL, 1843

Schooner, SILAS CRANE, 1843, Capt. Johnson, Master

Schooner MARY ANN HARDING, 1843

Schooner SMITH, 1843, Capt. Wheeler, Master

Schooner JAS. OTIS, 1843, Capt. Elmo, Master

Steamer EMPIRE, 1860, Capt. Phillips, Master

Steamer POST BOY, 1860, Capt. Osgood, Master

Schooner CHAS. ROBERTS, 1860, Capt. Fowler, Master

Iron Steamer LOPEZ, 1860, Capt. Jno. Phillips, Master

Schooner HOWARD, 1866, Capt. G. H. Brown, Master

Schooner SARAH, 1866, Capt. Dennis, Master

Schooner M. E. PARMELE, 1866, Capt. Gaskill, Master

Schooner MARY, June, 1848, from New Orleans

Schooner MANTEO of Washington, N. C., Capt. Abbot. Destroyed by fire near Cape Henry, July 1846. Was regular trader between Washington, N. C. and Boston.

Schooner CONQUEST, 1827-1829, Capt. Farrow, Capt. Jackson

Schooner HENRY BATEMAN, 1827-1829, Capt. Jones

Schooner JOHN DOYLE, 1827-1829, Capt. Brooks

Schooner JOHN MYERS, 1827-1829, Capt. Roberson






Schooner JOHN G. B., 1831-1833, Capt. Tilman Farrow

Schooner W. A. BLOUNT, 1831-1833, Capt. Farrow

Schooner MARY LOUISA, 1860

Schooner SUNNY SOUTH, 1860

Schooner ELVIRA, Capt. Geo. Williams, Master. From New York, castaway on beach, Chicamocomak, Aug. 11, 1817.

Appendix 10

Ship Captains’ Names Included in Fowle Journals and Ledgers

Dec. 3, 1827-Nov. 24, 1829:
Capt. Wm. AustinCapt. John Hopkins
Capt. Alexander AllenCapt. Martin Hendy
Capt. MidgettCapt. W. B. Morton
Capt. BrownCapt. MacMahone
Capt. F. BrooksCapt. Jno Marsh
Capt. Moses BrownCapt. I. Robinson
Capt. George DardenCapt. R. Schank
Capt. Z. DoughtyCapt. John Tyler
Capt. Hezikiah FarrowCapt. Bartemus Williams
Capt. Isaac FarrowCapt. Richard Wilson
Capt. John Gallagher
Aug. 18, 1831-Mar. 30, 1833:
Capt. George DixonCapt. Benj. Jones
Capt. Hez FarrowCapt. W. B. Morton
Capt. HobbsCapt. Thos. Smith
Capt. Hawkins
May, 1843:
Capt. Fla. JordenCapt. Evans
Capt. NicholsCapt. J. J. Hearne
Capt. WatsonCapt. Womble
Capt. Benson
Nov. 6, 1843-Oct. 22, 1847:
Capt. BrownCapt. Midgett
Capt. (Binune?)Capt. Paul B. Mallison
Capt. W. CookCapt. Paul
Capt. CoxCapt. Slade
Capt. HearneCapt. Williams
Capt. JonesCapt. Watson
Capt. EvansCapt. J. D. Watson

Ship Names Included in Fowle Journals and Ledgers

Dec. 3, 1827-Nov. 24, 1829:

Schooner, A. P. NEAL

Schooner, CONQUEST, Capt. Farrow, Capt. Jackson

Schooner, HENRY BATEMAN, Capt. Jones

Schooner, JOHN DOYLE, Capt. Brooks

Schooner, JOHN MYERS, Capt. Roberson

Schooner, SARAH ANNA

Aug. 18, 1831-Mar. 30, 1833:

Brig REGULATOR

Brig MARGARET AND POLLY

Schooner JOHN G. B., Tilman Farrow

Schooner W. A. BLOUNT, Capt. Farrow

Schooner SWIFT

Schooner SALLY ANN

Schooner (ACNA?)

Schooner HENRY BATEMAN

Schooner AM. COASTER, Geo. Dixon

May, 1843:

Brig ADELINE

Schooner ALABAMA

Schooner GRATITUDE

Schooner BENJAMIN HARRISON

Schooner MORROW

Schooner ELIZABETH ANN

Schooner MARCIA

Schooner ROUGH AND READY

Schooner RIO GRANDE

Schooner INDEPENDENCE

Other Names Relating to Shipping Included in
Fowle Journals and Ledgers

Dec. 3, 1827-Nov. 24, 1829:

John Thomas—ship carpenter

May, 1843:
John Brown, sailorWilliam Gorden, sailor
Thomas Collins, sailorWm. Smith, seaman
Thomas Daniels, mateSamuel Sturdivant, seaman
Thomas Gorden, black sailorWm. Snowden, sailor






1. Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. 2, p. 3, 962. Ibid., p. 4973. Ibid., p. 7614. Ibid.5. Ibid., Vol. 5, p. XLIII6. Ibid., p. 3317. Ibid.8. Ibid., p. 9929. Ibid., p. XLIII10. Ibid., Vol. 7, p. 42911. Ibid., Vol. 2, p. 23612. Crittenden, The Commerce of No. Carolina 1763-1789, p. 42, 43.13. Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. 24, p. 502.14. Ibid., Vol. 9, p. 15215. Ibid., Vol. 15, p. 57316. Ibid., Vol. 24, p. 68617. “Washington Progress,” Feb. 18, 1932, Article “Historical Beaufort County” by Lida T. Rodman18. Reed, Beaufort County, Two Centuries of Its History, p. 162.19. “Washington Progress,” Feb. 18, 1932, “Historical Beaufort County” by Lida Tunstall Rodman20. Wallace Papers on shipping, Brown Library, Washington, N. C.21. Stewart, “List of Blount Ships,” Brown Library, Washington, N. C.Bibliography

Chamber of Commerce, “Washington, North Carolina,” 1910.

Crittendon, Charles Christopher, The Commerce of North Carolina, 1763-1789. Yale University Press, 1936.

Deed Books, Office Register of Deeds, Beaufort County, Washington, N. C. Book 3, pp. 24, 25, 26; Book 28, p. 456.

Fowle Papers, Brown Library, Washington, N. C.

McRae Papers, including information on the Marsh, Wiswall and Fowle families of Washington, N. C., Brown Library, Washington, N. C.

National Archives, Washington, D. C.

“North State Whig,” Washington, N. C., August 12, 1846.

Overcash, Steve, “Blount Merchants” from The John Gray Blount Papers, Alice Barnwell Keith, Editor.

Prince, Richard E., Norfolk and Southern Railway Old Dominion Line and Connections. R. E. Prince, Millard, Nebraska, 1972.

Reed, Col. C. Wingate, Beaufort County, Two Centuries of Its History. C. Wingate Reed, 1962.

“Republican, The,” Washington, N. C., December 21, 1843.

Rodman, Lida Tunstall, “Historical Beaufort County.”

Saunders and Clark (Editors), Colonial Records of North Carolina.

Stewart, W. A. Blount, “Blount Ships”

Stewart, W. A. Blount, “Shipping in Beaufort County and Ocracoke.”

Wallace, Lee, papers on Shipping, Brown Library, Washington, N. C.

Warren Papers, Stallings Collection, Brown Library, Washington, N. C.

Washington Daily News, August 17, 1951, “River Boat Traffic Once Big Business.”

Washington Gazette, February 28, 1884, “Interview with T. H. B. Myers”

Washington Progress, February 18, 1932, “Mrs. Lucy Wheelock Myers Tells About Old Town.”






CHAPTER XV
SCHOOLS

PART 1
SCHOOLS—PRIVATE & PUBLIC
(used by permission of Mrs. Joe Kornegay)

No written records show that any school existed in Washington before the Revolutionary War. As the war closed in 1783, and a school was running prior to 1785, it is possible that the school was in operation during the Revolution. The school building stood on a public lot in the town of Washington. This site was lot twenty-one, and was given by Colonel James Bonner and his wife, Mary. Court was held in the school building after the courthouse was moved from Bath to Washington before the courthouse was erected.

The next school was in the eastern end of town and was called —The Little Red School House,— assuming the name from its brilliant color. It was on Main Street, near the present Episcopal Church. It is believed this school was built before 1800. Eventually this building was moved to Market Street and was burned during a —Civil War bombardment.

The next school building was the —Old Academy Building.— It stood on the corner of Bridge and Second streets for nearly one hundred years; a building in which some of Washington's most prominent citizens were educated. Its site was the scene of blood shed during the —Civil War, and it furnished shelter for the enemy. Yet it survived the evacuation which destroyed the town.

There is no record of the donor of the land on which the Academy was situated, but it was given for the definite purpose of building a school. There were chinquapin trees on the school ground, and legend has it that the school boys were very fond of these nuts. Huckleberries grew beside a small stream which ran back of the building, and this was a favorite spot for the girls.

This school was chartered by the North Carolina Assembly in 1808. A charter at that time was merely permissive. It did not help to pay any indebtedness and was easily obtainable on private request backed by sufficient enterprise to carry through the scheme. The legislation did permit a lottery for raising a limited sum to defray the cost of the building, but at the same time made the incorporators personally responsible to the drawers of the prizes. In most cases school property was exempt from taxation and sometimes the teachers and students were freed from military service. The first trustees were: William Kennedy, William Ross, John Gray Blount, Walter Hanrahan, Frederick Grist and Slade Pearce. In 1809, four additional ones were added. These were: John Kennedy, Isaac Woodard, Isaac Smith, and James Williams. Whenever a vacancy occurred on the board, the remaining trustees elected another so they had a perpetual succession.

The trustees raised the necessary money by lotteries—nearly $5,000.00. The salary of the teachers was to be obtained from the tuition fees charged the pupils. Mr. Howard was the first teacher to use the Academy. He came in 1811 and stayed three years. Next came Mr. Hitchcock. He was a good teacher then, but today would be considered too strict. Children didn't attend the Academy until age 10 or 12. Younger children were taught at home or attended a small primary school. Perhaps the best known and favorite was the one conducted by Miss Sarah Reid on Second Street across from where the Methodist Church now stands. She taught from the early 1830's up into the 1850's.

A Mr. Chappeau, a French gentleman and scholar, from the West Indies came here in 1815, and taught French and dancing for about five years, but not at the Academy. He afterwards married here.

At the Academy were a Mr. and Mrs. Sanford, then Mr. George Freeman.

In 1827, Mr. Weatherly, a Presbyterian minister, took charge of the Academy.

In 1829, several families employed Miss Nancy Richmond from Massachusetts to teach a select school. Her school was on the DeMille property on the corner of Second and Bridge streets where the DeMille house later stood. Later she taught in a small building on the site of the Atlantic Coastline depot. She did much for the education of Washington during her time.

During the 1830's Miss Mary B. McCotta had a successful school as did Dr. Stokes from Greenville.

The books used during these years were the choices of the different






teachers. Stress was laid on spelling and the —blue back— speller was very popular. Arithmetic, geography, reading and grammar were taught extensively. Algebra, Latin, Greek and geometry were taught to some extent.

Girls did not receive the same attention in higher studies that boys did, as it was considered unnecessary. Discipline was strictly enforced, pupils being whipped for missing lessons, girls as well as boys, except girls were whipped in the hand.

The appearance of the rooms would have formed a striking contrast to a modern schoolroom. Few rooms had desks. Pupils sat on benches and wrote on boards placed along the sides of the rooms. Some schools had blackboards, others nothing on the walls. There was always a stove in each room. The teacher sat at a desk in the front of the room, always used a pointer, and kept a bundle of switches close at hand. School started the first Monday in October and continued to the last Friday in June, with one week off for Christmas. The day's work was divided into two sessions—9:00 to 12:00 and 2:00 to 5:00.

After about 25 years the Academy building became very dilapidated and unfit for school so teachers had to look elsewhere for a place to teach.

In 1832 Mr. Mayhew opened a school in a little red house on Market Street between Fourth and Fifth. Later he taught in the Masonic Lodge in one large room.

Mr. William Walker, assisted by a Mr. Carr, taught here about 1835, in a house on the corner of Second and Gladden, then in the Masonic Lodge and finally in the little brick building now being used by Billy Mayo as a law office. He was a very good mathematician. Both gentlemen were surveyors and taught during the winter.

Two ladies who taught here before the —Civil War and were noted as especially good teachers were Mrs. Dimmock and Mrs. Sarah Nadal. Mrs. Dimmock's school was across from the jail and Mrs. Nadal's in the Masonic Lodge for a time, then in a house on Respess Street between Second and Main. Her school was for small children.

Families who could afford to and who lived too far from a school employed a governess to teach at home. Such a school was the one on the Thomas H. Blount farm known as —Sans Souci——the area where the Beaufort County Hospital, doctors— offices and drugstores are now located. The small school house near the old colonial home was built about 1842, and used until it was destroyed

by fire during the —Civil War. This was a very high-class school limited to about 20 young ladies. Mrs. Wm. DeMille, grandmother of Cecil B. DeMille, was educated at this school. A few of the governesses were Mrs. A. M. Weller, Mrs. O'Neil, Mrs. Penrose and Miss McCaully. Mrs. Weller died while living there. She choked on a piece of bone and was buried in the family cemetery. Also buried in the family cemetery was the Rev. E. Geer, an Episcopal minister, who also taught school at the close of the —Civil War.

Another school of this type was that taught for three years in the home of Mr. Ellison in the western end of town. This was also an exclusive school and admitted only about 20 girls, just enough to pay the teacher's salary. Some of the teachers here were Mrs. Hannah Hare, Miss L. Richardson, Miss Parker, Miss Annie Ellison and Mrs. Filman.

In the meantime about 1842, the Academy was repaired and fitted once again for a school. Among the trustees at this time were Messrs. John Myers, James Hoyt, S. R. Fowle, Joseph Potts, and D. H. Havens. They employed Mr. Hathaway as principal and Mr. Hale as his assistant. Teachers who used the Academy paid no rent and stayed as long as they wished if they gave satisfaction. Following Mr. Hathaway was Mr. William Bogart. Then came Mr. Samuel H. Wiley and his younger brother. These were nephews of Calvin H. Wiley, one of the great educational leaders of North Carolina. Both were graduates of the University of North Carolina. Mr. A. M. C. Jones succeeded Mr. Wiley, and a Mr. Robins was there for half a session.

Other teachers prior to the —Civil War were Mr. Joseph Blount, at the Masonic Lodge in 1846; Miss Betty Patterson, on Second Street past the Methodist Church in 1856; Mrs. George Durand, on Second Street between Bonner and Harvey in 1858; Mrs. George Dickson, on the corner of Second and Harvey streets and also on Main Street opposite present Scott's Store in 1855; Miss Sidney Long, on Market Street opposite the town hall in 1855; Mr. O'Daniels on Market Street in 1858; Mr. Lewellyn, an Englishman, in 1857; Mr. John Beckwith, afterwards elected Bishop of Georgia, in the Masonic Lodge in 1855; and Miss Louise Worthington on Gladden Street opposite the Presbyterian Church in 1856.

Thanks to the efforts of Mr. Calvin H. Wiley, later the first State Superintendent of Common (or Public) Schools, a law was passed in 1838 by the General Assembly of North Carolina






requesting each county to levy a tax for a public school. The law did not compel the counties to accept the schools, but left it to their discretion, advising them however to do so. The act further empowered the free white electors of each school district to choose by ballot three men as a —school committee— to serve for one year. A small tax was to be levied in each county for the one-half support of these schools and the other half support was to come from the Literary Fund (State). Anyone between the age of five and twenty-one could attend these schools. The school committee was to secure a building and select the teachers, also to take a census of the schools. In 1846, every county in North Carolina had adopted the system. Beaufort County voted 1,042 for public schools and 50 against.

Beaufort County was laid off into 27 districts, with Washington being in District No. 15. The first school committee consisted of Eli Hoyt, Benjamin Runyon and Thomas H. Blount.

The first —free school— as it was always known was started about 1840 on Third Street between Bonner and Harvey streets. The school term was only three months because of the small amount of money available. Three teachers were employed at all times. Attendance was not good at this school as most parents thought it too much like charity to send their children to a free school, but it remained in existence until the —Civil War when it collapsed.

Within the limits of Washington there were only two schools conducted during the War between the States. One was carried on by Mrs. Hanks, assisted by Miss Annie Bogart, on Water Street. The other was kept by Miss Elizabeth Robinson on the corner of Second and Respess streets. After the war was over, the South was in destitute circumstances, with all her wealth gone and great numbers of her energetic citizens lost. Those who had never done much work before started out as laborers to restore the South to her old standard. Some of the women began to teach school as a means of livelihood.

It was at least two years after the close of the war before anything like order was restored. But children had to learn to read and write and Miss Mary Moules kept a little school in the Presbyterian manse. She was a fine teacher and carried her pupils into some higher branches of study. Later on she moved her school to Water Street where she continued to teach for at least 15 years.

Another teacher of eminence who taught soon after the war was the Rev. Edwin Geer, the Episcopal Rector. He came to Washington about 1850 and assumed charge of the Church. Just prior to the

war he taught a private school on East Main Street. When the war closed he was employed to teach at the Academy. A highly intellectual man he filled the position to the satisfaction of all. Still another teacher was Captain Henry Price who taught in the Masonic Lodge and also in the Courthouse in 1867.

Soon after the war the public school question again came to the front. The old building on Third Street had been abandoned at the beginning of the war and was not used again until the Negroes began to teach there many years later. A school for Negroes did not exist prior to the —Civil War. The public school for white children wandered about from place to place, occupying any sort of house which could be had for the least amount of money and generally the house which was unfit for anything else. A new committee had been appointed—Mr. William Z. Morton, Mr. G. H. Brown, Sr., and Mr. A. W. Thomas. The entire burden of running the school was cheerfully assumed by the chairman, Mr. William Z. Morton. He employed the best teachers in town and personally guaranteed their salaries. Among the teachers during this period were Miss Jennie Jackson, Mrs. Annie Foreman, Mrs. Hare, Miss Sarah Robinson and Miss Bettie Robinson.

Many people were still prejudiced against free schooling so private schools continued to thrive. Mr. A. Hamlin, a northerner who came here with the Federal troops and married here, taught in the Masonic Lodge and in a little green house on the spot where the Atlantic Coast Line depot now is. Miss Bettie Robinson also went to the Masonic Lodge where she taught for many years.

Mrs. William DeMill (grandmother of Cecil Blount DeMille—the —e— was added to the name later) also kept a school in the —DeMill— house on the corner of Second and Bridge streets. She taught there from the close of the war for about 25 years and was regarded as an excellent teacher.

Mr. Jimmy Swindell and Mrs. Sax Swindell, his wife, taught in a house on the J. L. Fowle lot just after the war. They always had between 50 and 75 attending.

Dr. Ross in the —70s taught successfully at the Academy, but only for a short time. He was succeeded in 1873 by Mr. Lovejoy, son of the noted teacher in Raleigh and was in turn succeeded by Mr. Carney Bryan. In 1877 Mr. Frank Young assumed charge of the Academy, but after one year opened a private school on Main Street. Professor Hartgrave taught music at the Masonic Lodge in 1874. A Mr. Foy attempted to teach in the Academy about this time, but the boys were so bad he only stayed three






days. In 1880 Mr. J. H. Cordon, a lawyer, while waiting to be admitted to the Bar, earned his living by teaching. He married Miss Mattie Telfair of Washington and afterwards became a prominent Methodist minister.

Mr. John H. Small taught for a while in 1881. He later was responsible for the first public school in town which lasted more than four months. He canvassed property owners for contributions and secured funds to operate a —free— school for 8 months for a 2-year period. He was later elected chairman of the Board of Trustees and today is remembered as doing more than any other one person for public schools in Washington. He was later an honored Congressman.

A Mr. Gazelle taught here for a year and was succeeded by Mr. Bagley from 1882 to 1885. The next person to assume charge of the Academy was Mr. Charles Hill, a graduate of the University of N. C., who was waiting to enter the practice of law. He was drowned at Ocracoke, however, and was buried in St. Peters Churchyard. Dr. Sterling Ruffin, also a graduate of U. N. C. taught here in 1888. He later became a prominent physician in Washington, D. C.

Some ladies who taught here were Mrs. Margaret Call, Miss Hattie Griffin and Miss Maggie Sparrow. All were good teachers, and Mrs. Call in particular seemed to sympathize with those unable to pay tuition and taught 10 or 12 each year free. Miss Griffin taught a very popular and successful school in the Masonic Lodge.

In 1873 the County Board of Education appropriated $595.11 for the use of the white school and $411.68 for the use of the Negro school. In 1875 a census of children showed 720 white and 600 Negro. In 1878 the first record of school attendance was made, and out of nearly 300 white children of school age, less than 100 attended the public school, many attending no school at all. Out of less than 400 Negro children of school age, over 350 attended public school.

In 1888 Mr. Thomas McNair, a wealthy man and an owner of property in the eastern end of town, died. It was his will that a large piece of property on Academy Street should, on certain conditions, be dedicated to some church. It was first offered to the Presbyterian Church which refused to accept it. It was next offered to St. Peter's Episcopal Church which agreed to accept it with conditions. The Church had no immediate use for this property and Mr. Morton, chairman of the school committee, seeing that it would make a fine school site, leased the land for

15 years for the purpose of building a school. There was a big hullabaloo because many people objected to a building being placed on the lot because it would prevent Telfair Street from extending over to Main Street. After a while, however, with his characteristic energy, Mr. Morton carried his point against all opposition. By holding the county money for two years, by the sale of a piece of school property, and by public subscriptions, which were very liberal, the school committee was enabled to build the schoolhouse. Later it became known as the McNair Building in honor of the donor of the property.

Mr. W. Z. Morton has been called the father of the public schools in Washington. While he did not start the first public school he was its main supporter for those years when it seemed doomed to failure. He was not a highly educated man himself, but he liked to see others improved by his efforts. Death cut short his works in 1897 without allowing him to see the crowning success of what his efforts helped to bring, the new Graded School building.

The public school system was in full swing in 1890 and the first principal was elected. The Rev. Mr. Fetter had previously taught in the Academy. Tuition charges were to be made for the first four months of the school term while the last four were to be free. Mr. Fetter was succeeded by Mr. Dunstan and Mr. Bowman. The McNair building originally contained two large rooms, one on each floor. Later each was divided into two parts. In 1899 two other large rooms were added to meet increasing demands.

In 1896 the Academy was obtained for a public school, partly because more room was needed and partly because people complained about sending their children from the extreme western end of town to the extreme eastern. Both schools were controlled by the same School Board and were under the direction of one principal.

Mr. Harry Howell came here in 1895 and assumed his duties as principal. Mr. Howell was a very able man, and he left his mark on the school system. The first full term of the graded school was taught in 1897 under his administration.

In 1897, also, the town voted on the question of local taxation to support the schools, and on obtaining a school committee of nine, three of whom were to be black, to be chosen by black members of the town commissioners. The vote for both was carried by a large majority, but some enemies of the school system, through some technical point of law, had the Supreme Court to declare the tax act null and void. This misfortune cut off most of the means






for supporting the school that term and it was then that Mr. John H. Small personally canvassed the town and secured funds to operate an entirely free school for two years.

The Public School Committee chosen by the Board of Aldermen now had charge of the black schools as well as the white since it had black members. In 1899 another election on taxation for schools was held and carried by a large majority. The revenues for the 1900-1901 session were $8,834.80—quite an increase from 1873 when it was only $1,006.79.

About 1900 talk began about the need for an up-to-date brick school building. In 1903 bonds for $25,000.00 were voted by an overwhelming majority, but it was soon found that more money would be needed for the kind of building desired, so the trustees waited for two more years and then submitted another bond issue.

In 1902 Washington started the first book rental system in North Carolina and in 1903 a compulsory attendance law was passed, the first in North Carolina also. This was ten years before a weak compulsory attendance law was passed in Raleigh.

The first year of the —modern era— found Mr. Harry Howell as Superintendent and the following white teachers: Mrs. Lucy Myers, Julia Burgess, Sarah Minor, Berta Bright and Annie B. Jarvis. The teachers were paid $25.00 per month and the superintendent $75.00. Mr. Louis R. Randolph was principal of the Black school. Of 651 school aged white children, 384 were enrolled in the public school with 67 per cent attendance. Of 820 Negroes, 390 enrolled with 54 per cent attendance. The actual cost of this school was 54c per month per child enrolled. Mr. Howell recommended that the 1— to 2 hour lunch period be abolished and that classes run through to 2:30. Children could either bring lunches or wait until after school to eat.

An event soon took place which hastened the effort to complete the new brick school. Early in the morning of February 7, 1905, the McNair Building caught fire and along with the library and all school possessions was completely destroyed. The Dawson property was purchased to enlarge the Academy property and all the children were transferred to this building. Some classes could only attend half a day as there were not enough rooms for all. Some pupils went in the morning and some in the afternoons.

The additional $7,000.00 needed to complete the building was voted on in 1905. The new building was located on the old Academy site and additional land was bought on each side to increase the grounds. In the autumn of 1906, the new building

was opened — a school building then second to none in North Carolina.

The new building was used for the first time on the evening of Friday, June 15, 1906, with temporary seating and lighting, for the graduation exercises. Diplomas were awarded by School Committee Chairman John H. Small to the following graduates: Florence Winfield Bright, George Thomas Hardy, Jr., Emily Diana Harris (Mrs. Lindsay Warren), Charlotte Martin Mayo, Lou Nona Milholland, Robert Andrew Mitchell, and Ralph Adolphus Phillips.

Some of the teachers for the years 1903-1908 in the public school were: White—Mrs. Lucy Myers, Miss Julia Burgess, Miss Annie Jarvis, Miss Lizzie Mallison, Miss Bessie MacLean, Miss Ella Mallison, Miss Ruth Battle, Miss Etta Cordon, Miss Cornelia Ferrell, Miss Sudie Harding, Miss Katie Moore, Miss Marcia Myers, Miss Pattie Archbell, Miss Alice Daniel, Miss Elizabeth Harding, Miss Evelyn Royall, Mrs. Wm. Bright, Miss Lillian Campbell, Miss Minnie Morrison, Miss Edna Thompson, Miss Ida Tomlinson, Miss Susie Saunders, Miss Emma Carter, Miss Helen Kugler, Miss Sarah Martin, Miss Elizabeth Boase (Music), Mrs. Katie Bonner, Miss Estelle Davis, Miss Annie Payne, Miss Florence Winfield, Miss Bertha Burke; Mr. Harry Howell was still Superintendent (he stayed 13 years) and the principals for those years were: R. L. Thomason, Arch Turner Allen, Clinton Everett and H. H. McLean. Mr. Louis Randolph was principal of the Black school and some of the teachers were Miss Josie Beebe (later Mrs. Saunders), Miss Elizabeth Jones, Mrs. Lavinia Ward (later Mrs. Hudson), C. E. Askew, Miss Dolie Keyes, and Thomas Taylor.

By 1913, 873 of 942 white children were in school (90 per cent attendance) and 551 of 1,184 Black children were in school (47 per cent attendance). The staff of teachers had increased and teacher's pay had risen to $45.00-65.00 a month. The superintendent's pay had reached $175.00. Also there was a kindergarten of 66 pupils as part of public schools.

In 1922 a local school bond election for $300,000.00 passed and the John H. Small School for whites and the P. S. Jones School for blacks were built, being completed in 1924.

The P. S. Jones School was named for an outstanding black leader in the community who for a number of years served as its principal. It now went forward under his guidance.

John Small School bore the name of the man who had been






both pioneer and wheelhorse in the fight for education for Washington's children. This school opened in 1924 with Washington's first, and, to date, only lady principal in charge, Miss Minnie Lou Kelly. Miss Kelly had come to Washington to teach in 1911. She served most efficiently as principal at John Small until health forced her to resign in 1931.

Depression came in 1929 and schools began early to feel the financial pinch. The school term was reduced to eight months. Some schools in the state dropped to six months.

Influential citizens grew concerned about schools. North Carolina had worked hard to gain a reputation for an outstanding educational system, and Washington was recognized as among the best in the state.

No one was more concerned about this continually deteriorating situation than Angus Dhu McLean, an outstanding lawyer in this town. So Beaufort County sent A. D. McLean to the State Legislature.

Mr. McLean became one of the most influential members of the N. C. General Assembly. Here he worked tirelessly in both House and Senate for a sound financial school system with a minimum term of eight months.

In 1933 the Legislature passed a School Machinery Act to provide for the administration and operation of a uniform system of public schools throughout the state to be supported by the state and to be operated for a period of not less than eight months. And A. D. McLean gained a state-wide reputation as the father of eight-months state-supported schools.

The State School Commission created by the General Assembly's School Machinery Act required all elementary schools which were feeders to high schools to be under the same supervision. As a result the Washington Administrative Unit was enlarged to include all of the territory in Washington Township and a part of Long Acre to include the school districts of Piney Grove, Little and Magnolia.

Although still struggling along with an eight months school, now with state support, Washington inaugurated a twelve-grade system for the —33-—34 term. Not until 1942 did it work its way back to nine months as in 1942 a twenty cent supplemental city tax was voted.

The Old Ford School had been built during the Depression with WPA funds and this school was now included in the city system. By this time, —33-34, there were eighty-seven teachers with

a school enrollment of 3,300. Less than a quarter of this number went on to college.

1933-34 was a notable year for another reason. It saw the addition of two able women to the Board of School Trustees. These were Mrs. Victor Shelburne and Mrs. Richard Bagby.

Progress continued normally with the usual ups and downs until long planning produced a new high school which opened in 1952.

In 1960 the John Cotton Tayloe Elementary School was built and in 1966 Eastern Elementary.

In 1968 integration was achieved without major incident.

During the first year of public schools in Washington the sum of $3,346.04 was spent, leaving an unexpended balance of $97.76.

The total amount spent during the 1974-75 school year was $3,396,257 not including transportation, lunchroom or construction funds, nor Revenue Sharing money. From three thousand to three million is worth remarking!

The enrollment for the year just past, 1974-75, was 3,859 students. The total number of teachers was 203 with an average salary of $10,500.

About forty per cent of the graduates of W. H. S. today attend college.

Since inaugurating the graded Public School System School Superintendents have been:

1895-1908—Harry Howell

1908-1913—N. C. Newbold

1913-1918—C. M. Campbell

1918-1923—Frank L. Ashley

1923-1926—H. C. Miller

1926-1932—H. M. Roland

1932-1946—E. S. Johnson

1946-1965—Edwin A. West

1965-1968—Jack Lawrie

1968- —Jasper Lewis

J.T.K.

[This information compiled by Joe T. Kornegay, assistant superintendent of the Washington Schools, was taken from a paper written by John Alonzo George in 1907, a paper written by Harry Howell in 1909, and from annual reports of Washington Public






Schools 1903-1909. Other information was obtained from older citizens and school officials and supplied by Mr. Kornegay.

Colonel J. T. Kornegay, who served the Washington City Schools in a number of different capacities, died on June 30, 1975. Joe Kornegay came to Washington when he was twenty years old. He married a Washington girl, Eva Blount, and lived here the rest of his life, with the exception of the five years he spent in the Armed Services during —World War II.

During his war service in the European Theatre he won the Bronze Star with two oak leaf clusters for acts of exceptional heroism. He was awarded the Purple Heart after he was wounded, and among his decorations were the American Defense Medal, the E.A.M.E. Campaign Medal, the World War II Victory Medal, the Armed Forces Reserves Medal, the Belgian Fourreguerre and the North Carolina Distinguished Service Award.]

PART 2
BEAUFORT COUNTY SCHOOLS

In 1837 under an Act of the General Assembly, efforts began to be made across North Carolina to have public schools. The state offered to match the money raised by a county for school purposes. On August 8, 1839 Beaufort County had an election to decide For or Against. In spite of the fact that some taxpayers objected to supporting public schools when they were educating their own children privately, the vote in Beaufort County was 1,042 for schools and 50 against. After this election was carried the county raised $20.00 and received $40.00 from the state.

On June 16, 1840 the first County School Board was formed. It was decided to have a three months school and that the School Board would personally guarantee payment of necessary bills.

The Rev. Nathaniel Harding, Rector of St. Peter's Church, was asked to serve as County Superintendent in addition to his duties as Rector. This he agreed to do at a salary of $25.00 a month. Mr. Harding traveled all over the county in a horse-drawn buggy, visiting the little one-room schools scattered here and there, trying to upgrade their curriculum and their physical facilities.

Chocowinity had a good school as early as 1857 when Miss Martha Patrick taught there for $12.00 a month. Henry Harding was teaching there in 1860. He was being paid $30.00 a month when he gave up his job to go to the War.

Pantego started its Pantego Educational Academy in 1874. This was an especially good private school. The county bought it in 1907.

The one-room schools of yesterday would be unbelievable to the modern child and yet many of Beaufort County's senior citizens received their —schooling— in these. Mrs. Rosa Waters Dupree of Pinetown who was born in the 1880's remembers that she started to school and graduated in the same room at Fort Swamp School near Pinetown.

Mr. W. T. Sparrow, who was in his nineties when he died in 1973, recalled his school days for Miss Lucretia Hughes. He attended the Magnolia School about six miles east of Washington. The one room had cracks in the floor wide enough to run a finger through. It was heated by a small stove in front. Those too near the stove nearly burned up and those in the back shivered all day. Mr. Sparrow said that a nearby farmer's hogs always gathered underneath the school for protection in cold weather and that the stench was indescribable but that the children got used to it.

Good teachers were paid $30 a month, second best, $25 and third rate, $20. The teachers themselves had generally had only a few years of so-called education. The teacher taught all grades. An average student attended about four years. Teachers Mr. Sparrow remembered were Warren Davis, Sam Alligood, Miss Molly Cherry and Miss —Sis— Whitley.

The Rev. Mr. Harding worked at upgrading these little schools from 1883 until 1909. In a quarter of a century his salary had risen to $58.

P.M.W.

PART 3
BEAUFORT COUNTY SCHOOLS
AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
ETHEL MATTHEWS

When Mr. Nathaniel Harding retired after 25 years of service as superintendent of the Beaufort County Schools in 1909, he was paid his regular salary of $58.00 for the month and an allowance for horse hire in the performance of his school duties.

During the term of office of Mr. Harding's successor, the Board of Education authorized teacher salaries of $35.00 per month, or $140.00 for the full term of four months. The Washington Light Plant was paid $7.08 for wiring the superintendent's office.






The current bill for the entire first six month's period in 1911 was $2.21.

The total school fund in 1911 was reported to be $27,933.21. Although the Washington City Schools had organized as a separate school system in 1899, the Beaufort County Board of Education was the fiscal authority for both school systems and county elections for many years thereafter. The county treasurer also made his report to this board.

With the funds available, the county board built, equipped, and staffed schools. Frequently funds were secured by bank loans until such time as the sheriff collected taxes.

In spite of limited funds, the board was farsighted. They bought new patented desks for the Pantego district schools which were shipped to Yeatesville aboard the schooner Myrtle at a cost of $2.32.

In 1911 libraries were established in six schools. Bookcases costing $285.00 were purchased and each of the six schools was allotted $10.00 for book purchases.

When the total school fund approached $30,000.00 a year, the board asked their legislators to work for a state school term of six months and for compulsory attendance for children between the ages of eight and twelve.

By 1913, a stenographer was employed to assist the superintendent and the board decided not to employ a lady supervisor since one board member was opposed to this action.

As the years passed, the school system continued to grow. One teacher and two teacher schools were consolidated. The length of a school term increased and the number of grades provided grew to include kindergarten and twelve years of nine months each. The advances in transportation and highway construction made school bus operation possible. Lunchrooms became a part of the daily school operation.

During the 1974-75 school year, the Beaufort County Schools operated nine schools serving 4,450 pupils. There were 221 professional staff members. The pupils were transported by a fleet of 110 busses. The principals and superintendent have clerical help and professional staff assistants. The utility bill for one school for one month was $1,400 in January, 1975. The total school funds from county, state, and Federal sources amounted to $3,000,000 for the year.

Superintendents who have served the Beaufort County Schools since 1884 are: Nathaniel Harding, W. L. Vaughn, W. G. Privette,

H. H. McLean, Frank A. Edmondson, M. T. Lambeth, W. F. Veasey, and Gray Hodges.

The first superintendent established dedicated effort to provide the best possible educational opportunity for each pupil.

As economic and technical advances have multiplied, so have the opportunities for educational progress. In Beaufort County all efforts continue to be directed toward providing the best educational climate possible for each pupil.

PART 4
TRINITY SCHOOL, CHOCOWINITY, N. C.
1879-1908
LUCRETIA HUGHES

Chocowinity, near Washington , N. C., had a preparatory school as early as 1879.

Nicholas Collin Hughes, a young deacon of upper Meriow, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, upon the doctor's advice, came south to eastern North Carolina, where two brothers had already preceded him. Soon thereafter he was ordained priest in Christ Church, Raleigh, North Carolina and then began his work caring for churches in several counties, including Beaufort and Pitt.

Godley's Cross Roads, near Chocowinity, had a chapel built in 1773 by Parson Nathaniel Blount, a native of the community, who served this chapel until his death in 1816. This locality had early been settled by an able, cultured people. Here Mr. Hughes made his home, serving other communities from this base. Here a large one-room schoolhouse was built by Mr. Edward Laughinghouse, a member of the church. It was across the branch from the church, and came to be known as —the Big White School House.— In it the Rev. Mr. Hughes taught for a while but soon had his own school in another building. But there were difficulties. Also there was a dream that would not die. He wanted to train not only their minds but their souls. He wanted them to love and serve the Lord. In 1879 his dream became a reality. He, with a son, established a boarding school which served boys and girls of many neighboring counties. So convincing was he in his Christian teaching that a large number of his male students entered the Episcopal ministry. These young men served in many places in the state and other states.

Blount's Chapel had become Trinity Church and Mr. Hughes adopted the same name for his school—Trinity School. The son became headmaster at the death of his father in 1893 and continued






the school until the establishment of public high schools made private schools unnecessary. In 1908 Trinity School had to close its doors but, during its life, it was held in high regard and rendered a much needed service to the Episcopal Church and to the citizens of this part of the state.

PART 5
WASHINGTON COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE

During the nineteen twenties the Washington Collegiate Institute was one of the most highly respected private schools in North Carolina. The curriculum was based on the old New England Academy plan. In mathematics and English Literature, in music and secretarial training and in foreign language instruction, this institution excelled. Its athletic teams were outstanding, and it was the State Champion in Secondary School Debating.

W. C. I., as it was called, was located in Washington Park and was owned and controlled by the Northern Methodist Church. When the great division took place in the Methodist Church in 1844, and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, was formed, the Blue Ridge Atlantic Conference remained loyal to the original church. This area included the mountains of North Carolina as well as that area along the coast which stretched from Morehead to Pinner's Point in Virginia.

When it became known that the Blue Ridge Atlantic Conference was seeking a desirable site for a church affiliated school, interested citizens in Washington donated twenty-eight acres of land for that purpose. This land was part of the Small farm, and the Smalls gave the greater portion of the land with Mrs. W. P. Baugham also making a substantial gift. These were the two major donors.

A handsome combination administration building and boys— dormitory was built and the Washington Collegiate Institute was officially dedicated by Bishop Theodore Henderson on October 1, 1913. The first two students to be enrolled were Clay and Robena Carter whose parents had recently moved to Washington from New York.

Dr. Edgar Lowther served briefly as the first President. Then in 1914, Dr. Maynard Fletcher came from Tennessee to head the institution. He brought with him a strong faculty which included Mr. Frank Ruble who now for the past sixty years has been a loved and respected citizen of Washington.

W. C. I. was co-ed, and the girls were housed in various homes either owned or rented in Washington Park. When enrollment reached 250, steps were taken to enlarge the facilities.

In 1919 the school purchased fifty additional acres and erected a girls— dormitory. This building, dedicated to education in 1921, serves today as the Pamlico Community School.

There were many opportunities for self-help at W. C. I. The school owned a farm where most of the food used for the boarding students was produced. This farm was manned by boys who helped pay their tuition in that way. Financial scholarships were available for girls in the dining room and kitchen.

The religious influence at W. C. I. was very strong and a number of its graduates went into the ministry.

The music instruction was outstanding, as student Gladys Alligood can testify. Miss Alligood has served as organist in the First Baptist Church for more than thirty years and has herself taught two generations of piano students.

Another former music student, Zoph Potts, served as Presbyterian organist for years and has in addition been one of Washington's star entertainers.

Fred Potts, Washington's ex-Fire Chief, remembers his school days at W. C. I. as the happiest of his life.

Sam Moore, President of the Bank of Washington, Ed Howard, Vice-president of the Diamond Match Company, Nola Mary Fletcher (Mrs. Ervin) a great teacher, Leroy Scott, attorney and former legislator, Ebo Matthews, John Henry Singleton, Bonnie Singleton, Jack Dougles, Maggie Buck, proprietor of the Cinderella Beauty Shop, Gertrude Proctor, banker, and many others all remember W. C. I. with gratitude.

When the great depression came in the thirties, the financial condition of church and state forced this fine school to close its doors. While its life was brief, as institutional lives go, it played an important part in the history of Washington, and its students went out to make a real impact on their respective communities.

Information furnished by Frank Ruble and Zoph Potts.

P.M.W.

PART 6
MOTHER OF MERCY AND ST. AGNES

When a Catholic priest visits an area, Catholic education begins. Catholic priests visited Washington as early as 1798. These early priests said Mass, preached and taught the Catholics of Washington






until a more organized effort was put into effect in 1821.

In that year, the Rt. Rev. Dr. John England, Bishop of Charleston, visited the town and stayed for ten days. He said Mass every morning in the courthouse and preached in the evening, pointing out books of instruction and training lay people as teachers of catechism for the children. Before his departure, he arranged a circulating library for the faithful. The next hundred years witnessed the same type education, priests arriving at intervals saying Mass, teaching, and departing.

A question was posed in the early 1920's. —Can anything be done for my people?— The questioner was David Artis Keys, a Negro, and the one asked was Rev. Charles Gabel. The place was a room on the second floor of the Hoyt Building which served as an out-mission chapel of New Bern, N. C.

The question was passed on to Father Gabel's superiors, and resulted in the establishment of Mother of Mercy Mission by the Passionist Fathers in December of 1925.

In March 1927, construction of the Church school was started, to be completed in September of that year. The Bishop arranged for the Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary of Marywood, Pa., to teach. Mother M. de Chantal was named principal and Sister M. Sergius, Sister M. St. Anne and Sister M. Gertrude Marie were the three teachers assigned to her.

The school opened for registration September 12, 1927, with fifteen children enrolling. One week later the number had grown to thirty-five and by December, enrollment had grown to one hundred.

In 1928, a northern Catholic publication. The Sign Magazine, started a fund that made possible the doubling of the floor space of the school, and the purchasing of twelve more lots for the school grounds. The enlargement was completed by fall registration of 1932.

In 1933 the teaching staff had grown to six teachers. In 1937 five students composed the first high school graduating class. In July of that year Mother of Mercy School was on the list of accredited high schools and was producing outstanding students. In statewide scholastic competitions students placed first and second in Latin and third in American Literature. This standard of excellence was maintained all the years the school remained open.

The Pastor of Mother of Mercy Mission was also instructed to establish an intra-city mission for the Catholics of the white race.

The Mallison home on Market Street had been purchased for a convent for the teaching sisters of Mother of Mercy School, and one small room on the first floor was assigned as a chapel for the white race. In this small room, Mass was celebrated each Sunday. The Bishop purchased the adjacent Ward property for a larger convent and in June of 1930 the sisters moved into the new quarters.

Meanwhile St. Agnes was constructed and the Bishop dedicated the Church in October of 1929. St. Agnes remained an intra-city mission of Mother of Mercy until 1931 when a diocesan priest, Father Edward Gilbert, was assigned as the pastor to the white Catholics.

The Mallison home served as a rectory for six years. In 1937, with the approval of the Bishop and four Sisters of the Immaculate Heart Community, with Mother M. de Chantal as principal, St. Agnes Academy was opened in the dining room of the rectory.

The increasing enrollment in the new school, as well as the number of Sisters assigned to teach, made it necessary for Father Gilbert to convert the garage into a rectory, turning the former rectory into a convent and school.

Through loans from the Bishop, and personal procuring of funds by Father Gilbert, money was raised to build a new school; and in September of 1948, students registered for kindergarten through the eighth grade in the new St. Agnes Academy.

Both schools continued until 1963, when the Bishop consolidated the two schools and closed the facilities at St. Agnes. St. Agnes Church again became an intra-city chapel of Mother of Mercy.

Mother of Mercy continued as an integrated school. The opening of other kindergartens and private schools in Washington drained the enrollment and prompted the Immaculate Heart Mother Superior to withdraw the Sisters to serve in more populated areas where teachers were needed.

In the spring of 1973, Mother of Mercy School closed its doors after forty-six years of educational service to Washington.

Mother of Mercy School and St. Agnes Academy are today serving the educational needs of Washington. The buildings are leased to the public school system for kindergarten school, to the Tideland Mental Health for Adult Education classes, and to Beaufort County Board of Education for the schooling of trainable exceptional children.






PART 7
PUNGO CHRISTIAN ACADEMY

In the summer of 1968, confronted by the fact that, in many important aspects, control of the public schools had been taken over by the Federal Government and feeling that the best interests of their children would not be served under such conditions, a group of citizens in northeastern Beaufort County decided to establish a private school for the purpose of educating its youth in a manner acceptable to the group.

A charter to operate a school was granted to the group in September 1968 for a non-profit corporation named Pungo Christian Academy. By the last of September 1968 a school of 175 pupils had begun in Belhaven serving grades 1-12 with a staff of eleven teachers and Headmaster, Lloyd Johnston.

The old Cooperage Company building was leased; and with more than 100 persons working without charge on the premises, it was made suitable for school use, housing grades 1-6. The former Woodstock Electric Membership Corporation office building in Belhaven was rented to house grades 7-12. This accomplishment was made possible through the combined efforts, determination, and support of concerned parents, residents and businessmen.

The emphasis of Pungo Christian Academy is on thorough grounding in the fundamentals while endeavoring to maintain a high moral tone. Classes open each day with devotional exercises in Bible reading and prayer.

Seeing the need to expand, a building committee was formed in 1969 to build a high school. Land was donated by a generous patron. In 1970 a wing was built to house the elementary grades. In 1971 a gymnasium was built, and rooms for an up-dated science department were planned.

Mr. Gerald Garner is now in his third year as Headmaster. In 1974-75 there were 278 students.

PART 8
PAMLICO COMMUNITY SCHOOL

In late nineteen sixty-eight and early sixty-nine a group of interested parents, concerned about the educational opportunities of their children, held a series of meetings which resulted in the formation of the Educational Development Company, Inc. Its

purpose was to investigate, plan and implement quality education. At subsequent meetings it was decided that the best results might be obtained by the organization of a second corporation for the purposes of administering the new school. The two organizations are unified by the ideal of having the best education available for students. As a result the Pamlico Community School was chartered by the State of North Carolina on May 1, 1969.

On April 30, 1969, the stately old building, which had been built for use by the Washington Collegiate Institute in 1921, was purchased. (Between W. C. I.—s demise in the thirties and the purchase of this building it had been used as an apartment house.)

Extensive alterations and renovations were begun immediately with the result that the Pamlico Community School opened its doors in September in a fresh, attractively-decorated building.

School started with Mark Roberts of Wilmington as Headmaster, a faculty of A-grade instructors and a student enrollment of one hundred and fifty. There were nine grades the first year, the plan being to add a grade each year until twelve were reached. This plan was implemented in the three following years.

Additional classrooms, workrooms and a fully-equipped science laboratory were completed in 1970.

A full-time athletic director directs a physical education program and despite its size the school is well represented in football, both boys and girls— varsity, junior varsity basketball, baseball, tennis and golf. There is also a band.

During the winter of 1974-75, a handsome gymnatorium was constructed and dedicated in honor of the late Hon. Herbert C. Bonner. Mrs. Bonner, Congressman Bonner's widow, had made a very substantial gift to the school in his memory.

Pamlico Community School began its sixth year as a college preparatory school in 1974, with an enrollment of 265 students in grades kindergarten through grade twelve, and Ronald C. Burgoin as Headmaster. More than ninety per cent of the graduates of this school have gone on to the colleges of their choice.

PART 9
TERRA CEIA CHRISTIAN SCHOOL

On March 3, 1937, a meeting was held in Terra Ceia for the purpose of organizing a Christian School Society. Charter members were Mr. and Mrs. Paul Van Gyzen, Mr. and Mrs. John Vreughenhil, Mr. and Mrs. Hank Van Dorp, Mr. and Mrs. Barend Landman,






Mr. and Mrs. Louis Tancrelle and the Rev. and Mrs. Charles Greenfield.

The name decided upon was the Terra Ceia Society for Christian Instruction, and it was decided to open a school for area children. The first Society-sponsored project was a summer Bible School.

The first regular school year began September 9, 1940. Mr. Verhulst was the first Headmaster. In the years that followed these persons have served as principals: Miss Elgersma, Mr. Eisses, Mr. Buteyn, Mrs. Oosterman, Mr. Perry, Miss Green, Mrs. Hubers, Mr. Schoon, Mr. Jansen and Mr. De Jager.

In 1975, the school includes 10 grades and has an average attendance of 71. Mr. William De Jager is the present principal and teachers are Mrs. John de Yong, Miss Susan Crawford and Mr. Tim Brink.

The emphasis in the Terra Ceia School is on Christianity. The task it set itself originally and which still continues is to educate children about the God controlled world in which they live. In the thirty-five years of its existence its students have been taught skills and concepts from a Christian perspective and have been challenged to become co-workers in the Kingdom of God.

PART 10
PANTEGO—SCHOOL WITH A SOUL
by
NORFLEET DANIEL HODGES

Lying in the lower part of Beaufort County on the north bank of Pantego Creek is a small village that has a unique charm. For many years Pantego has been one of the twenty-nine precincts of this county. Pantego has a post office; it has a cafe, with the best in home cooked meals; and it has a general store and a filling station. But it also has some of the finest people in the world who love their school and its tradition. The school, Pantego High, has always been a school with a soul.

The school has been the heart of the community for many decades. In 1879 an academy began its operation with the purchase of a bell weighing one hundred pounds. The ringing of the bell for the first time was the culmination of the efforts of the Pantego Educational Association which was formed in 1874 for the purpose of building an academy.

Prior to this time the educational efforts were in a large

store called the Grange store where the second story was called Grange hall and was used for festivals, dancing, and tournament dances following the tournaments, a popular sport of an earlier day.

The land where the school was built, and where Pantego stands, originally comprised three hundred acres which was bought by Phenias and Rothius Latham from the Lord's Proprietors in 1777-1778 for sixty pounds of English money.

In 1907 this academy was converted into a public school. This conversion marked a new era in the history of the school, but the old building still stands with its belfry and unusual outside stairway and large white columns.

Adjoining this building is a modern cafeteria built in 1965 and the buildings which now house the public school.

In the past few years the alumni purchased Ye Olde Academy as it is lovingly called, and it is now used as a library and a public recreation building. But for the high school and the community, it still challenges with its reminder of the tradition of enlightenment, and this tradition has been handed down.

Somehow the spark from the past continues to ignite each coming generation. The Year Book of the school is called Ye Old Academie. A large painting hangs in the lunchroom of Ye Old Academy given by a graduating class. Through the tradition which is symbolized by the academy, love of learning is self-perpetuated.

The last teacher of the academy was Miss Betty Judkin whose remarkable personality left a joyous influence on the minds of the community, which through others, has lived on.

Many cultured ladies of this small village have taught for many years at Pantego. They are dedicated to the four-fold growth of the students; their mental development, their moral development, their social development, and their physical development.

And physically, Pantego has had quite a history of prowess and competency in basketball.

In 1956 Pantego was given the Bellamy award for its excellence in education, its values and tradition, and its outstanding alumni who had gone out in the world and made contributions to the service of mankind. The Bellamy award each year selects one school in a state that best represents the secondary schools in that state to be the standard-bearer for all the rest. The school selected holds the award for fifty years. Mrs. Margaret Miller, head of the Bellamy Award committee, came to Pantego for presentation of this award in 1956.






All through the years Pantego's alumni have excelled. Old residents of the past were much interested in education. Among them was Patrick Henry Johnson who served this county as State Senator for two sessions and was County Commissioner for many years. His daughter Mrs. George taught in Pantego for a long time.

Students were not content to be outstanding in the school but splashed over into the state in the triangular debates of the past. They sent representatives to Chapel Hill for the State Debates and won five times out of six times. Ferrel Harris received honorable mention in the state wide contest in high school mathematics sponsored by U.N.C. Dan M. Paul was elected president of the student body at State College, and after graduating was Alumni Secretary. At the University of North Carolina, John Wilkinson won honors in the varsity debates and has continued to win honors. Also in the past Eddie Voliva won a place in the American State Essay contest.

The late Judge Malcolm Paul was an alumnus of Pantego High School. In fact, at one period in history all the offices in the Beaufort County Courthouse were held by graduates of Pantego High School: C. C. Duke was Register of Deeds; Ada Taylor was Clerk of Court and Jack Harris was Sheriff for many years.

Many dignitaries have visited Pantego. Ivy Baker Priest, at that time United States Treasurer, Governor Hodges, Congressman Herbert Bonner, and many others traversed these halls.

In 1968 Pantego schools were integrated and eventually, due to this merger, only the high school was left on the present site.

Ye Olde Academy holds its white facade high and has inspired each generation of young people to do its best. Pantego High School will continue to be an inspiration as long as there remains anyone who remembers her worth and has profited by her inspiration.

PART 11
BEAUFORT COUNTY TECHNICAL INSTITUTE
1967-1975
by
NORFLEET DANIEL HODGES

On November 8, 1967, a majority of Beaufort County voters approved 3 to 1 a bond issue for a technical institution. There had been an industrial education center in the county which had been

first under Lenoir, then Pitt Technical Institutions. The passing of the Community College Act of 1963 by the General Assembly made possible the opportunity for education as an —open door— concept in vocational and technical training, and in general education.

In 1967 Graham Elliott, Chairman of the Advisory Committee of the Industrial Education Center stated: —There is a real need for spreading trade and technical educational benefits to greater numbers in Beaufort County. It is necessary that we take a serious look at this type of institution called the technical institute. This is an institution which is both attainable and desirable for the youth of Beaufort County.—

Charles Byrd, director of the I.E.C. in Beaufort County, stated the general feeling when he said that, —Higher education should take place in the normal environment of people living in their native communities and rural regions.—

On June 5, 1967, the County Commissioners, W. A. Broome, William H. Page, Alton Cayton, James A. Hackney, Jr., and Jake Van Gyzen, chairman, passed a motion by J. A. Hackeny, Jr., seconded by Alton Cayton: —That the Board endorses the Beaufort County Industrial Center's wishes to change from an Industrial Education Center to Beaufort County Technical Institute, and that this Board calls for a $500,000 bond issue for a technical institute to be voted by the people of Beaufort County.—

On August 7, 1967, the board unanimously agreed to call a bond election. Senator Ashley B. Futrell and Representative W. R. Roberson, Jr. spearheaded the drive for state funds for a technical institute in Beaufort County.

On February 1, 1968, the Institute's trustees were announced by Governor Dan Moore: L. H. Ross, Louis T. Randolph, William F. Taylor, all of Washington; Delma L. Keech of Pinetown, route two; Woody Andrews of Pantego; John Tankard of Bath; Zeno Wesley King of Washington; and H. Carroll Austin of Aurora. Previously named as trustees were Graham Elliott and Leon Thompson by the city, Eddie Voliva of Belhaven and Charlie Godley of Aurora by the county.

The first meeting of the board of trustees took place on February 13, 1968. Graham Elliott was elected chairman of the board and Charles Byrd was selected as president. At this meeting the name Beaufort County Technical Institute was chosen.

On August 23, 1968, at 8 p.m. the first graduating class of 38 received diplomas in the following four programs: Automotive






Mechanics, Electrical Installation, Practical Nursing, and Welding. Ashley Futrell spoke on the topic: —A Mission You Have.— A. Graham Elliott, chairman of the board, awarded diplomas.

In the fall of 1968 the school had grown to 210 students in eight fulltime curricular programs with an additional 632 adults from four counties taking night courses.

From this period to the present the growth of the institution has far exceeded the facilities. The old fire department building plus many temporary and sometimes makeshift buildings attempted to take care of the student body which has started as the industrial education center. First housed in the old school garage on Fifth Street, then in the old fire station with the overflow in the abandoned prison camp, the school moved to the temporary Wachovia building on Market Street, the old Federal Land Bank building on Union Alley, and the Old Ford School building.

December 17, 1969, was ground breaking day four miles east of Washington on Highway 264. During 1970-71 the first building was constructed. In the spring of 1971 the move to the present location took place. On April 21, 1974, dedicatory services for the A. Graham Elliott Building were held. Congressman Walter Jones made the dedication address and a portrait of Mr. Elliott was unveiled by Mrs. Elliott, widow of Mr. Elliott. This portrait now hangs in the lobby of the building.

A second building was completed by the fall of 1974. The third building, Nursing, is now in the process of being built.

The master campus planned by the trustees in the early days of the institution was for eleven buildings to be completed over a ten-year period. These plans were altered a degree by the failure of the bond issue to pass in the spring of 1975, during a national economic slump.

The school set accreditation as its goal from the beginning. In December, 1973, Beaufort County Technical Institute received Southern Association accreditation; and on April 4, 1975, it received state accreditation.

In addition Beaufort County Technical Institute is recognized and approved by the North Carolina State Board of Education; the Veterans Administration; The Division of Vocational Rehabilitation; the North Carolina State Board of Cosmetic Art Examiners; The American Medical Association and the American Society of Clinical Pathologists. It is also a member of The American Association of Junior Colleges and the North Carolina Community College System.

Mr. James Blanton, who served as dean prior to becoming acting president and then president of the institution in 1971, came to the institution in the fall of 1968. Under his leadership the school has grown to 1,000 full-time students. The following programs are now offered: general education, accounting, business administration, early childhood, electrical technology, secretarial science, registered nurse (ADN), police science, retail management, automotive mechanics, cosmetology, medical laboratory assistant, nurses assistant, drafting, heavy equipment mechanics.

In addition many courses are offered as extension: distribution and marketing, health occupations, home economics, business, technical, trade industry, and general education. Courses are offered day and night.

The learning lab offers particular interest as well as discipline courses for enrichment. Students may also pursue the high school diploma or equivalency.

The words of Dallas Herring, Chairman of the State Board of Education called the opportunity afforded by the Community College System, —the most promising development and the event most worthy of remembrance in our history— since it —is the doorway through which the rank and the file of North Carolina will march out of the past and into the mainstream of America.—

Beaufort County Technical Institute as part of the Community College System offers to eastern North Carolina more than buildings, programs, and educational pursuits, as important as these may be. Here is educational opportunity for the people of the area, opportunity which is contributing to the cultural development of both races; and in industry, agriculture and commerce in giving impetus to the local economy.






CHAPTER XVI
CHURCHES

PART 1
BEAUFORT COUNTY CHURCHES
by
JILL HIGH

There was little religious activity among the early settlers of the colony. The Lords— Proprietors were very lax in their attempts to introduce the Anglican faith in the colony because they did not want to make religion a barrier to the settlement of the area, and they soon determined that those settlers who arrived after 1663 came because of more new land and the fur trade, rather than for religious freedom. As the years passed, officials of the Anglican Church in England and the Royal Government exercised pressure on the Proprietors, governors, and the colonial assemblies to pass vestry acts to establish the Church of England firmly in the colony.

This indifference of the Lords— Proprietors made possible religious freedom and gave way to the growth of dissenting religious groups, those not following the Church of England. The Proprietors declared that when seven or more persons agreed in any religious practice that it constituted a church and that a name could be given it to distinguish it from others. Colonists could worship as they pleased but could not speak —irreverently or seditiously— about the government.

The most influential dissenting group in the latter half of the seventeenth century were the Quakers. The first missionary in North Carolina was William Edmundson, an English Quaker, who

visited the Albemarle region in 1672 where he met Henry Phillips, who had not been in contact with a fellow Quaker in seven years. The first religious services recorded in North Carolina were held March 23, 1672 and those attending were described as having little or no religion. Edmundson stayed three days and left the foundation for a Friends— Society in the colony. Over the next twenty years, monthly meetings of Quakers were held all over the north side of the Albemarle. Apparently there were a few Quakers in this area of Beaufort County. In 1703, Thomas Chalkey, an English Quaker, came to this area and held services on both sides of the river. The Quakers had become the only organized religion in the colony in the seventeenth century.

In spite of the influence of the Quakers, most of the colonists were Anglicans who had no means of formal worship because of the lack of churches and clergymen. They were unable to oppose the dissenting Quakers, but the Colonial Assembly passed a series of vestry acts to strengthen the church. In 1701 the Assembly passed a vestry act to create five parishes, erect churches, and levy a poll tax to support clergymen. Dissenters protested and crown officials rejected it because salaries for clergy were too little. Again in 1703 a vestry act was passed which required all office holders to take an oath that they believed in the doctrines of the Anglican Church. The attempt to establish the Anglican Church and the opposition of dissenting groups kept the colony in turmoil during the latter part of the 1600's and finally resulted in rebellion. This armed conflict, known as Cary's Rebellion, involved many of this area's important leaders. Cary's Rebellion ended Quaker domination of government.

An attempt to establish the Church of England was made when the parish of Pamptecough was established in 1699 and became a part of the diocese of London. Prior to the Vestry Act of 1701, settlers in this region had no minister. Later, ministers who preached were sent by the Church of England or the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, whose purpose was evangelizing the colonies. The first of these ministers was Daniel Brett, who arrived around 1701, and who did not live up to the expectations of a minister. Thus was brought about contempt for the church and religion in general, while Anglicans continued to try to establish firmly the Church of England.

Between 1704 and 1711 three others were sent to preach. One of them, the Reverend John Blair baptized a hundred children. Pamptecough Parish was divided into Saint Thomas Parish, Hyde Parish, and Craven Parish by an act of the Assembly in 1715.






Bath was a common meeting place for religious gatherings in the parish because it was the only town in the parish and was easily accessible by water. There was no church building then, but Kirby Grange, the plantation home of Christopher Gale was used for a place of worship. Chapels throughout the area were established later when there was a minister to serve Saint Thomas Parish.

In 1727 and 1728 the colony had eleven parishes and in 1754 there were thirty-two parishes. In 1765 there were only six clergymen, however, and in 1767 the Reverend Stewart listed the number of taxable persons in the parish of Saint Thomas at one hundred ten. Despite the growth, the Church of England ceased to exist following the —American Revolution. There were numerous reasons for this failure, the most important being the Revolution itself. The church, established by the Royal government and with a close relationship to it, was not popular in North Carolina. Non-Anglicans resented support of the church by popular taxes; church control of education; and special privileges granted Anglican clergymen, such as the one that allowed only Anglican clergymen to perform marriages. The church failed to appoint American bishops and thus created an English clergy. Prospective ministers had to travel to England for ordination, as in the case of Nathaniel Blount of Trinity Chapel. In many areas of the colony, the church was a menace and met strong resistance, especially from the Baptists.

As a whole, the settlers in this area were English and Anglicans who adhered to the principles of the Church of England. However there was a growing number of Baptists who were subjected to persecution by the church. In addition the settlers in Saint Thomas Parish were the only ones who owned their two hundred acres of glebe land for a glebe house. Baptists were numerous. However, the interest of the people was lacking. They failed to build a church or even provide for a minister.

Following the Revolution, missionary activity stopped as the Church of England's Society for the Propagation of the Gospel disappeared. The Anglican Church was officially disestablished by the Constitution of 1776 in the state, although it remained a small organization until the end of the war. Following the war, efforts were made to form the Protestant Episcopal Church and in 1789 it was organized in Philadelphia. Efforts failed in North Carolina until 1817 when the Diocese of North Carolina was created and the Reverend John Stark Ravenscroft became the first North Carolina Bishop in 1823. In that year, twelve parishes were created and it is interesting to note that three of those were in Beaufort County:

Saint Thomas, in Bath, Trinity in Chocowinity, and Zion Parish located between Bath and Washington. By 1830 there were eleven ministers and thirty-one congregations in the state found mostly in the east where it drew membership from well-to-do planters, professional men, business leaders and public officials. By 1860 there were forty-four ministers and fifty-three congregations with three thousand thirty-six members. The church buildings were the finest in the state and were valued in 1860 at $4,000. In spite of wealth and influence, the Episcopal Church was not popular with the common people.

Among the county's oldest Episcopal Churches are Saint Thomas in Bath built in 1734 and Trinity in Chocowinity built in 1773. After creating the parish of Pamptecough in 1699, the Assembly passed the Vestry Act of 1715 which appointed the following vestrymen to the Parish at Saint Thomas: Charles Eden, Christopher Gale, Tobias Knight, John Porter, Dan Richardson, Thomas Worsley, Captain John Drinkwater, Captain John Clark, John Adams, Patrick Maule, Thomas Harding, and John Lillington. These men included some of the most important of the colony at that time. The present Saint Thomas, which is the oldest religious building in North Carolina in use today, was built in 1734. The church was built of brick made in England laid in the Flemishbond pattern and the floor was made of English title. The interior was arranged with two rows of pews with aisles leading down each side and the middle of the church. Contained within are numerous relics from the past: a three-branched candelabra given by King George II about 1740, the Queen Anne's Bell cast in England in 1732, a large Bible printed in England in 1703, and a large hand wrought silver chalice given by the Bishop of London to the Reverend James Garzia who came to Saint Thomas in 1733. Saint Thomas acquired its first minister in 1719 when the Reverend Ebenezer Taylor arrived. There was no church or house to live in, and he received little or no salary. For years after the Reverend Taylor left, Saint Thomas was without a minister until the Reverend James Garzia became minister in 1733. He died in 1744 after falling from his horse while visiting parishioners. Again Saint Thomas lacked a minister for nearly ten years. Then the Reverend Alexander Stewart arrived in 1754 to serve the parish where he faithfully ministered among the people in Beaufort, Pitt, and Hyde counties in which there were thirteen chapels besides the parish church of Saint Thomas. The Reverend Stewart was the only missionary to report having baptized a large number of Indians.






He influenced others to become ministers, especially Nathaniel Blount, who established Trinity Church in Chocowinity.

Historic Trinity Church in Chocowinity was built for Nathaniel Blount who went to England to be ordained in 1773 as was necessary in the early days of the Anglican Church. Upon his return, he established the church which is believed to be the fifth oldest church in North Carolina. The colonial structure, built by Giles Shute and John Harrington in 1773, is a plain white building which features a colonial fan-shaped window over the front. The interior has natural colored woodwork with stained glass windows in the chancel. Parson Blount served as rector for forty-three years and was followed by other rectors of note, the Reverend Nicolas Collin Hughes who was three times rector between 1880 and 1893, the Reverend Israel Harding who served from 1886 to 1871 and again from 1873 to 1881. The Reverend A. C. D. Noe, rector at Saint Thomas also served Trinity Church. Due to vandalism the building was moved in 1938 from its original site on the Washington-Greenville road, one mile west of Chocowinity into the town where it would be better protected and of greater service to the community.

In addition to Saint Thomas and Trinity there are other old Episcopal Churches in the county. There was considerable religious activity in the vicinity of present day Zion Chapel on Highway 264 initiated by Robert and Lucy Carter Cutler. After their marriage, which was the first recorded marriage in Saint Thomas Church in 1738, they settled down on their plantation at Goose Creek and began religious work in the community. Many years later, the parish and church at Zion resulted from the activities of the Cutlers earlier. Zion Parish was created in 1823 and the church was organized by the Reverend Richard Mason, the first rector. Only occasional services were held because of extensive work in other areas. He was aided in his work by Jarvis B. Buxton, Lay Reader. In a speech before the convention in 1824, Bishop Ravenscroft referred to the church at Zion Chapel where he performed the usual services, baptizing six adults and twelve infants, and administering confirmation to twenty-four persons. He remarked that the lively condition of the churches at Saint Thomas and Zion Chapel were due to the efforts of two Lay Readers, Jarvis B. Buxton of Zion Chapel and James Marsh of Bath. For years Zion Chapel sponsored a parochial school under the direction of the Reverend Joyner, the Reverend Malone, and Lucy

Joyner which closed when state supported schools began to function.

Another historic Episcopal church, Saint John's was built at Bonnerton on the south side of the river. As Episcopalians from Saint Thomas in Bath and Saint Peter's in Washington began to settle and farm the land on the east side of Durham Creek, land was purchased from Thomas Ellison and a small frame church was the beginning of Saint John's, consecrated May 29, 1825 by Bishop Ravenscroft. Trustees were Peter Prichett, John Y. Bonner, Thomas Ellison, William S. Rowland, Major Archbell, John Braddy, and Alderson Ellison. Around 1899, a new building was built in a more convenient location. Everything of value was removed and the remaining hull was burned to prevent desecration of the historic old church.

Other Episcopal churches were established in the county following the —Civil War. The first of these was Saint James Episcopal Church in Belhaven which had its roots in Pungo Chapel where the Reverend Luther Eborn started Episcopal services. Pungo Chapel was a —free— church where all congregations of all faiths worshipped and was located between Belhaven and Leechville. In 1866 the congregation was organized and in 1868, accepted as a parish. Founders of the church were John I. Adams, Decatur Jarvis, Reading Blount, Edward S. Marsh, and Nathaniel Reddick. Major E. S. Marsh made a gift of land in Haslin and in 1872 the members built the building now called Old Saint James. In 1884, a congregation was organized and a building was erected in Pantego which was never consecrated and was later sold by the church. In Belhaven, a warehouse was used for Episcopalian services conducted by visiting ministers for a growing congregation from 1880 to 1900. Saint James Episcopal Church on Main Street was erected on land donated by Mr. and Mrs. George Swindell. First services were conducted in August 1900 by the Reverend Luther Eborn, first rector.

In 1885, an Episcopal church was erected in Aurora. This small frame church built on land donated by Mr. and Mrs. J. B. Bryan was called Chapel of the Cross. Trustees were J. B. Bryan, J. B. Bonner, C. S. Dixon, Joe Peed, and F. C. Buck. The first rector was the Reverend Francis Joyner who was succeeded by the Reverend N. C. Hughes of Chocowinity who came once a month. Members moved the old church, to be used as a rectory, and began construction on a new church building which was consecrated






October 28, 1917, and the name changed to Holy Cross Episcopal Church.

An Episcopal church began in Yeatesville in 1891 when the people of Yeatesville led by Mrs. Eva Williams Satchwell, a teacher, began raising funds for a church. At the time the Reverend N. E. Price, rector of Saint Thomas at Bath was holding services at the Yeatesville schoolhouse, called the Academy. The Chapel was built in 1899 on the site of the old dilapidated Union church and was named Saint Matthews Chapel. It was consecrated on June 19, 1899, and the Reverend Francis Joyner was the first rector. In 1937, the church was moved to its present site on a lot given by Mrs. Lizzie Jackson. A parish house was dedicated in 1951.

After 1730, the most significant religious development was the growth and dispersement of dissenting groups: Quakers, Baptists, Presbyterians, and Methodists. As the Quakers lost their influence following the Cary Rebellion, other groups began to grow. These groups were very careful to avoid use of the word church and called their organizations —societies— or —meetings— to avoid interference from the royal officials. Beginning in the early 1730's, there occurred a Great Awakening when John Wesley and George Whitefield stirred a new interest in religion. George Whitefield was a great oratorical preacher who visited Beaufort County between 1739 and 1765 and preached to large numbers of people. Great revivals with shouting and weeping appealed to settlers, and swept through the colony. As a result old church rituals gave way to enthusiasm and personal participation in religious affairs and laymen assumed more responsibility.

Although there were some Baptists in North Carolina as early as 1695, there was no church until a church was organized on Pasquotank River in 1727 by the Reverend Paul Palmer who traveled, preached, and baptized, and held —meetings— in the eastern part of the colony. The Anglicans attempted to stop him, but Palmer appealed to authorities and was granted a license to preach. Many missionaries who were followers of Palmer preached the doctrine of salvation to all with baptism as the only evidence of repentance. The Baptist faith appealed to small farmers because of its democratic government, simple form of worship, emphasis on revivals and emotional religion and indifference to an educated ministry. The growth so alarmed the Anglican minister Alexander Stewart that he reported that he had baptized by immersion some of his flock to hold them. These first churches

were free will in belief, much like the Free Will Baptists today. In 1769 the Kehukee Association was organized and included churches which had been converted to orthodox and rigid Calvinistic standards, among them, congregations in Beaufort County.

From 1750 to 1830, dissension and lack of central authority handicapped the Baptists. The Separate Baptists began in 1755 with the church at Sandy Creek, and they emphasized a doctrine of new Birth, Believers Baptist, Free justification and autonomy of the local church. In 1830, the Calvinistic Baptists, known today as the Primitive Baptists, separated from the more evangelical and progressive Separate Baptists, known now as Missionary Baptists. In 1845, Southern Baptists withdrew from the General Missionary Convention, then the Free Will Baptists withdrew from the Southern Baptists. Most sects of Baptists held monthly business meetings on Saturday and Sunday, always preceded by a sermon if a minister was present. By 1766 the name Free Will Baptist began to be used to distinguish them from the Calvinistic Baptists. In 1807 there were five churches and in 1827, eight hundred members in North Carolina. Many Free Will Baptists joined the Disciples Movement in 1845 due to the growing demand that creed be abolished and the Bible be considered the only standard for services of the church. Those churches not joining this union reorganized in 1847 in the Free Will Baptist Convention. In 1860 Baptists had more members than any other church—sixty-five thousand members in seven hundred eighty churches. Thirty-seven were Primitive Baptist. The average value of each church building was $620.

The first Baptist church in Beaufort County appears to be the Pungo Church located on the Pungo near Ransomville. References to this are found in the works of Morgan Edwards, eighteenth century Baptist historian who visited the area and in the records of the Kehukee Association. It is stated that Elder John Winfield was pastor in 1755, and Winfield was also an early missionary of Palmer's in this area. According to Morgan Edwards, this church is said to have been founded by converts of Paul Palmer led by Dr. Josiah Hart who —labored in the ministry— in this area. His name appeared on a petition of certain Protestant Dissenters in 1742 asking for right of worship, without interruption from constables. The Reverend William Fulsher was listed as a pastor there in 1769. John Winfield was instrumental in keeping this church out of the Kehukee Association. As a result a more rigid Calvinistic group built a church on the same churchyard






and gradually absorbed its membership. In 1792 churches at Pungo and North River Creek in Beaufort County whose minister was Elder James McCabe petitioned for admission to the Kehukee Association. Another early Baptist church was located on Durham's Creek in 1790 with John Respess listed as minister, and in 1793 it petitioned for admission to the Kehukee Association.

In addition to these churches, there are others which were earlier Baptist churches, but today exist as Christian churches. Tranter's Creek Church, located about eight miles northwest of Washington, was founded in 1804 and joined the Kehukee Association. There were twenty-one members listed in 1811. General William Clark was instrumental in the founding of the church and served as pastor. However, in 1833, the church was dismissed from the Kehukee Association because the members, under the leadership of General Clark and Jeremiah Leggett, embraced the doctrines of the Disciples Movement. In 1851 it united with the Disciples and had fifty-three members.

Old Ford located eight miles north of Washington was begun in 1828 by Jeremiah Leggett and Joseph Biggs. At first this church was also a member of the Kehukee Association, but was dismissed for the same reasons as Tranter's Creek Church. Under the leadership of Jeremiah Leggett and his son Dr. John A. Leggett the church grew to one hundred sixty members. Then it united with the Disciples group in 1846. Those representing the church at the Disciples— Annual Meeting were: Jesse Swanner, Dr. John A. Leggett, H. Cherry, Kenneth Woolard, and Louis H. Hodges.

A Baptist church was organized in Pantego in 1830 with thirty-six members and is referred to as Concord. These were formerly members of the Pungo River Church but sought a more convenient place of worship. Henry Smith was the presiding Elder and in 1837, the church had fifty-one members. This church was also interested in the merger of Disciples and Baptists and a Free Will Baptist church was organized by those opposing the merger.

COUNTY BAPTIST CHURCHES

The AURORA BAPTIST CHURCH was founded in 1898 by the Reverend Braxton Cragg. Eleven of the thirteen charter members are recorded as Mrs. T. B. Allen, Mr. and Mrs. Ely Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Brock, Mrs. Lula Walker, Mrs. Julia Lewis, Mrs. John Chapin, and Mr. and Mrs. S. W. Hudnell. The Reverend Duncan McCloud is recorded as the first pastor of the church. In the early 1950's classrooms were added to the building.

The records of the church were burned several years ago when the home of the church clerk burned down, and many of them are not available today.

The CHOCOWINITY BAPTIST CHURCH was organized in 1909 with the Reverend Hoffman as its first minister. The services were held in a small building at the rear of the J. D. Thomas store at the crossroads. In 1911 one acre of land was purchased from the Norfolk Southern Railroad company for the sum of $25 and the church building was erected in the same year. Founders of the church were Mrs. P. R. Calais, W. C. Miller and S. P. Willis. The First Baptist Church of Washington is the Mother Church.

The PINETOWN MISSIONARY BAPTIST CHURCH was founded in 1907 by the Reverend Alexander Corey who served as its first pastor.

The PANTEGO BAPTIST CHURCH was organized in 1879 by a group of men meeting at the home of Dr. W. J. Bullock. The building was erected in 1883. During the ensuing years, the membership diminished until the church was closed. In 1931, the Reverend W. H. Dodd was called as pastor and under his leadership the church was reconstructed. In the 1950's the membership became so small that it could no longer support a minister.

The SOUTH CREEK BAPTIST CHURCH was founded by E. Tuthill and E. D. Springer and Willdin Springer. At one time it was called Organ, but was later changed to South Creek. The land was given by E. D. Springer and Willdin Springer, and they took a mortgage on the church. Preaching was conducted each Sunday and it was used as a schoolhouse during the week. After the mortgage was paid off the people did not think it right to have a school in the church and then they erected a schoolhouse. The church was erected in 1884.

ROSEDALE BAPTIST CHURCH was founded in 1949 by a group from the First Baptist Church of Washington and called Cherry Chapel. Realizing the need for a Sunday School in the community a small one-room building was secured and later developed into a Baptist church.

BELHAVEN MISSIONARY BAPTIST CHURCH was founded in 1900 with seventeen members. J. S. Corining accepted the first pastorate of this church. Five years later the building was completed. Classrooms were added in the mid 1950's.

WARE CREEK MISSIONARY BAPTIST CHURCH is located at Blount's Creek and was founded in 1864 by the Reverend






Elie Moore, who served as the first pastor. The first church building was a log cabin which was transformed into a frame house built of hand hewed framing. In 1909 the structure that houses the congregation was built.

BETHEL MISSIONARY BAPTIST CHURCH, located on the Bonnerton highway near Edward, was founded by Eli Moore and Henry Collins. The first small log church was erected in 1868. Today's structure was erected in 1915.

TRIUMPH MISSIONARY BAPTIST CHURCH at Blount's Creek was founded in 1860 by the Reverend Jacob Moore who served as its first pastor.

PLEASANT GROVE MISSIONARY BAPTIST CHURCH in Belhaven was founded in 1901. Founders of the church include Benjamin Franklin, Thaddeus Williams and the Reverend Haywood Foreman who served as the first pastor. The present structure was erected in 1915.

SHILOH MISSIONARY BAPTIST CHURCH located near Aurora was founded by J. A. Harris. The first pastor of Shiloh was the Reverend Hardy Moore, and the early church was located in the old Sam Kella schoolhouse about 1866.

SAINT ELIZABETH BAPTIST CHURCH at Pantego was founded in 1888 by the Reverend Haywood Foreman, J. E. Griffin, J. W. Griffin, N. R. Cogield and P. N. Flynn. The first church was torn down in 1946 and replaced with a modern wooden structure.

MOORE'S CHAPEL MISSIONARY BAPTIST CHURCH located on the Bonnerton road, in Mooresville, was founded in 1898 by the Reverends Eli Moore and W. D. Moore. The Reverend Moore was the first pastor. The old church was remodeled in 1921 and later replaced with a new structure.

Methodists were the last Protestant sect to appear in colonial North Carolina. Methodism originated as a reform movement within the Anglican Church and it had no organization as a distinct church until after the Revolution. Several Methodist missionaries visited North Carolina to preach doctrines of the —Methodist Society.—

The Revolutionary War had a disastrous effect on Methodism in the colony because John Wesley appealed to his followers to remain loyal to the crown. This was very unpopular and as a result local churches closed and the activity of societies were greatly restricted. In 1801, when Bishop Asbury was touring the state, he found a church in Washington with a small membership. Following

his visit the society grew. It spread in the county with areas of interest at Durham's Creek and New Hope.

COUNTY METHODIST CHURCHES

WARE'S CHAPEL METHODIST CHURCH was founded and dedicated in the fall of 1890. The founders of the church were Bonaparte Mitchell, Jesse B. Mixon, Tom Howard, Mrs. Matilda Merchant, Josephus Merchant Mixon, Bill Swanner, Robert Cherry, Captain Bill Parvin, W. R. S. Burbank, Claude Cherry and Jordan Chauncey. Bonaparte Mitchell gave the land for the church and all members of the community contributed lumber. In 1948 the chapel was moved to a more convenient location. The First Methodist Church of Washington was the Mother Church for Ware's Chapel. A modern building was constructed in the 1960's.

PANTEGO METHODIST CHURCH was founded in 1883 by Walter Clarke and the church building was erected in 1890. Sam Pegram is said to have served as the first pastor.

AURORA METHODIST CHURCH was founded in 1860 by the Reverend William H. Cunningham and the Reverend John W. Litchfield. The original church structure was built of hewed heart-pine. The first church building was replaced by the present building and much of the old lumber was used in the building of the new church. The first recorded pastor of the Aurora Methodist Church was the Reverend D. O. Wyche who began serving the church in 1886. It is assumed that the Reverend Cunningham and the Reverend Litchfield served as pastors from the founding until 1886.

TRINITY METHODIST CHURCH was founded in 1895 to serve people between Pactolus and Washington. Members donated materials and labor to erect the church.

CAMPBELL'S CREEK METHODIST CHURCH was founded in 1850 and the church building was actually built one hundred years later in 1950.

ASBURY METHODIST CHURCH was founded in 1856. A deed for one acre of land on which to erect the church was given by Thomas D. Smaw, Sr. in 1856 to the following trustees: Samuel V. Smaw, Ashley Woolard, James Ellison, Jr., Francis McWilliams, Major Congleton, Henry J. Woolard, and Isaiah Pate. The first change in the original church building was made in 1897 when the very high colonial pulpit was removed. In 1928 one acre of land adjoining the church property was donated and the bell was purchased from the discontinued Pinetown Methodist Church. In 1930,






the church belfry and vestibule were erected. The Sunday School annex was added in 1940.

BATH METHODIST CHURCH was erected in 1892 and the first church was a small frame building on North Carteret Street. The second church located on the corner of Carteret and Church streets was built in 1840 on a lot donated to the Methodists by Mrs. Nancy Marsh. The colonial type building had two outstanding features, the slave gallery and the belfry. The churchbell was taken from one of the vessels which came into the harbour at Bath and is now used by Bath High School. Trustees for this church were James Arant, George N. Gregory, Thomas B. Long, Thomas Windley, Robert W. Eborn, John Tyler and Joseph Long. This building was sold to the Baptists who in 1892 sold it to the County Board of Education. The present church was completed in 1892 and is located on Water Street.

BETHANY METHODIST CHURCH in the Winsteadville community has been the center for religious activities for over one hundred fifty years. There is no exact date for the first church known as White Marsh Chapel but old records refer to it as early as 1800 and it served the people until 1850 when the present church was built. White Marsh Chapel was a crude little building, with wooden shutters for windows and in the winter was heated by a large fireplace at one end. It was only partially sealed and there were cracks in the flooring. By 1845, the congregation decided to build a new church on the same site as the old one. The —Civil War interrupted the building and the builder, an Englishman named Walling, asked the congregation for permission to finish the building after the hostilities were over. In addition to the building, Walling built a high pulpit and a beautiful chancel rail which he gave as his contribution to the church. The deed to the lot was given by Ben M. Selby to William Fisher, R. M. Eborn, Colin Ayers, Alfred Satterthwaite and H. J. Hawkins, trustees in 1859. The new church was called Bethany. In 1928 W. F. Winstead gave the present site and the church was moved to a higher place and rebuilt.

PROVIDENCE METHODIST CHURCH was built on land given by the Reverend William C. Ecklin in 1896. Prior to the erection of the church, a smaller church and camp meeting shelter were used for religious services.

The Disciples of Christ Movement began in 1804 as a revolt against the Calvinistic elements of the Presbyterian creed in the

western part of the state. In 1804 it became a distinct and free movement advocating no creed except the Bible, and assumed the name Christian. This new movement was introduced into the eastern counties by Thomas Campbell and his son Alexander in 1833. As these ideas spread through the area, the Baptists were receptive to them and many of its leaders embraced it. On one of Campbell's visits to this area, he visited with General William Clark who started the Tranter's Creek Baptist Church and was active in the Baptist faith. In 1833, General Clark and Jeremiah Leggett led a revolt in the Kehukee Association against the strict creed. During this missionary journey to this section, Campbell visited Thomas J. Latham and preached in the old Concord Church. Thomas J. Latham, then a thirty-seven year old schoolteacher and considered one of the best trained men in Beaufort County was won over to the Disciples movement. He later led the Bethel Conference of Free Will Baptists into the merger with the Disciples.

COUNTY CHRISTIAN CHURCHES

The WEST BELHAVEN CHRISTIAN CHURCH was founded in 1909 by a minister and a group of women. The Reverend Henry Bowen, pastor of the First Christian Church of Belhaven, worked with the Ladies— Aid Society to organize the new church and have a building erected. The building was dedicated the same year and thirty members were on roll.

The CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN PINETOWN was organized in 1908 and held its first services in the town hall. John Tyndall urged the congregation to erect a church and sixty-five new members were added to its rolls. Sunday School rooms and a parsonage have been added.

The EDWARD CHRISTIAN CHURCH was built in 1891 with members donating lumber and their labor for its construction. Additions have been a belfry and Sunday School rooms.

The FIRST CHRISTIAN CHURCH OF BELHAVEN was an outgrowth of the Pungo Chapel Church which was a Free Will Baptist Church until the merger with the Disciples group in 1845. This church continued until 1897 when it disbanded and several members joined the Belhaven Church which began that year. The first elders and deacons of the church were: W. R. Bishop, Thad Barrow, J. F. Bishop, F. A. Crary, Sr., Willis Riddick and S. J. Topping. In 1915 a new church was built and years later a parsonage was purchased.

The PANTEGO CHRISTIAN CHURCH dates back to 1830






when members of the Pungo River Church sought a more convenient place to worship. They then met in the old Concord Church about a mile from Pantego. The first presiding elder was Henry Smith and the following were leaders: John Carrow, Sr., James B. Adams, Ephraim Ratcliff, and Thomas J. Latham. In 1844 a new church building was started. When the Disciples of Christ and the Free Will Baptist merged in 1845, some of the former congregation organized a Free Will Baptist Church. John R. Winfield served as pastor for nearly twenty years (1815-1873, 1875). Many changes have been made and in 1935 the need for a parsonage was met.

MARY'S CHAPEL CHRISTIAN CHURCH near Edward, was founded by three young people who furnished the land and lumber for its construction. Riley Cayton and John Walker furnished the lumber and Mary Rowe donated the land on which the church was built. The Reverend Jesse Holton was the first elder.

The BATH CHRISTIAN CHURCH was organized in 1909 with fifty-five members. The founders were J. T. Elliott, the Reverend W. O. Winfield, J. G. Gurganus, Thomas Clayton, F. A. Cahoon and W. T. Burgess. The Reverend Thomas Green was the first preacher. In 1910 the new church was occupied.

The WEEPING MARY DISCIPLE CHURCH in Pantego was founded many years ago with the Antioch Church serving as mother church. The first pastor of the church was Elder Eason Greene.

MOUNT CALVARY DISCIPLE near Acre Station was begun in 1945 with Elder Otis P. Norman, Douglas Johnson, Henry Booth, and Sam Woolard as its founders.

SAINT JOHN DISCIPLE CHURCH located in the Big Swamp section was founded in 1882 by two residents of this area, one black and one white. Edward Woolard, white, and Steven Woolard, black, started with an organization of a few members. The first pastor was the Reverend Billie James. In 1915 a new church was built.

ANTIOCH DISCIPLE CHURCH, in the Reddick community near Pantego, said to be the first Negro church established after the —Civil War, was founded by a Negro minister and a white minister. The Reverend Joseph Whitley, Negro, and the Reverend Josephus Latham, White, Joran King, and Jack Satchwell founded this church in 1866. The present church building was rebuilt in 1902.

TRANTERS CREEK CHURCH OF CHRIST is located in Beaufort County about eight miles northwest of Washington. The church was begun in 1804, and seven years later, in 1811 had a

total membership of twenty-one members. Some of the early leaders were Jeremiah Leggett and General William Clark, whose plantation was located nearby. General Clark was a Baptist preacher but in the late 1820's and 1830's became interested in the Restoration Movement of the Disciples group and led the Tranters Creek Church out of the Kehukee Association. In 1851 Tranters Creek united with Disciples with fifty-three members. Many of the early Baptist preachers, Primitive and Free Will, and Disciples preachers served this church: Josephus Latham, Dennis Cason, Stanley Ayers, and Thomas Campbell. In 1932 the old wooden building then a century or more old was replaced with the brick building that is presently used.

BEAVER DAM CHURCH is located in Beaufort County about six miles east of Washington. It began as a regular Baptist church in 1822, led by Joseph Biggs and Jeremiah Mastin who also founded the Baptist Church in the city of Washington. By 1829 Beaver Dam was enrolled with the Bethel Conference of Free Will Baptists. In 1845 the Free Will Baptists there merged with the Disciples and had forty-eight members. Its conference representatives were Thomas Everett who served in 1842 and Silas Ange in 1844. The Disciple group was not distinctly organized until 1856 when Amos J. Battle, Thomas J. Latham and Seth H. Tyson unified the organization. Today Beaver Dam has grown and is an outstanding rural church.

OLD FORD CHURCH OF CHRIST is another of the older county churches which was established in 1827 by Jeremiah Leggett and Joseph Biggs. In the beginning Old Ford was a Baptist church and a member of the Kehukee Association, with Jeremiah Leggett as preacher. He became interested in the Restoration Movement of the Disciples and was instrumental in the church withdrawing from the Kehukee Association. Old Ford joined the Disciples in 1846 with one hundred sixty members. The church building was remodeled after the depression, and recently the church purchased the Mineola School building and renovated it.

ATHENS CHAPEL CHURCH OF CHRIST near Bath was organized under the name Union Chapel Church of Christ in 1850. The church was founded by Samuel L. Davis, with only nine charter members. The congregation used a small community school for services until 1854 when the church building was built. In 1891 a new church building was dedicated and named Athens Chapel Church of Christ. Classrooms were added in 1947.

UNION GROVE CHURCH OF CHRIST of Pungo was organized






in 1855 and was called Church at the Head of Pungo. Its founders were Amos J. Battle, Seth Tyson, Samuel Davis and John F. Malette. This structure served three organizations: the Free Will Baptists, the Primitive Baptists and the Christians. When the Baptists built their own church, the church became the Union Grove Church of Christ. During a storm in 1940, the church was swept completely off its foundation, but within a year the members had renovated it.

ROSEMARY CHURCH OF CHRIST is located on the Slatestone road and was founded by Lewis Alligood, William Woolard Edward Woolard and James Lewis Woolard. A small wooden church was built the same year. John B. Respess, Sr. was the first pastor. SAINT CLAIR'S CHURCH OF CHRIST located six miles below Bath was founded in 1886. In 1919 a wooden structure was erected.

HAW BRANCH CHURCH OF CHRIST was founded in 1887. The land for the church was given by Lucy N. Downs. At first the building was a meeting house, but was later consecrated as a church. The founder and first pastor was Alonzo J. Holton.

WOODARD'S POND CHURCH OF CHRIST was founded in 1949. Construction was begun in 1950 on the present building.

TERRA CEIA CHURCH OF CHRIST was founded in 1923. The Reverend Louis Mayo first organized the congregation with Columbus Gaylord, Langley Cutler, Tom Harris, Pollie Harris and J. H. Respess serving in church offices.

PAMLICO CHAPEL CHURCH OF CHRIST at Wades Point was founded in 1915 and the first church was built in 1916. The first pastor of the church was known as —Preacher Lewis.—

FREE WILL BAPTIST CHURCHES IN THE COUNTY

WARREN CHAPEL FREE WILL BAPTIST CHURCH was founded about 1887 by the Reverend Major Whitfield and is located near Blounts Creek. Three years later the church was moved and erected on its present location. The Reverend Major Whitfield served as its first pastor.

MOUNT OLIVE FREE WILL BAPTIST CHURCH was founded at Springs Creek in 1870 by E. D. Wethington, Richard P. Johnson, James Brothers, and Joseph Brothers. The first pastor of the church was the Reverend John Linton. In 1890 a neat white wooden structure was erected.

WEEPING RACHEL CHURCH was founded in 1881 in Aurora by Austin Gaskins, who served as the first pastor. A small wooden church was erected in 1885.

SAINT JOHN FREE WILL BAPTIST CHURCH of Blount's Creek was founded by John Keys, Matthew Blango, Henry Blango and William Keys. The Reverend Smallwood was the first pastor. Dates are unknown to this writer.

SAINT MATTHEW'S FREE WILL BAPTIST near Bonnerton was founded in 1882 by the Reverend John W. Windley who served as the first pastor. Mr. Windley started a crusade of preaching and converting that resulted in prayer meetings being held in the homes first, and to the construction of a small log church in 1907. In 1944 the structure was remodeled and in the early 1950's a new building was constructed.

UNION CHAPEL FREE WILL BAPTIST CHURCH was founded in 1845 by Lewis H. Taylor, John Wolfenden and J. Harding. The first church was known as Cabin Branch and was located where the present church now stands. Before the church was founded, church members attended services at Rice Patch near Blounts Creek. These members requested that the church be located in a more convenient location near Chocowinity. Thus Cabin Branch became an arm of Rice Patch which is no longer in existence. The first pastor of Union Chapel was the Reverend G. A. Albriton. It is told that the Reverend S. S. Kirk who lived at South Creek walked thirty-one miles to preach at the church.

DUBLIN GROVE FREE WILL BAPTIST CHURCH was built in 1879. Free Will Baptist services were started in the Royal community about 1875, and meetings were held in the old Hartsfield schoolhouse. Founders of the church were Jesse R. Calloway, Robert Hudnell, David Hudnell, John Banks, Stephen Deal, Jonas Deal, Virgil Allen, and Thomas Allen. The Reverend Joe Tripp was Dublin Grove's first pastor.

BELHAVEN FREE WILL BAPTIST CHURCH was founded in 1920. The first pastor of the church was Mrs. Lizzie McAden. The church was erected in 1923.

SMYRNA FREE WILL BAPTIST CHURCH was first known as the Blounts Creek Chapel and was in existence about one hundred years before it became known as Smyrna Free Will Baptist. Elder Jesse Bennett was pastor nearly seventy years ago and is listed as the first pastor of the Smyrna Church. The church was rebuilt during his pastorate and the Reverend Mr. Bennett held the dedication service. The deed for the land was dated early in the nineteenth century, and early founders of the church include R. R. Jones, J. B. Cox, and Mac Cox.

SHILOH FREE WILL BAPTIST CHURCH was founded in






1828 in the Pinetown community by Thomas Boyd, William Boyd, Robert Bowen, Benjamin Gurkin, Zachariah Boyd, and Frederick Wates. The church has been rebuilt and enlarged several times.

PINEY GROVE FREE WILL BAPTIST CHURCH is located about twelve miles northwest of Washington and was founded in 1896. The church was organized following a revival conducted by the Reverend William Thomas Pollard of Parker's Chapel Free Will Baptist Church. Founders of the church were the Reverend Pollard, J. H. Jolley, T. A. Jolley, John Terry, J. E. Terry, William Jenkins, Mary Jolley, Henry Jolley and B. J. Ayers. Church members donated materials and time to erect the church. In the mid 1940's the church was enlarged.

CORE POINT FREE WILL BAPTIST CHURCH was founded in 1888 by the Reverend Issac Pipkin. The members met in an old school building until 1894 when the church building was built. The Reverend Issac Pipkin was the first pastor.

WHITE PLAINS FREE WILL BAPTIST CHURCH was founded in 1904 by the Reverend Manleus Hardy.

LOVING UNION FREE WILL BAPTIST CHURCH was founded in 1900 by the Reverend Sam Hilland, Harkness Wooten, and William Bryant. In 1922 the church was rebuilt under the leadership of the Reverend M. C. Windley and Y. B. Wooten.

SHITE HILL FREE WILL BAPTIST CHURCH was organized as a branch of South Creek Church in 1869 and became an independent church the same year. Elder R. K. Hearn was the founder and first pastor. The original church building was of split cypress. In 1895, another church was built.

EPHESUS FREE WILL BAPTIST CHURCH located in the Gilead section, was founded in 1905 by Joe Ecklin, John Buck and Henry Cutler. A move was underway in the early 1950's to rebuild the church.

Although the Methodists, Episcopalians, Baptists, and Christians make up the vast majority of the Protestant denominations in Beaufort County, there are several small groups, such as the Church of God and the Pentecostal Holiness.

THE OAK GROVE CHURCH OF GOD is located on the old Greenville highway and was founded in 1946 by Mr. and Mrs. Issac Cobb. The Reverend C. B. Bennett of Kannapolis was sent here in 1946 to build the church. Mr. Bennett was a carpenter and when he finished the church he remained to serve as its first pastor.

The BELHAVEN CHURCH OF GOD IN CHRIST was founded

in 1907 by Elder C. A. Mason, O. J. Young, and Elder C. H. Mason. Elder A. B. Malone was the first pastor of the church. Another church was erected in 1942.

SNOWD BRANCH CHURCH OF GOD was founded in 1918 by J. L. Griffin, J. H. Crisp, W. A. Crisp, F. D. Hardy, J. H. Paramore and J. P. Hodges. The Reverend Mr. Stargel was the first pastor.

The BELHAVEN PENTECOSTAL HOLINESS CHURCH was founded in 1938 by Hubert Morris. Brother S. J. Hodges was the first pastor of the church.

MOUNT OLIVE PENTECOSTAL FAITH CHURCH located in Belhaven was founded in 1946 by Elder M. H. Butler and Evangelist Neva G. Morris.

OTHER COUNTY CHURCHES

TERRA CEIA CHRISTIAN REFORMED CHURCH—In 1926, a year after the first Dutch families settled in the Terra Ceia area, services of the Reformed Church were read. For a number of years there were visits from various ministers and seminary students, but this was too expensive and in 1933 these services were discontinued. Many of the families then joined the First Presbyterian Church in Washington , N. C. In 1936 the church was officially organized under the moderator, Rev. J. J. Hieminga. Mr. C. Greenfield was ordained as its first pastor. Founders of the church were the Rev. C. Greenfield, H. Van Dorp, P. Van Gyzen, J. Vreugdenhil, J. Griekspoor, B. Landman, and R. Roefofs. The present church was erected in August, 1948.

NORTH CREEK PRIMITIVE BAPTIST CHURCH is an historic old church near Ransomville. Many former leaders of that community are buried in the church graveyard.

SANDHILL PRIMITIVE BAPTIST on the Old Sandhill Road near Edward is one of the oldest churches in the county. There is a large graveyard behind the church.

PUNGO PRIMITIVE BAPTIST CHURCH was founded in 1824 by a group who formerly held their membership with the Primitive Baptist Church at North Creek. Among its first ministers were Elders Ross Carrowan, Miles Forest, G. W. Carrowan and A. B. Swindell. The framing for the old building was hewn by hand and fastened together with wooden pegs. Church services were discontinued during the —Civil War. In 1866 Elder Newsome H. Harrison became pastor and served for 68 years. Other pastors serving were Elders Daniel W. Topping, David Carter, W. R. Hines






and W. E. Grimes. In 1952 there were only six members. This church is a religious landmark, for all other denominations in the community worshipped here until they built churches of their own.

WAYSIDE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH—Although there were some Presbyterians in North Carolina before 1700, there was no organized church group. The coming of Highlanders and Scotch Irish gave great impetus to Presbyterians in North Carolina. Missionaries were sent to the state by the Synod of Philadelphia in 1740 and made periodic visits. The most significant of the missionaries was Hugh McAden, who is considered as the father of Presbyterianism in the state. The Orange Presbytery was created as the Presbytery of the Carolinas in 1770, and there were fortyfour Presbyterian churches in North Carolina before 1780. The churches established in Beaufort County have been the result of active members of the First Presbyterian Church in Washington. When The Rev. W. D. McInnis learned that there was no active church organization in the Bear Creek community near Chocowinity, he initiated Sunday School services in an abandoned Free Will Baptist Church in 1938. R. P. Fowle, an elder in the First Presbyterian Church, served for several years as the first superintendent of the Sunday School, and was succeeded by B. B. Ross who was also an elder and served until 1948. During a revival in 1943, the new church was born. Plans were made to restore the old building, financially aided by the Presbyterian Church in Washington. The Rev. J. C. Hines was sent by the Albemarle Presbytery and under his leadership the Wayside Presbyterian Church was organized in 1945 with eighteen members.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

—Some Colonial History of Beaufort County,— James Sprunt Historical Publications, Volume 14, Number 2, UNC, 1916.

North Carolina Disciples of Christ, Charles Crossfield Ware, Christian Board of Education, St. Louis, Missouri, 1927.

The History of a Southern State, North Carolina, Hugh Lefler and Albert Ray Newsome, The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1973.

Beaufort County, C. Wingate Reed, 1962.

Colonial North Carolina, Hugh Lefler and William Powell, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1973.

History of North Carolina Baptists, G. W. Paschall, General Board,

North Carolina Baptist State Convention, Raleigh, Volume I and II, 1955.

Washington Daily News, Washington, North Carolina, August 19, 1952.

PART 2
CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON
by
JILL HIGH

Religion has played an important role in the settlement of this country, and the same holds true for the county of Beaufort and the city of Washington. A community grows around a church with most of the social life in the community centered around the church. This was especially true in the early days.

It was recorded in the records of Beaufort County, Book 4, page 469, that James Bonner donated two lots to the town, one of which he said must be used for the site of a church, and the other for —the public use of the township.— Lot number twenty-one was designated for the public use of the township and lot number fifty for the building of a church.

In spite of this action, Washington was without a place of worship for some years. Occasionally, the Rev. Nathaniel Blount, an Episcopal clergyman, and other itinerant preachers would preach either in some private home or in the open air. Later, some of the leading citizens built a church which was free for all denominations on the lot that had been reserved for a place of worship by the town's founder. This was on the corner of Main and Bonner streets which is now the site of St. Peter's Episcopal Church. The Free Church faced Main Street and the parcel of land was not as large as the present one owned by the Episcopal Church. This church served the needs of all denominations until 1798 when the Methodists erected their first building.

The Methodists were the earliest religious body to form a permanent organization in Washington. Bishop Francis Asbury formed the first Methodist Society in 1784. Prior to the Bishop's visit, there was already a small group of followers of the Methodist doctrine under the leadership of Dempsey and Sarah Hinton. The Hintons, of Deep Creek, were converted to this faith by one of the early ministers sent to this state. Before the Revolution the quiet of the county was broken by repeated harassment of the Tories, so the






Hintons believed it unsafe to continue in Deep Creek and took refuge from the Tories in Washington. Upon their arrival, they found a community without any organized religious association. They soon erected an altar of worship in their home which was located on the corner of Market and Third streets. Several years later this house and lot became the property of Ralph Potts, who has been called the Father of Methodism in Washington since he gave a part of his home lot and erected a church on it. This church, known as Potts Chapel, was dedicated in 1802 or 1803 by Bishop Asbury. It was located on the east side of Market Street and the graveyard covered the land where the post office parking lot and the Professional Building are now. The simple building was painted red and featured a gallery. The seats were benches with no backs. In 1831 a new church was built on West Second Street where the present church now stands. This site was donated by Mrs. Sarah Katherine Quinn. During the —Civil War this church and the parsonage were burned. Mrs. W. B. Cowell was an eyewitness to the burning of the church by the Northern Army and through her testimony the church was able to collect from the federal government the sum of four thousand dollars. A new church was built following the war, but the membership grew so that it was necessary to build again in 1898-99.

St. Peter's Episcopal Church was first started in 1822 and consecrated by The Rt. Rev. John Stark Ravenscroft, first Bishop of North Carolina on January 30, 1824. The building was plain with a simple tower. There was a gallery around three sides of the church, supported by pillars that also held up the roof. The founders of this early church were James Ellison, Eli Hoyt, Thomas A. DeMille, J. W. Jackson, Abner P. Neale, Jarvis B. Buxton, James S. Blount and William R. Swift who gave the church its name. This original church was in use forty years. About a month after the Union Army had evacuated Washington this church burned to the ground on May 9, 1864. Some of the chancel furnishings and the crystal chandelier were saved. The bell melted in the fire, and old Abram Allen, who was a black member of the church, picked the metal from the ashes, carried it home and saved it. Later when the new church was being built, he sold the metal and gave the money to the building fund. While the tower of the old church was burning, the heat caused the bell to toll until it fell from its hanging place. After the war, in 1867, the new church building was begun. The first addition to the church was the vestibule which was constructed in the year 1884. For twelve

years the only seating arrangement in the church was rough chairs, but in 1885 the present pews were installed. In 1893 the church was remodeled by adding the tower, the wooden ceiling and the slate roof. The present parish house was completed in 1959.

The Presbyterian church was established in Washington in 1823. The following is the list of the 22 founders: Thomas Trotter, Abner Burbank, Nathaniel J. Oliver, William Roberdeau Swift, Jonathan Havens, Samuel R. Fowle, L. M. Hitchcock, James H. Smith, John Tyler, John Orkney, Seth Thayer, Samuel Lawton, Frederick Brooks, Lucretia Woodward, Elizabeth Guthrie, William Whitecar, M. W. Smallwood, Joseph Potts, Thomas Telfair, Daniel Paul, William Barrow, Richard Hays Mastin. The first building was dedicated in 1825 on the same lot where the present building now stands. This first church building was used for forty years. Federal troops burned it when they were evacuating the town. However the pulpit Bible, session records, and the communion silver were taken to the home of Mr. James L. Fowle for safekeeping. After the war the congregation worshipped in a small wooden Baptist church that stood on the west side of Market Street. The cornerstone for the new church was laid May 28, 1867, and the church was dedicated nearly four years later. Some additions were made in the 1890's which included the lowering of the high pulpit, installing circular seats and removing the fluted columns. As one of the great sacrifices for the cause of the Confederacy, this congregation gave up its bell to be made into bullets. After the —Civil War, the Presbyterian women began a project to collect scrap metal all over the ruined town. By 1872 the necessary one thousand pounds had been gathered and the trustees sent it north to be cast into a new bell. The bell was brought home aboard the Catherine Johnson which was wrecked off Hatteras with the Presbyterian bell aboard. All the ship's cargo was lost except the one thousand pound bell. It washed ashore and was salvaged and now rings over the town. In 1952 a steeple was erected and the interior of the sanctuary was renovated. The latest improvement is the new education building built in 1968.

The First Baptist Church of Washington was founded by a Methodist minister, the Rev. Jeremiah Mastin, who was born in Frederick County, Virginia. After a ministry of twenty-four years in New Bern, the Rev. Mastin moved to Washington in 1814. He attended occasional services at the Tranter's Creek Baptist Church, which is now Tranter's Creek Church of Christ. He was publicly baptized in the Pamlico River at Washington and a short time later






was ordained as a Baptist minister. The Rev. Mastin and about twenty other residents petitioned the Tranter's Creek Baptist Church for permission to form a Baptist church in the town of Washington. The church was received in the Kehukee Association on Saturday, October 5, 1822. The charter members were: the Rev. Mastin, Bro. Allen, William Shingleton, Miles Everet, B. Archbell, Arnet S. Thomas, R. Jenkins, Jr. Wanner, Ervin Wallace, Jacob Alligood, Rodney Banon, Henry Waters, Samuel Archbell, George Elliot, Mary McKeal, Mary Swindle, Lucy Wallace, Mary Waters, Fanny Godley, Wetherley Worsley, Nelly Smith, Mary Williams, Aron Windly, Dan Wallace, Catharine Baynor, Dolly Burbade, Susan Mastin, Margaret Wollard, Sarah Lathem, Sally A. Wall, Mary Jefferson, Sarah Twaurs, Ellinor Allen, Elizabeth Singleton, Jane England, Elizabeth Robinson, Flora Archbell, A. Lathem, Nelly Cox, JoAnn Worsly, Sally Clark, Abby Wallace, Eliz. Harrison, Letricia Little, Sarah Mill, P. Brady, Luky Wallace, E. Beth, N. Oden, Northy Congleton, Col. Hanner Whooten and Susan Langley. The Free Church on Main Street was used by all denominations until the year 1800 when the Methodist church was built. The Baptists, Presbyterians and Episcopalians continued to use the Free Church until 1822. When St. Peters and the Presbyterian churches were built, the Baptists secured full ownership of the Free Church and it was officially recognized as the Baptist Church of Washington. In 1824 the church building was moved to a new site owned by the Baptists on Market Street opposite the present post office building. The church building was of handhewn timbers and was very substantial, and much of the heavy timber was used in the remodeling in 1896. The main auditorium and galleries were lighted by a number of small windows and the entrance to the galleries was from the outside. The pews were straightbacked and the seats were very narrow. In 1856 the Kehukee Association withdrew its connection from some of the members of the church because they had departed from the faith through the preaching of Jacob Swindle. The faithful members were recognized as the true church. During the —Civil War there was a decline in church activities and the Church was served irregularly in monthly meetings. The church building was the only church in the city that was not destroyed by the evacuating Federal troops. In the years prior to 1896 the church grew so that it became necessary to renovate the building. In 1916 the members decided to build a new church to be located on the corner of Harvey and Main streets. The building was completed in 1917 and the church membership

had grown from fifteen members in 1893 to one hundred fifty when the church was completed. The First Baptist Church has been active through the years in establishing missions in other parts of the town. Some of these missions that have grown into churches are: Second Baptist Church, West End Baptist Church, Rosedale Baptist Church and Riverview Baptist Church. An educational building was dedicated in 1956.

The First Christian Church of Washington was established on October 24, 1891. In 1883 a visiting missionary of the Disciples reported that the Disciples group had no church but that a move was under way to organize. James Latham Winfield who was the editor of The Watch Tower, a Disciples publication, was urging the group of forty Disciples toward the establishment of a church. Over the next few years, this group of Disciples held a Bible School in the home of W. J. Crumpler at 123 East Fourth Street. During that time the group purchased a lot at the corner of East Second and Telfair streets. On May 1, 1892, the new church was dedicated. In 1892 a bell was installed and when the present church was built this bell was given to the Hunter's Bridge Church. By 1913 a need for a new church was apparent, so the congregation purchased the lot on the corner of Academy and Second streets. Ground breaking ceremonies were held in 1921 and the church was finally completed and dedicated in 1926. An educational building was dedicated in 1963.

The first Catholic church was established in 1829 and was located on the corner of Van Norden and Third streets. In 1789, while the town was still very young, there were a few Roman Catholics among its early settlers. Some of these were: Dr. Debzancourt, Leonard Dussaux, Peter Cass, Joseph Picquet, Walter Hanrahan and Lewis Leroy. In the North Carolina constitution, Catholics were barred from holding office, so few Catholics settled here. A Catholic mission was started in the town as a result of the visit of Rev. Michael Lacy in 1807 to Mr. Hanrahan who was ill. While here, the Rev. Lacy celebrated Mass at Mr. Leroy's home. During the next year the Rev. Mr. Lacy conducted several meetings, received some converts, and baptized thirteen children and many adults. Eleven years passed without any visits from any clergymen and some left their church and joined other denominations. In 1819 the Rev. Samuel Cooper and the Rev. Nicholas Kearney visited and Father Kearney preached in the courthouse where four whites and six blacks were baptized. A year later Father Kearney returned, received more communicants and






preached and celebrated Mass more frequently. In 1821 the Rev. John England was appointed the first Bishop. His attention was directed to Washington by the Rev. Cooper who was then in Georgia. Later in the year the Bishop visited for ten days in which time he actively worked among the people. He commissioned three or four of the principal members to assemble the others each Sunday and appointed prayers to be read to the group. These meetings continued for awhile but gradually stopped. In 1823, during one of the Bishop's visits, plans were made to build a church. This would be the first Catholic church attempted in North Carolina. Finally on March 26, 1829, the Rev. Mr. England dedicated the church and consecrated the cemetery. Both of these lots were given by Lewis Leroy. The following were founders of this church: Lewis Leroy, John P. Labarbe, John Gallagher, William Grace, Jacob Wheeler. This church was also burned by evacuating Federal troops. A second Catholic church was torn down in the 1920's for highway improvement. During the intervening years when there was no church, services were held in homes. St. Agnes was built with the money left by a dying woman from New York, Mrs. Cogan. In 1939 St. Agnes Academy and Kindergarten was opened. As a result of a question on Catholicism asked by David Artis Keyes, a black, Mother of Mercy Mission was started. Work was begun on a church and school in 1927. The Catholic school was the first integrated school in Washington.

During the seventy-six years of its existence, African Metropolitan Zion Church has become one of the outstanding churches in Washington. The Metropolitan Church, as it is known now, had its beginning in a small hall which is said to have been moved from Respess and Fifth streets to a site at the rear of a building on West Fourth Street. Elder Phillips was the first pastor of the hall which had been purchased by the church and the Masonic Lodge jointly. The church continued to grow and another minister, Elder Farmer, was soon assigned to it. During his term as pastor of the church, Elder Farmer led the movement to erect a frame church in front of the old hall. The new church was named Farmer's Temple in honor of the pastor. As the church grew in membership, the need was felt for a larger building in which the people could worship. As a result, a beautiful brick church was erected in 1909 under the leadership of the Rev. J. H. Love who was pastor of the church at that time. He later became presiding elder. The present church at 100 West Fourth Street was furnished with beautiful

church furniture. The Rev. Elf. Rollins, although he was blind, served the church as an able leader and efficient minister. The growth of the church was outstanding during the years he was pastor. Metropolitan Church was noted for its early laymen who gave zealously of their lives to the development of their church. Some of them are as follows: Matthew Harvey, Moses Dowdy, Dr. J. M. Lloyd, Freeman Jones, Matthew Little, J. E. Cooper, Dorsey Cherry, Macon Cogdell, Willie Qualls, William Daniels, John McIver, John Crandell, Elias Daniels, Mrs. Lavenia Hudson and Mrs. Lucretia Brown. It is interesting to note that the I. B. Turner Library is named in honor of a former pastor.

The Spring Garden Missionary Baptist Church for Colored of Washington was organized under a big cedar tree on the corner of Fifth and Respess streets between the years of 1866 and 1867 on the spot where now stands Beebe Memorial C.M.E. Church. The Rev. John Washington, first state missionary sent out by the missionary Baptist State Convention, was leader in the organization which included among others John Windfield, Mordecai Mitchell, Gabriel Williams, Richard Rodman and Moses Carr. After the organization was completed, the body elected Mr. Washington as first pastor. Having no building to hold their services, the pastor and members erected a bush arbor on Fifth Street between Van Norden and Bridge streets and gave it the name Mt. Gilead Baptist Church. As the membership increased the church grew stronger financially and a church building was erected on the site of the bush arbor. The church was a small frame structure and proved to be only temporary, as the congregation continued to grow, and a new and larger church was soon needed. A plot of land on Gladden Street between Fifth and Sixth streets was purchased and what is now known as Spring Garden Baptist Church was erected. The church adopted the name Spring Garden because for years people referred to it as the church beside the spring garden. There was a spring flowing by the church with flowers growing near it. A parish house was erected in the early forties.

St. Paul's Episcopal Mission for colored began with meetings in a small wooden house on Gladden Street in 1899 when two mothers who had just moved to Washington from Tarboro decided to rear their children as Episcopalians. The two mothers were: Mrs. Maggie A. Bonner and Mrs. Allen Payton. In 1904 the first congregation of St. Paul's Episcopal Church of Washington was organized. The Rev. Nathaniel Harding, who was then the rector of






St. Peter's Episcopal Church, made every effort to help establish the church and in 1914 St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church was erected on the corner of Respass and Sixth streets.

St. John's Missionary Baptist Church was founded in 1897 by the Rev. John Washington and the Rev. Elijah Hurdle. The present church, located on Van Norden Street, was erected in 1945.

Hebron Church of Christ was founded on Seventh Street in 1892 by Allen Brooks, Sr. and Thomas Clemmons. The church was built as a wooden structure and stood as such for 46 years. In 1938 a new brick building replaced the wooden structure.

Beebe Memorial which stands on the corner of Respass and Fifth streets is the first black Methodist Episcopal church ever erected in North Carolina. The church began as a small wooden structure called the Christian Temple C.M.E. Church (the Hill Church). In 1871 the Rev. J. A. Beebe, who came to Washington from his parish in Edenton, and Bishop Miles and officers of the White Methodist Church, South, organized the church. This church burned but was replaced by another. A church was built as a memorial in honor of the Rev. Beebe and was completed and dedicated in 1927.

The Wanoca Presbyterian Church was organized on August 9, 1947 with fifty-three charter members. When the Rev. Sam Zealy came to Washington to serve as pastor of the First Presbyterian Church he personally made a house to house canvas in Wanoca to see if there was sufficient interest to establish a new church in that area. In order to stimulate interest in such a venture local Presbyterians established a playground under the supervision of Vernon Gehee, a young ministerial student. Through the children who flocked to the playground, contacts were made with parents and a Sunday School was established. The parents came, too. Soon regular church services were held in a tent which was pitched on lots given by S. R. Fowle, Sr. on Hudnell and Sixth streets. After the organization of the group into the Wanoca Church in 1947 the church was built, largely by members, in 1948. The name came from the first two letters in each of the three words, Washington, North Carolina.

The Salvation Army made its first appearance in Washington in 1934 when Envoy Charles Cook opened an outpost from New Bern. In 1937 Captain Iona Pope officially established the Salvation Army Corps as a self-supporting unit. In 1939 the present building was purchased.

The Christian Science Society of Washington, North Carolina is located at 321 North Market Street. It is a branch of the Mother

Church, the First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston, Mass. About the turn of the century several people in the community became interested in Christian Science as the result of a number of outstanding healings of diseases pronounced incurable. For a number of years meetings were held in the home of one of those interested people. In 1915 they met and organized a Christian Science Society and rented a hall downtown. Here services were held until they purchased the property at the present location. This historic house was the home of Thomas Blount and was built in 1810. Much remodeling was done and services were held there in 1937. The church maintains a reading room where the Holy Bible and all authorized Christian Science literature may be read.

The Second Baptist Church located on the corner of Tenth and Nicholson streets began in 1951 as a branch Sunday school of the First Baptist Church. As time went by more religious services were held there. Today a new church exists with sanctuary and Sunday school rooms.

Washington Church of God in Christ is located on the corner of Fifth and Fleming streets. The small new church was built inside the old building.

The Washington Church of God located on Fifteenth Street began with prayer services held in homes by the Rev. T. L. Little. In 1944 a tent was purchased and the first tent meeting was held. Months later the organization moved to a store on Market Street. In 1945 a small wooden church was built on the corner of Sixth and Bonner streets and was called the Church of God. In 1949 the building was remodeled and Sunday school classrooms were completed. Today there is a new building on Fifteenth Street.

The Washington Pentecostal Holiness Church was organized in 1948 and the group rented a building on East Fourth Street. A tent was later put up and services were held there until a church was completed.

Bethel Free Will Baptist Church is situated on the corner of Fifth and Van Norden streets. This church was founded in 1914 and the cornerstone was laid for the building in 1944.

The Singleton Primitive Baptist Church is located at 409 North Market Street. It was founded by John R. Rowe, George D. Roberson, Levi Roberson, John N. Rogerson, Henry Peel and D. W. Topping, elders; and J. J. Smith and W. Holliday, deacons. The lot was given by Mrs. John C. Singleton, and Haywood Singleton furnished a good portion of the lumber for this church.

The First Church of Christ on East 10th Street was begun in






1954 with services held in the old Order of Red Men on West Main Street and conducted by John E. Alligood. There were fourteen people present at the first meeting. Services were held there until early fall when an option was taken on the present lot on East 10th Street and a tent meeting was started. This revival closed at the Roanoke Christian Service Camp when a severe storm blew the tent away. There were twenty-two charter members who continued at the Hall until the building on Tenth Street was completed and was dedicated in March, 1963.

The First Free Will Baptist Church of Washington, located on the corner of 9th and Bonner streets, was organized on April 25, 1951 by a group of people who had been working as a mission. First services were held in the Red Men's Hall which was over the Tayloe Drug Store on Main Street, and services were continued there until construction of the building on Bonner Street. Church membership has grown from forty-six charter members to three hundred seventy-nine in 1975. In January, 1955, the church voted to sponsor a Sunday School Mission on River Road, which later became Mizpah Free Will Baptist Church. Construction on the church began in August 1952 with aid received from churches across the nation as well as individual gitfs, local and statewide. In 1958, construction began on a new parsonage on the lot adjacent to the church on 9th Street, and construction on an educational building was begun in 1961. The original building was bricked and carpeted and a steeple and porch were added in 1970. In recent years, adjoining property has been purchased by the church for expansion in future years.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Washington Daily News, Washington, North Carolina, August 19, 1952.

The Story of Early Days of the Catholic Church in Washington, North Carolina, Patrick Joseph Coffey, 1845.

75th Anniversary 1891-1966, First Christian Church, Washington, North Carolina.

First Baptist Church, Washington, North Carolina, One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration, November 5, 1972.

Saint Peter's Parish, Washington, North Carolina, A Record of the Century, 1822-1922, Queen City Printing Co., Charlotte, N. C., 1922.

Free Church. On lot No. 50. Built before 1800. Used by all Denominations.

Trinity Episcopal Church, Chocowinity. Built 1773.






Mulberry Tavern. Said to be the first house built in the original Washington. (Courtesy Lee A. Wallace, Jr.)

Town's people watching Federal Forces raising the Stars and Stripes over the Courthouse. March 21, 1862. (Sketch by Angelo Wiser. Harper's Weekly, April 19, 1862.)

Burbank House. Early 1800s.

Blount's Road before Urban Renewal.

Said to be the two oldest houses in Washington. The Telfair House on left; house built by Daniel Gould Marsh about 1800. On right the Myers House bought by John Myers in 1826, and remodeled. Owned by Myers family for 150 years.

Holladay House.

The above sketches by Catherine Bleecker Bangs Folger, 1896-1967, who was a native of Brooklyn, N. Y., studied at the Slade School of Art, served with Red Cross in France in WW I, was a cousin of Norman Rockwell, and lived in Washington 1944-1967. (Courtesy BHM Regional Library).






Map of national defenses at Washington, 1868. (From Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, May 16, 1863).

Fowle ships in port at Barbados about 1890. (Courtesy Bee Morton)

Mr. and Mrs. Frank Rollins, Sr., and guests, in their Cadillac around 1905. This is thought to have been the first automobile in Washington. (Courtesy of Frank Rollins).






The DeMille house. The first brick house to be built in Washington, 1851. Porches built by J. K. Hoyt, who bought house in 1899. (Copy of photograph by Leslie Todd).

Elmwood. Built about 1820. Occupied by Grist family for several generations. Originally, Main St. ran to its front gate. (Courtesy Mrs. Ford Worthy).

Washington High School 1906-1952. (Courtesy Louise Nutt Weston.)

First Christian. Organized 1891 at 123 E. 4th St. Present church built 1926. (Picture by Vann Studio)

Post Office completed in 1913. (Courtesy Shirley D. Glover.)






BEAUFORT COUNTY NORTH CAROLINA
Two-page Map of Beaufort County

BEAUFORT COUNTY NORTH CAROLINA
Two-page Map of Beaufort County






St. Peter's Episcopal. Organized 1822. Present building started 1867. (Picture by Vann Studio.)

First United Methodist. Organized as Potts Chapel 1798. Present Church 1898-1899. (Picture by Eric Loy.)

First Baptist. Organized 1822. Present church completed 1917. (Picture by Vann Studio.)

First Presbyterian. Organized 1823. Present Church dedicated 1867. (Picture courtesy Shirley D. Glover.)

George H. and Laura E. Brown Library. Dedicated 1954.

Bank of Washington, now NCNB. Only building in Washington included in Waterman's Early Architecture of N. C. News and Observer, May 23, 1854 listed dimensions 25 feet by 50 feet deep and of proportionate height. The front portico to extend so as to form a portico supported by four columns. Walls of brick stuccoed to resemble stone with fire proof roof. Included in National Register of Historic Places. (Courtesy Mrs. Ford Worthy.)






FESTIVAL
TIMES

Tulip Festival, late 1930's. (Picture courtesy Shirley D. Glover.)

Shriner's Convention, 1926. (Picture Courtesy Shirley D. Glover.)

Sidewalk Art Show in early 1970's. (Courtesy Mary Bell Toler.)

Artrain, 1974

HURRICANE
DIANE
AUGUST 1955

At the foot of Market Street. (Picture by Clyde Roberson, courtesy of George R. Roberson.)

In front of 615 East 2nd St. (Picture by Clyde Roberson, courtesy of George R. Roberson.)






The Harvest

TOBACCO

The Sale, (Courtesy of Leslie Todd)

Business and fun on Beaufort County Rivers. Shrimp boats on the Pungo at Belhaven. (Courtesy Bill Hamilton.)

Children playing in the Pamlico, (Courtesy Leslie Todd.)






Eureka Lumber Company in the 1950's. Lumber for large shipments in foreground, log pond at center right, Washington Tobacco Company. Stack at right. (Picture courtesy John S. Leach.)

Waterfront, 1970's. (Picture by Bill Hamilton.)

CHAPTER XVII
LIBRARIES

PART 1
NORTH CAROLINA'S FIRST LIBRARY
by
PAULINE WORTHY

One of the proud boasts of Bath has long been that it had the first library in North Carolina.

The idea of sending libraries as well as missionaries to the American colonies originated with Dr. Thomas Bray in England, the founder of The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.

Five years before Bath was incorporated in 1705 Daniel Brett, a clergyman of the Church of England, was appointed a missionary to Carolina. In December 1700 Dr. Bray turned over to Brett a collection of books, charging him with their care and safe delivery to St. Thomas Parish on the Pamticough.

The books were delivered in 1701, and shortly thereafter the General Assembly passed a law to protect and preserve this valuable collection.

In 1715 an extensive act for preservation is recorded by the N. C. Assembly under the Proprietary Government. A Board of Commissioners was named and authorized to employ a librarian. This —Library Keeper,— as he was called was charged with preventing damage, theft or —other destruction— and was made personally responsible for twice the value of the book if one came to harm.

Although the books were sent to St. Thomas Parish, they were designed for a public library and the law said that any citizen






of Beaufort Precinct might borrow one. Allowing for the size of the book, and the time necessary to read it, the rules said that an octavo might be kept one month, a quarto two months and a folio four months. A borrower was to be charged three times the value of any book which was lost. In view of the ultimate complete disappearance of the library one wonders if the library keeper was beheaded.

A single book of that original library survives today. In the late eighteen eighties, the Rev. R. B. Windley of Bunyan found this treasure in a bunch of junk. Since 1890 it has been in the custody of the Episcopal Diocese of East Carolina. On rare occasions it is put on public display. Its title is —Explication of the Catechism— by Towerson. This is a folio printed in London in 1685.

On file at the headquarters in London of The Society for the Preservation of the Gospel (which is still active today) is a complete list of books in that first library. It is in two parts, a parochial library and a layman's library.

The collection included 38 folios, 19 quartos and 100 octavo volumes. Religious books were in the vast majority, but in addition there were volumes on a variety of subjects: mathematics, poetry, mythology, heraldry, medicine, etc. There were some classics and multiple copies of several dozen religious tracts designed for distribution in the parish. The whole contained 708 volumes and was valued at one hundred English pounds.

When Mrs. Charles Cannon of Concord was appointed to the Bath Commission she interested herself in trying to locate as many duplicates as possible of the original collection, knowing that this would be an asset in the restoration of historic Bath.

Mrs. Cannon obtained from London copies of the original catalog and circulated these to sellers of rare books both in the United States and in Europe. She was successful in acquiring a number of these quaint old volumes. They are difficult to read because all the U's are printed like W's and all the S's like F's, but fascinating to handle, primarily because of signatures on the end papers, which give clues to ownership during the intervening centuries. These books are housed today in the restored Palmer-Marsh house.

What happened to the original books? Various theories have been advanced but no one really knows. It has been suggested that they were transferred to Edenton and then dropped out of sight. We hear often of North Carolina's Lost Colony, but North Carolina's

Lost Library is seldom mentioned. Its fate remains one of the most thought provoking mysteries in the cultural annals of this state.

PART 2
HISTORY OF THE BROWN LIBRARY

—On the evening of March 17, 1911, in response to a call by the Committee of the Chamber of Commerce on Libraries and Public Education, the following citizens of Washington assembled in the rooms of the Young Men's Christian League to devise plans for the establishment of a public library for the City of Washington: Mrs. A. L. Betts, Mrs. S. R. Fowle, Mrs. John Rodman, Mrs. J. G. Studdert, P. O. Bryan, Dr. H. W. Carter, W. L. Vaughan, and the Reverend J. A. Sullivan.—

So the minutes of the meeting recorded the beginning of library service in the eastern North Carolina town, which has continued without interruption to the present.

In a room upstairs in the building at 100 East Main Street Mrs. A. L. Betts presided over the first library in Washington at a salary of twenty dollars per month, with library hours from four to six in the afternoon and from seven to nine in the evenings.

For ten years service was funded by gifts, solicitations and city appropriations. In May 1921 the citizens of Washington voted to levy a tax upon themselves of ten cents per one hundred dollars to support the city library. However, more than twenty years were to pass before these funds were appropriated.

In 1922 the Bank of Washington, Trustee, appointed a commission —to take over and manage the Washington Public Library.— Many of the same people who had worked so hard for library service ten years before now renewed their efforts. Space was rented from Mr. Charles F. Cowell above Pamlico Chemical Company on West Main Street for two hundred dollars per year. This building site has since been absorbed by Stewart Parkway and was on the south side of Main Street opposite the Seaboard Railway Depot. Mrs. Betts, with Miss Annie Jarvis as substitute librarian, served through the depression years and until her death in 1944.

The library was the recipient of Works Progress Administration aid during the later years of the depression.

The Reverend I. B. Turner, pastor of the Metropolitan A. M. E. Zion Church in Washington, became disturbed over the lack of






cultural resources in his parish and contacted friends in the north who responded by sending him a number of books. Washington Public Library became aware of this need and asked that local book clubs donate books for circulation among the Negro population. The library appropriated a small sum of money for the I. B. Turner collection and petitioned the Washington City Council for funds to aid the Negro library. The library was named for this pastor who lived in Washington briefly but served the community well. The Washington Public Library had direct supervision of the work for several years and was ably assisted by the Reverend Turner, Mrs. Nora Dowdy, Mrs. Pattie Jones, Ed Cooper and Thad Everett.

Miss Marjorie Beal, Director of the North Carolina Library Commission, initiated a move with County Commissioners and the Washington Public Library Board to organize a regional library, with Beaufort County joining Martin and Hyde counties in the effort. State library history was made within a short period of time in Beaufort County when the regional library concept was adopted. Bookmobile service began, and the public library shared its facilities with the regional (now Beaufort-Hyde-Martin) system, with Miss Elizabeth House, librarian-advisor.

In 1942 great impetus was given to library service in Washington. The will of Mrs. Laura Ellison Brown left a large part of her estate to the public library with the specification that approximately $100,000.00 be used to build a city library and that a like sum should be invested, the interest from this amount to help bear operating costs. The library should be named the George H. and Laura E. Brown Library.

In 1944, with Mrs. Ford Worthy as chairman, the Washington Public Library Board reached an agreement with city officials whereby the tax levy of ten cents on the one hundred dollars should be paid to the trustees of the library.

The library moved into the Brown home at 122 Van Norden Street until the wartime shortages eased and a new library could be built. Mrs. Jesse B. Ross, Mrs. Victor Shelburne, Mrs. Worthy, Mrs. Guy Small, J. B. Sparrow, R. P. Fowle, E. R. Mixon and J. Bryan Grimes dealt with the problems, major and minor, and pushed for improved library service throughout this period.

The Bank of Washington, as trustee of the Brown estate, finally began action on new building plans. and appointed Jesse B. Ross, John Havens Moss, Ralph Hodges and Dr. John C. Tayloe as

members of a building committee. In 1954, on April 10, a new library building was dedicated.

The George H. and Laura E. Brown Library is an independent library, therefore an oddity in an age when regional systems were formed to combine resources and expedite handling of state and federal funds. So the Brown Library has never shared in any of those funds.

Librarians have included Mrs. Mary McLaurin, Mrs. Marjorie Wallace, Mrs. Patsy Impke, Mrs. Rena H. Walker, and Mrs. Ursula F. Loy.

Statistics show a total book stock of 31,356 and an annual circulation of 56,905.

Throughout the sixty-four years of service to Washington, the library has exerted great influence on the culture and education of the community. It is presently open fifty-two hours per week, with a staff of two full-time and three part-time employees and participates in all major artistic and historical movements in the city.

U.F.L.

PART 3
THE BROWN BEQUEST
by
PAULINE WORTHY

On March 9, 1942 Laura Ellison Brown, widow of Justice George Hubbard Brown, died in Washington at the age of ninety-three. Her husband had died in 1926. The Browns had no children and their home town was principal beneficiary of the fortune which they had acquired through Judge Brown's financial acumen and Mrs. Brown's thrift.

In her will, signed on August 16, 1939 Mrs. Brown designated —not more than one hundred thousand dollars— for the construction of a public library to be known as the George H. and Laura E. Brown Library. The site designated was the Brown home place on Van Norden Street. The Bank of Washington was named Executor of the will.

A group of prominent citizens, personally selected by Mrs. Brown, was designated to see that her wishes were carried out. These were: Ralph Hodges, Mayor; the Reverend Stephen Gardner, Rector of St. Peters; Elijah Mixon, Chairman of the city library board; John B. Sparrow, Secretary of the library board; Jesse B. Ross, President of the Bank of Washington; Samuel R.






Fowle, Postmaster; Harry McMullan and William B. Rodman, her friends.

After numerous bequests to nieces and friends Mrs. Brown specified that the residue of the estate was to be invested in high grade securities, the interest on the income to be used for the benefit of the Brown Library provided the city assumed responsibility for maintenance, upkeep and other necessary expenses in the operation of the library.

This will was written by Harry McMullan, senior, at the dictation of Laura Ellison Brown.

Who was Laura Ellison Brown?

The daughter of Henry Alderson Ellison and Eliza Tripp, Laura Ellison was born on January 11, 1849 at —Elmwood— (later the Grist home and now owned by Dr. Frank Stallings).

Laura was one of seven children. Her sister Harriet married a physician from Mobile, Alabama, Dr. James Gray Thomas. After the —Civil War left Washington destitute Laura, then in her teens, went to Alabama to stay with this sister.

In Mobile she met and married a young Englishman, Captain George Cooper Lewis, said to be the scion of a distinguished family.

The baby born of this union died in infancy and not long after the baby's death Captain Lewis succumbed to tropical fever. The heartbroken young widow could no longer endure Mobile so she returned to her childhood home, Washington, North Carolina, to live with another sister, Virginia, Mrs. Macon Bonner.

By this time Laura had become a striking looking young woman with flashing eyes, an imperious manner, and an exceptionally beautiful speaking voice. Small wonder that she attracted George Hubbard Brown, a rising young lawyer who has been described as a —fine figure of a man— with a brilliant mind.

Young George had gone to New York at the age of eighteen where he had gotten a job as a telegraph operator. (He and Thomas A. Edison shared adjoining desks.) By this time he had returned to Washington, studied law under Judge Shepherd and received his license to practice.

On December 17, 1874 Laura Ellison Lewis was married to George H. Brown. Each was twenty-four. For more than half a century they shared each other's lives and interests.

The Browns built a home on Van Norden Street, a two story Victorian cottage in a style later designated as American Gothic.

George H. Brown had a distinguished career, serving for fifteen

years on the Superior Court Bench and sixteen years on the State Supreme Court.

Laura Brown not only shared her husband's illustrious career she was a personality in her own right. She carried herself like —the daughter of a hundred earls— and her outfits were the most stylish available.

She belonged to that small select group of ladies known as —the carriage trade.— These ladies rarely entered a store. They would have themselves driven to the entrance where they remained in the carriage while a clerk brought out materials from which they selected.

Mrs. Brown's carriage was driven for years by Harry Latham. In his old age this fine looking white haired old black enjoyed reminiscing about his days in the Brown's service. He recalled with particular admiration the fine horses the Judge always kept and the beautiful parasols which Mrs. Brown carried to shade her complexion from the sun on afternoon drives.

Judge Brown himself often drove. He was noted for his love of spirited horses as well as for his learning.

Both Browns read widely. It is said that Laura Brown's mind was a marvel to her associates. She quoted from prose and poetry in every appropriate situation. Because she wished succeeding generations to have the delight and the inspiration of books she made the city of Washington the most magnificent gift in its history.

Because she was such a book lover herself she wished her own name to also be included in the name of the library, i.e. The George H. and Laura E. Brown Library. There is no MEMORIAL in the name. The beautiful chapel at Saint Peter's Church was given as a memorial to her husband.

Mrs. Brown died during —World War II and the executor of the will was reluctant to turn any funds over to the small town library which was struggling along in dingy quarters, too hot in summer and too cold in winter. Meanwhile inflation spiralled and materials and labor became nonexistent.

In 1944 the executors agreed to allow the use of the Brown home as a library and to make available to the city for library purposes a portion of the interest on the Brown money. To that end a three part agreement was drawn up, signed by Jesse B. Ross as president of the bank, by R. P. MacKenzie as mayor and by Mrs. Ford Worthy as chairman of the library board.






The bank retained the privilege of building the new library when such became feasible.

Since Mrs. Brown had spent her latter years as an invalid in residence at the Hotel Louise, the unoccupied Brown house was much in need of repair. It was now extensively renovated and became an attractive small library.

Portraits of the Judge's parents remained on the wall of the Brown's private library which was now christened the —Browsing Room.— The North Carolina room was papered in an attractive design of long leaf pine, and the circulation desk sat in the former parlor, catching gleams from the twinkling prisms of an old-fashioned chandelier.

The move from the old quarters to the new was accomplished by the group of dedicated volunteers who composed the library board. It was done under the direction of Miss Elizabeth House.

The Beaufort-Hyde-Martin Regional Library was to occupy a wing of the Brown house. Miss House, librarian of the Beaufort-Hyde-Martin Library, gave her services as supervisor of the Brown Library in return for free rent for quarters for the Regional Library, then struggling to get established. This was a god-send to both libraries. Miss House proved her ability by going on to become State Librarian and then moving to Washington, D. C. where she became Manager of the Bureau of Libraries and Learning for the Department of Health, Education and Welfare.

The former Brown home served Washington as its public library for ten years before construction got under way for the library which Mrs. Brown had envisioned.

In November 1952 construction began with Benton and Sons of Wilson as architects and J. T. Hardison and Son as contractors.

The George H. and Laura E. Brown Library was formally dedicated on April 10, 1954, twelve years after Mrs. Brown's death.

PART 4
BHM REGIONAL LIBRARY HISTORY
by
BARBARA KING WALKER

The BHM Regional Library has been serving the residents of Beaufort, Hyde, and Martin counties since 1941. It was the

earliest formed regional library system in North Carolina and has experienced continual growth in bookstock, staff, and patrons served.

In January of 1941, the Legislative Committee in Raleigh recommended a State Aid Bill for Public Libraries which would allow each qualifying county an annual appropriation for public library service. This bill was ratified March 18, 1941, and provided for the first money to be available July 1, 1941, allocated by the North Carolina Library Commission Board. To qualify, a county had to provide an appropriation for support, a trained librarian, and a bookmobile or some other plan for county-wide library service. This original state fund was for regional expenses and the local county appropriation was to be used for book processing.

Because the Library Commission and the legislature knew that individual counties would have difficulty meeting the qualifications, provision was made for two or more counties to form a regional group, contracting together to meet the requirements and provide a regional library service. Interested individuals in Beaufort, Hyde and Martin counties who had been working to provide better library service took advantage of this bill to discuss a regional library.

In June 1941, the Washington Public Library Board held a called meeting with Miss Marjorie Beal of the State Library present to outline the plan for allocation of the State-Aid money. In addition to the Washington Library Board members, Mrs. V. B. Shelburne, Mrs. J. B. Ross, R. P. Fowle, and J. B. Sparrow, there were present W. R. Roberson and Oscar Moore of the Beaufort County Commissioners, Miss Swindell of Belhaven, Miss Elizabeth Flynn of WPA, J. S. Benner, Beaufort County Accountant, Frank Edmondson, Superintendent of the Beaufort County Schools, the Rev. Mr. John Goff of Martin County, and A. G. Gibbs and Mrs. Cartright of Hyde County. After introductory discussion, the Washington Library Board retired from the meeting and temporary committees from the three counties met to form a regional library, its name to be Beaufort-Hyde-Martin Regional Library. It was moved to purchase a bookmobile from the State Library Commission for $150.00, an opportunity available since this was the first region in the state to organize.

The three counties acted promptly to appoint a nine man board for the new regional library. Original board members were: Beaufort—Frank A. Edmondson, Mrs. Ford S. Worthy, Mrs.






Jesse B. Ross; Martin—the Rev. John L. Goff, Paul D. Roberson, E. H. Ange; Hyde—Mrs. M. H. Swindell, Mrs. S. M. Gibbs, A. S. Berry. Miss Elizabeth House was employed as the first BHM librarian, to begin October 1, 1941. Miss House was a native of Robersonville and a graduate of the Peabody School of Library Science.

The bookmobile arrived from the State Library Commission to begin its rounds September 15, 1941. Headquarters for the fledgling Region were found with the Washington Public Library, then located over the Pamlico Chemical Company. Books for the bookmobile were loaned by the Washington, Williamston, and Swan Quarter libraries. Book purchases were slow to arrive for the effects of war were beginning to be felt and these loans were invaluable at the time. During the first bookmobile circuit 1299 books were circulated in the three counties. The bookmobile made 116 stops and visited the five member libraries. Obviously the rural readers were welcoming the new service enthusiastically. In June, 1941, a cabinet was made to ship books to Ocracoke, the result of increased interest there.

The first bookmobile, nicknamed —Shasta— because —she has to go,— was operating by 1944 with a borrowed motor and the Board was discussing how and where to get a new bookmobile. The war made any vehicle parts or supplies almost impossible to obtain. From 1944 to 1947 the problem of a new bookmobile was major, although, due to the valiant efforts of the county garage maintenance men, surprisingly few days were lost due to breakdowns and repairs. Mr. Malvia Harris, the master mechanic in charge of the Beaufort County School Bus garage, deserves special credit for keeping —Shasta— on the road.

In 1944, the Washington Public Library moved to the Brown residence on Van Norden Street. The BHM headquarters moved along with Washington Public Library, henceforth called Brown Library, and the BHM board authorized money for repairs to the wing of the house the region was to use. During this time Miss House served as supervisor of the Brown Library in addition to her duties as Regional Librarian.

On November 28, 1944, the BHM Regional Library Association was incorporated, a necessary step towards any future plans involving federal assistance and a step recommended by the State Library. The members of the Board at the time of incorporation were: John L. Goff, Charles R. Gray, E. H. Ange, Mrs. Ford S. Worthy, Mrs. Jesse B. Ross, Frank A. Edmondson, Mrs. Clara

Gibbs, Mrs. M. H. Swindell, and N. W. Shelton.

On July 1, 1946, Elizabeth House resigned as BHM Librarian to become State Supervisor of Rural Libraries. Mrs. Ford S. Worthy, a member of the BHM Board and a professional librarian, agreed to fill in as director working part-time until a new librarian could be found.

There was great rejoicing when the long awaited new bookmobile arrived in March, 1947. —Shasta— was sold for $185 and with —Shasta— and Elizabeth House both gone the BHM moved into the second generation. After two years of searching for a new librarian, Virginia MacDonald was employed by the BHM Board May 21, 1948, and Mrs. Worthy was most sincerely thanked for seeing the library through the interim. Only six months later Miss MacDonald resigned giving two weeks notice. Mrs. Worthy once again agreed to serve as acting librarian. The board was able to find a new librarian without great delay and Elizabeth Copeland was employed to begin work March 1, 1949.

Elizabeth Copeland expanded the library's audience in 1949 by arranging for radio programs using story records over the Washington station WRRF each Saturday morning. Work continued with both Negro and white Home Demonstration Clubs in all three counties, spreading library services and a love of reading.

A portion of the monies received from the state was being earmarked for books for Negroes in each county. The money for these books in Beaufort County went to the I. B. Turner Library for use and distribution.

In September of 1951, the Board of Trustees of Brown Library needed room for expansion and asked the BHM to see if they could find new headquarters. The headquarters staff of Elizabeth Copeland, Caddie Morton, and Laura Kavanaugh made the move to a county owned building located two doors from the Agriculture Building on West Second Street.

When, by the end of 1951, it was apparent that a new bookmobile would soon be needed, the Board members decided that rather than asking the commissioners of the three counties for the entire balance it would be a worthwhile educational effort to conduct a public drive for bookmobile funds. With the assistance of civic clubs, schools and newspaper publicity the total received from the county commissioners and the public drive was sufficient to purchase a new bookmobile with a balance remaining to invest for eventual replacement of the bookmobile.

In October, 1952, the new Fannie Mebane Ralph Library was






dedicated in Belhaven with Mrs. Ford S. Worthy, charter BHM Board member, as principal speaker. This was made possible through a gift of $5000 from Dr. W. T. Ralph for a new library building.

With the arrival of the new bookmobile at the start of 1953 discussion began as to the disposition of the old one. It was to be sold by sealed bid, but during this time the librarian and board of I. B. Turner Library thought that it would be grand to get the old bookmobile for the circulation of books to rural Negroes and Negro schools in Beaufort County. They were able to raise the highest bid and obtained the bookmobile, which began running twice a week in Beaufort County. Mrs. Nora F. Dowdy, trustee, and Mrs. Ada T. Wilder, a Beaufort County teacher, set up the bookmobile routes. Thelma Wallace was travelling librarian.

In January, 1955, Lee S. Trimble, Jr., of Jacksonville Beach, Florida, replaced Elizabeth Copeland as BHM Librarian. Mr. Trimble visited Bath to discuss with residents the possibility of beginning a library there. Bath was the location of the first library in North Carolina and a library there would have special significance. As a result of these discussions a library was opened in the kitchen wing of the Glebe House with the assistance of the Diocese of East Carolina and the PTA of Bath School.

Mr. Trimble was presented with the necessity of initiating a building program when the BHM was asked to vacate its home on Second Street as a change in zoning prohibited badly needed repairs. Mr. W. F. Veasey, Superintendent of the Beaufort County Schools, served on the BHM Board for nearly 25 years. Through his guidance the County Commissioners of Beaufort County offered the BHM a lot next to the county nursing home. In June of 1957 the resultant brick veneer building was inspected and accepted from Henry Gurganus, contractor, and the BHM moved to the country. In July application was made for a second bookmobile for Negro use from federal funds. This bookmobile arrived and was in service in March, 1958.

When Lee Trimble resigned in April, 1959, Elizabeth House Hughey, State Librarian, suggested that Brown Library and the BHM might act together to employ a new director as each was without a trained librarian. In July, 1959, the BHM Board moved to affiliate with Brown Library for a period of two years subject to renewal with Brown contributing to the salary of the BHM Director. Elizabeth Ball was employed as Director of BHM and worked one morning and night a week at Brown Library. Brown's

affiliation with the BHM continued to May 1963 when it was terminated by the Brown Board.

With the opening of a new library in Aurora in June, 1959, there were ten libraries in the region. Records and films as well as books were being circulated actively. Summer Reading Programs flourished for children.

Elizabeth Ball resigned effective October 30, 1961. Mrs. Caddie Morton and Mrs. Emily Elks agreed to carry on as interim librarians until a new director could be employed. Mrs. Mary Wilson was employed as library director in April, 1962.

The year of the bookmobile was 1962. Mrs. Wilson answered a plea for an old bookmobile from the Director of the International Institute for Girls in Spain. The Spanish provinces had never known bookmobile service but the Institute was working on such a plan and wondered, —Where do old bookmobiles go when they die?— Inasmuch as the BHM's bookmobile was in the process of being replaced and a new one had been ordered, there was a possibility that the old one might be available for duty abroad. Despite many setbacks and much red tape, an enthusiastic fundraising campaign among the clubwomen of the three counties secured the bookmobile for service in Spain. (As county property it could not be donated but had to be sold.) Finally, in June 1963, the Gerstenslager bookmobile arrived in Spain, gift of the clubwomen of eastern North Carolina through the agency of the BHM Library.

September, 1966, saw the beginning of a BHM Regional Library circulating art collection. Both prints and originals are included in this ever enlarging collection. Many local artists are represented. Works circulate for six week periods with the option of renewal. In 1968 the BHM was honored to receive the pencil sketches of the late Catherine Bleecker Folger. These are primarily sketches of houses, buildings, and scenes in the Beaufort County area, many of which have already disappeared. These pictures have been filmed by the State Department of Archives and History.

An In-WATS telephone connection with the State Library enlarged the reference service offered by the region and greatly increased the speed with which inter-library loans can be obtained. Use of this In-WATS line has increased each year since its installation.

In 1970, a new bookmobile was ordered for the region. When it arrived the old Chevrolet bookmobile was driven to Ocracoke






Island to serve as a permanent branch there. The wheels were removed and it was placed on concrete blocks to serve residents and visitors alike.

In 1975 the BHM Regional Headquarters moved into the old courthouse in Washington. The move offered expanded areas for staff work and book processing in a building of historic and cultural significance. The previous headquarters building is serving as additional book storage area and headquarters for the bookmobile.

There are presently libraries in Williamston (Martin Memorial and Mary S. Gray), Robersonville, Washington (I. B. Turner), Bath, Belhaven, Aurora, Swan Quarter, Fairfield, Engelhard and Ocracoke. One bookmobile serves the three counties. Original art, fine prints, and mini-prints for children; records, tapes, and cassettes; books, magazines, and pamphlets; films—all are circulated by the BHM. Books are taken to city jails, county hospitals, nursing homes, shut-ins, migrant workers, and housing projects. A new project has placed paperback trading posts in industries in Beaufort and Martin counties for workers there.

Wherever there is a need for library service, the BHM is trying to find a way to meet it. Many residents of the three county area, both rural and urban have found the libraries and their bookmobile a good neighbor.

PART 5
I. B. TURNER PUBLIC LIBRARY
NORA FOSTER DOWDY

The Turner Public Library was organized in 1940 to serve the needs of Washington's black community. It came about as the result of the efforts of the late Reverend I. B. Turner, the pastor of the Metropolitan AME Zion Church.

A committee composed of the following persons: Mr. J. E. Cooper, Mrs. P. S. Jones, Mr. Thaddeus Everette and N. F. Dowdy, was chosen to work with the Rev. Turner in organizing and establishing the library. Mrs. Ford Worthy worked with the group, serving as advisor. Many citizens, fraternal organizations and some business firms made contributions. High school boys, under the supervision of Mr. H. T. Tucker, did the necessary building. The library had its beginning in a room of the church. Mrs. Minnie Morris was named part-time librarian.

Miss Elizabeth House, who was the supervisor of the Beaufort Hyde Martin County Regional Library volunteered her services in setting up the library. Much of the credit for its successful beginning and operation is due to Miss House's efforts.

At first, the library was known as the Public Library for Colored People. Later, the City Board of Aldermen took over its sponsorship and in 1950 it was renamed the I. B. Turner Public Library, in honor of its founder.

Since there was no library service in the county for blacks, some interested people whose work took them back and forth to locations in the county came in and took books out to the people who wanted them. Some teachers, the home and farm agents and the school supervisor rendered this service for a long time. The BHM Librarian, Miss Elizabeth Copeland, helped to obtain a bookmobile to operate from I. B. Turner Public Library. This venture proved quite successful with Mrs. Barbara Marsh and Mrs. Thelma Wallace as operators.

Turner Library has been moved twice. After leaving the church it was housed in the Payton Building on Gladden Street. It outgrew that spot and was moved to a new building at the corner of Pierce and Ninth streets. Mrs. Mary Wilson, BHM Supervisor, with the aid of the librarian and members of the trustee board set up an attractive and useful library. It has remained at this site where it serves a number of young children of the neighborhood as well as many adults.

Among those who have served on the trustee board in addition to those mentioned before are Miss Carrie Venters, Miss Helen Cooper, Mrs. Elwysa D. Daniels, the late Messrs. Bernard Outlaw and Lloyd Roberts, and Miss Roberta Payton, Miss Evelyn Evans, Mrs. Lilla Spencer, Mrs. Ella Johnson, Mrs. Ariston Langley, Mrs. Blanche Perkins and Mrs. Geneva Buck. At present Mrs. Christobel King is the full-time librarian assisted by Mrs. Minnie Morris.

(The late Nora Foster Dowdy, wife of Dr. Haywood N. Dowdy, taught in the Washington City Schools for 38 years. Mrs. Dowdy was one of the original trustees of the I. B. Turner Library.)






CHAPTER XVIII
FIRES AND FIRE FIGHTERS
by
MARGARET FITZGERALD WINFIELD

The Washington Fire Company, forerunner of the present fire department, was organized in 1791. For almost a century following the recording of its organization we find no official reference to its activity.

Apparently very early in the history of the department, it has been recorded in individual memoirs that any carter (drayman) who pulled his fire equipment to a fire and back was to be paid the sum of one dollar; public wells were located at strategic points in town; and fires were fought by bucket brigade.

The next firm date concerning the fire department was in 1884. At some time during that year the County Commissioners authorized the construction of a town hall on county property, the site of the present (1975) city hall. Provision was to be made for fire horses and equipment to be housed there. There evidently was existing fire fighting gear because the authorization stated that this site was previously occupied by fire horses.

In 1892, William Z. Morton was instrumental in organizing the present fire department. For ten years prior to this he had been captain of the existing department composed of a loose knit group of citizens whose greatest asset was their civic spirit and the will to help their fellow man. The citizenry obviously were most appreciative because it has been noted that on March 10, 1893, the Board of Commissioners ordered that W. B. Rodman be reimbursed six dollars for one and a half gallons of whiskey which was distributed to members of the fire companies at the burning of the Walling and Kugler Mill.

In 1898 the old horse drawn steamer, which sits in the window at the present fire station, was purchased.

Dr. James Gallagher, first elected fire chief, reported in 1904 that the department was equipped with all the necessary apparatus of modern construction.

Sometime after the town hall was built, the women of the city raised funds to buy the fire bell which is still in place. The janitor was the only paid employee and he was responsible for ringing the bell. When a fire broke out there was a chain reaction of hollering —fire.— The first volunteer to arrive at the town hall assisted the janitor in readying the fire fighting equipment. The bell, which had to be hand wound, was later wired for electricity.

In the recorded history of the fire department, undated but prior to 1916, it is written that the water system of the city was very primitive. However there were a number of wells and pumps in convenient places.

Through the years the volunteer companies continued their loyal service to the townspeople. In 1906 ten volunteer companies made up the Washington Fire Department. There was the Ocean Engine Company whose equipment was located on the west side of Market Street near the present city hall. The Neptune Engine Company equipment, prior to 1885, was housed on the east side of Gladden Street next to the Presbyterian church. The Ocean Wave Division operated from the Old Academy Building on the northwest corner of Bridge and Second streets (the old Washington High School site). Phoenix Engine Company was on the waterfront on lot number 56 in Van Norden Town. Van Norden Town was bounded by Main Street and Sixth Street between Washington Street and Van Norden Street. The West End Reel Company equipment was kept in a building on Pierce and Third streets. Nicholson Reel Company operated from a building close to the present Salvation Army Church on Seventh Street.

On all the equipment power was generated by hand pumps operated in a seesaw manner. They were never adequate if the fire had made any headway.

There was a volunteer company of black citizens called the Salamanders, who wore red helmets and sang as they operated their hand pumps. Membership was highly prized and the company was composed of the most outstanding black men in the community. This company was led by Professor Sylvester Dibble who, with a partner, operated the only barber shop in town. The professor lived on the corner of Pierce and Second streets.






There is evidence that there were other black brigades besides the Salamanders because the records show that the hand pumps were operated by black volunteers. Every year these companies held a contest to see which group could get a stream of water in the shortest length of time. The Salamanders usually won.

Notification of a fire was by ringing of the aforementioned bell. The trash cart horses doubled as fire horses, and when the alarm sounded they would wheel around and head to their stations. Pity the poor driver who failed to hold the reins tightly. The hose and other equipment were horse drawn. Power for the water pressure was furnished by the coal stoked furnace and boiler in the steamer.

Assigned volunteers hurried to the station when the fire bell rang. The Old Steamer was kept in position with the shafts and bridles for the horses suspended above. The animal was backed into position and the horses cinched into place. A fire had been started in the fire box by the janitor and by the time the volunteers arrived the pressure was up in the engine.

On September 3, 1900, while Joe Chauncey was fire chief, a fire started in Brabble's Restaurant on Water Street and spread to the buildings on South Market Street. This section of Market Street from Main to Water Street was known as the —Bowery.— The Armory, located at the foot of Market Street (Harding Square), burned to the ground. When the building was replaced it became known as the Market.

During the fire on the —Bowery,— the Old Steamer was fired up, horses hitched, and away they went. At the site of the fire the horses separated, one to the left, one to the right and the Old Steamer rolled into the Armory. Fearful that it might be destroyed by the fire, the firemen pushed it onto the pier and into the river. It stayed under water for a week.

According to the sketchy records that exist we know that after the recovery of the Old Steamer from the bed of the river it was sent away to be rebuilt. There is evidence to support the story that it was rebuilt at Seneca Falls, N. Y. E. T. Stewart was delegated to go to that city and bring it safely home.

Between 1908 and 1911, Morton's Furniture Store (McLellan's) was destroyed by fire. A family was living in the old Cape Fear Bank Building located near the present Union Alley. It has been related that the windows had iron shutters and that the flames shot through the shutters into the room.

In 1913 the Volunteer Motor Company decided there was a

pressing need to mechanize the fire department. A self-propelled, motor driven fire truck, the first of its kind, was ordered from The American La France Fire Engine Company. The money for its purchase came from the proceeds of many barbecue suppers, picnics, and raffles. The total amount raised was $12,500.

There is a conflict in the records as to the date of the delivery of the new truck. One source reports delivery on February 14, 1914 to the Volunteer Hose Company rather than the Volunteer Motor Company. Another source merely gives 1916 as the date. But, indisputedly, upon its arrival Washington was the second town in North Carolina to have a fire engine, Raleigh being the first. Bright red body accented the gleaming copper trim, and it was nicknamed affectionately Old 12 because of its twelve cylinders. Old 12 was characterized by a whirring chain drive and a right hand steering wheel which was common at that time. It was strictly a hose and equipment truck. The horse drawn steamer still supplied the water pressure.

In 1919, Old 12 was turned over to the city by the Volunteer Motor (or Hose) Company with the provision that a fire pump be installed so the Old Steamer would not be needed. And so it was equipped with a forty gallon chemical tank with a small hose. There was no way to pump water through the twelve hundred fifty feet of standard hose with which Old 12 was equipped originally. Old 12 had lasting qualities, however. During the 1955 fire which destroyed McLellan's store the old truck pumped water continuously for nine hours.

In 1917 Washington became the first town east of Raleigh to install an automatic electrical fire alarm system with thirty-five boxes.

In 1922 the city purchased two more modern trucks, the 75 and the Hook and Ladder Truck Number 451. On the 451 the ladder had to be raised manually by ten or twelve men. Old 12 was moved from Town Hall to a garage to make room for the new equipment.

Some time prior to 1924, the Volunteer Motor Company wrote a letter to the city fathers requesting the purchase of a building adequate to house fire fighting equipment and also provide sleeping quarters and room for recreation for the firemen. In 1924 the building adjacent to the garage where Old 12 had been stored was purchased to house the fire department (The building next to the Washington Daily News, more recently used by Beaufort County Technical Institute). Old 12 was moved to the new building






and took its rightful place with the 75 and the Hook and Ladder Truck. Old 12 took a back seat but she could be proud of her glorious record.

In the late 1920's there were two paid drivers for the fire trucks: Dave Hampton and Lonnie Jackson.

In 1906 Lonnie Jackson began to work with the fire department. Every Sunday morning Lonnie would hitch the horses to the fire wagon and ride all over town picking up boys to go to Sunday school and church. No doubt many went just to get a ride on the fire wagon.

Lonnie himself never joined a church but he never failed to attend. Each church in rotation would have the fire wagon parked out front on Sunday morning.

In 1930 Lonnie was standing by his truck when he had a fatal heart attack. All the equipment of the fire department was in his funeral procession and the boys he had driven to church marched silently behind the equipment.

In recognition of Lonnie's long and devoted service as a fireman the fire department passed a resolution that on each succeeding Sunday forever the fire whistle would be sounded at 10:45 to remind people to go to church.

From 1934 until 1940 Richard Leach was Fire Chief. During that time he helped organize the East Carolina Firemen's Association, one of the most powerful in the state. It was founded here in Washington and Mr. Leach became the first president. It was during his term of office that another fire truck was purchased to up date the department. It was called The Invader and it joined the fire fighting fleet in 1935.

And then came the piece de resistance of the fleet of fire trucks! On December 11, 1948 Roy Rogers of the American La France Company began to assemble the latest fire department purchase. It was the fire truck about which all little boys dream. The Quint Number 1 is an Aerial Hydraulic Ladder Truck with a seventy-five ladder and it is still the pride of the fleet. It also carries a portable E. & J. Resuscitator and Inhalator and Aspirator to cover all emergencies. Equipped with all the gadgets and gear that one can imagine it was regarded with such awe and affection that it was definitely a personality piece, the last in fact. Later model trucks have been acquired by the department but they have been designated by prosaic numbers, 1, 2, and 3. The Quint Number 1 was dedicated to the memory of Charlie Burgess, beloved chief of the department, who died in 1951.

In 1949 a fire broke out in an upper floor of the Bank of Washington building, now NCNB. It was the Quint Number 1 that saved the day. The old manually operated ladder truck was not adequate for the job.

The question arose in 1951 as to how to provide fire protection for Beaufort County. It was suggested that a truck for rural use should be purchased and housed in the city for use in the county. The towns of Belhaven and Aurora were anxious to have new trucks also. To settle the issue the County Commissioners arranged to pay the City of Washington $5000 initially and $600 annually thereafter. Aurora and Belhaven's initial cost was $2000 and $200 annually. The arrangement today is $27,000 paid annually by the county. Washington Park pays $1600 a year. A tank type fire truck with high pressure pumps and nozzles was bought for use outside the city limits. It can smother any fire in a few seconds. Aurora and Belhaven installed similar equipment on existing trucks. Beaufort County now has the best fire protection of any county in eastern Carolina.

In 1965 the Washington Fire Department moved to its present location at the corner of North Market and Fifth streets. In 1974 the department operated on a budget of about $185,000.

Sad days arrived in 1972! Old 12 and 75 were considered expendable, and the city faced the problem of disposing of them. Mayor Max Roebuck asked the public to make the decision. Public opinion dictated that Old 12 be restored. The City Council appropriated $2000 for the job. The fire department employees restored the treasured old truck at a cost of $1997.77. The 75 was sold at public auction.

During Charlie Burgess— term as Fire Chief interest developed in acquiring a rescue truck. Chief Burgess and volunteer fireman Fred Potts, who became chief in 1952, traveled to Fort Bragg where they purchased for the department an Army surplus truck. It was later equipped for emergency use. The Rescue Squad, a vital part of the fire department service today, is presently equipped with the most modern truck available. During recent years, a neighboring town, Pinetown, bought one of the used Rescue Squad trucks and modernized it for the town's use.

Throughout its years of existence there has always been extreme pride in the Washington Fire Department. Today there are eighteen paid firemen and six part time employees.

Membership in the Volunteer Firemen's Association is a highly prized achievement and there is always a waiting list. There are






three volunteer companies: Ocean, Hook and Ladder, and Volunteer.

The Washington Fireman's Association, which includes both paid and volunteer firemen, meets together once a month. If a volunteer member misses three consecutive meetings without a very good excuse he loses his membership. Each volunteer company also meets monthly. The members of the Rescue Squad also comprise a company.

Since the acquisition of larger quarters in 1924, the recreation area of the fire department has been the scene of many department and community affairs. Benefit bridge parties, fashion shows, and weekly dances are some of the events that have been enjoyed through the years.

The Christmas season is always special at the fire department. Early in December the firemen decorate the social area of the building in the finest holiday regalia. Then they invite their wives and sweethearts to dinner. City officials, retired firemen and their wives, and beloved widows of members are always included in the festivities. On Christmas Eve the firemen hold their own celebration when all the members, past and present, gather together and share memories of days gone by. One such memory could be about the oyster roasts in the old fire department quarters when the Old Steamer provided the steam!

Just as members of the Washington Fire Department take pride in its service to the community, the community can be proud and grateful that it is served by such loyal and dedicated men.

Men Who Served as Fire Chief (Partial List)

1882-1892William Z. Morton
1900Joe Chauncey
1904Dr. James Gallagher
1921O. M. Winfield
1923J. H. McCluer
1929Bill Rumley
1934Richard Leach
1940Allen Chauncey
1942Charlie Burgess
1952Fred Potts
1973Tony Abeyounis

CHAPTER XIX
LUMBER

PART 1
THE STORY OF BEAUFORT COUNTY'S LUMBER INDUSTRY
by
LOUIS G. MAY

No complete history has ever been written on the lumber industry in Beaufort County. From time to time, several very good descriptions of the county's past and present lumber industry have been published, but to my knowledge, never a complete chapter in any book has dealt with this subject alone. This is not meant to be a complete history, for there is undoubtedly a great deal that has been left out; especially when one realizes that the industry employed thousands of people (and still employs a great many) over a period of eighty-five years, in Beaufort County. The lumber manufacturing business was by far Beaufort County's largest industry during the 1890's through the 1950's. Other industries have come to the county and there has been a great tendency toward consolidation and centralization in the lumber and forest products business since 1960, but the industry is still important. It should remain important for many years to come, though the giant forest products firms that operate in eastern North Carolina today are continuing their policy of central manufacturing points in towns not located in Beaufort County.

I wish to give special thanks to Mrs. Sue Loy of the Brown Library in Washington who has documented several thousand papers dealing with many Beaufort County subjects—a great many of which pertain to the lumber industry. John S. Leach of Washington






was very helpful in furnishing information about the Eureka Lumber Company, both from his personal knowledge and from the Eureka papers. Frank Cox, Jr. was also helpful in his knowledge of the Eureka mill. John Havens Moss and Beverly G. Moss, Jr. were quite willing to share their knowledge of the Moss and Short families. Charlotte Kugler Nicholson was a great help in getting information on the Kugler family. From Aurora, Ed Springer very graciously gave his time and his knowledge of the Springer family. The East Carolina University library staff in the microfilm department were very helpful in obtaining the information on the Short mill explosion from the News and Observer and the Greenville Daily Reflector. Last but not least, the records in the Register of Deeds office in the Beaufort County Courthouse furnished a large portion of the material found in this chapter. The Belhaven and Bayview information was obtained chiefly from this source. (Much Washington information was obtained at the courthouse also.) Many thanks go to John Morgan and his staff in this office.

It is hoped that this chapter will give some idea of the size and scope of the industry to this and future generations. I feel fortunate indeed, to have been able to get so much information from many of the people that had a firsthand knowledge of the lumber industry in Beaufort County. Most of these people are direct descendents of the pioneering and courageous men that made it happen in the first place.

Lumbering is one of the nations oldest industries if not the very oldest. When the first permanent English settlement was underway at Jamestown in the early 1600's shipments of pine lumber to England were among the first products to be exported from the new world, and the industry continued to coast along in this nation until the 1820's and 1830's. Then New England became the first area of the United States to undertake a sizable lumber industry and the first area to engage in the shipping of lumber from there to other parts of the nation. Lumbermen migrated from New England, however, when the forests became depleted and moved on into New York and Pennsylvania. In the 1860's a great migration to the white pine forest of the lake states was underway. By the mid-eighties yet another migration was beginning into the South with its forests of yellow pine, cypress, oak, gum, and poplar. Wholesale lumber dealers from the large commercial centers of this booming young nation were greatly impressed with the lumber they

received from the south after the process of kiln-drying lumber had been perfected and when the southern migration began it may be generally said that there seemed to be three geographic areas of the south to which lumbermen migrated. One group from the Kansas City-St. Louis area invested heavily in timberlands and mills in the Louisiana, Arkansas and East Texas area; another group from the Detroit, Chicago and other midwestern points descended into Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia and Florida; and the third group from the large metropolitan centers of the mid-Atlantic states and the northeast came to Virginia and the Carolinas for their lumber supplies—chiefly along the coastal sections. These pioneer lumbermen of this last group found Beaufort County, North Carolina with its hundreds of square miles of virgin timberlands and its vast waterways, a sleeping giant waiting only for the sawmill whistles to awaken it to an industry that was to flourish for the next seven decades. It is far from dead yet.

EARLY WASHINGTON MILLS

Prior to the —Civil War lumbering was on a more or less local level, both in production and marketing. Perhaps the best illustrations of lumber operations in Washington at the outbreak of the —Civil War are found in an article taken from the Washington Dispatch. It was compiled some years ago for a series of articles on the early history of Washington, North Carolina written by N. Henry Moore.

The Washington Dispatch, a newspaper published in this town in the year 1860, reveals that our chief industry was lumber. This has been true through the years to this very day. It is a large source of revenue to our farmers, to the manufacturer and has furnished a livelihood to labor.

This issue of the Dispatch mentions a large sawmill on the Castle, an island opposite the town. In an advertisement in the paper John A. Stanley, Clerk and Master in Equity for Beaufort County, offers for sale all of the north part of an island (Castle Island) in Pamlico River, the steam sawmill and fixtures thereon. The mill building, eighty-five feet long and twenty-eight feet wide, was two stories high. It had two gangs of saws with an engine fifteen inch cylinder and twenty-four inch stroke, three boilers thirty feet long and thirty-six inches in diameter, also a certain parcel of land on the North side of Pamlico River, west of and adjoining the town of Washington with the steam sawmill and fixtures, had two circular saws in second story, engine twenty inch cylinder forty-eight






inch stroke, three boilers thirty-two feet long and forty-two inches in diameter. The steam sawmill and fixtures were on the north side of the river east of Washington and near the foot of Harvey Street, it being the mill which stands on the site of the one hereto sold by Joshua Tayloe to Benjamin F. Hanks. The mill is one hundred ten feet long, two stories, and thirty-three feet wide, has two gangs of saws with engine to each saw, four boilers thirty-three feet long, thirty-two inches in diameter. The planing mill was east of the last mill. The circular sawmill was east of the planing mill, the building eighty-five feet long thirty feet wide. All these mills were in first class condition, and recently operated.—

The advertisement of the mills for sale, shows that Washington had large saw and planing mills many years ago. I believe Benjamin F. Hanks operated a large sawmill as early as 1851.

EARLY OPERATORS IN BEAUFORT COUNTY

Many operators of sawmills in Beaufort County in the early 1880's achieved prominence in the nation's lumber industry after they had left this area. However, it may be said that they got their initial start here.

The Camp brothers operated a sawmill in the vicinity of Bath during this period and purchased large amounts of timber in the Bath-Yeatesville area. These brothers did not stay long in Beaufort County, however, for in 1887 they located in Franklin, Virginia and founded the Camp Manufacturing Company. This became one of the largest lumber operations in the south and today (1975) is part of the pulp, paper and lumber firm known to us as the Union Camp Corporation, but their start was with a small circular sawmill in Beaufort County.

In 1882 the Blades Brothers, William B. and James B. came from Maryland and located a circular sawmill at Bath after purchasing a large tract of timber between Duck Creek and Bath Creek. After cutting this tract they removed to New Bern where they founded the Blades Lumber Company. This company became one of the most respected firms in the southeastern lumber industry and was the parent of other lumber firms bearing the Blades name in subsequent decades. Their start was at Bath.

From Camden, New Jersey came Chauncey W. Munger in 1883 and he chose Jordan's Creek on the Pungo River as his point of operations. He established a small mill there and, as was the custom, shipped his lumber to his planing mills in the North. In 1889 Killiam A. Bennett joined Mr. Munger and they moved their

base of operations to New Bern under the name of Munger and Bennett, Inc. They then became very large operators and large timberland owners operating until the early thirties. What about those lumbermen who did not leave Beaufort County? The rest of this chapter will deal with them and their companies that made up Beaufort County's largest industry at the turn of the century and for many decades thereafter. There were four main points of lumbering in Beaufort County during this time. These were Washington, Bayside (later to become Bayview), South Creek, and the Belhaven area.

THE MOSS FAMILY

Beverly Turpin Moss came to Beaufort County from Surry County, Virginia, to engage in the lumber business. Along with Calvin Conard of Philadelphia and A. L. Shepherd of Richmond, Virginia he established the Pamlico Lumber Company and incorporated it on February 8, 1886. This business has the distinction of being the first business ever to be incorporated in Beaufort County. The mill of this firm was located at Blounts Creek and the Moss family lived in Washington. The business was thriving by 1890 and most of the lumber was handled by Mr. Conard's firm in Philadelphia. This business was not to survive long. In the summer of 1891, Mr. Moss was killed while on a sailboat going to Ocracoke where his family had spent the summer. A wind shift caused a boom to swing the wrong way and thus knocked him overboard. His body was not recovered until some days later. With his death, the Pamlico Lumber Company soon went out of business. Other members of the Moss family began another lumber mill at Durhams Creek in 1906. This company was called the Moss Lumber Company and had as its incorporators: Frank A. Moss and Beverly G. Moss, (both sons of Beverly Turpin Moss) and W. H. Whitley, a large timberland owner in the Durhams Creek area. This mill shipped most of its lumber to the northern markets and was a sizable operation, which included a sawmill, dry kilns and a lumber shipping wharf to accommodate lumber barges that then plied the Pamlico. This mill operated until just before —World War I, and about 1905, Beverly G. Moss along with Henry Blount and W. T. Condon founded Moss Planing Mill Company which was incorporated on May 4, 1907. This firm began with only a planing mill and in subsequent years was sold to the Swan, Lane and Litchfield families. Today, the Litchfield family owns the entire business. This company has a modern band sawmill, dry kiln and






planing mill operation on the banks of the Pamlico in Washington, and has a production of about fifteen million feet of lumber per year. It is one of the oldest businesses in Beaufort County. Its sawmill rests on the foundations of the old Kugler Lumber Company sawmill which was established there in the 1880's.

THE KUGLER FAMILY
(Taken from Historical and Descriptive Review
of the State of North Carolina, c1885.)

—G. W. Kugler and Son firm started four years ago and has built up, in a remarkably short space of time, the large custom we find them enjoying today. This mill in Washington is located on the river, and with a frontage of three hundred yards enjoys every convenience for receipt and shipment of material, the coastwise vessels loading right at their wharf. Twenty hands are busy here. The engine is sixty-horse and the largest saw sixty-inch. This mill cuts up in the year three hundred thousand feet of lumber and one-half million shingles. Here is also a planing-mill turning out ceiling weather-boarding, etc., which finds a ready sale locally, the surplus being shipped off. Their mill at Smith's Creek, Pamlico County, is likewise provided with the latest improved machinery, has an engine of forty-horse power and saws of sixty inches. This mill has a water front of two hundred yards, employs fifteen hands and is run on lumber only, cutting up some two and one-half millions annually. The general arrangement of these mills and the facilities they possess for handling the timber and lumber with care and expedition, show on the part of the management an advanced knowledge and care in shingles, mostly of pine, are shipped to New Jersey, Philadelphia and other Northern markets, where Messrs. Kugler have always been most fortunate in their dealings.

—The senior member of the firm is a native of New Jersey, learned the business in that state, was in Maryland in the oak lumber trade fourteen or fifteen years, and came to North Carolina four years ago, as he judged the immense and fine timber forests of our state would enable him to do a larger business. At home in all that relates to lumber, he has not been disappointed, and in four years has built up an institution of which North Carolina is justly proud. He is a Mason, married in his native state, has a family of seven, his son Mr. A. B. Kugler ably seconding him in all matters pertaining to the successful carrying on of their affairs. In the Smith Creek mill Mr. Kugler has his two sons, J. H. and V. E. Kugler.—

The Kugler family was engaged in the lumber business in a large way in New Jersey and in Philadelphia prior to coming to Beaufort County in the early 1880's. The Kugler Lumber Company was incorporated on February 25, 1890, and began the erection of a large mill at the foot of Harvey Street in Washington. The incorporators were George W. Kugler, Sr., George W. Kugler, Jr., A. B. Kugler and C. W. Brown. Frank Cannon Kugler came to Washington from New Jersey to manage the firm and the business prospered under his charge. The firm purchased thousands of acres of timberlands in Beaufort County, and its large band sawmill, equipped with six boilers had a capacity of forty thousand feet of lumber per day. Four dry kilns dried the cut timber and a large lumber wharf gave docking room to the huge lumber barges that carried the mill's production north. Logging camps and logging railroads transported logs to the Pamlico and its tributaries where great rafts were made up and rafted to Washington. In 1920, however, a short-lived depression after —World War I resulted in the Kugler mill being closed. Later on that year, the Roanoke Railroad and Lumber Company which had been operating a band sawmill at Bayside (Bayview) purchased the Kugler mill when the Bayside mill burned. The mill was started again and operated in Washington continuously for the next twenty-six years. The Roanoke Railroad and Lumber Company was a Norfolk concern and sold almost all of its lumber on the northern market. It is said that during the great depression of the 1930's that the Roanoke mill and John H. Moss Industries were the only sizable businesses that gave employment on a continuous basis. The Roanoke mill was purchased by the J. Herbert Bate Company, a large New York lumber firm, in 1945, and the next year the mill was closed permanently. Bate desired only the firm's timber holdings in Beaufort and surrounding counties. As stated, in 1957, Moss Planing Mill Company erected a band sawmill on the Kugler-Roanoke site.

Aside from the Roanoke mill in Washington, the Roanoke Railroad and Lumber Company played other roles in the economic welfare of Beaufort County. In the 1890's it established a mill at Plymouth on the Roanoke River and along with this mill it built a railroad known as the Washington and Plymouth. This road extended from Plymouth to Pinetown and served as a logging railroad for Roanoke; Pinetown was its logging camp. The Washington and Plymouth Railroad was chartered in 1901 and in 1904 it merged with the Norfolk-Southern. At this time, the Norfolk-Southern extended from Norfolk to Edenton; then across Albemarle






Sound another branch built originally by the John L. Roper Lumber Company extended from Mackey's Ferry to the Pungo River. After the merger with the Washington and Plymouth, the Norfolk-Southern expanded into Washington in 1906 across the Pamlico with a trestle in 1907 and on toward Greenville, Wilson, Raleigh and eventually Charlotte.

THE EUREKA LUMBER COMPANY

The Eureka Lumber Company has the distinction of not only being the largest of the sawmills to operate in Washington, but it operated the longest under one ownership.

George T. Leach came to eastern North Carolina from Carbondale, Pennsylvania in the late 1880's and started a lumber business in the vicinity of Scranton in Hyde County.

Desiring to move to a better location, Mr. Leach moved to Washington in 1894 and on the 19th of March of that year he, with George A. Phillips and W. T. Campen incorporated the Eureka Lumber Company. Along with Mr. Leach in this business venture were Sayre Welles of Elmira, New York, Stephen S. Spruks of Scranton, Pennsylvania, and Edward F. Ryman of Wyalusing, Pennsylvania. These three northern businessmen were heavily involved in coal mining and coal yards and the Eureka Lumber Company began specializing in mine props and mine rollers as well as lumber. In addition to the large band sawmill that was erected at the west end of Main Street, the company also operated a cooperage mill for the manufacture of potato barrels, bean baskets, beet crates as well as a heading mill for barrels. The original sawmill was equipped with an eight foot band saw, a resaw, five dry kilns and seven boilers. The timber holdings were enormous and logging was carried on as far away as Fountain in Pitt County. In fact Fountain was once known as Reba and was logging camp headquarters for the Eureka Lumber Company in 1901. Logs were transported over the East Carolina Railway to Tarboro, then dumped into the Tar River and floated to Washington. (See Henry C. Bridger's, Jr., Route of the Yellow Hammer, page 51.)

The original sawmill burned about 1911; was immediately rebuilt on much the same order; and the business of this firm continued to flourish. Mr. Leach was also involved in the Pamlico Cooperage Company which had a large cooperage mill located at what is now (1975) Havens Gardens, and another mill at Bath known as the Paragon Lumber Company which was incorporated in 1896 along with N. S. Fulford and C. A. Brooks. John S. Leach

of Washington, son of George T. Leach, relates that the early annual meeting of the stockholders of the Eureka Lumber Company was a pleasant occasion for everyone. The northern stockholders came to Washington on the train and brought their guns and other hunting equipment. After a meeting or two to go over the affairs of the company, there were hunts, fishing and a round of social engagements for the northern guests. As time passed, these out-of-state businessmen made many friends among the people of Washington.

The second mill of the Eureka Lumber Company burned in 1951 and was rebuilt on the same site. It was a mill very much like the two former mills that had occupied this location since the founding of the company. The rebuilt mill was powered by a monster Corliss steam engine with an eighteen foot flywheel and a rope drive.

It is interesting to note that when the original mill was built, water transportation was the only means of transporting lumber from the Eureka mill. Some lumber was loaded on small lumber barges and taken to Belhaven and loaded on the Norfolk-Southern, but much of it went north by barge. In 1905, Mr. Leach was instrumental in getting the Washington and Vandermere Railroad organized. This road gave the company rail facilities and opened a vast area of timberland in southeastern Beaufort County.

George T. Leach died in 1922. Upon his death, his brother-in-law Frank Cox, Sr. was put in charge of the business and continued this position until the company was sold. Eureka cut approximately one million feet per month and in its latter years was growing more timber than it cut. John Leach was also quite active in the management of the company for many years.

Unlike many large lumber companies, the Eureka Lumber Company held their timberland intact and practiced conservation forestry for many of its latter years. The result was that by 1956 this company had over sixty-three thousand acres of prime timberland owned in fee. The southern pulp and paper industry had been booming since before —World War II and many paper companies were buying up southern lumber companies. The North Carolina Pulp Company (now Weyerhaeuser) began negotiations for the Eureka Lumber Company in the mid 1950's and in 1956 this company was sold. The children and grandchildren of the original stockholders were the recipients of this sale. The North Carolina Pulp Company shocked the town of Washington when they closed the mill permanently after operating it for about ninety days. The mill then sat idle for two and one half years and was sold to Henry Griffin of Williamston in late 1958. Today (1957) most of the






machinery is operating in a mill at Gassaway, West Virginia. Thus one of Washington's oldest businesses and one of her landmarks disappeared forever.

THE E. M. SHORT LUMBER COMPANY

One of the first sawmills to operate in Washington after the War Between the States was a mill on the Tar River owned by E. G. Reade. Mr. Reade also had a cotton gin and grist mill on this site which is known presently in Washington as Short Drive. On October 12, 1878 Mr. Reade sold his small sawmill and other permanent fixtures on this lot to twenty-eight-year-old Eugene Murry Short for a total of seven hundred dollars. Mr. Short, who started with nothing, concentrated on the lumber end of the business. He built up a large and growing lumber business during the 1880's even though his mill burned three times. He sold lumber both locally and in barge loads to the northern markets. By 1894 the E. M. Short Lumber Company was one of the town's major businesses; it had survived the panic of 1893 and the future looked bright for the prospering mill just a short distance from Main Street on the banks of the Tar River. Its capacity was forty thousand feet per day.

At 7:30 on the morning of December 10, 1894 Ex-Mayor Short upon arriving at the mill found that the water in one of the mill's boilers was extremely low. (The mill had four large boilers, six dry kilns and a band sawmill.) One thing that is not known is whether Mr. Short turned cold water into the hot boiler or ordered one of his employees to do so. What is known is that when the cold water hit the red hot boiler an event occurred that shook the foundations of Washington, North Carolina, as they had not been shaken since the cannon roar of the —Civil War. The boiler exploded in a fury of steam, fire and scalding water; the jar of this explosion set off the other boilers, and in a matter of minutes the entire mill was almost a total wreck. Windows and plaster were shattered as far away as Main Street. Mr. Short and four of his employees in the boiler room, Abram Graham, Anthony Bonner, Charles West, and John Wallace were killed instantly. Later in the day when some of the debris had been cleared away, the bodies of two other employees were found in the wreck. J. W. Wooley was badly injured as flying bricks from the boiler room hit him in the face, and the explosion was heard five miles out in the county. The disaster injured several more men; placed two hundred fifty men out of work; created seven widows and twenty orphans in

Washington and enveloped the town in depression and gloom. All mills and schools were closed that day out of respect. This event was talked about for many decades. When —World War I began, it was said that the boiler explosion at Short's mill was the biggest thing that happened in Washington between the —Civil War and —World War I.

Despite the disaster the company continued to operate after rebuilding was completed the next year. Mr. Short's wife, Mrs. Bettie Lee Short, was the sole owner as the business was not incorporated. A new boiler room was built and a new band sawmill was erected. Mr. Short's son, Frank, was active in the management for a time.

By 1900, the Short Lumber Company had been selling a large amount of lumber to the Wiley and Harker Company of New York City. This latter firm was a brokerage company and for a while it contracted with the Short Lumber Company to take the entire output of the mill which was about nine million feet per year. All lumber was sent north on barges loaded at the millsite. In 1902, a series of misunderstandings resulted in the Short Lumber Company suing the Wiley and Harker Company for $651.95 for part of a barge load of lumber shipped north. Such business negotiations and dealings were typical of the lumber industry during the early part of the century, as many northern lumber brokers financed and took the entire output of southern sawmills.

In 1906 the Short Lumber Company was incorporated as the Short-Clark Lumber Company, but within three years the mill closed permanently.

THE FOWLE MILL

The firm of S. R. Fowle and Sons began business in 1818 in Washington as retail merchants and by the 1880's was probably regarded as the leading business establishment in Beaufort County. The types of business that this company ventured into were many and in the 1880's the Fowles decided to go into the lumber business. This family was the owner of large timber tracts near Blounts Creek and their first sawmill was established at Blounts Creek in the mid 1880's. During the 1890's, the Fowles decided to erect a large sawmill in Washington and chose a site on the south side of the Pamlico near the foot of the present bridge. (The mill was east of the bridge in the vicinity of the Waters Oil Company storage tanks.) Here was erected a large band sawmill, four dry kilns, a large wharf and lumber storage and shipping building. The mill was equipped with five boilers and barge loading of lumber was






done at the millsite. For many years the Fowles operated boats to the West Indies to bring to Washington supplies of molasses and other products from that area, and the boats would return with North Carolina Pine lumber from the Fowle sawmill. The mill closed in the late teens or early twenties, but the Fowle family continued to be identified with the business interest of Washington for many years thereafter. The mills capacity was forty to fifty thousand feet per day and was one of the largest to operate in Washington. During the 1930's the mill which had been idle for many years and had a small jungle growing up around it, was purchased by Kim Saunders of Washington and moved to Williamston to be operated under the name of Saunders and Cox.

OTHER WASHINGTON MILLS

There were many other lumber operations that operated in the vicinity of the town of Washington during the latter part of nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth, but space will not permit a detailed examination of all of them. In the early part of this century, however, the Pamlico River Lumber Company, incorporated by L. E. Everette, P. A. Nicholson, and L. H. Mann in 1912, was a sizable operation at the junction of the Pamlico River and Runyon Creek. Next to this mill was the Pamlico Cooperage Company which evolved in 1912 out of the old Moore Lumber Company. This was at the Havens Gardens site. In later years, the M. G. Waters Lumber Company had a large circular mill located on Runyon Creek and did a large wholesale and retail business in Washington for many, many years. Mr. Waters began his career in the stave and heading business and his company at one time was known as Waters-Stier Wood Products Company. Its capacity was twenty to twenty-five thousand feet per day. The Mason Lumber Company is doing a large business in Washington and began in the 1940's, with a small ground sawmill. Today it has a modern circular and gang sawmill operating on the Pactolus highway and has a capacity of about forty thousand feet per day.

In the manufacture of hardwood lumber, there has been but very little in Washington, comparatively speaking. The Edinburg Hardwood Lumber Company has a large furniture dimension plant in Chocowinity and R. S. Wiley and Son Lumber Company has a hardwood mill on the Norfolk-Southern on the eastern edge of Washington. Both of these firms do a large and thriving business in hardwoods and buy gum, poplar, ash, oak and other hardwood species.

Other operations in Washington of the past include the Washington Planing Mill Company and the Carolina Cooperage Company. This latter company was located on Runyon Creek and had as its incorporators, B. G. Moss, Sr., Henry Blount, J. H. Dewees of Paoli, Pennsylvania and L. W. Plummer of Waverly, Virginia. It operated from 1911 until 1914.

THE STORY OF BAYVIEW

In the late 1880's, there existed in the city of Philadelphia a lumber firm known as Stanton and Branning. One member of this firm decided to come south to engage in the lumber manufacturing business. This man, Clarance Branning, located in Beaufort County on the Pamlico River at a spot then called Bayside. Here he built a sawmill, dry kilns and a small mill village complete with lumber wharfs and barge loading facilities. In 1887 Mr. Branning sold the Bayside mill to the Roanoke Railroad and Lumber Company. Roanoke purchased everything in the village of Bayside —except the walnut desk belonging to Mr. Branning.— The Brannings later operated a mill on Castle Island at Washington for a short time, and later built at Edenton, a mill that for a short time in the 1890's was the largest sawmill in the entire south.

The Roanoke Railroad and Lumber Company, as stated, was a Norfolk based company and had a large northern business. This company modernized the mill, putting in a band sawmill, five dry kilns and four large boilers. The village of Bayside awoke, ate and slept by the Roanoke mill's whistle from 1887 until the mill burned in 1919. The amount of timber purchased by the Roanoke Company during the first two decades of this century (in Beaufort County) is tremendous. When the mill burned in 1919, the company purchased the Kugler mill in Washington and operated in Washington for the next twenty-six years. It was purchased by the J. Herbert Bate Company and today (1975) the Weyerhaeuser Company has title to most of the Roanoke Company's timberland. (The story of Roanoke's railroad into Washington can be found under the Kugler story.) When the Roanoke Railroad and Lumber Company left Bayside, the name was changed to Bayview and it was made the summer resort community that we know today.

THE BEAUFORT COUNTY LUMBER COMPANY

On July 1, 1890 the New York Lumber Trade Journal, in writing about the growing lumber industry in eastern North Carolina and Virginia had this to say:






—The Beaufort County Lumber Company located at Pungo Creek, Pungo River, and close to the terminus of the Albemarle and Pantego Railroad, is a concern in good standing among the manufacturers of North Carolina Pine.

—The company has about twenty-five thousand acres of the best quality original growth Pine timberland and operates a logging road with entire outfit. Their mills and dry kilns are built in the most approved manner. The lumber is put in excellent shape and shipped to all markets from Norfolk, Virginia to Boston, Massachusetts.

—The completion of the Albemarle and Pantego Railroad connecting Mackey's Ferry on the Albemarle Sound with the Norfolk-Southern Railroad gives an outlet by rail for the lumber of these mills and the product can be shipped through any interior point without breaking bulk.—

This company was incorporated in Washington on November 29, 1886 with S. P. Ryland of Baltimore, Chauncy Brooks, E. B. Whitehouse, Robert R. Sizer (a large lumber broker from New York City) and Charles D. Loame listed as incorporators. After the turn of the century, the company moved into Pitt County and became a logging company for the Jackson Lumber Company of Whaleyville, Virginia. Shelmerdine, near Calico, in southern Pitt County was its headquarters and it operated the Greenville and Shelmerdine Railroad from Shelmerdine to Greenville. While in Beaufort County however, this company did a great amount of logging in the vicinity of Belhaven and also an extensive amount of logging on the south side of the Pamlico River.

THE D. C. WAY LUMBER COMPANY

Near Leechville, in the extreme eastern section of Beaufort County, there lies a section of ground on which a community once existed called Haslin. Haslin was the home of the D. C. Way Lumber Company which was incorporated in Beaufort County on January 29, 1890. The men comprising this company were James Rowland, S. C. Rowland (who later founded the Rowland Lumber Company) W. W. Tunis, Theophilus Tunis and D. C. Way. The Tunis brothers were at that time, among the largest lumbermen in the nation, having extensive mills at Norfolk and Tunis (Hertford County, North Carolina). They sold the entire output of the Way mill and several other mills in eastern North Carolina and Virginia. This operation had an eight foot band sawmill, dry kilns and

extensive loading docks. The company purchased thousands of acres of timberland in Beaufort and Hyde counties and had large logging operations.

In June of 1902, the D. C. Way Lumber Company was logging on the south side of the Pamlico on the Buck lands in Chocowinity Township. It so happened that the Beaufort County Lumber Company was logging on the same lands and it became necessary for the logging railroad of the Beaufort County Lumber Company to cross at right angles, the logging railroad of the D. C. Way Lumber Company. This did not set well at all with the logging superintendent of the Way Company, and he decided to do something about it. On June 26, 1902 employees on the log train of Beaufort County Lumber Company saw, as they approached the junction crossing, that the Way Lumber Company had unloaded a load of logs on each side of its railroad directly on the tracks of the Beaufort County Lumber Company. The B. C. L. Company employees removed the logs after considerable delay and proceeded on their way. The next day, as the workday drew to a close and the last B. C. L. Company log train was on its way to the log dump in the Pamlico River, there sat the D. C. Way Lumber Company's entire log train blocking the crossing. No one was on the Way train, but it had been locked into place by heavy chain spikes and padlocks thus securing it to the tracks of the logging railroad upon which it sat. The B. C. L. Company crew managed to move the train again after a considerable delay and loss of time. Then on June 30, 1902 the Way Lumber Company logging superintendent used a combination of the two previous methods of harassment by unloading a load of logs on each side of the Way railroad upon the rails of the Beaufort County Lumber Company, and chaining the loads into the ground with spikes and locks. This was the last straw and the B. C. L. Company logging manager rushed to Washington to get an injunction against the D. C. Way Lumber Company in order to prevent the B. C. L. Company from having to halt work and resort to —force and violence.— The entire incident was thought to have been triggered by a personal feud between the two logging superintendents, but this is not entirely clear.

The D. C. Way Lumber Company operated until 1905 at Haslin, when the mill and timberlands of the company were purchased by the Interstate Cooperage Company which had just been formed and was preparing to build a huge lumber, cooperage and box plant at Belhaven. The Way timberlands thus became the nucleus of one of the largest industries to operate in Beaufort County.






BELHAVEN

Belhaven is Beaufort County's youngest town and the lumber industry gave the town its start. Originally known as Belle Port, Belhaven evolved in the 1890's largely through the efforts of John Wilkinson. However, the real foundation of the town possibly could be said to date from the construction of a railroad in the mid 1880's known as the Albemarle and Pantego.

THE ALBEMARLE AND PANTEGO RAILROAD

The Albemarle and Pantego Railroad was chartered in 1886 and was promoted by the John L. Roper Lumber Company of Norfolk. This company was headed by a man who had been a cavalry officer for the Union army, and had seen the massive forests of eastern North Carolina during the —Civil War. He determined to return to the area after the war and enter the lumber business, and in 1868, Captain John L. Roper formed the John L. Roper Lumber Company and erected a single circular sawmill at the mouth of the Albemarle Canal, near Norfolk. Expanding his business southward during subsequent decades, the Roper interests leased a large acreage of timberland in 1886 from the Albemarle Swampland Company and through this timberland passed the Albemarle and Pantego Railroad, beginning near Mackey's Ferry in Washington County and ending at Pungo River. Large scale logging operations were begun upon the completion of the railroad, which was financed by the Central Trust Company of New York City. Along this road, the present town of Roper in Washington County was born as a sawmill town, and the Roper mill operated there until 1920. In size and capacity, this was a medium to large lumber plant having a capacity of sixty thousand feet in ten hours, and also having a large shingle mill. Employment was around four to five hundred. In 1892, the Norfolk-Southern Railroad took over the operation of the Albemarle and Pantego. At this time, the Norfolk-Southern extended only from Norfolk to Edenton; the trestle across the Albemarle Sound not being completed until 1910. The Norfolk-Southern's present route from Pinetown to Belhaven came some years later, but until a few years ago, the branch from Belhaven to Mackey's Ferry was still in use by the road.

THE BELHAVEN LUMBER COMPANY

It is virtually impossible to speak of Belhaven's industrial history without intermingling the name of John A. Wilkinson

throughout its context. The accomplishments of this man are an absorbing story alone, and we will not attempt to go into them here. However, we will say that this man did more than anyone else to promote Belhaven's lumbering boom and land speculation interests. Mr. Wilkinson's first lumber venture for Belhaven was the organization of the Belhaven Lumber Company. This firm was incorporated on January 30, 1899, and had as its incorporators, John A. Wilkinson, Charles Schllager and J. H. Steel of Scranton, Pennsylvania. This mill was a medium sized plant and was located on Belhaven's waterfront. A power plant and grist mill and several company houses were also built as well as a first class sawmill and planing operation. This corporation lasted little more than a year when it was absorbed, along with a tremendous quantity of timberland, by a corporation known as the Allegheny Company. This company was also controlled by the Scranton businessmen. More will be said about this venture later.

THE PUNGO LUMBER COMPANY

The Pungo Lumber Company was incorporated on November 23, 1898, by W. P. Baugham, of Washington, W. T. Campen, and Leroy L. Hanniford. This company erected a large sawmill near Pungo Creek, and began the manufacture of North Carolina Pine lumber. Its output was around forty thousand feet in ten hours and most of the lumber was shipped to northern markets by barge. This mill also had its own commissary store, power plant, and grist mill, and gave employment to many people. Logging railroads owned by the company brought logs to the Pamlico, and Pungo Rivers, and also nearby creeks, and then the logs were rafted to the mill on Pungo Creek.

THE WADES POINT LUMBER COMPANY

This company was incorporated on January 29, 1902 by W. P. Baugham, George T. Leach, W. B. Rodman, and W. C. Rodman, all of Washington, North Carolina. This was an operation very much like that of the Pungo Lumber Company, and its location was near Belhaven. This mill was said to be one of the largest and most modern mills in the state when completed. No sign of it exists today, as its history was brief.

WILLIAM SCHUETTE AND COMPANY

Things were happening fast around Belhaven's lumber industry about the turn of the century. What made the history of the Wades






Point Lumber Company so brief was the coming of the William Schuette and Company. This company was headed by William Schuette of Saginaw, Michigan, and when his North Carolina operation was established, he had as the incorporators other than himself, A. C. Opperman of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; John A. Wilkinson of Belhaven; and W. P. Baugham, of Washington. This company leased the plant of the Allegheny Company in Belhaven (the old Belhaven Lumber Company mill). Also, the William Schutte Company purchased the Wades Point Lumber Company, the Pungo Lumber Company and a tremendous amount of timberland as well as a large sawmill in Hyde County that had been controlled by the then defunct Tunis Lumber Company of Norfolk. The Schuette Company shut down all of the mills that it acquired shortly after their acquisition, because the purpose in acquiring them in the first place was to get the valuable timberland that went along with the purchase of the mills. As indicated above, the one exception to this was the mill of the Allegheny Company in Belhaven. This mill was chosen to be the central manufacturing point of William Schuette and Company's North Carolina operations. All of this took place in the autumn of 1902. It was shortly after this that the William Schuette Company's name was changed to the Belhaven Lumber Company, this being the second time within five years that Belhaven had a major sawmill by that name.

THE JOHN L. ROPER LUMBER COMPANY

The history of this company has already been mentioned and it is sufficient to say that the Roper interests were taken over by a syndicate in 1906, that also owned the Norfolk-Southern Railroad. It was decided, soon after the takeover by the Norfolk-Southern, that the Roper Lumber Company would have five major manufacturing points: Norfolk, Roper, Belhaven, Oriental, and New Bern. This was to become the largest, strictly lumber, manufacturing company that was existing in North Carolina. At the Roper Lumber Company's zenith, about 1911 there had never been anything like it in the lumber industry in eastern North Carolina. The mills at Norfolk and Roper were already in existence, but the mills at Belhaven, Oriental, and New Bern were built in the years 1907 and 1908. They were, then, the three largest lumber mills ever built in the state. The base for the Belhaven mill was begun in 1906, when the Roper Company purchased the operations of the William Schuette in Belhaven, and its timberland in the surrounding areas. It also bought the timberland of the Allegheny Company which had

not been sold to the Schuette Company in 1902. An all-new lumber mill was then begun on the western edge of the waterfront of Belhaven. It contained a modern double-band sawmill containing two eight foot band saws which sawed at lightning speed, up to one hundred twenty-five thousand feet of lumber every ten hours. A maze of conveyors and lumber sorters transported the lumber to eight dry kilns and the sawdust to the mill's eight boilers. A large planing mill was operated also, and employment in woods and mills was around five to six hundred people. The sawmill was parallel to the road which now leads to Belhaven from Winsteadville, and was located only a few feet from the present bridge. Tram roads (narrow gauge logging railroads) were strung all over the surrounding country and the rafts and log trains over the Norfolk-Southern were several hundred per month. With the strong demand for lumber during —World War I, the mill was operated on two shifts, and the timber was being depleted at a rapid rate. By 1921, the company had ceased to operate, but retained its timberland, about four hundred thousand acres. During subsequent decades, the timberland was sold off, much of it owned by the Weyerhaeuser Company today.

THE INTERSTATE COOPERAGE COMPANY

Probably the most widely known lumber industry that has ever existed in Belhaven is the giant plant of the Interstate Cooperage Company. This company was a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Standard Oil Company and its chief function was to supply boxes and barrels to its parent firm for the shipment of oil and oil products. Interstate first began buying timberland in 1905 and that same year, purchased from John A. Wilkinson, the location for its Belhaven mills. Full scale operations got underway in 1906 and the mills consisted of a large sawmill, stave mill, barrel factory, dry kilns, and the largest box factory in the world. It gave employment to hundreds of people and along with the Roper mill, literally thousands of people in and around Belhaven were employed in the woods and mills. Interstate was the owner of several hundred thousand acres of timberland, much of it as far away as Onslow County. A large portion of the present day Croatan National Forest in Craven and Carteret counties is made up of lands that once belonged to the Interstate Cooperage Company.

Labor troubles began to have their toll on production about 1914, and to combat the problem, the company imported hundreds of immigrants to work in the mills. In the subsequent months the






labor relations between the immigrants and the native people were not good, and in mid-July, 1916, on a hot, sultry night, a savage riot erupted in the town. The company claimed that it could not get sufficient labor from the native population, and the natives claimed that the company worked the immigrants because they would work cheaper. The National Guard was called in. After this, many immigrants left Belhaven.

Long after the other lumber industries had ceased to exist in Belhaven, the Interstate Cooperage Company continued to operate, finally ceasing operations in February 1904. Its office, boxplant and brick smokestack can still be seen in Belhaven. Its stack towers over a town that has a rich lumbering boom town history, but unlike other boom towns, refused to die when the whistles of the mills fell silent, and the saws ceased to scream through logs.

After the Interstate Cooperage Company ceased operating in Belhaven, the plant was taken over by the Spaulding Lumber Company and later the J. W. Wells Lumber Company operating it as the Belhaven Lumber Industries. This was strictly a lumber operation and was phased out in 1954. For a time afterwards, the Voliva Lumber Company operated a small mill in Belhaven.

In the early sixties the Younce and Ralph Lumber Company was incorporated under the ownership of James Younce and Dr. W. T. Ralph. This company built a large circular and resaw mill between Belhaven and Pantego and is doing a large wholesale business at present. This mill has the respectable production of about ten million feet per year (one shift) and is an up-to-date mill in every respect. About 1964 the Coastal Lumber Company of Weldon built a modern band sawmill at nearby Pantego to manufacture hardwood lumber. The mill is currently producing about five million feet per year on one shift. This is one of twelve mills operated by Coastal in the southeast and this company is the third largest producer of hardwood lumber in the United States at the present time.

THE SPRINGERS OF SOUTH CREEK

When we refer to South Creek here, we refer not to the actual creek itself, but to the village of South Creek east of Aurora. This placid settlement is the place where lumber was manufactured and shipped north for over sixty years.

During the —Civil War a young Union Navy ensign found himself frequently gazing from ship to shore at the tremendous stands of virgin loblolly and longleaf pine timber that was to be found on

the shores of many rivers and bays of eastern North Carolina. He decided to return if possible after the war and turn these trees into lumber that the growing nation would use, and when the war ended Edward D. Springer returned to his home in Cape May, New Jersey long enouth to interest his brother, Willdin Springer, and his father, Samuel Springer, to come south with him and join him in his venture. This they did, and by 1866 the firm of Edward D. and Willdin Springer was established on Bond Creek in Beaufort County, North Carolina. The village of South Creek was the residence of these men until their deaths in the 1920's. They erected a small circular sawmill and began the shipment of lumber to the north. For some thirty years the Philadelphia lumber brokerage firm of Norcoss and Sheets (later Howes and Sheets) bought and marketed the product from the Springers mill on Bond Creek. In the 1890's, a large band sawmill and dry kilns were erected and the Springers purchased timber in large quantities in eastern Beaufort County and also large tracts in Hyde County. The company's tugboat the Glide brought in great rafts of logs from the nearby creeks and streams. Logging railroads were operated over a large area by the company. The business was incorporated in 1893 with Willdin Springer, Edward Springer and John H. Small listed as incorporators.

About this time, there arose a big controversy with the Howes and Sheets firm over the marketing of the Springer Lumber Company lumber and a large lawsuit was filed by the Springers against Howes and Sheets. Howes and Sheets were required to open their books for inspection and to show proof of every foot of lumber that they or their predecessors had ever purchased from the Springer firm along with the barge upon which it was shipped and the customer to which it was finally sold by Howes and Sheets. This controversy became quite long and involved, but as stated elsewhere, this was typical of the problems that the early sawmill men had to contend with in the marketing of their product on the northern markets.

In 1907, Edward Springer, who was postmaster of South Creek for sixty years, and his brother Willdin decided to retire, and a new company known as the South Creek Lumber Company was formed. This business had as its incorporators W. T. Campen, who had been an incorporator of the Eureka Lumber Company sixteen years earlier, of Charleston, South Carolina, E. D. Springer, W. D. Woodhouse of Norfolk and J. G. Campen of Hertford. This company took over the mill of the Springer Lumber Company, but within two years was almost in bankruptcy. Then the Dixie Lumber Company






which had been incorporated in 1906 by four Washington, North Carolina men (J. H. Davenport, D. U. Martin, S. P. Willis and W. P. Baugham) purchased the Springer mill and operated it until the Martin Lumber Company (owned by D. U. Martin) took over the operation in the 1920's. The mill ceased operations in the early thirties after the depression had begun, and no sign of the mill exists today, but South Creek was a lumber mill village longer than any other small settlement in Beaufort County.

OVER THE YEARS

Throughout the history of Beaufort County's lumber operations there have been many amusing incidents that are still told today (1975) by the men from all walks of life that were the very heart of the industry. One incident that is still told by old lumbermen and hunters is the incident that took place shortly after the Washington and Vandemere Railroad was built through Gum Swamp in 1905. It seems that it was not long before a logging camp that belonged to an independent logger was set up near the swamp on a spur of the railroad, and the loggers were toiling under a hot summer sun getting out logs to be loaded on the railroad and sent to Washington. Soon the news came that the Washington and Vandemere was going to send a boxcar filled with ice to Aurora to be sold to the local townspeople and the logging superintendent thought that it would be a fine idea to purchase a block of that ice and have iced tea for supper in the cookhouse that night. He told the cook that he was arranging for a horse and cart to go to Aurora to get the ice and that whatever the cook had for supper, there was to be iced tea to drink. The cook then stated that he did not know how to make iced tea and the logging superintendent told him that it was just as hot tea was made, only ice was put into it. As the sun was setting that afternoon and the hot tired loggers filed into the cookhouse for supper, anticipating the then limited luxury of an iced drink, there sat steaming mugs of HOT tea. Naturally the superintendent rushed into the kitchen and asked where the iced tea was.

—It's right there on the table,— replied the cook.

—That's not iced tea, that's HOT tea,— said the superintendent.

—No sir, that's ICED tea,— replied the cook. —I made it just like you told me. I made hot tea first, then when the tea was boiling good on the stove in the kettle, I put the ice in it!— It is not known whether the cook was around for breakfast or not.

One of Washington's most colorful characters at the turn of the century was a man that has been mentioned as a stockholder in several Beaufort County lumber operations, W. P. Baugham. Mr. Baughm was very successful in many different businesses and was a large truck farmer in Beaufort County as well. It is said that shortly after the turn of the century, when he was then a stockholder in the William Shuette Lumber Company of Belhaven, that he wanted to buy the Eureka Lumber Company so badly that he took a suitcase filled with money into Eureka's office, but was turned down.

He once had all of the crabgrass on his lawn dug up and replanted with grass of a fancier name, only to find out that it too was nothing but crabgrass under another name. He was the father of the late Pattie Baugham McMullan.

Archie Rodman (1909-1969) briefly considered a career in the lumber industry and started out with a dishwashing job on the Eureka Lumber Company tugboat. His career voluntarily ended his second day out, however, when he threw out a pan of soapy dishwater into the Pamlico and discovered that all of the tugboat silverware was in the suds. Thereafter, he decided he was not cut out to be a lumberman. He did become quite active in the timber industry in later years, however.

TODAY

The lumber industry today is vastly different from that of the past. Perhaps the key word in describing the industry of today is —centralization.— The Weyerhaeuser Company, for example, operates one of the largest forest industry complexes in the nation at nearby Plymouth. Located there are three separate pulp and paper making facilities, a large plywood mill that consumes thirty to forty million feet of logs per year, a large sawmill that manufactures over forty million feet of lumber each year and a bark processing plant. At New Bern, the company operates a market pulp mill and a sawmill with a capacity of fifty million board feet and at Jacksonville, there is a plywood plant of equal capacity to that of the Plymouth mill. Another sawmill at Lewiston in Bertie County has a production of forty million feet of lumber per year. This will give some idea of how a large company of today differs from a large company of yesterday. Also, there is a great amount of forestry practiced today and this (with the possible exception of the Eureka Lumber Company) was not done at all by the mills of yesterday. They simply —cut out and got out.—






Weyerhaeuser plants nine trees to every one that it cuts on its six hundred fifty thousand acres of timberland in eastern North Carolina, and it is interesting to note that though Weyerhaeuser has no mills in Beaufort County, many of its key personnel reside here. It owns more timberland in Beaufort County than in any other North Carolina county, and it is a safe bet to state that all of the timberland owned by all for the Beaufort County mills of the past combined, would not equal that owned today by Weyerhaeuser. Georgia-Pacific, International Paper Company, and Albemarle Paper Company are also timberland owners and tree farmers in Beaufort County.

Can forests stand the drain? From the standpoint of money invested in mills and timberlands in eastern North Carolina in the last twenty years, one would say that the forests could stand such a drain. However a much more intensified forestry program must be introduced for the private landowner, who owns the bulk of Beaufort County's forests, before the maximum timber growing potential is reached. Timber must be thought of and grown as a crop, but of course the economic incentives must also be present. Only time will tell, but it is believed by many that Beaufort County, which ranked first in the state and second and third in the entire south in pulpwood production in the first three years of the 1970's, has a very bright forestry future.

PART 2
HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF BELHAVEN
by
CAROLYN LLOYD

The combination of a navigable waterway and abundant lumber was the impetus for the growth of the Town of Belhaven. In 1889 Jack's Neck, as the small settlement was then known, was inhabited only by a few farmers and fishermen. Before there was even a semblance of a village, the first house in the area was built in 1868 by Daniel Latham on the site where the River Forest Manor now stands. The structure was used chiefly as a hunting and fishing camp.

In 1884 Soloman J. Topping, who became one of the prime movers in the development of the village, acquired the land from his mother, daughter of Mr. Latham. He cleared land and cut timber along the line that is now Main Street. In 1885 Dr. W. J. Bullock,

Mr. Topping's stepfather, built a sawmill nearby. Here the lumber was sawed for the house Mr. Topping built in 1887 and to which he brought his bride, the former Sophronia Barfield in 1889. Their oldest daughter, Etta, the first child to be born in the village, was born in 1890. The permanent family home was built on the same site and one of the family's seven children, Miss Katie Topping, still lives there.

The first real growth of the village began when the Roper Lumber Company, headed by John A. Wilkinson, established a thriving business. As a result, the Norfolk-Southern Railroad brought the first rail service to the town in 1891. In that year the name of the village was changed to Belle Port. Two years later the name was again changed—to Belhaven.

By 1900 the town boasted two oyster houses, from which oysters were shipped as far as the lack of refrigeration would allow, and an oyster canning plant. In that year the Old Dominion Steamship Company began operating two passenger boats and several freight boats. Train travel was difficult and only narrow dirt roads led to the county seat of Washington and to Hyde County so most travel was by water.

In 1905 the Interstate Cooperage Company, a subsidiary of Standard Oil of New Jersey, began operations. The plant employed as many as nine hundred employees at one time, many of them being brought in from other areas. To house some of the workers, the company built a number of houses in the section of town now known as West Belhaven. When the operation was phased out in 1940 because of a lack of demand for barrel staves, it was a major blow to the economy of the town.

In the early 1900's a German Club was formed by young married couples and the dances were the highlight of the social life of the town. Orchestras came by boat from Norfolk and guests also arrived by water from Aurora and other communities.

Sailing was also a popular pastime. In 1916 Belhaven had what was probably the first outdoor movie in North Carolina. The screen was erected on a pier which projected from a dance pavilion located where the Community Building now stands. Local musicians played for the movies and for the dances which were attended by people from miles around. By the late 1920's wind and water had combined to destroy the pavilion and the pier, but the site is still a favorite recreation area for young people.

Belhaven is noted for having held what is probably the oldest regular celebration of the Fourth of July in the state. Though several






celebrations were held sporadically before 1937, it is documented that no year has been missed since then with the exception of the —World War II years.

Another distinctive celebration was held in Belhaven in 1928 when the Intracoastal Waterway connecting New York and Florida, was opened to traffic. A number of distinguished citizens from the east coast and government representatives attended, but the main attractions were a zeppelin, the Coast Guard's largest vessel, and the first airplane to take up passengers in the area.

The Pungo River has at times been a curse as well as a blessing to the town. Older residents have vivid memories of the hurricane of 1913 which brought devastation without warning. Modern weather services have removed the element of surprise, but the town still suffers periodically from the onslaught of wind and water. Older residents also recall the freeze of 1917 when the river turned into a bed of ice so solid that cars were driven on it to the opposite shore.

Today water still dominates much of the life of the town. There are four major seafood processing plants. Some of the produce is shipped fresh by refrigerated truck to points along the eastern seaboard, sold in the markets or processed into frozen seafood items. Some varieties are canned locally before distribution.

The River Forest Manor, originally a Victorian Mansion built in 1899 by John A. Wilkinson, is the focal point for overnight stops by yachts using the Intracoastal Waterway. The Texaco dock also provides docking space for many private and commercial vessels. A shipyard provides repair service and a marina offers a launching site for private pleasure boats.

According to the 1970 census, Belhaven has a population of two thousand two hundred fifty-nine. Varied businesses cater to the people from a wide surrounding area. The Pungo District Hospital, which will open a new wing in August, 1975, serves a wide area. The town has a widely-known museum and a fine library. Because of its attraction as an area where fishing, other water sports, and hunting can be enjoyed, a growing number of retired people are moving into the area. Perhaps the lack of large industries may prove to be a blessing in disguise.

PART 3
PINETOWN
by
DEE CONGLETON

Pinetown, a small community of about two hundred and fifty people, is located in north central Beaufort County. Instrumental in its development was Surry Parker, who owned and operated a machine shop which made logging equipment and locomotives. At his foundry the wheels for locomotives were cast and huge grabs to carry trees were made. The operation employed about one hundred people.

Parker provided a commissary for supplies for his workers and encouraged local production of plays and regional band concerts. He was one of the first people in the county to own a car and on a trip to Washington was arrested for driving at an excessive speed. According to legend, the judge fined Parker ten dollars and Parker replied, —You might as well make it twenty, because I am going out the same way I came in.— His speed was ten miles per hour.

Among the workers attracted by the local industry was a German, a Mr. Berthel, who married a local girl and built an airplaine, and the Pete Miltenbergers, of Dutch ancestry, who owned a two story hotel with double porches. Mrs. Miltenberger ran the hotel, which rented rooms to teachers, while Mr. Miltenberger worked in the logging business.

From the late 1800's to 1926 Pinetown flourished and the town grew. There were Oden's Millinery Shop, a grist mill, barber shop, grocery stores and a post office.

After the death of his son, Parker lost interest in the business, sold it and moved to Norfolk. The population declined as the people left town to find employment.

From 1890 to the present, the following have served as postmasters and postmistresses: F. L. Morris, O. J. Swain, David Windley, T. W. Spruill, C. S. Rowland, Nelda Spruill, James Respess and Jay T. Leggett.

Material from the following sources was used for this information: Kerry Cox, Rena Miltenberger, Ralph Tyer, Jr., Carrie Williams, W. L. Williams and Ward Woolard.






CHAPTER XX
FARMING

PART 1
TOBACCO

Shortly before the turn of the century strange men could be seen riding buggies between the huge cotton fields of Beaufort County urging the farmers to plant that —wondrous new money crop,— tobacco.

They claimed to be experts, and for a small fee they would teach the farmer the secrets of growing this golden leaf that could make a farmer rich. A few farmers listened to these buggy-riding experts, and in 1896 four Beaufort County farmers planted the first tobacco crops in this county.

There may have been tobacco farmers in Beaufort County before 1896, but according to the men who remember the most, S. L. Grist, F. H. Von Eberstein, J. J. Laughinghouse and T. R. Hodges were the first tobacco farmers in this county.

Certainly there was no Washington tobacco market then, and these four men were forced to load their crops onto mule-drawn carts, and haul the tobacco to Danville, Virginia, to be sold. It took two weeks to make a trip, but they thought it was worth the gamble.

In the next few years a number of other farmers planted tobacco, and as the county crop continued to expand, the first tobacco warehouse was constructed here shortly after the turn of the century at the northeast corner of Seventh and Market streets.

The warehouse was built by Dr. Sam Tim Nicholson, a former mayor of Washington who is looked upon today as one of the most public-spirited men ever produced by this county.

Tobacco at this time was selling for a price ranging from three to ten cents a pound, and it was during this period that the late Mr. Tip Satterthwaite became the first tobacco speculator to appear on the local scene.

The banks were suspicious of a man who called himself a tobacco farmer. . . he was a risk. . . but things were to change.

More farmers saw there was money to be made in growing tobacco, and in a matter of just a few years a second warehouse, later to be purchased and torn down by Mr. F. E. Mayo, was constructed.

Farmers were searching for new methods of income, and more and more tobacco was being planted. Between 1908 and 1916 Gravely's warehouse went up on Pierce and Fourth streets, and shortly thereafter Ed Knott built Knotts Warehouse on Bridge Street.

In 1924 Edmund H. Harding was appointed supervisor of the Washington Tobacco Market, and this suspicious crop had finally taken its place as one of Beaufort County's leading industries.

At this time there were five warehouses operating in the city in spite of the fact that roads were impassable at times, and transporting tobacco to the market was a major problem for almost every farmer in the county. Then came the large-scale use of trucks.

In 1924 the local market sold about three million pounds of tobacco, but an upward surge shows that in 1927 the figure had leaped to four million, and by 1928 the total was listed at five million.

The year 1932 was a bad year everywhere in the tobacco business, and prices were extremely low. Tobacco that year averaged only $8.99 per one hundred pounds, as the crop was poor, the prices low and every tobacco producing area in the country was reporting a dismal time.

This fruitless era followed a tragic fire that leveled Gravely's Warehouse on May 6, 1930, and left in its wake an estimated $175,000 in property damage. . . . It was one of three fires that hampered the growth of the local tobacco market . . . Gravely's having experienced two destructive blazes, and the Bright Leaf Stemmery being destroyed by the third.

But instead of crumbling in the face of fire and depression, the local market withstood the hard and lean times and came out of the depression stronger than ever.

By 1944 the local market was selling more than ten million pounds per year, and in 1947 the Washington Market led all






other one-sale markets in the world with official figures listed as 13,244,275 pounds for the season.

When the 1959 tobacco market opened there were three warehouses operating in the city. Sermon's Warehouse on Hackney Avenue, operated by Wayland Sermons and Hassell and Talley Number One on Hackney Avenue, and Hassell and Talley Number Two, located on Pierce Street, both warehouses operated by owners Malcolm Hassell and Bill Talley.

The Washington Tobacco Market in 1953 was listed by all official sources as the highest paying tobacco market in the entire world, paying an average price of $60.48, or $2.78 higher than the entire belt. (Taken from WDN, date and author unknown.)

AGRICULTURE GROWS BUT LOSES
NUMBER ONE ECONOMIC POSITION
TOM SPENCER

Beaufort County agriculture, marked by change in the past decade, grew from a $26.1 million enterprise to a $42.7 million income in 1973, the last figures which are available.

Despite this growth, caused by a combination of factors including inflation, improved production practices and better drainage, farm income dropped from the number one position to number two, ranking second to industry which has experienced phenomenal growth.

The most notable change was the decline in the position of tobacco which was once king of the crops. It ranked second to corn, with soybeans playing an ever more important role in total farm income.

Other changes include the complete disappearance of cotton as a crop; the decline in dairying and poultry; and a standstill in vegetable production, a field in which great expansion was predicted because of the geographical location of the area.

Tobacco was the largest farm income producer in 1964 when a crop of eight thousand three hundred acres grossed $10.4 million. In 1973 a crop of seven thousand eighty-seven acres grossed $12.4 million. The price in 1964 was fifty-five cents a pound; it was eighty-eight cents a pound in 1973.

In 1964, county farmers produced fifty-five thousand acres of soybeans which yielded twenty-three bushels per acre. The crop brought $2.80 per bushel for a total income of $3.3 million. Ten

years later the soybean acreage was increased to sixty-five thousand acres and yield was up to twenty-five bushels per acre. The price was $5.50 per bushel and total income was $8.5 million.

The corn crop also showed acreage, yield and price increases. The figures for 1964 showed a crop of thirty-one thousand acres; yields of eighty bushels per acre; a price of $1.25 per bushel and a total income of $3.1 million. Twenty-five per cent of the crop was held back for livestock feed.

By 1973 corn growers were producing sixty-five thousand acres. Average yield was up to eighty-five bushels per acre; prices up to $5.50 per bushel and income totaled $8.5 million.

Another area of growth in farm income was hog production. The county in 1964 produced sixty-five thousand head of hogs which brought in two million dollars. In 1973 production was up to eighty-two thousand hogs for a total income of $7.3 million.

The Irish potato acreage, centered for the past decade in the Aurora area, remained about the same at one thousand four hundred acres but income from the crop jumped from $840,000 in 1964 to $1.6 million in 1973.

By the end of the past decade the number of commercial farms (those on which the family depends for its primary source of income) was down to no more than three hundred. The number of part-time farmers, those who work in industry and farm part-time, increased tremendously.

Milk production was down from 13,390,000 pounds to six million five hundred thousand pounds during the ten-year period and commercial egg production was down from 3,240,000 to 1,540,000. On the other hand the value of timber and pulpwood grew from $2.25 million to $9,274,000.

PART 2
FARM SERVICES IN BEAUFORT COUNTY

(Taken from —Historical Appraisal of Extension Work, Beaufort County, North Carolina—1909-1939.—)

Beaufort County was among the first counties in the state of North Carolina to take up Farm Demonstration work under the direction of Dr. Seaman A. Knapp, sponsored by the General Educational Board of New York, cooperating with the U. S. Department of Agriculture.

N. B. Fisher was appointed collaborator in 1909 and served one year. During his tenure the purpose of the work was fairly well






established but little progress was made due to his short term in office.

In August 1910 Mr. Fisher resigned, and in October 1910 John F. Latham of Bath and Ben H. Thompson of Aurora were appointed collaborators for Beaufort County. Mr. Thompson served only the remaining part of the year and at the beginning of 1911 Mr. Latham became the County Agent. His plan of action consisted of visiting farmers enlisting their support in better farming methods, as had been recommended by Experimental Stations, and setting aside demonstration plots to be planted with any of the several general crops grown in the county. The field was to be well drained, an important item in an area where ground elevation ran as low as three feet above sea level; to be properly plowed; a good seed bed prepared; improved selected seed sown; and adequate cultivation.

Mr. Latham served until 1917 when he resigned to join the Federal Land Bank of Columbia, South Carolina. The objectives of his program had been to influence rural population toward better farming methods, more efficient homes, more and better livestock, better roads, improved schools, adequate drainage, and community churches.

He learned to deal with hog cholera, vaccinating 14,334 hogs in the period from 1914 to 1917.

Farm boys were enrolled in —Corn Clubs,— with the objective being to beat fellow club members in growing more corn per acre. By 1917 the —Endless Chain Pig Club— was active. Each member was given a purebred pig of which he became full owner when he gave another boy a gilt pig. The project began with a donation by the banks in the county of two purebred Duroc Jersey Gilts and one male pig.

In an effort to make the county more self sustaining, food-wise, a survey was made of county grocers to ascertain the amount of basic produce shipped into the county from outside the state. This survey revealed the following shipped into the county in 1916 by 20 merchants:

1700 bushels of corn, 1044 tons of hay, 15,415 bushels of cornmeal, 407,758 pounds of side meat, 22,108 pounds of ham, 20,984 barrels of flour, 12,680 bushels of oats, and 15,265 cases of canned goods. In addition, one dealer alone bought outside the state 96,000 pounds of lard. These statistics served to encourage farmers to produce locally in the areas of need.

These efforts were supported by local banks, the Board of

County Commissioners, the Board of Public Instruction, Captain George Leach, T. R. Hodges, F. P. Latham, and B. H. Thompson.

Outstanding problems of the farmers were: poor roads, lack of transportation facilities, few public schools, scarcity of markets, improper drainage of lands, lack of cooperative efforts in draining land, isolation, poor homes and farm buildings, and low incomes.

The early work was characterized by demonstrations instead of teaching leaders. This activity had to come later as the farm families became more familiar with the work and as better roads brought them closer together.

In 1923 the first cooperative live poultry shipment was made from Beaufort County, and thereafter three to eight carloads each spring were shipped out. Prior to 1923 the production of hogs for outside market was practically unknown. In 1924 a special effort was made to create interest in feeding surplus corn to hogs, rather than selling the corn, then selling hogs on a better market. Farmers were shown that they could raise two farrows of pigs per year from each sow and at six months the feeder pigs would weigh 200 to 225 pounds each. Hog production increased and by 1928 one hundred twelve carloads of hogs were shipped cooperatively by farmers to meat packers.

During —World War I the —Live at Home Program— was stressed, with the growing of foods and feeds and conservation being encouraged.

When the New Deal came in the early 1930's the emphasis was much the same, with the county agents working closely with the Emergency Relief Administration.

(From a report by Thomas Spencer: Recent history shows Max P. Chesnutt retiring after twenty years service in Beaufort County and Chester Bright, prominent black leader retiring, also. During their period of service farm income rose from $14.7 million to $63 million in 1974. Grain storage facilities were improved; drainage districts were organized; hog farrowing operations enlarged; gains in the uses of chemicals to increase farm yields, growth in the use of farm credit, development of improved crop varieties through research; more efficient tobacco harvesting and curing methods; and better rural housing through the aid of Farmers Home Administration, Federal Land Bank and Production Credit Association.)

The activities of the first home agent centered around girls Tomato Club projects in which she worked with individual girls— families, and community groups, which were not organized as clubs






are today. Three girls clubs and thirteen women's clubs met regularly in 1920.

Local leaders did little teaching in these early days, but performed supportive functions. As farm families became more familiar with the program they assumed more responsibility for teaching and sharing information and freed agents for more comprehensive work.

Membership in a Tomato Club required a girl to grow one tenth of an acre of tomatoes and to can the fruit according to recommendations. The agent assisted in finding markets for the produce. Canning clubs became synonomous with present 4-H Clubs and Home Demonstration Clubs.

Shortly, the work expanded to include the following major areas: food selection and preparation, clothing, house furnishings, home management, and home ground beautification.

The Home Demonstration Agent became involved in all areas of rural living. Miss Daisy Padgett (later Mrs. Stancil) helped a teacher supply the first hot lunches in county schools. Soup was canned by the farm women during the summer for use for school lunches in the winter. Harris Hardware of Washington, North Carolina furnished tin cups and spoons, and soup and cocoa were warmed on a two burner oil stove. The school children made aprons to wear as they served from a piano bench. For the canning program, the agent carried a pressure cooker from one community to another in 1918.

Patterns for clothes were cut from newspapers, the size determined and written on it, and passed from one family to another.

During the flu epidemic in 1918 food was prepared and taken to the ill. War time had given great emphasis to production and conservation of food.

(From news items in WDN after 1963.) The era of Miss Violet Alexander was one of progress for homemakers. Working tirelessly, Miss Alexander taught hat trimming classes, held canning sessions, worked with the bookmobile and library in the distribution of books to rural families, taught nutrition, urged conservation, and generally made her services invaluable to Beaufort County.

She was followed by Mrs. Rita Preston who expanded club work. Arts and crafts were introduced and drapery making classes were held. By 1956 five hundred Beaufort County women belonged to Home Demonstration Clubs and rural homes reflected the influence of these clubs in their well kept appearances.

Mrs. Carolyn Alligood joined the staff in 1953 and Mrs. Virginia Credle later. 4-H clubs have brought out leadership qualities in the farm youth and continue active at the present.

Negro farm services for many years were separated from those for whites. Chester Bright, now retired as of July 31, 1975, served as farm agent and Vivian Morris as Home Demonstration leader. When black and white groups merged, the men all went to the county office adjoining the old Beaufort County Courthouse. The staff for Home Demonstration activities united in the office at John Small Avenue. At present, both groups hold offices in the Agriculture Building adjoining the old courthouse.






CHAPTER XXI
THE MEDIA IN WASHINGTON AND
BEAUFORT COUNTY

Inhabitants of Washington and Beaufort County have always felt a need to keep in touch with the world, to be connected with newsmaking centers, to share local news and to transmit news of its own citizens. Travelers were welcomed from boats and questioned for news. Local information went by way of servants in handwritten notes from one end of town to another. When telephones were installed, the lines busily carried news and gossip in an exchange with others.

Early in 1815 newspapers were published which did not concentrate on local news, but carried many columns of worldwide news, opinion and comment, an indication of the broad interests of the people of Washington. As other organs of the media came into popular use, the town welcomed additional sources of information.

A brief mention or history of those sources is given here.

U.F.L.

PART 1
NEWSPAPERS IN WASHINGTON
by
MARJORIE WALLACE
(Mrs. Allen Johnson)

In 1839, a weekly paper, The Republican, was established and was published by George Houston.

The North State Whig began in 1834 and was a weekly paper which was published by Henry D. Machen. In 1839 the name was changed to the Washington Whig.

The North State Whig came into being about 1834 with Henry Dimock, father of Dr. Susan Dimock, as editor and proprietor. It was issued every Wednesday evening, and a notice in the upper left corner stated prices as —$2.50 per annum, if paid within two months from the date of subscription; $3 if paid during the subscription year; $3.50 if not paid during the year.— Advertisement prices were listed as sixty cents per square of fifteen lines, or less for the first insertion and thirty cents for each succeeding insertion.

Under the bold black title of this paper was printed the motto: —Be just and fear not! Let all the ends thou aim'st at, be thy country's, thy God's and truth's.— Obviously, the paper was concerned almost entirely with the political affiliations of that day. There was little local news. Most of the articles, particularly those on the front page, were excerpts from such papers as the New York Globe, the Savannah (Georgia) Republican, and one article concerned with slavery was taken from the Richmond Republican. The articles had such interesting titles as —President Taylor and His Cabinet,— —To Taylor Democrats,— —The Abolition Editor of the Union— and —The Right Spirit.— The paper convincingly reflected the spirit of that day.

It is interesting to note the large number of advertisements. The two back pages consisted entirely of them; mostly notices of the receipt of sugar, molasses, lard, silks, and other goods by boat, and several notices of reward for the return of runaway slaves. This particular paper also gave returns of the recent Congressional election in the district.

Tucked in a corner of an inside page was a notification that, —Mr. W. L. Hargrave, music instructor, having determined to remain in Washington until the middle of September next, continues to offer his services as a teacher of music, vocal or instrumental. He is particularly interested in helping to form music clubs and bands. A few pupils would be taken on the guitar. Pupils will find it to their advantage to give in their names early.—

It is likely that The Republican, the Washington Whig and Republican Gazette and the Washington Whig arose from the same source but changed names as its editors were changed.

Then follow a series of papers which, as comparatively little is known about them, were perhaps short-lived. The North Carolina Times, a weekly paper, was established about 1855 and was published in 1856 by William Eborn. The Washington Dispatch followed in 1857; and in 1869, the Eastern Intellinger was published; in 1875, the Washington Echo; in 1877, the North State Press






was established and in 1879 was published by Mr. C. M. Brown and Brother.

In 1872, the Washington Gazette was founded. In 1885 it was published by Mr. H. A. Foote, but in 1889 it was bought by Mr. Heber A. Latham and the Gazette was advertised on the front page as —The meanest paper in the state. H. A. Latham, editor, meanest man in town.— It was as if Mr. Latham were challenging any contradiction of the statement.

The Gazette was a four-page paper published every Thursday and it contained national as well as local news. One feature of the paper was a column titled —General Southern News— which consisted of little anecdotes from the southern states. In the paper dated January 3, 1895, a statement from Danville, Kentucky, announced that —Mikajah Rowsey, the desperado, was killed at Junction City while resisting arrest. He was the last of a family of seven sons who met death with their boots on.—

A local article encouraged the planting of rice in Beaufort County, stating that the only reason the crop had hitherto been so lacking in quality in this section was only because of poor cultivation. A bulletin from London, dated December 29, 1894, stated that Lord Randolph Churchhill, who was very ill, passed a quiet night.

One of the outstanding features of the Gazette in 1889, was the industrial issue, a fourteen page paper, a —Presentation of the Resources and Possibilities of Beaufort County.— Besides Washington, sections were also devoted to the resources of Chocowinity, Bath, Pantego, Yeatesville and Aurora.

Pencil sketches of civic buildings were scattered throughout the paper. Many of these pictures may be recognized as buildings still in use today. The sketch of the city hall only faintly resembles the present one, but the Masonic Temple, courthouse, St. Peter's Episcopal Church, and the Presbyterian Church are easily recognizable. Under a picture of the lovely Hotel Merriam, an article announced it as —the leading hotel in the city; situated on Main Street on the bank of the Pamlico River, a delightful winter resort; cars and steamers leave the hotel every day.—

In the industrial issue were articles written during a period of several years showing the history, development and progress of Beaufort County. One such article, titled —Ye Olden Time,— was taken from a letter written by Jonathan Havens, Esquire, in April 1886 and published in the North Carolina Presbyterian. It related the customs and manners of Washingtonians many years ago and

the early settlement of the town. Another article asserted that —as statistics prove, there is not a state more healthy than North Carolina.—

Other articles were of local interest. One stated the advantages of the city's graded school—new maps and blackboard and a warm cheerful building. The school was presided over by Professor F. A. Fetter, and teachers were Mrs. A. B. Foreman, Miss Bettie Brown and Miss Jennie Burbank.

The accomplishments of the various clubs and organizations in Washington were listed. The Cornet Band, formed on October 15, 1874, under musical director, Professor W. T. H. Forbes, had gained recognition and had been invited to play in several nearby towns.

Since its organization, the Dramatic Club had also given a number of out-of-town performances, such plays as —Ten Nights in a Bar Room,— —By Force of Impulse,— —Under the Laurels,— and —Engaged.— Mr. H. A. Latham was president of the club and Mr. J. B. Sparrow, vice-president.

There were other clubs, too, the Calico Club, Reform Club, Yacht Club and the Washington String Band, but perhaps the most brilliant and spectacular organization was the Halcyon Club, a social organization.

One of the most interesting articles in the paper, titled —Washington Today— was written by George I. Nowitzy, author of —Sound and River Cities of North Carolina.—

In 1896, the Washington Gazette was bought by Dr. J. A. Arthur and his son, J. A. Arthur, Jr. The title was changed to Evening Messenger and it was issued daily. After his father's death, Mr. Arthur continued to publish the paper and figured prominently in promoting its growth. This successful and popular paper flourished until 1907. After that time, it was published by Charles L. Stevens and the title was again changed, this time to Daily Messenger. In 1909, the business was sold to a company and the paper is still published today, as the Washington Daily News.

As early as 1886, the Washington Progress was being published every Tuesday morning by Mr. W. K. Jacobson. Its motto was —Truth, Prosperity, and Democracy— and it was concerned with both local and national news. This paper was later bought by Mr. J. A. Arthur, Jr., and since that time changed hands several times. Carl Goerch was its editor in the 1930's.

Few cities in North Carolina the size of Washington have such a historical background in journalism. It was Henry Machen,






George Houston, Henry Dimock, Heber Latham, John Arthur and others, who paved the way for the newspaper now in circulation.

PART 2
WASHINGTON DAILY NEWS

On November 15, 1949, The Washington Daily News was bought by Ashley B. Futrell, who had served as Editor of United States Army Publications in Europe during —World War II. He is presently owner and editor of the paper which is daily, except Sunday.

In an era when local newspapers are being absorbed by large media conglomerates, Mr. Futrell plans to keep the Daily News a privately owned concern. His son, Brownie, hopes to join his father in the business when he graduates from college.

The paper has won a number of awards in recent years, including the Community Service Award, which is the highest award the North Carolina Press gives.

U.F.L.

PART 3
NEWSPAPERS PUBLISHED IN
WASHINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA

AMERICAN recorder. Ap 21, 1815-

Washington DISPATCH. 1857?

EASTERN intelligencer. F 9 1869-70?

FREEMAN'S echo. 1828-

Washington GAZETTE. 1872-1906?

Washington GAZETTE, 1877-99?

GAZETTE-MESSENGER. See Washington messenger

Washington HERALD. 1828-

Washington MESSENGER. 1894-1908?

NEW ERA. May 28, 1862-

Washington daily NEWS. 1909

NORTH CAROLINA conservative. Ag 24

NORTH CAROLINA times. 1855?-

NORTH STATE press. Je 1877-82?

NORTH STATE whig. 1834-

Washington PROGRESS. 1886

REPUBLICAN. Mr 12 1839-

ROUGH and ready. S 15-N 15 1848

STATESMAN and third congressional district advertiser.

UNION advance picket My 15 1862-

WHAT next, D 9 1875-

Washington WHIG, See North state whig

American Newspapers, 1821-1936

(From Union List of Newspapers, edited by Winifred Gregory)

PART 5
WRRF - WITN

In 1941 B. W. Frank of Rocky Mount approached the Chamber of Commerce with the idea of a radio station for Washington. He enlisted small support from that group, but W. R. Roberson, Sr. became interested and lent his support. Equipment was ordered December 8, 1941, and on March 4, 1942, the station went on the air with one thousand watts power. In 1946 this increased to five thousand watts. Early location was the third floor of the Bank of Washington building, with the transmitter located off Highway 17, South. Call letters were WRRF which probably stood for W. R. Roberson Family, but its slogan was We Radiate Real Friendship. In 1942 the station became an affiliate of the Blue Network, which evolved into the ABC network.

Managers have been B. W. Frank, W. R. Roberson, Jr., Pat Patterson, Bill Abeyounis, Bill Moore and, at the present, Bob Frowein. Early staff included George Walston, Rufus Armstrong, Murray Hamilton, John Morgan, Charlie Yates, Merrill Daniels, Gene Hodges, Betty Jean Brinson, Don Smith, Bennie Waters and Daden Wolfe.

The name was changed to WITN around 1961. It expanded to FM as well as AM programming and now covers an eleven county area.

U.F.L.

PART 6
WEEW

WEEW Radio was organized in 1946 by seven local men: Togo Wynne, Frank Wynne, Rufus Armstrong, Jimmy Silverthorne, Luther Perry, R. E. King and B. F. Scott. In a very short time it was sold to Stiles and Gallagher, then passed in quick succession to Ed and Rosa Springer, to Roy D. Wooster, Jr., then to the present owners: Charles W. Carawan, Arthur W. Carawan and Joseh Madison Hudson of Pantego. It has a full time local news department and a strong emphasis on local service.

U.F.L.






PART 7
TWENTY YEARS AT WITN-TV
by
DICK PAUL

In April 1953 eastern North Carolina residents were informed by a group of radio broadcasters that there was soon to be a second commercial television station in eastern North Carolina. The first station, licensed to Carolina Broadcasting System, Inc. and to operate on Channel 9, was still some seven months away from beginning its service to the area.

The radio broadcasters, incorporated as North Carolina Television, Inc., included: W. R. Roberson, Jr., WRRF, Washington; H. W. Anderson, WVOT, Wilson; Harmon L. Duncan, WHIT, New Bern; R. M. Fountain, WCPS, Tarboro; A. T. Hawkins, WGBR, Goldsboro, and W. S. Page, WFTC, Kinston. Officers elected included: W. R. Roberson, Jr., president, H. W. Anderson, vice president, and W. S. Page, secretary. Today, some twenty-two years later, W. R. Roberson, Jr. remains as president and W. S. Page is the secretary.

On September 28, 1955, at 11:45 a.m. WITN-TV made its debut on the air. The first program to be telecast was the 1955 World Series. The signal was beamed from WITN-TV's transmitter site located at Grifton, North Carolina, from a hundred seventynine foot tower, with three hundred sixteen thousand watts of video power and one hundred sixteen thousand watts of audio power. The Channel 7 signal could reach some two hundred fifty-six thousand seven hundred television households representing over one million one hundred sixteen thousand seven hundred people.

The second day's telecasting schedule included the contributing coverage of the World Series, followed by the Ben McManus Show, Pinky Lee, Howdy Doody, Captain Carl's Space Rangers, News and Sports, and Paddle a Canoe. Evening programming included the Camel News Caravan, You Bet Your Life, All Star Theatre from ten to eleven p.m.

With the idea of providing the best possible television service to eastern North Carolina, WITN-TV continued to move forward and in 1961 completed a new transmitter tower at Grifton that reached over one thousand five hundred twenty-three feet into the air, was the tallest man-made structure in North Carolina and provided greater coverage to eastern North Carolina. With the installation

of the new —High and Mighty— tower, a fifty kilowatt transmitter was placed in service providing WITN-TV with signal improvement some three and one half times greater than the original on-air facilities in 1955.

In 1963 WITN-TV added a complete mobile unit to its facilities and was capable of covering parades, festivals and sporting events at locations away from the studios. The unit enabled the station to provide live programming on the scene as well as videotape facilities for recording events for later playbacks.

The main studios, located on Highway 17-South in Washington, were doubled in size in 1965 and from an original staff of twenty-five in 1955, the number has now grown to sixty-five. In 1967 WITN-TV converted to full color and presented all local-live programming in color. It now was able to present network color, local-live, film and videotape in color. The remaining area to be converted to color was news film and that was accomplished in 1970, giving WITN-TV the distinction of being the first station in the area with full color facilities.

In 1974 a third phase of the expansion of facilities was completed and provided more than three times the studio and office area that was contained in the original 1955 structure.

WITN-TV owns an Art Collection, one of the largest privately owned collections in the southeast. It includes oils, pastels, pen and ink and objects of art by native eastern North Carolinians and is annually viewed by hundreds of visitors from all parts of the nation.

In 1970 WITN-TV introduced —eyeWITNess News— to eastern North Carolina, a magazine concept of news reporting. The news department was expanded with new personnel and equipment to cover the area served by the station. It has now become the dominant news programming station in the market and ranks as the most preferred station for news by both ARBITRON and the A. C. Nielsen Company, nationally-known survey organizations.

WITN-TV provides over thirty-eight eyeWITNess newscasts each week and since the fall of 1974 has included RADAR Weather in all news programming. RADAR Weather includes sweeps extending beyond Richmond, Virginia to the north; below Myrtle Beach, south; west of Greensboro, and beyond Cape Hatteras to the east. Its signal reaches some one million eight hundred twenty-seven thousand nine hundred people or thirty-four per cent of the state's population.

WITN-TV remains a vital television service in the southeast,






and as W. R. Roberson, Jr., Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of WITN-TV stated, —We are pledged to continue to keep abreast of technology in telecasting so that we can maintain a superior service. We are indeed proud of the fact that WITN-TV remains as the only area station owned, managed and operated by eastern North Carolinians.—

CHAPTER XXII
MEDICINE

PART 1
OF DOCTORS AND HOSPITALS

The first doctor on record for Beaufort Precinct is Dr. Patrick Maule. Dr. Maule was a Scotsman educated in Edinburgh, who practiced medicine in Bath in the early seventeen hundreds. He served on St. Thomas Vestry and on two occasions served in the General Assembly. Dr. Maule owned a large plantation on the south side of the river at Maule's Point. Colorful stories are told of his part in the —Tuscarora War, but they have nothing to do with his medical practice.

Only scattered records through the years mention doctors who practiced medicine in this area. In the thirties, forties and fifties the names of Dr. Norcom, Dr. Freeman, Dr. Allen and Dr. Telfair are mentioned, with a special mention of Dr. McCuller as the leading physician in Washington in 1850.

Miss Lida Rodman in her article on Historical Beaufort County mentions Dr. Thomas Brown who never recovered from the cruelty with which the Mexicans treated him during the war with Mexico.

Three doctors are mentioned in the Dunston papers, i.e. Dr. John P. Redding in 1857, Dr. Shadrack P. Allen in 1858 and Dr. George Farris in 1866.

Miss Rodman also mentions doctors who practiced in Washington during the last quarter of the Nineteenth Century. These were: Dr. William Bryan, Dr. Jesse Bryan, Dr. J. G. B. Myers, Dr. King, Dr. John McDonald, Dr. David T. Tayloe (the 1st) and Dr. William A. Blount.

P.M.W.






PART 2
BILL BLOUNT AND THE BUILDING OF THE HOSPITAL

—Take away the part that W. A. Blount played in bringing the Beaufort County Hospital here and what now stands as a million and a half dollar structure might still be a far away dream,— so wrote Dave Milligan in The Washington Daily News (May 2, 1953), the day the paper put out a special hospital edition.

Born on September 9, 1890, educated at Trinity School, married to Mary Hill, and the father of one daughter, Betsy Blount (Mrs. J. M. Swanner), Bill Blount was dedicated to improving his county. He served for nearly thirty years as County Accountant and there has never been a man more highly praised or more severely criticized for all his activities in trying to improve his town and county.

Mr. Blount was particularly interested in health facilities. In 1945 he conceived and supervised the construction of a good nursing home for the county to replace the dilapidated old —Poor House.— He was the power behind the creation of health centers in both Aurora and Belhaven. These were built under the Hill Burton Act without the necessity of issuing bonds.

On June 4, 1955, Beaufort County approved the construction of a one million, two hundred fifty thousand dollar hospital bond issue with six hundred fifty thousand to come from the county and the rest from federal funds. Behind the success of this bond election was a strenuous campaign put on by a committee to organize public opinion in its favor. Bill Blount and Ashley Futrell were the two members of the committee which attended every meeting (twenty-nine) in every area of the county in an effort to educate voters to the necessity of getting behind the hospital issue.

After the approval of the bond issue the County Commissioners named Mr. Blount to act as spokesman for the county in all matters pertaining to the construction of the new hospital.

It was he who negotiated the purchase of a part of the old Sans Souci plantation from Charles Cowell. He chose the firm of George Watts Carr; let the contract to builders R. K. Stewart and Sons and was personally responsible for seeing that the structure was built according to the specifications outlined. One workman said, —Mr. Blount knows every brick that goes into this building.—

Appropriately enough, he dug the first spade of dirt at the ground breaking exercises on May 4, 1958. By the time the hospital was completed, he had disbursed one million five hundred

and two thousand, nine hundred forty-five dollars and seventy-four cents. Then he arranged the dedication ceremonies in which, with his characteristic modesty, he took no part.

Of course, Mr. Blount could not have achieved the hospital without much help from many sources. The Board of County Commissioners serving at that time, and who were primarily responsible for the undertaking, were Allen D. Swindell, chairman; Alton Cayton, William A. Magee, Jr., Julian S. Cutler and Sam Moore with Carney C. Duke as clerk, and L. H. Ross as Attorney.

The Commissioners appointed to serve as the first Board of Directors of the hospital were: Jamie C. Hill from Long Acre Township, C. S. Graves, Sr. from Washington, E. V. Swindell from Bath, William B. Thompson from Aurora, J. Elijah Edwards, Sr. from Belhaven, James L. Patrick from Chocowinity and Sam Moore, treasurer and ex officio member.

P.M.W.

PART 3
DOCTORS AND HOSPITALS OF YESTERDAY
RECALLED AT DEDICATORY EXERCISES OF
BEAUFORT COUNTY'S HOSPITAL

On Friday, May 9, 1958 the New Beaufort County Hospital opened its doors with Mrs. Horace Lee of Douglas Cross Roads as the first patient.

At the dedicatory exercises Justice William B. Rodman, Jr. made the main address in which he recalled many of the doctors who practiced here in Washington during the first few years of this century.

Judge Rodman has given us permission to quote his address here:

—I assure you that I am appreciative of the commission which you give me to call attention to some events and to describe briefly some of the individuals who, fired with an ambition to reduce individual and community pain and suffering resulting from sickness and disease and physical defect, constitute the foundation for the concept resulting in the dedication of this institution.

—I know not why, but when your invitation came, memory carried me back to a May day sixty years ago. I was a little child. It was a beautiful spring day. The scene was the passenger station of the Atlantic Coast Line railroad, a large wooden building on






Gladden Street midway between Second and Third. Then as now, Cubans were complaining of misrule and corruption in government. The people of this country were sympathetic with the Cubans. The Maine had gone to Havana. An explosion caused it to sink with large loss of life. We charged Spain with the sinking of the Maine, and Congress had, in April, declared war on Spain. That May morning, some two or three or four of Beaufort County's volunteers, I do not now recall the number, were embarking for Parmalee and thence to Rocky Mount to go to Florida to become part of an expedition to land on Cuban soil and participate in the war with Spain. We sent no large delegation to the station to bid goodbye to these men. The crowd was small, consisting of some ten or fifteen, or perhaps twenty, as I now recall. The thing that has always stood out in my memory of that day is the fact that those gathered to say goodbye did not applaud the bravery or willingness of the volunteers to meet the fire of the Spanish muskets. I don't recall that that danger was even mentioned, but I do very, very distinctly recall the grave tones used in speaking of the danger confronting these men in going to a land cursed with yellow fever. I recall distinctly hearing Dr. William A. Blount, then I think, the oldest medical practitioner in Beaufort County, say to his sister, Mrs. Hatton: —Polly, the doctors will find the cause of yellow fever, and having discovered its cause, will eradicate it.— The accuracy of that prophesy has been demonstrated by the fact that the City of Havana has been completely free of disease carrying mosquitoes and flies for well over fifty years.

—Not long after the event which I have just related Washington and Beaufort County had a shock. One of our Negro citizens developed the dread smallpox, the scourge which had decimated London two centuries earlier. What was the community to do? We had no hospital or place for treatment. Hastily a building known as the —Pest House— was constructed on the sand ridge between the swamps on the south side of the river near where the Washington Packing Company now has its plant. There the doctors of the community rendered treatment. But what of the community itself? The doctors knew that smallpox vaccination was effective, but we had no vaccine. We had no facilities for vaccinating the community. We had no drugstores which carried vaccine in stock. Each doctor, however, began to procure what supplies were available and vaccinate the community. Vaccination was to be given to children first, and forthwith a great debate arose. Vaccination was a mild case of smallpox and of course that would leave a smallpox scar.

The left arm was the logical place to vaccinate boys. What difference if their arms did show scars? But who could tolerate the idea of marring the beauty of some young girl! Should she be vaccinated on the arm or on the thigh? The doctors, as I recall, maintained that protection was the primary question, and the place of vaccination was of secondary importance.

—It was, I think, events of this kind and character which fired the determination of our medical men to provide a place where they could more effectively use their skills and administer to a greater proportion of the people.

—Communication, transportation, and physical endurance restricted and limited the number of people any doctor could see in a twenty-four hour period, and they measured a day's work in periods of twenty-four hours. They did not restrict themselves to specified office hours. Because of the limited means for communication and transportation, the health restorers were not centralized in one particular area. It was necessary for each little rural community to have at least one person devoted to helping his neighbors to good health.

—As I recall, the doctors in Washington in the first few years of this century were Dr. William A. Blount, and his son Dr. John G. Blount, Dr. David T. Tayloe, and his brother Joshua Tayloe, Dr. S. T. Nicholson, and his brother Dr. P. A. Nicholson, my uncle, Dr. John C. Rodman and Dr. Edwin M. Brown. Dr. Jack Nicholson was at Bath. Dr. C. C. Jackson was at Yeatsville. Dr. Edmund S. Credle was at Pantego. Dr. W. J. Bulluck was at Belhaven. Dr. Hunter was at Pinetown. Dr. Claude Jones was at Grimesland. Dr. Kafer was at Edwards. Drs. H. M. Bonner and W. S. Staley were at Aurora. I mention the names of these doctors and where they lived so that you may understand and appreciate the necessity which required a dispersion rather than a concentration of medical assistance. Transportation was by horse and buggy. Each doctor had his own livery stable. He kept two and perhaps three horses. The area in which he could lend assistance was limited to ten, twelve, or perhaps fifteen miles. Each had a driver. Each was compelled to get much of his rest while traveling from patient to patient. Each possessed heavy lap robes and heavy fur coats to protect them from the rigors of winter and to afford them opportunity for sleeping while riding from patient to patient. All carried their apothecary shop with them.

—Is it any wonder that under these conditions and circumstances men of the caliber such as those I named were determined to find






some way of making more effective use of their knowledge and skill? Then as now they gathered in their meetings. They discussed their problems. It was apparent that there was urgent need for a community hospital. How was that need to be met? No town had a community water system. There were several public wells and pumps in Washington; the wells designed principally for use in case of fire. We had no sewerage disposal plants. Each family was expected to provide those facilities as best it could. We had no systems of public lighting. Telephones were just being installed. There was talk of reactivating the gas plant constructed in Washington as early as 1840 but put out of commission by the Yankees during the —Civil War. If the gas plant could be put in operation, perhaps a water system might also be installed.

—Then as now our people had only limited financial means. All of these things could not be done with our own resources, that is, our own money. We had to induce those from the outside to help us. Like a fairy story, it happened that a man of means from New York came to visit his friend James L. Fowle. The Fowles had been merchants and manufacturers of lumber since prior to the —Civil War. Mr. Robert Bruce, a New Yorker, had through the years, traded with Samuel R. Fowle, Sr., the father of James L. and Governor Dan Fowle. The doctors of this community, either directly or indirectly through Mr. Fowle, sold Mr. Bruce the idea of making a contribution for a public purpose as recognition of the fine character of his deceased friend, Samuel R. Fowle. What better memorial than a community hospital said the doctors, and this was echoed by the community. My information is that the Bruce contribution amounted to the then munificent sum of $12,500. Assured of that sum, an eleemosynary corporation was created by Mr. James L. Fowle and Drs. William A. Blount, Samuel T. Nicholson, David T. Tayloe, Plummer A. Nicholson, John C. Rodman, John G. Blount, Joshua Tayloe, and Edwin M. Brown. It was known as the S. R. Fowle Memorial Hospital. The corporation was chartered April 30, 1902 for the avowed purpose of —building and constructing a hospital in the town of Washington for the care of the sick and to train people to nurse the sick.— Note, please, the dual purpose of the institution—treatment and education. On May 20, 1902 the commissioners of the town conveyed to the corporation two lots at the southwest corner of Market and Fifth streets which the town had purchased for use as a burial ground. There our first hospital was erected. It was from that point that our first sanitary sewer was constructed. The right to use the sewer from Fowle Memorial

Hospital down Market Street to the river was given to any citizen who could reach and tap it. Practically everyone within that area availed themselves of the opportunity.

—Only a short time elapsed before it became manifest that the facilities originally planned were not adequate to meet community demands. Dr. David Tayloe, the second of that name in our community to serve as a doctor, was impressed with the idea of additional hospital facilities. With his brother Joshua he acquired, in 1904, the old Satterthwaite home on West Main Street, now known as the Leach residence. Dr. Dave, as he was affectionately known, was devoting more and more of his time and attention to surgery, leaving the field of internal and preventive medicine to other members of the medical profession. Dr. Dave's younger brother Armstead had about that time completed his studies in medicine. Dr. Armstead came back to settle at Aurora. Shortly thereafter, Dr. Jack L. Nicholson, son of Dr. Sam Nicholson, graduated and returned to Washington. He became chief surgeon of the Fowle Memorial Hospital. In the nineteen twenties he opened his own hospital, the River View. Dr. Nicholson, you will recall, was succeeded by Dr. Lewis H. Swindell.

—It wasn't long before the Tayloes found that their facilities on Main Street were totally inadequate. They acquired property on Washington Street and built a much larger hospital known as the Tayloe Hospital. When that building was burned some years later, it was replaced by the present structure on Washington Street.

—In our earlier days the only specialists that we had were dentists. There were, as I recall, at the turn of the century, two dentists in Washington, Dr. Wells and Dr. Snell. They were joined not long after the opening of our hospitals by Dr. Rhodes Gallagher.

—H. Walton Carter, a Hyde County boy, had gone to New York. There he had studied medicine. He concluded that he would specialize in the treatment of diseases and defects of the eye, ear, nose and throat. Having completed his specialized course in these ailments, he came to Washington about 1909 and became, I think, our first specialist in the practice of medicine unless the dentists be so defined.

—Dr. Dave Tayloe, 2nd, had three boys. His devotion to his profession was contagious. He instilled in each of these boys a desire to follow in the footsteps of their father. Dave, the third of the name and the oldest, like his father, specialized in surgery. Upon the completion of his studies he came back to practice as chief surgeon of Tayloe Hospital. Not long after he returned, he persuaded






Dewitt Klutz, a classmate at Chapel Hill, to come to Washington to become our first roentgenologist, to operate that magic machine which enabled one to look through the body and see the organs, the bones, the deformities, and what was necessary to correct the abnormalities or the ills of the body. Josh and John Cotten, the two younger boys, followed in the footsteps of Dave and returned to Washington to practice their chosen specialized fields. The time allotted by the Master to Dave, the younger, and Josh, the second, to serve their community was limited, but the services rendered by all three of the brothers is too recent and well known to need comment here. We are now happy to have as a member of our community, devoting himself to relief of childhood illnesses, the fourth Dr. David Tayloe.

—Bob Hackler associated himself with the Tayloe Hospital when Dr. Klutz left. There is not a doctor in this area who, if given the opportunity, would fail to express grateful appreciation for the services Dr. Hackler has rendered in helping them with the marvel of the X-ray in determining the proper method of treating their patients.

—The first two decades of the present century were important as the formative period for our modern concept of hospitalization. In addition to the doctors I have named, Drs. J. M. Lloyd and W. T. Beebe were respected Negro citizens who were generous in the attention they gave to members of their race. Dr. Charlie Windley and Dr. Marriner went to Belhaven. John Bonner returned to Aurora, his home place, and while he has rendered fine service there, his greatest contribution to all of Beaufort County has been his insistence that the public itself had some responsibility for public health. He and Dr. John Williams are perhaps more largely responsible for our public health service in Beaufort County than any other two men. It was at their insistence that our county commissioners agreed to establish the office of county health doctor. Dr. J. W. Williams was the first to serve in that position. He served from 1922 to 1925. When he left, the county called on Dr. John Bonner. He served a period of two years. Dr. Williams then came back for nearly two years. He was followed by Drs. Charles Windley and Eugene Windley who together served a little less than two years. Dr. Britt served for approximately two years. He was succeeded by Dr. David E. Ford who served his adopted county splendidly for a period of sixteen years. He was compelled to retire because of his physical condition, but has continued to maintain his interest and render effective help in every effort to

promote public health. When Dr. Ford retired, Dr. Ed Brown was called upon to serve and did so for a short period. Again the county called on Dr. John Bonner. He responded to the call of duty and served approximately two years. He was succeeded by Dr. Krug, who served a short time, and by Dr. Charles Kling, who has now been with us for nearly seven years. These health doctors first proclaimed the need for, or perhaps it is better to say, instilled the idea of health centers in the public consciousness. It is due in no small part to the work of those gentlemen that this institution is being dedicated today.

—Just as public consciousness led to the establishment of a hospital in Washington fifty-six years ago, public consciousness some years later brought into existence a splendid institution in Belhaven. Hyde County as well as the eastern part of this county looked to Belhaven for medical treatment. Leading citizens of that community determined that they should have a hospital. Prentiss O'Neal, Fred Latham, Pat Johnson, Lige Edwards, Worth Calfee, Clyde Potter, Mrs. Scott Topping, and others set about to procure a hospital. They took Governor Gregg Cherry and the Medical Care Commission at their word when they proclaimed that all of North Carolina should be provided with adequate hospital facilities. The Medical Care Commission had barely been set up when these gentlemen were knocking at its doors demanding help for the establishment of a hospital at Belhaven. Like all good things, it took time but they were finally successful and their hospital [Pungo Hospital] was dedicated on July 4, 1949. It has been operated to the great benefit of that area, and now with this institution will help provide more adequately for all of the citizens of Beaufort County.

—No review of the efforts to relieve the deformed and sick would be complete without taking note of the work done by the Rotary Club and similar organizations in Washington in the 1920's in getting orthopedic surgeons to treat our crippled. Many people now living in Beaufort County owe a deep debt of appreciation to Stewart Gaul of Charlotte and Hugh Thompson of Raleigh for the services so generously rendered as orthopedic surgeons, and to Carl Richardson, Mack Waters, and Carl Goerch for obtaining their services.

—Time prevents me from even mentioning the names of many other doctors, dentists, surgeons, roentgenologists, and other specialists who have, during the past twenty-five years, rendered such magnificent service to the people of Beaufort County and the






debt of appreciation we owe them. You and they will understand that the theme given to me was the foundation which helped construct and not a description of their individual work. It would not, however, be appropriate to close this brief sketch and historical review without reminding you and them of the fact that this institution could not exist today except by the dogged determination and devoted service of William Blount, county accountant of Beaufort County, who rendered to his fellow citizens magnificent services for the past quarter of a century. Sam Moore, Ashley Futrell, and Drs. John Cotten Tayloe and Clark Rodman have served ably as his lieutenants in spreading through the community factual information on which an enlightened citizenship could properly act.

And now, Captain Hill, with this brief and incomplete review of the work which led to the fashioning and furnishing of the craft which you, with the assistance of able mates, will sail to the land of better health, may I take the liberty of reminding you, and through you, all of the citizens of Beaufort County, that it matters not what drugs and mechanical skills you may possess; unless there is the touch of love and humility and a deep and reverent appreciation of the need for further education, you can never reach the shores of your promised land. We are no longer an earthbound race. Human beings are seriously and confidently planning interspace journeys. All of this will bring with it many complexities, much need for study, to understand and appreciate the dangers as well as the benefits which will come with new drugs, and new methods for treatment. Just as tuberculosis has ceased to be the Grim Reaper whose hand could not be stayed, so will we learn to treat and eradicate cancer and coronary troubles. The mentally sick will also be studied and cured.

—I am confident of your success, and I am proud to be in the multitude to wish you bon voyage.—

PART 4
DR. JOHN COTTEN TAYLOE
FIRST CHIEF OF STAFF AT THE
BEAUFORT COUNTY HOSPITAL
ASHLEY FUTRELL

—A doctor and the son of a doctor and one of the most beloved physicians ever to pass this way.— Often this was said about Dr. John Cotten Tayloe of Washington , N. C. who during his lifetime

and by his own count brought more than 8,000 babies into the world.

—Dr. John— as he was affectionately known, was born in Washington on May 30, 1897, son of the late Dr. David T. and Athalia Cotten Tayloe. He died in a tragic boating accident in Pamlico Sound on September 15, 1962. He was 65 years of age.

Dr. John graduated from Washington High School in 1913 and entered the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill that year. He was a fine football star for three years there. His medical education was interrupted by —World War I. He entered the army in 1917, became a 2nd lieutenant and saw service in France. When he was discharged in 1919 after two years of war service, he re-entered UNC Medical school. This was a two year course then, and upon finishing the two year requirements, he entered the University of Pennsylvania Medical school from which he graduated. In 1925 he came back home to Washington , N. C. to practice his profession. His father and brother, Dr. Dave, Senior and Dr. Dave, Jr. and his uncle Dr. Josh were already practicing here. Another brother —young Josh— was on the way. Nephews, the present Dr. Dave and Dr. Josh had not yet been born.

Dr. John Cotten's specialty was obstetrics and gynecology, and today the babies he delivered range from 10 years of age to retirement.

Dr. John was an active member of Lions Club, American Legion, a former president of the Beaufort County Medical Society, and he was president of Beaufort County Savings & Loan Association. He was a lifelong member of St. Peters Episcopal Church. He was the first Chief of Staff at the Beaufort County Hospital.

He was married to Bernice Everett Batts. Dr. John had one son by a previous marriage, Dr. John Cotten Tayloe, Jr. of New Bern.

John Cotten Tayloe belonged to a class all his own. Beloved and almost revered, he endeared himself to each generation which passed his way. The 8,000 babies he delivered are a living testimonial to a man who truly was a legend in his own time.

PART 5
DR. LEWIS H. SWINDELL

Dr. Lewis H. Swindell came to Washington in 1919. He practiced medicine for fifty-four years in Washington and Beaufort County.






Lewis Swindell was born in Swan Quarter on November 18, 1891, the son of Lewis Swindell and Iredell Credle Swindell. He married his boyhood sweetheart, Margaret Mann and had two children, Dr. Lewis H. Swindell III and Peggy, (Mrs. Charles Stevens).

From 1927 until the Beaufort County Hospital opened in 1958, Dr. Swindell operated the Fowle Memorial Hospital. When the new hospital opened he served on its staff and in addition owned and operated his private clinic. After the accident which took the life of Dr. John Cotten Tayloe, Dr. Swindell succeeded Dr. Tayloe as Chief of Staff at the Beaufort County Hospital.

Not many busy doctors have time for public service. Dr. Swindell was the exception. He served three unopposed terms as Mayor of Washington.

One of his great interests in life was education. For thirteen years he served on the Board of Trustees of the Washington City Administrative Unit, for six years as its chairman. He was a trustee of East Carolina from 1947 to 1958 and a trustee of the Greater University of North Carolina from 1953 to 1969.

Dr. Swindell was a member of the First United Methodist Church where he served on the official board of the church.

He was a member of Washington Lodge No. 104, A. F. and A.M.; a 32nd Degree Mason; a member of the Sudan Temple of the Shrine; a member of the Washington Elks lodge; and a member of the Washington Rotary Club.

With all of Dr. Swindell's activity, he nevertheless gave unstintingly of his time to his patients. He was known to put his sickest patient in a hospital room closest to his office, until he or she was out of danger. He was the type of good old family doctor who was adored by his patients because he took the time and had the patience to answer a call day or night, and to sit by a patient's bedside, hold her hand and listen to her troubles. Although he was a skillful surgeon, as up-to-date in his methods as the next man, he nevertheless was a symbol of the good old-fashioned doctor who no longer exists. An era in medical practice ended when he died on March 25, 1971.

PART 6
TIDELAND MENTAL HEALTH CENTER

The Tideland Mental Health Center came about as a result of the efforts of many lay and professional leaders, especially those

persons connected with the Beaufort County Mental Health Association. Dr. Ray Silverthorne, Harry Hodges, Dr. David T. Tayloe, the Rev. Burke Kerr, Mrs. Hannah Bagwell, and Mrs. Nancy F. Rodman worked with the association since its beginning about 1962. In the organization of the center, county commissioners from the four counties (Beaufort, Washington, Tyrrell, Hyde) cooperatively agreed to provide local money, each county's respective allocation being based on population. The Tideland Mental Health Center Area Board was established composed of members from each county also based on population.

The clinic first opened its doors in October of 1966 with a parttime psychiatrist and one secretary in an old house on Second Street. Indicative of local interest and determination, the initial staff of the center were paid out of all local funds. In January 1968 an Administrative Director was employed to recruit a staff and to provide mental health programs for the residents of the four counties. By December 1968 expansion to seven full-time and four part-time employees forced a move into the —Old School Bus Garage.— Also in 1968 the Alcoholism Division was established with a full-time director and a part-time counselor. With application by Martin County to become part of the program, population served by the center became large enough to be eligible for a grant to construct a new facility.

On October 8, 1968 a Federal grant application was made to the Department of Health, Education and Welfare through the National Institute of Mental Health under the —Community Mental Health Centers Act 1963.— The Federal grant for approximately $244,000 was received. To this, the State of North Carolina added approximately $60,000 and from local funds $60,000 was appropriated for construction of the new facility. Ground breaking ceremonies were held April 18, 1971 and about 18 months later, October 9, 1972, the new —home— for Tideland Mental Health Center was occupied. Today the center is located in one of the most modern facilities in North Carolina, serving 85,000 people in five counties with over forty people attached to the center in Service Delivery, student and training capacities. —Satellite Clinics— located in the county seats of the four outlying counties make available, more conveniently, psychiatric services to the residents of these counties. The Tideland Mental Health Center provides services in the following areas: Psychiatric Evaluation, Childrens Services, Alcoholism Services, Outpatient Care, Detoxification, Education and Consultation, Developmental Program for Retarded






and Handicapped Persons. There are no restrictions as to age, sex, religion, color, creed, nationality, diagnosis or income.

Community readiness, adequate planning at the local and state levels, and dedicated leadership have enabled the Tideland Mental Health Center to become a full-grown facility, still expanding and still finding more ways to serve the people of Beaufort, Martin, Washington, Tyrrell, and Hyde counties.

CHAPTER XXIII
FIRSTS
by
PAULINE WORTHY

Some unique distinction seems attached to being —First.— The following —Firsts— have been assembled from many sources. They are arranged in three parts, Historic —Firsts— are followed by —Firsts— of interest, but not primary importance. While some of these —Firsts— are mentioned elsewhere in this book, these seemed to deserve to stand alone. Firsts relating to women will be found in a later section of the book.

FIRST HISTORIAN

John Lawson, a one time resident of Bath, was the first historian to write about North Carolina. About 1708 Lawson wrote: —North Carolina is a delicious country being placed in that girdle of the world which affords wine, oil, fruit, grain, silk and other rich commodities, besides a sweet air, a moderate climate and fertile soil.—

This enthusiastic press agent, well educated and of good family, came to North Carolina by accident. He wanted to take a trip to some interesting place. In 1700 hordes of pilgrims were going to Rome to celebrate a Holy Year, and Lawson had decided to go there, when he met a friend who sang the praises of a new world called Carolina.

At that very time a ship lay in the Thames ready to embark for that New World, and on the spur of the moment Lawson took passage. He landed in Charleston and worked his way up to the Pamlico area, making copious notes and recording all the information






he could gather about the flora, the fauna and the Indians with whom he came in contact.

Between 1708 and 1711 he wrote the first History of North Carolina, a natural history and not a record of events except for an occasional personal note.

Unhappily Lawson met a sad fate at the hands of the Indians for whom he had such kind words. One tradition says that his body was stuck with light wood splinters, which were set on fire, burning him to death.

His book, now a priceless piece of Caroliniana, was published in London.

FIRST LAND GRANT

During his happy days Lawson fell in love with Hannah Smith, whose father's plantation on the Pamtecough just west of Ragged Point adjoined that of Thomas Blount. An arrangement had been made that each ship's captain bringing new settlers to the region, was to be given a grant of land. Captain Blount brought six and was granted 266 acres on the north bank of the Pamlico. This grant issued on March 5, 1697, was the first recorded land grant in Beaufort County.

ORIGINALITY DISPUTE

Around 1700 the first Bonners came to this area, William, James and Thomas. It was Thomas— son, James, born about 1723, who established the town of Washington. He named it for the Commander-in-Chief of the American Army.

Twenty-six states are reported to have a Washington. Three of them claim to be —the original.—

Washington, Virginia, established in 1796, bases its claim on an old map found in the Fairfax papers in the mid-nineteenth century. This is a survey of a proposed town made by George Washington in 1749. In 1749, George Washington was only seventeen years old. It is unbelievable that a town could be named for a 17 year old boy at a time when no one dreamed that the United States would ever be a Nation, much less have a President named George Washington.

Washington, Georgia, was named in 1780. Therein probably lies the genesis of the originality dispute because Washington, North Carolina was not incorporated until 1782. However, Washington, Georgia, was not incorporated until 1785.

Some years before its incorporation Washington , N. C., was a thriving village and it is believed that there was a settlement here

as early as 1711, called —Fork of Tar River.— The name Washington, was well established by 1776 as the town was mentioned by name in both the Colonial Records and in the Journal of the Council of Safety, which met at Halifax in September, 1776.

FIRST DEED

The first recorded deed for the transfer of property in the present town may be found in the office of the Register of Deeds, Book 4 (1763-1778), page 523. It conveys one lot of one-half acre of land (Lot No. 15) town of Washington to George Horn. It was signed on December 23, 1776, by James Bonner, probated at the June term of court in 1778 and ordered to be registered.

When a delegation came from Washington, Georgia, in the forties to challenge Washington , N. C.—s claim to be —the original— Carney Duke, then Register of Deeds, took great delight in showing them this record and having them admit that Washington, North Carolina really was —The First.—

LADY SIGNS DEED

The first woman to sign a deed in Washington transferring property was Mary Bonner, wife of Col. James Bonner. It was more than half a century later that the North Carolina Legislature passed a law requiring the signature of the wife on deeds for the sale of land. Nevertheless, Mrs. Bonner signed many of the original deeds for early lots sold in Washington.

Colonel Bonner's wife was Mary Snoad (sometimes written Anne). His second wife was Mary Maule, daughter of Dr. Patrick Maule.

FIRST SHIP

Early settlers found Indian canoes on the Pamticough when they arrived. However, they soon began to build a different type of boat. The first ship on record is dated 1707. In that year Governor Cary contracted with Thomas Harding to build at his landing in Bath Creek, a 46 foot sloop, 18 ft. by the beam and 8 ft. in the hold. Harding did the work and Cary furnished the materials.

FIRST ROAD

The first road in Beaufort County was an Indian path that connected the Pamlico and the Neuse rivers. In 1722 the General Assembly authorized this path to be made into a regular road, which






would serve as a section of the highway from Edenton through Bath to New Bern.

To encourage John and James Bonner, Jr. to build a road through the swamp on the south side of the Pamlico, the Bonners were given a franchise to operate a toll road and a toll ferry opposite Washington approximately half a mile further down the river than the present road.

FIRST BRIDGE

The first bridge across the river was built about 1799 by the first Bryan Grimes, father of the Confederate hero, General Grimes. In addition James Avent, Frederick Grist and one of the Fowles are said to have owned an interest in this bridge. This was a toll bridge and proved to be a very lucrative operation. Since it was the only bridge across the river, there was so much resentment at the fees ($1.00 to ride across, 25 cents to walk across) that the county began to run a free ferry. It was not until after the —Civil War that the owners agreed to sell the bridge to the county. The purchase price was five thousand dollars.

FIRST POST OFFICE

Soon after the present post office was completed in 1913, the Major Reading Blount Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution placed a bronze marker in the entrance to commemorate the first post office named Washington in the United States, established in 1789. This marker was unveiled by little Marjorie Hoyt. There has never been any question that ours was the first post office so named.

INVENTOR ON THE PAMLICO

The first torpedo boat used in the —Civil War was constructed at Washington by a Yankee, Lieutenant John M. Lay, an officer on the Flagship U. S. S. Louisiana. Lay was an inventive genius. During the Federal occupation of Washington, he tried his hand at several projects. His masterpiece was a small hand propelled launch with a long circular tube in its bow for discharging a torpedo. The trial run was on the Pamlico and the experiment proved so successful that Lay was asked by the U. S. Navy to superintend the construction of other torpedo boats.

Interestingly enough, after the war was over Lay was invited to Turkey to build a boat for the Sultan. His reputation spread and

he went to Russia at the invitation of the Czar to help the Russian Navy.

NICKNAMES FOR RAILROADS

The first record of a railroad to enter Washington was in 1877, when the Jamesville and Washington R. R. was granted a right-of-way down Washington Street. Its purpose was to bring lumber to the river for water transportation. This was the —Jolt and Wiggle.—

Another early railroad which was contemporary with the J. and W. was the Albemarle and Pantego, which ran from Lee's Creek across the Dismal. The initials A & P were soon facetiously translated —A-Plenty.— This became the name of the train because once you had ridden on it you had had —a plenty.—

The very first railroad in North Carolina had been built in Raleigh in 1833 to haul granite to build the State Capitol. It was approximately one mile in length and was drawn by horses, but it ran on rails and was called a railroad.

FIRST CONFEDERATE MONUMENT

Beaufort County was the first in the state to erect a monument honoring its Confederate dead (1888). This monument, the replica of a soldier on a granite pedestal now stands on the crest of the little hill in Oakdale Cemetery. It was originally placed on the slight elevation where Water Street turns into MacNair just opposite the old Norfolk Southern Station. The location was selected in order that ships coming up the Pamlico would get as their first glimpse of town the Confederate soldier on his pedestal. The inspiration which prompted this was undoubtedly the location of the Statue of Liberty.

When the Norfolk-Southern station was built and railroad activity changed the character of the location, it was decided to move the statue to the new cemetery. Great preparations were made to do this on the 10th of May, Confederate Memorial Day.

May tenth was an important holiday in all former Confederate States. Schools and businesses closed while Confederate Veterans, brass bands and local school children, carrying arms full of flowers, marched in an impressive parade to the cemetery to decorate the graves of the Confederate dead. Leading the parade to Oakdale on this particular occasion was the vehicle carrying the Confederate monument. The wagon was decorated like an elaborate float. The statue was so heavy that it took six horses to draw the






wagon. Little Kathleen Bogart (who grew up to become Mrs. H. B. Searight), was scheduled to unveil the statue at the ceremonies. She remembers that it was a very hot day. The crowd lining Market Street was getting restless when a moment of high drama occurred. One of the horses dropped dead! A day to remember!

CANNON BALLS

The United Daughters of the Confederacy was a very active organization around the turn of the century. In 1897 Mrs. Margaret Call organized the Children of the Confederacy. While being taught to revere their Confederate forebears, the children of this organization were set to work gathering all the cannon balls which had fallen on Washington during the bombardment of the sixties, and which were still lying here and there. The result was the impressive pyramid of cannon balls at the entrance to Oakdale. Of late years vandals have been making off with the cannon balls and it is no longer a pyramid.

SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS

Many children of school age did not go to school at the turn of the century. The excuse most often given by parents was that they could not afford the price of textbooks. As a result the city schools started, in 1902, the first book rental system in North Carolina. In 1903 the town passed the first compulsory attendance law in the state. The first nine months school session in Washington was that of 1903-1904.

FIRST TOBACCO WAREHOUSE

Dr. S. T. Nicholson built the first tobacco warehouse in Washington. He was so concerned that his farmer friends had to haul their tobacco all the way to Danville, Va. to be sold on the market there that in the early nineteen hundreds he fathered the first local tobacco market.

Dr. —Sam— served as Mayor of Washington for several terms. He was not only an excellent doctor he was, according to his contemporaries, a unique and colorful character.

Exactly a hundred years ago young Sam Tim Nicholson came to Washington from Halifax County to attend the wedding of Annie Blackwell Fowle to Ferdinand Harris on February 2, 1876. There he met Annie Lucas with whom he promptly fell in love. As soon as she would agree they were married on July 4, 1876, the

hundreth anniversary of the nation. After the birth of the third of their thirteen children, Sam decided to study medicine. He took his own cotton to Baltimore to pay his expenses at the College of Physicians and Surgeons. After completing his course he came home to Washington in the early eighties to spend the next half century doctoring town and county.

A pillar in the Methodist church, it is interesting to note that the hobby of this —affable spirit— was horse racing. It is said that he built his own racetrack and regularly carried the horses he trained to Baltimore to race.

FIRST CAESARIAN OPERATION

Dr. Sam's two brothers, Dr. —Plum— and Dr. —Jack— followed him to Beaufort County to practice medicine. Dr. —Jack— settled in Bath where he built the biggest house in town and became a much loved key figure in the community.

Dr. Jack Nicholson's inclusion in this account of —Firsts— stems from the recorded fact that he performed the first Caesarian operation ever done in this area. It was successfully done on a kitchen table by the light of a kerosene lamp on a farm at Rodman's Quarters. Both mother and child lived, and the story has been handed down for three quarters of a century.

FIRST AUTOMOBILE

There is some disagreement among old-timers about the owner of the first automobile in Washington. Was it Frank Rollins or Jonathan Havens or Noah Roberson? Some say it was George Phillips. All bought cars about the same time in the very early years of the twentieth century.

There is, however, no disagreement over the owner of the first automobile in Beaufort County. That was Surry Parker of Pinetown. Mr. Parker was an independent logging contractor who had an iron foundry and a machine shop. He worked in close cooperation with the Roanoke Lumber Company and became quite wealthy. When he drove into Washington in his new automobile in the early nineteen hundreds legend says that he went down Main Street at the —furious speed— of ten miles an hour. Arrested for disturbing the public peace, Mr. Parker was arraigned before a Magistrate and fined ten dollars. With a gesture of defiance he extracted twenty dollars from his wallet and handed it over saying, —Take this. I am going out just the way I came in.—






FIRST TELEPHONE OPERATOR

When telephones came to Washington they hung on the wall and were turned with a crank. Telephone operators handled the switchboard manually and were always referred to as —Central.— The caller would contact —Central— and ask to be connected to such and such a person. There were no numbers. The first telephone operator in Washington was Miss Josephine Whitney. Everybody in town knew Miss Josephine and she knew everybody's business.

When Carolina Telephone and Telegraph installed the dial system in 1957 and Washington was given the call letters WH old-timers thought that it was in honor of Miss Josephine who had served so long and faithfully as a telephone pioneer.

FIRST ICE CREAM PARLOR

Miss Molly Vines had a small store on Market Street across from the jail. Miss Molly was a buxom, red haired middle aged lady with a jolly disposition. She loved to see people enjoy her food and she turned her talent for making homemade candies and ice cream into a popular and profitable business.

In the front of her shop she sold hats. In the rear was her ice cream parlor. The two were divided by a curtain on rings which was moved back and forth as the occasion demanded.

Now ice cream was a rare delicacy in the so-called —Gay Nineties,— not only because of the scarcity of ice, but also because it was back breaking to turn the crank on the old-fashioned ice cream churn. Nevertheless, Miss Molly made three large churns of ice cream every day except Sunday. She opened in the afternoon and each evening and the greatest treat a child could be given was a saucer of ice cream at Miss Molly Vines.

After supper young men who took their sweethearts for —a walk— headed straight for Miss Molly's. Her five cent saucer was great, but if a boy bought a ten cent saucer for his date other customers looked forward to the announcement of an early engagement.

Jim Ellison remembers Miss Molly vividly and says that her chocolate and coconut candies were the most delicious things he has ever tasted in all his ninety years.

FIRST TRAINED NURSE

Miss Violet Meredith was the first trained nurse to come to Washington. Mr. John B. Respess employed her to nurse his wife who was ill with typhoid fever. Typhoid was raging and many victims died, but Mrs. Respess recovered. After that (in the early

nineteen hundreds when neighbors usually took turns nursing the sick) everybody wanted a —trained— nurse.

FIRST GRAVE

Too many people died in epidemics in those days. Interestingly enough lots in Oakdale sold for twelve dollars and a half. The first grave in the new cemetery was that of Charles C. Hinton in 1890.

READY MADE CLOTHES

Mr. J. K. Hoyt was the first merchant in town to sell ready made clothes. They created a sensation. This was not long after the turn of the century and clothes had heretofore been made at home on the old sewing machine, or else by a neighborhood dressmaker who —took in sewing.—

Mr. Hoyt, who had gone in business in 1889, was always in the vanguard of fashion. For years Hoyts— store was the most fashionable emporium in town.

FIRST FOOTBALL TEAM

The first football team at Washington High School was organized in 1907 by H. H. McLean, a 24 year old Virginian who came to town as teacher and coach and remained to become superintendent of the County Schools for seventeen years at a crucial period in the development of North Carolina schools.

The football team now held in tenderest memory, however, was that of 1911, which won the Championship.

The line up was as follows:

Fred MooreRight End
Edmund BuckmanLeft End
Reid MitchellRight Tackle
Charles MeekinsLeft Tackle
Archie KellyRight Guard
John PayneLeft Guard
John Cotten TayloeCenter
James WestonRight Halfback
Sam FowleLeft Halfback
Elbert WestonHalfback
Enoch SimmonsQuarterback
Jack HarrisTackle
Tom SparrowTackle

This group was coached by Harry Kear.






FIRST BASKETBALL TEAM FOR GIRLS

Athletics for girls began at Washington High School in 1915, when the first girls— basketball team was organized by Miss Lura Brogden (Mrs. Herbert Gravely). Miss Brogden had just graduated from college and had come to Washington to teach. This first team consisted of Sally Bright (Mrs. Albert Edwards), Dorothy Blount (Mrs. Hugh Anderson), Elizabeth McIlhenny (Mrs. Zach Koonce), Leonora Blount (Mrs. James Kelly) and Mildred Smith (Mrs. John Johnson).

FIRST BATHTUB

Legends differ about who had the first bathtub in town, but the feeling is widespread that it was Mrs. Mary McDonald. Dr. and Mrs. McDonald lived in a house with much gingerbread work (the Susman house), where Lillians Beauty Shop is now located on E. Main Street. Those who could afford it back then had cisterns. These were especially constructed tanks for catching and storing rain water, considered softer and more salubrious than water from town pumps.

Mrs. McDonald had a servant stand and turn the cistern wheel to pump water into a pipe which carried it inside to the bathtub when anyone needed a bath.

FIRST FLORIST

Miss Mary Smallwood was the first florist in town. A collection of exquisite prints, —North American Wild Flowers— by Mary Vaux Wolcott, printed under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institute, has been given to the Brown Library as a memorial to Miss Smallwood.

The gift was made by her nephew, Joe Biggs, who got his introduction to scientific projects through the Bug House Laboratory and went on to become a valued member of the staff of the Smithsonian.

THE CRAPE MYRTLES

All the Smallwoods loved flowers and raised quantities of them at their home, —The Sycamores,— now Smallwood. Mr. Charlie Smallwood planted most of the crape myrtles which today are beautifying the streets of Washington. It was Mayor R. P. MacKenzie who initiated and financed this project, but it was Mr. Smallwood who planted the trees.

FIRST PAVED ROAD

In the years following the first World War certain roads in the western part of the state had been paved by private firms, but eastern Carolina was still in the mud when the state decided, after much political pressure, to pave the road that led from Washington to Chocowinity.

For many years this road through the swamp had been a corduroy road made of logs laid side by side with sand filling the cracks. It took two horses to draw a vehicle across it and when the weather was bad it was impassable.

It was finally decided to —Macadamize— the road. This was the first paved road in this area. Fortunately the state bore the expense. The project would have bankrupted the county because at one point the job seemed impossible to complete. Every time the tide rose the sand and gravel to be used would wash away.

Eventually the road was completed, the first paved road actually done at state expense. There were no shoulders to the road and the trees grew close to the pavement, making it very shady at all times. The area was filled with birds and birdsong. It was a beautiful drive, very popular on Sunday afternoons. The local Woman's Club christened it —Cardinal Drive— at the suggestion of Mrs. H. W. Carter, long time president of the First Woman's Club.

THE FIRST BEAUTICIAN

Willie Edwards was the first beautician in Washington. About 1920 Willie went to New York and took a Beauty Operator's course. She returned to open Washington's First Beauty Parlor in a curtained off section in the rear of her husband, Edmond Edwards— Barber Shop on East Main Street (near the present Tally Bros.).

As a member of the minority race, Willie was handicapped in many areas, but she held a special place in the affections of the women whose hair she regularly cared for. She was not only an excellent operator, she was a delightful personality. A highly intelligent woman, who read The Literary Digest regularly, she was well-informed about all current events. As a lifelong resident of Washington she knew of skeletons in many closets and a hour with her was very rewarding. Her fame rests on the fact that she gave the first permanent wave in Washington.






FIRST SERVICE STATION

After the first World War Roy D. Kear, known to everyone as —Billiken— opened the first filling station in Washington. Prior to that time a few individual merchants had gasoline pumps in front of their places of business. When Buck Taylor built a second filling station, hard on the heels of the first, his friends feared that he was making a very bad investment. Why on earth would any town need more than one location to buy gasoline?

FIRST BOOKMOBILE SERVICE

The first library in the state to offer bookmobile service to rural areas was the Beaufort Hyde Martin Library, which was organized in 1941. As the pioneer Regional Library in North Carolina, its establishment marks a high water mark in the history of libraries. It was organized under the direction of Miss Elizabeth House who administered its affairs until she took a state job and gradually rose through the ranks until today she serves on a national level.

SECTION THREE





CHAPTER XXIV
CONGRESSMEN

Beginning with William Kennedy in 1803 the First Congressional District has been represented by nine different Congressmen from Beaufort County.

William Kennedy, 1803-1805, 1809-1811, 1812-1815.

Edward Stanly, 1837-1843, 1849-1852.

Henry S. Clark, 1845-1847.

Richard Donnell, 1847-1849.

W. A. B. Branch, 1891-1895.

John H. Small, 1899-1921.

Hallet S. Ward, 1921-1925.

Lindsay C. Warren, 1925-1940.

Herbert C. Bonner, 1940-1965.

Brief biographies of these men follow.

PART 1
WILLIAM KENNEDY

William Kennedy, son of John Kennedy, Sr. and Traffina Price of Tyrrell County, was born on his father's plantation near Washington on July 31, 1768.

His father, John Kennedy, Sr., member of an ancient Scottish family, represented Beaufort County in the House of Commons in 1779 and in the State Senate in 1791. He also served as High Sheriff of Beaufort County from 1788-1796.

William Kennedy was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1782. He returned to North Carolina, was admitted to the bar, and began the practice of law in Pitt County. He was originally allied with the Federalist party but later associated himself with the Jeffersonian Republicans. Though for a long time the Kennedy and Blount families were both Republicans, they were






political enemies, and William Kennedy ran against Thomas Blount yearly from 1803-1810, always with some Federalist support.

Kennedy was elected to the Eighth, 1803-1805, and the Eleventh, 1809-1811 Congresses, and succeeded Thomas Blount there in 1812, when he died. Kennedy was reelected to the Thirteenth Congress and served from January 30, 1813 to March 3, 1815.

William Kennedy retired to his estate in Beaufort County. He owned large tracts in the Broad Creek District, on Bear Creek and Pamlico River, as well as maintaining his principal seat on a plantation above the town of Washington. He also owned mills. He made his will on September 20, 1833 leaving a large estate in land, personal property, and over 30 slaves to his three children, Frances, wife of George C. Farris; Sophrorisba, wife of Shadrack P. Allen; and William L. Kennedy. He died on October 11, 1834 and was buried in the Kennedy Burying Ground, near Washington.

William Kennedy was a gentleman of integrity, character, and forceful presence in the political arena of Beaufort County and in the United States Congress. He was probably the most powerful and successful opponent to the Blount political dynasty. His congressional record speaks well for his abilities and his responsibility to the citizens of Beaufort County.

JOHN BAXTON FLOWERS, III

PART 2
EDWARD STANLY: EXPONENT OF WHIGGERY

Edward Stanly was born in New Bern on January 10, 1810; he was the third generation in a family of staunch unionists. His parents were John Stanly and Ann Taylor Stanly. His grandfather, John Wright Stanly, built a mansion on Middle and New streets probably under the direction of John Hawks, the supervising architect of Tryon's Palace. George Washington had lodgings here in his 1791 visit to New Bern. Stanly's career is treated at length in Beaufort County's Contribution to a Notable Era.

PART 3
HENRY SELBY CLARK

Clark, Henry Selby, a Representative in the United States Congress, was the son of Henry Clark, grandson of Major Clark and his wife Mary Wilkinson and great grandson of John Clark who

immigrated from England prior to 1700 and settled at Bath.

Henry S. Clark was born near Leechville, Beaufort County, North Carolina on September 9, 1809. An exceptionally bright student, he graduated from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1828 prior to his nineteenth birthday. Subsequently he studied law, was admitted to the bar and commenced to practice in Washington, North Carolina. Entering politics in 1833 he was elected to the State House of Commons (1834-1836) and Solicitor for the district in 1842.

Elected to the Twenty-ninth Congress in the fall of 1844 he took the oath of office on 4 March 1845, the same day that his fellow Democrat and native North Carolinian, James Knox Polk, was sworn in as President of the United States. Defeated for reelection, Henry Selby Clark moved to Greenville, North Carolina and resumed the practice of law for some twenty years. His death occurred on 8 January 1869 and he is buried at his country home near Leechville, North Carolina.

W. A. BLOUNT STEWART

PART 4
RICHARD SPAIGHT DONNELL

Donnell, Richard Spaight, a Representative in the United States Congress, was the son of John Donnell (1791-1864), Judge of the Superior Court and his wife, Margaret Spaight. His grandfather was Colonel Richard Dobbs Spaight, Aide-de-Camp to General Richard Caswell, Commander-in-Chief, North Carolina Troops in Continental Service. Richard Dobbs Spaight's name is settled in the history of North Carolina and the nation, having been the first native born Governor of North Carolina (1792-1795), a member of the Continental Congress (1782-1785), elected to the Fifth and Sixth Congresses; his name, with those of William Blount and Hugh Williamson, is appended to the Federal Constitution. An accurate portrait of Governor Spaight hangs in Independence Hall at Philadelphia.

Richard Spaight Donnell, the subject of this sketch, was born in New Bern, North Carolina 20 September 1820, attended the New Bern Academy and Yale College, and was graduated from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1839; studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1840 and commenced practice in New Bern and Washington, North Carolina. He was elected a Whig to the Thirtieth Congress (4 March 1847-3 March 1849) and not






being a candidate for renomination in 1848, he returned to Washington, North Carolina and resumed the practice of law.

R. S. Donnell represented Beaufort County in the State Senate in 1858 and in the Commons in 1860, 1862, and 1864 and in the latter two sessions was elected Speaker. He was a delegate to the State Secession Convention of 1861 and to the State Constitutional Convention of 1865.

Blest with a competency, if not a superfluity of estate, he pursued his legal profession and politics more as an amusement than for profit or promotion. He was much loved by all who knew him for his genial and gentle manners, his high toned principles and his modest unassuming character.

Richard Spaight Donnell died unmarried and greatly lamented in New Bern, North Carolina 2 June 1867 and is buried in Cedar Grove Cemetery.

W. A. BLOUNT STEWART

PART 5
WILLIAM AUGUSTUS BLOUNT BRANCH

Branch, William Augustus Blount, a Representative in the United States Congress was the son of General Lawrence O'Bryan Branch, C.S.A., and his wife Nancy Haywood Blount, daughter of General William Augustus Blount and Nancy Haywood.

W. A. B. Branch was born in Tallahassee, Florida, 26 February 1847 and moved with his father to Raleigh, North Carolina in 1854 and lived in the elegant Branch home on the corner of Hillsborough and Dawson streets in that city.

His father was elected a Democrat to the Thirty-fourth, Thirty-fifth, and Thirty-sixth Congresses (March 4, 1855-March 3, 1861) but young Branch stayed in Raleigh and attended the celebrated Lovejoy Academy, Bingham Military Academy near Mebane, North Carolina, UNC at Chapel Hill and VMI at Lexington, Virginia. At the outbreak of the —Civil War, W. A. B. Branch joined the Confederate Army and served as a courier on the staff of General R. F. Hoke and surrendered with General Joseph E. Johnston's army in 1865. In 1867 he took charge of his landed estate near Washington, Beaufort County, North Carolina and engaged in agricultural pursuits. Adjacent to the Branch estate was Meadowville Plantation, the home of Major William Augustus Blount and his wife, Mary Bond Washington, and their children Nannie, Mary, Eliza, and William Augustus Blount III. A romance

developed between Eliza Blount and W. A. B. Branch, her first cousin. They were married in April 1866 at St. Peter's Church, Washington, North Carolina with the Rev. Nathaniel Harding officiating. These were trying times, as a former rector had defected to Rome and special care had to be exercised to overcome existing prejudice. There were some who objected to flowers on the altar and at the Blount-Branch wedding candles were to be used on the altar for the first time. When some members of the congregation objected, the Rector had them removed while the bridal party waited in the vestibule.

W. A. B. Branch was elected to the Fifty-second and Fifty-third Congresses (March 4, 1891-March 3, 1895) but was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection and again returned to agricultural pursuits at his estate. In 1896 he was elected to the State House of Representatives but declined renomination due to failing health. He died in Washington, North Carolina on 18 November 1910 and is buried in the Blount-Branch plot in Oakdale Cemetery.

W. A. BLOUNT STEWART

PART 6
JOHN HUMPHERY SMALL

Small, John Humphrey, a Representative in the United States Congress was the son of John Small and Janet Pugh, the grandson of Janet Bryan Hill (widow of Hardy Hill) and Colonel Whitmel Pugh who served as an Ensign in the Second North Carolina Regiment, Continental Line, and the great grandson of Theophiles Pugh and Mary Whitmel, the daughter of Thomas Whitmel and Elizabeth Hunter Bryan. John H. Small's earlier ancestor, Francis Pugh, came from Wales to the Province of Virginia in 1665.

John H. Small was born in Washington, North Carolina 29 August 1858, attended private schools, Trinity College (now Duke University), taught school and studied law. After being admitted to the bar in 1881 he commenced practice in Washington, North Carolina.

That John Small was a useful citizen of his state, city, and county is attested to by the following positions of trust which he held: Reading Clerk of the State Senate 1881, Superintendent of Public Instruction of Beaufort County 1882-1885, Editor of the Washington Progress 1883-1886, Attorney of the Board of Commissioners of Beaufort County 1886-1896, member of the City Council 1887-1890, Mayor of Washington in 1889 and 1890, delegate to all






Democratic State Conventions from 1889 to 1920, Presidential elector on the Democratic ticket of William Jennings Bryan and Arthur Sewall.

The charming and devoted wife of John H. Small was Isabella Carter Wharton, the daughter of Mary Latham Perry and Colonel Rufus Watson Wharton. This talented and beloved lady was born in Washington, North Carolina February 21, 1862 and died there 21 December 1953, having outlived her husband some seven years. When the Smalls were married they took a former slave, Melviny, into their household, and there she remained the rest of her life. When John Small was elected as a Democrat to the Fifty-sixth Congress in November 1898 Melviny accompanied the Smalls to Washington, D. C. and lived with them in their beautiful Georgetown home, where she cared for the three Small children, Mary Belle, Katherine, and John H. Small, Jr.

The devotion between the Small family and Melviny was legend in both Washington, North Carolina and Washington, D. C. In later years Mrs. Small faithfully saw to it that she was served —tea— promptly at five, when Melviny would say —Miss Bella the sun is sot,— and she arranged a room for her downstairs to save her from climbing stairs at ninety years. Melviny Small died some three years prior to Mrs. Small's death, which was on 21 December 1953. When Woodrow Wilson came to dinner at the Small home in Georgetown in November 1919 it was Melviny's honor to serve him. Mrs. Small had told her that when the time came she was to come in and announce dinner, not supper, for they called it dinner up north. Promptly at 7:30 she came in and said, —Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen dinner is served; now you all come get your supper.—

After twenty years of service in Congress, during which time he became known as the father of the Inland Waterway, Mr. Small practiced law in Washington, D.C. from 1920 until 1931. He then returned to his native Washington, North Carolina and retired from active pursuits. He died there on 13 July 1946 and is buried in Oakdale Cemetery.

W. A. BLOUNT STEWART

PART 7
HALLETT SIDNEY WARD, SR.

Hallett Sidney Ward, Sr., for more than half a century, a prominent and interesting figure in the legal and political life in eastern

North Carolina, was born in the farming community of Sandy Cross a few miles from Gatesville in Gates County, North Carolina, on August 31, 1870. He was the son of Nathan Owens Ward and Elizabeth Matthew Ward. He was the seventh of ten children. His father was a farmer who served in the Confederate Army in the —Civil War.

There were no public schools in Gates County at that time, and his education was not of the formal kind. His early schooling came in large part from impoverished Confederate soldiers who received room and board from various persons, including Nathan Owens Ward, in return for instructing their children. He was well acquainted with history, both ancient and modern. His knowledge of literature was broad and comprehensive, and he especially was well acquainted with English literature of the nineteenth century. His particular delight was the poetry of Tennyson and Lord Byron. He was a Bible scholar, and his knowledge of both the Old Testament and the New Testament was rivaled only by that of the best informed ministers. He could at one time recite the entire Book of Acts, and even when he was past eighty, he was able to quote from the Old Testament at length and with accuracy.

Mr. Ward never had any formal education until he attended the University of North Carolina in 1893. Before going to Chapel Hill, he worked in the log woods for part of a year to save the money to make it possible. He took what today would be called a —cram course— of some eight or ten weeks in the Law School. At the end of that time, he took the Bar examination and passed it.

After he obtained his license, Mr. Ward opened an office in Winton, but he soon discovered there were more lawyers than business, so he looked for greener pastures, and in 1895, he moved to Plymouth where he opened an office. In Plymouth, his career from the first was spectacular. He made a reputation in the political campaign of 1896, one of the few Democrats so to do in that year of overwhelming Republican victories. The biggest single incident in his spectacular rise into political prominence was his joint debate with John B. Respess, I, also of Washington, in Tyrrell County. An account of this event has spiced many political reminiscences, but the truth is so racy that it is not appropriate for this article.

He was elected to the State Senate in 1899 where he played an important role especially in the controversy that swirled around the attempted impeachment of Governor Russell. He was re-elected






in 1900, and thereafter was elected Mayor of Plymouth in 1902 and 1903. He was elected Solicitor (District Attorney) of the First Judicial District of North Carolina in 1904, and served in that office until 1910. In the same year he was elected, Mr. Ward left Plymouth and came to Washington, North Carolina, where he formed a partnership with the late Junius D. Grimes, Sr. The firm of Ward and Grimes was in the next quarter century to become one of the best known in all of eastern North Carolina. In the meantime, as a prosecuting officer, Mr. Ward distinguished himself by the vigor with which he prosecuted cases and his able, though sometimes unconventional, handling of the trial work associated with the office. It was here, as a play on his initials, that he was given the nickname of —Hot Stuff— Ward.

One of his cases is referred to in the legal history of the state as one of the most brilliantly prosecuted criminal trials in the history of North Carolina Jurisprudence. The case, State vs Harrison, is better known as the —Beasley Kidnaping— case. The defendant was a brother-in-law of former Governor Jarvis, and he was defended not only by former Governor Jarvis, but also by former Governor Aycock and Governor-to-be Ehringhaus, as well as Ike Meekins, later to be U.S. Federal Judge. The evidence against the defendant was entirely circumstantial and little chance was held for a conviction, but a conviction did result against all the odds. This case reached the Supreme Court of North Carolina, and the opinion in 145 N. C. 408 is unusually interesting. A fascinating account appears in the book Famous North Carolina Trials, which is in the local library.

In 1920, Mr. Ward took on another fight when he ran against the late John Small for the Democratic nomination to Congress. Mr. Small had ably represented this district for twenty years, and appeared to be unbeatable, but Hallet Ward won a convincing victory. However, he was not happy in the House of Representatives in Washington, D. C., and after two terms, he decided that he had had enough of political life and returned to Washington. Not long after, his first wife, Aileen Latham formerly of Plymouth, died and on August 6, 1929, he married Dora Bonner of Washington.

The firm of Ward and Grimes was dissolved in 1935, but Mr. Ward continued the active practice of law in Washington until his death in 1957.

Mr. Ward is survived by his wife, Dora Bonner Ward and a son,

Hallett S. Ward, Jr., who has followed his father in the practice of law and is presently serving as Chief District Judge of the Second Judicial District.

JOHN A. WILKINSON

PART 8
LINDSAY WARREN
CONGRESSMAN - 1924-1940
COMPTROLLER GENERAL - 1940-1955

Lindsay Carter Warren served in the U. S. House of Representatives for eight unopposed terms.

Mr. Warren was born on December 16, 1889 in Washington , N. C. He was the son of Charles Frederic Warren and Elizabeth Mutter Blount. Educated at Bingham Academy in Asheville, N. C. and at the University of North Carolina, he was admitted to the Bar in 1912. In 1916 he was married to Emily Harris. There are three children Emily Carter (Mrs. Dudley Jones) and two sons, Lindsay, Jr. and Charles, both of whom are lawyers.

Mr. Warren, an active Democrat, was elected County Attorney of Beaufort County at the beginning of his legal career. Moving swiftly thereafter, he served as president pro tempore of the State Senate, keynoter of the Democratic State Convention, delegate to the Democratic National Convention, trustee of the University and member of the Constitutional Commission. After service in the N. C. General Assembly, one term in the House and two in the Senate, he ran for Congress in 1925 and won the Democratic nomination hands down against four opponents. For sixteen years he served the First Congressional District and had no opposition. The following explanation was given by an old associate: —Lindsay conducted politics on personal contacts, not issues. He knew almost every voter by his first name.—

His service began in 1925 and he served continuously until November 1, 1940, when he resigned to accept an appointment from President Franklin D. Roosevelt to become Comptroller General of the United States.

He rose to a position of leadership in the House after brief tenure. He was a close friend and confidant of John Nance Garner who was elected Speaker of the House in 1930 and Vice President in 1932. During the first two administrations of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Warren presided over many pieces of important legislation






including the Reconstruction Finance Corporation Act, the Holding Company Act, the Selective Service Act and numerous appropriation and revenue measures. He was author and sponsor of the 1939 Reorganization Act, and of the Congressional Apportionment Act which is still in effect. He also was the author and sponsor of the Cape Hatteras Seashore Park Bill which authorized the first National Seashore Park in America. He was in the forefront of the fight for the Agriculture Adjustment Act of 1936.

For a number of years he served as Chairman of the House Committee on Accounts. He also served on the House Roads and Merchant Marine Committees. During his congressional career Mr. Warren showed great interest in agriculture, rivers and harbors, roads and Coast Guard legislation. He was a champion of efficiency in government and in reorganization of the Executive Branch. He maintained a close relationship with his constituents who resided in fourteen eastern North Carolina counties. Among other projects, he was a strong supporter of the Fort Raleigh project on Roanoke Island and obtained the appropriation for the Wright Memorial at Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina. In 1937 Life Magazine named Warren one of the ten most able and influential members of the House.

When his close friend, Speaker William B. Bankhead died, Warren was named Acting Majority Leader of the House. Had he remained in Congress he would have undoubtedly been elected to serve permanently as Speaker, but in 1940, he became Comptroller General of the United States.

After refusing President Roosevelt's call to be director of the General Accounting Office in 1936, again in 1938, and four times in 1940, he finally said —Yes— to the President's persistence. He was confirmed July 31, 1940, and took the oath of office on November 1, 1940.

As Comptroller General he was given the title —The Watch Dog of Federal Spending.— He improved and modernized government accounting and financial reporting.

When he was appointed Comptroller General the Senate paid him the unusual compliment of sending his nomination directly to the floor, bypassing the usual Committee investigation.

One of Beaufort County's memorable days was that of October 25, 1940, when Washington declared a —Lindsay Warren Day.— Supporters from every section of the First Congressional District gathered to pay tribute to the service which Lindsay Warren had rendered for sixteen years as their Congressman.

After a notable career in Congress, where he really preferred to stay, Lindsay Warren functioned brilliantly on the national level. He made the Comptroller's office a model of efficiency and economy in an era of government waste. (Information furnished by Lindsay C. Warren, Jr.)

PART 9
HERBERT COVINGTON BONNER

Bonner, Herbert Covington, a Representative in the United States Congress, was the son of Herbert Macon and Hannah Selby Hare Bonner, the grandson of George Miles and Eleanor Weathersby Latham Bonner and the great grandson of Richard Bonner and his wife Elizabeth Lee Bowen. Herbert Macon Bonner was the captain of the steamboat Hatteras which carried passengers and cargo from the port of Washington, North Carolina to points along the intercoastal waters. Herbert Bonner as a young boy sometimes accompanied —Captain Mac,— his father, on these excursions and his early love of the water and boating never left him.

Herbert Covington Bonner was born in Washington, North Carolina 16 May 1891, graduated from the Graham School at Warrenton, North Carolina and joined the George B. Helms Tobacco Co. as salesman, covering a five county area, by horse and buggy. He loved these trips and looked forward with genuine pleasure to the warm hobnobbing at the country stores. In 1911 he opened his own tobacco company with his brother-in-law, W. H. Williams, and continued in this business until —World War I when he volunteered and served as a Sergeant in Company I, Three Hundred and Twenty-second Infantry, with overseas service in the great Eighty-first Division. In 1923 he became an aide to Lindsay Carter Warren, then a member of the State House in Raleigh, and on 2 August 1924, married the lovely and gracious Eva Hassell Hackney, who was his devoted wife and constant companion for nearly forty-one years.

Elected as a Democrat on 5 November 1940 to the Seventy-sixth Congress to fill the term of Lindsay Warren, who had been appointed Comptroller General of the United States by President Franklin Roosevelt, Herbert Bonner was at the same time elected to the Seventy-seventh Congress. For his twenty-five years in Congress he was on the House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee and became its chairman in 1955. He was the author and






prime mover of all the most important maritime legislation enacted during his time and his knowledge of shipping laws and problems was phenomenal. As much as any member who ever served in the House, he understood the importance of the American Merchant Marine to our safety and security. His record in the House is a record of great dimensions—encompassing safety of life at sea, oceanographic advancement, the nuclear ship Savannah, the atomic icebreaker and fisheries research. There is no doubt that he did more to refurbish and strengthen the American Merchant Marine than any other man in the history of our country. Among the many significant pieces of legislation, in other fields, which he promoted and steered to passage were: the Small Boat Act of 1958, which gave a classification system to thousands more of our smaller boats and thus enhanced boating safety throughout the nation; and the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 which provided for the establishment of an independent separate agency for commercial fisheries, and also brought vastly expanded protection for our nation's wildlife. A magnificent bridge bears his name and links the once isolated Outer Banks of North Carolina.

On the record Herbert Bonner was the foremost moderate among the Tar Heel delegation in Washington. He supported Roosevelt's New Deal, stuck with his party leadership through successive administrations and went contrary to his colleagues when he bravely voted for the key Kennedy backed measure to enlarge the Rules Committee and break the hold on the hand of the past. Among other important votes recorded were those in favor of Lend Lease, Taft Hartley, Rent Control and the Marshall Plan. Contrary to popular feeling, he opposed a permanent House UnAmerican Activities Committee. He campaigned hard for John Kennedy in 1960 and was the first state democratic leader in 1964 to come out for the Democratic ticket—despite the very real possibility that Barry Goldwater's racial reputation might prove dangerously popular in his vast eastern North Carolina district.

One of the most descriptive tributes to Herbert Bonner came in his lifetime from Speaker Sam Rayburn, in 1957, when a portrait of Herbert Bonner was being placed in his committee room, to quote, —Herbert Bonner doesn't talk too much. So when he does talk, he challenges the attention of the House because he knows what he's talking about.—

Herbert Covington Bonner died at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D. C. on 7 November 1965, fittingly on a Sunday, a day of rest. His funeral was held in historic St. Peter's Episcopal

Church in Washington, North Carolina, a church he had been associated with all of his life. The service was conducted by the Reverend John Bonner who assisted the Reverend Irwin Hulbert, Jr., rector of the church, and the Right Reverend Thomas H. Wright, Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of East Carolina. The church was filled with aides, Congressmen, friends, Governors, Senators, and state officials, but the most splendid testimonial of all to the greatness of Herbert Bonner was from the warmth of the crowds of neighbors who filled St. Peters, as the reverence and respect in which he was held was everywhere evident; hundreds of school children lined the way to his last resting place, Oakdale Cemetery.

W. A. BLOUNT STEWART






CHAPTER XXV
THE JUDICIARY
by
NORFLEET DANIEL HODGES

PART 1
SUPREME COURT

Beaufort County for two hundred and seventy years of its existence has made great contributions to the Commonwealth, not the least of which is the contribution made by members of the legal profession which, beginning one hundred seventy years ago, has been without a superior in the history of the state.

There were six men of this illustrious bar who obtained the highest honor the state can bestow: Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina. They made great contributions to our Judicial system. The seventh, though he temporarily wore the honored robe of Supreme Court Justice, nevertheless has a tarnished reputation.

The first who presided in the highest tribunals of North Carolina was Christopher Gale. He served the infant colony of North Carolina during her early development. He resided at Bath in the early days of the town.

During a short period when Gale returned to England, Tobias Knight briefly held the office but allegations were made against him as they were against Governor Eden at Bath.

The last five served after the adoption of our republican form of government in 1776. They all lived in Washington and presided after the Act of 1818 established the Supreme Court on the present basis. They were Edwin G. Reade, Associate Justice; James E. Shepherd, Chief Justice; William B. Rodman, Associate

Justice; George H. Brown, Associate Justice; and William B. Rodman III, Associate Justice.

CHRISTOPHER GALE

Christopher Gale, born in Yorkshire, England, 1680, came to North Carolina in the latter part of the seventeenth century. He died in Edenton, N. C. in 1734.

Gale was the son of a clergyman of the Church of England, the Reverend Miles Gale, Rector of Kighley, in Craven, England. He was married to Mrs. Sarah Catherine Harvey, widow of Governor Harvey, one of the Colonial governors. He was one of the first inhabitants of Bath Town and was a lawyer.

On May 10, 1700, he received a grant of three hundred fifteen acres of land on the east bank of Adams (Back) Creek, which was then called the East Branch of Old Town Creek. He bought —52 acres and 4 poles— of land adjoining his grant and built his home —Kirby Grange— here. In 1716, he bought lot number sixteen and half of lot number seventeen in Bath Town.

After Gale and his wife Sarah moved to Bath Town they deeded Kirby Grange to their daughter Elizabeth Gale.

Mr. Gale was recorded as a Justice of the General Court in 1702, though there is reason to believe he held the position earlier. Gale was appointed Chief Justice in 1713. He was appointed a member of the Provincial Council or Lord Proprietors— Deputy, under Governor Eden. He held the office of Major of Militia, Collector of Customs, and Attorney-General.

Gale was apparently in England in 1710 to protest against Governor Burrington when scurrilous attacks were made against him in a letter to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel; however, the vestry of Bath in a letter to the same society wrote —that he had been very serviceable in promoting religious worship, and was well-informed in church matters relating to the Colonies.—

On Gale's return with Lawson and the Palatines, he was made Colonel of the Militia of Bath County. Later the title of Chief Justice was conferred upon him. He remained in that office until he returned to England in 1717, where he stayed for about five years. Upon returning to the Colony, he resumed his duties of office and was also collector of the —Port of Roanoke.—

In 1729 he was one of the commissioners appointed to run the boundary between Virginia and North Carolina with Colonel William Byrd of Westover. Byrd's —History of the Dividing Line— commemorates this expedition.






Gale's term of office as Chief Justice ended in 1731 soon after the close of the Proprietary government in 1729. After this date Gale was not active in the affairs of state. He was Collector of Customs of Edenton until his death in 1734.

TOBIAS KNIGHT

Tobias Knight lived in Bath on Archbell Point which had been the property of Landgrave Robert Daniel. Martha Wainwright Daniel, widow of Robert, sold the plantation June 5, 1718.

Tobias Knight was Secretary of the Colony under Governor Eden and was his neighbor as his land adjoined the Daniel plantation.

Tobias Knight was Chief Justice in March 1718. He made no contribution to the judicial system. He and Eden were suspected of knowing of Teach's (Blackbeard) activities and of receiving the spoils. Though charges were made against him, Knight was acquitted, and though his reputation has been tarnished by these allegations, because he held the great office of Supreme Court Justice and lived in Bath, his name must be included. He held office after Christopher Gale went to England, but only for a short period. Frederick Jones then assumed it, and when Christopher Gale returned, he took office again.

The following served after the adoption of our republican form of government in 1776. They all lived in Washington , N. C. and presided after the Act of 1818 established the Supreme Court on the present basis. They were: William B. Rodman, Associate Justice; Edwin Godwin Reade, Associate Justice; James E. Shepherd, Chief Justice; George H. Brown, Associate Justice; and William B. Rodman III, Associate Justice.

WILLIAM BLOUNT RODMAN
Associate Justice, 1869-1879

Judge William Blount Rodman was born in the town of Washington, North Carolina, June 29, 1817, and died March 7, 1893, in Washington, North Carolina. He was reared in the home of his grandfather, who built the sixth house in Washington, located in the first block of West Main Street.

He was the son of William Wanton Rodman, a lawyer of ability and a merchant of New York City and his wife, Polly Ann,

who was the daughter of John Gray Blount and Mary Harvey, his wife.

From his childhood it was noted that he had an extraordinary mental capacity. In 1832, at the age of fifteen, he entered college, graduating at Chapel Hill in 1836 at the age of nineteen. He studied law under Judge William Gaston of New Bern, North Carolina. He began the practice of law in 1838.

Mr. Rodman, in a short time, was regarded as one of the ablest and most learned practitioners in eastern North Carolina. In 1854 he, with the Honorable B. F. Moore and Mr. Asa Biggs were appointed by the legislature to revise the North Carolina Code, a work known as The Revised Code. This work is a monument to the research and ability of these men.

Mr. Rodman was married to Camilla Holladay Croom, daughter of Willie Jones Croom of Greensboro, Alabama on September 1, 1858. She died May 26, 1887. The children of this marriage were: Miss Lida T. Rodman, Mrs. Owen H. Guion, Dr. John C. Rodman, Wiley Croom Rodman, and William B. Rodman, a distinguished lawyer.

In 1863, Major Rodman was appointed by President Davis to serve as judge of a military court attached to the army of northern Virginia with the rank of Colonel. In 1865, he returned to Washington.

He was elected to serve as a representative from Beaufort County in the Constitutional Convention of 1866. Judge Rodman was the brains behind the writing of the Constitution of North Carolina but was prohibited from voting on the constitution because he had served as a Confederate Officer.

Judge Rodman was called to the bench of the Supreme Court in 1868, and took his seat at the January Term, 1869. At this time our jurisprudence underwent a radical change. Judge Rodman gave invaluable aid during this period. His opinions upon constitutional questions are regarded as among the very ablest in the records of the court, and will be studied as long as law is revised. He left his impress upon the statutory laws of our state.

EDWIN GODWIN READE
Associate Justice, 1868-1879

Edwin Godwin Reade was born at Mount Tirzah, Person County in North Carolina on November 13, 1812, and died on October 18, 1894, in Raleigh, North Carolina.






His parents were Robert R. and Judith A. (Gooch) Reade. He read law at home and was admitted to the bar in 1835, practicing at Roxboro.

He was elected to Congress for one term. Edwin Reade was president of the Reconstruction convention which met in Raleigh after the War in 1865 between the States. In that convention he met W. B. Rodman. They became close friends. In 1868 he became an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina and remained Associate Justice until 1879.

After the death of Reade's wife in early 1871, Reade was persuaded by Rodman to move to Washington, North Carolina and practice law. Here, late in 1871, he married Mary Parmelee, said to have been a beautiful and fascinating widow. Mrs. Parmelee lived on the northeast corner of West Main and Washington streets, When the Reades eventually moved to Raleigh, Charles F. Warren bought their home. This home, still standing on the corner of Main and Washington streets became the birthplace of the Honorable Lindsay C. Warren.

JAMES EDWARD SHEPHERD
Associate Justice, 1889-1891
Chief Justice

James Edward Shepherd was born July 22, 1844, at Mintonville in Nansemond County, Virginia, near Suffolk and died February 7, 1910. His father was Thomas Shepherd, whose grandfather was a member of the Virginia Convention when the Constitution of the United States was adopted, and was a prominent man in that state. Judge Shepherd's mother was Ann Eliza Browne.

He received most of his education at Murfreesboro Academy when his family moved to Hertford County, North Carolina. When only fifteen years of age he joined the Army to serve the South in the Sixteenth Virginia Regiment. After his discharge because of his youth, he studied telegraphy at Blackwater, Virginia. The end of the war found him in Wilson, North Carolina in the position of telegraph operator. However he was reading law at the same time. He completed the study of law at the University of North Carolina.

In 1871 he formed a partnership with Major Thomas Sparrow of Washington, North Carolina, and moved to Washington. He married Elizabeth Brown, daughter of Sylvester Brown and sister of Justice George H. Brown of the Supreme Court. He was active, diligent, painstaking and thorough, and a gentle, scholarly man.

For a number of years he was chairman of the Democratic Executive Committee. In 1875, before he was thirty, he was elected to the Constitutional Convention from the counties of Beaufort and Pamlico.

In 1882 he became Judge of the Superior Court and in 1889 took his seat as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court where he served for four years. Then he became Chief Justice by appointment of Governor Holt, a position which he filled for two years. He was nominated for the position in 1894 but was not elected due to the political complexion of the state at that time.

GEORGE H. BROWN
Associate Justice, 1904-1920

Judge George H. Brown of Washington, North Carolina was born on May 3, 1850 and died in the same town on March 16, 1926. His parents were Sylvester L. and Elizabeth (Bonner) Brown. On his maternal side, he was descended from James Bonner, the founder of Washington. On December 17, 1874, George H. Brown married Laura Ellison Lewis, the daughter of Henry A. Ellison and Eliza A. Tripp. He received a limited education at Horner's School, then located in Oxford, North Carolina, which he attended for two years. He credited the elder Horner with having stimulated the mental talents which eventually led to his distinguished career.

At the age of eighteen, he secured a position in New York City in a Telegraph Office, with Thomas A. Edison occupying an adjoining desk. In 1870 he went to Wilson, N. C. and began the study of law. In 1871 he returned to Washington and resumed the study of law under the guidance of James E. Shepherd, a diligent student and a master of legal principles. In 1872, George Brown received his law license. His answers to legal questions propounded by the court were concise and accurate. He opened a law office in Washington and formed a law partnership with Fenner B. Satterthwaite, which continued to the death of Mr. Satterthwaite. In 1885 he formed a partnership with John H. Small.

In 1889 he was appointed a Judge of the Superior Court by Governor A. M. Scales to fill a vacancy in the First Judicial District. He soon won distinction on the bench.

He served fifteen years as Judge of the Superior Court. In 1904 he was elected as an Associate Judge of the Supreme Court of the State. His record in the court of last resort is embodied






in more than thirty-two volumes of reports. He was re-elected in 1912. At the end of his second term, after sixteen years of distinguished service he declined a renomination. He retired at the close of 1920.

WILLIAM BLOUNT RODMAN, III
Associate Justice, 1956-1965

William Blount Rodman, III, was born in Washington, North Carolina, July 2, 1889. His parents were Colonel William Blount Rodman and Addie Fulford Rodman; his grandfather was Judge William Blount Rodman.

Mr. Rodman attended Horner's Military Academy, Oak Ridge Institute, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He received his A.B. degree in 1910 and attended U.N.C. Law School.

Licensed to practice in 1911, he returned to Washington, North Carolina, and as a Democrat became very active politically. He was Mayor of Washington in 1919-1920; State Senator from the Second Senatorial District, 1937 and 1939 and Representative from Beaufort County in the General Assembly of 1951, 1953, and 1955.

He married Helen Farnell August 17, 1918. The children of this marriage are Captain William Blount Rodman, 4th, U.S. Navy; Mary Helen (Mrs. John C. Hill, 2nd); Marcia (Mrs. George Lawrence); twin sons, George Farnell Rodman, Foreign Services, U.S. State Department; and Edward Newton Rodman, lawyer, Washington, N.C.

Mr. Rodman served in the Navy during —World War I. He was a member of the law firm Rodman and Rodman, Washington , N. C., 1937-1955. He was appointed Attorney General of North Carolina, July, 1955; Associate Justice North Carolina Supreme Court, August 1956 for the term ending December 31, 1962. He was re-elected for full eight year term November 6, 1962.

Mr. Rodman retired to Washington , N. C. following his eight year term, where he now makes his home.

Mr. Rodman through his entire career was a serious student of the law, an outstanding gentleman and a man of dignity and integrity. His family roots go back to the very beginning of this town, and the home of his ancestors was the last house to be torn down on the two business blocks of Main Street. This was the John Gray Blount home, and the sixth house to be built in the town of Washington.

PART 2
SUPERIOR COURT JUDGES—OF
FIRST JUDICIAL DISTRICT

The career of Judge Edward J. Warren who served as a Superior Court Judge at one period of his career is treated elsewhere.

MALCOLM C. PAUL

Malcolm C. Paul, Superior Court Judge, churchman, civic and community leader, was born in the Sidney Cross Roads area of Beaufort County on January 18, 1912, the son of Charles B. and Mildred Sadler Paul.

He graduated from Pantego High School and Wake Forest College from which he received his degree in Law.

On April 10, 1936, he married his high school sweetheart, the former Miss Hulda Winfield. They have a son, Charles Paul, and a foster daughter, Mrs. Leonard Keller of Long Island, N. Y.

In —World War II Malcolm Paul entered the service of his country in the Navy where he became a Commander. He saw combat service in the Pacific operations. After the war he came back to his native Beaufort County where he entered the practice of law. He was first a solicitor, then he served in the North Carolina Senate.

While serving in the State Senate in 1953 he was tapped by the late Governor William B. Umstead to be a North Carolina Superior Court Judge. In 1955 he was named Resident Superior Court Judge.

He was a member of St. Peter's Episcopal church where he served as a member of the Vestry. He was a Mason and Shriner, an Elk, a Red Man, a member of the American Legion and a director of the Bank of Washington, now the North Carolina National Bank.

During his tenure as Superior Court judge, he was recognized throughout the state as a man with a keen legal sense. He was called upon to serve as judge in some of the state's biggest and most complicated cases, both criminal and civil. Some of his decisions stand as legal landmarks today and they are often quoted in court trials.

Judge Paul died on January 20, 1963, at the early age of 51 years. He had made his mark, and he was at the point in






life where his leadership, wisdom, and general ability were playing a big part in the progress of his own Beaufort County and North Carolina.

ASHLEY FUTRELL

STEPHEN CAMBRELENG BRAGAW

Stephen Cambreleng Bragaw was born in Washington, North Carolina, February 22, 1868. He was the second son in a family of eight children whose parents were John Goldsmith and Ann Cambreleng Hoyt Bragaw. He died in Washington, January 8, 1930.

His father, John Goldsmith Bragaw was born on Long Island and came to Washington in 1857. The Bragaw family was descended from Bourgon Bracard, a French Huguenot. The family was a distinguished one and many were prominent in the Cause of Independence during the Revolution. John Goldsmith Bragaw was connected with the transportation companies in and around Washington. His wife was Ann Hoyt, the daughter of Henry C. Hoyt and granddaughter of Eli Hoyt, one of the largest merchants of this area before the —Civil War.

Stephen Bragaw grew up in Washington after the war when the town was fighting to restore itself and the wealthiest families were reduced to comparative poverty.

He attended Trinity School at Chocowinity for a year then secured an appointment to the Naval Academy of Annapolis but did not accept. He later attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill for three years. He worked and saved and borrowed in order to secure his education.

When he left school, he taught at Pollocksville in Jones County. From 1889 to 1891 he taught at Newbern Collegiate Institute.

In 1891 at the summer session at the Univesity Law School he completed the full law course in two months and ten days. In that same year he was licensed to practice law and began his practice in New Bern where he was elected City Attorney in 1893.

He married that year Maude Haywood Amyette of New Bern. The following year he moved to St. Louis, Missouri, as President of the Gilbert Elliott Collection Company. After a year he returned to Washington in 1895 due to ill health.

He served as Mayor in 1897-8, as City Attorney from 1900 to 1906, as County Superintendent of Schools 1902-03, and as State Senator from the Second Senatorial District in 1904. In

1912, Governor W. W. Kitchin appointed him Judge of the Superior Court from the First Judicial District; he was elected for the full term but resigned in 1914 because of his health. He resumed the practice of law in his home town. He had partnerships with Collin H. Harding, Hallett S. Ward, and Small & McLean.

Later he became a consulting attorney for other lawyers.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ashe's Biographical Dictionary of North Carolina

Dictionary American Biography

North Carolina Reports, Volume I

Who's Who in the South and Southwest, 1969-70, page 856

Speech by A. D. McLean made when portrait of Judge Stephen Bragaw was presented to the Supreme Court, September 1, 1931

In Memoriam—George Hubbard Brown






CHAPTER XXVI
OTHER OFFICE HOLDERS

Washington has had a number of distinguished citizens to hold public office on both state and national levels, in addition to those serving on the Supreme Court and in Congress. One that instantly comes to mind is Josephus Daniels, Editor of the News and Observer, Secretary of the Navy in the Cabinet of President Woodrow Wilson, and Franklin Roosevelt's Ambassador to Mexico. Mr. Daniels was born in Washington on May 18, 1862, two months after Federal forces had occupied the town. Though he did not live here in later years he kept throughout his life a tender spot in his heart for his birthplace. His career is too well known to require documentation here.

DIPLOMAT

Less well known is the name of another diplomat who was a native son, Churchill Caldon Cambreleng. He was the son of Stephen Cambreleng who came to America in 1780 from Teneriffe. He married Anne Patton, daughter of one of Beaufort County's Revolutionary heroes. Churchill was the eldest of their three children.

A brilliant boy, born on October 24, 1786, Churchill Cambreleng grew up, studied law, and married Phoebe Glover. But he did not remain in Washington. He went to New York where he established a law practice and became involved in politics.

In 1821 he was elected to the United States House of Representatives from New York. In the same election Martin Van Buren was elected to the United States Senate from New York. The two became fast friends.

In Congress Cambreleng made a name for himself as chairman of two powerful committees, the Ways and Means Committee and the Committee on Foreign Affairs.

His friend, Van Buren, became Secretary of State and then

Vice President before he ran for President. Cambreleng was very much involved in Van Buren's campaign for the Presidency, even coming home to Washington, North Carolina, to try to persuade his friends and relatives here to support Van Buren. In this effort he was unsuccessful since the solid South was committed elsewhere.

When Van Buren did become President in 1837 one of his first acts was to appoint Churchill Caldon Cambreleng as Minister to Russia. In St. Petersburg he served his country ably at the Court of the Czar.

GOVERNOR

Daniel Gould Fowle was the only native Washingtonian to ever serve North Carolina as Chief Executive. The son of Samuel Richardson Fowle and Martha Barney Marsh, Dan Fowle was born on March 3, 1831 and named for his grandfather. He graduated from Princeton at the age of twenty and then studied law with Chief Justice R. M. Pearson. As soon as he was admitted to the bar he married Judge Pearson's daughter, Ellen. The first year he practiced law he earned a grand total of sixty-four dollars.

Fowle distinguished himself as an officer in the Confederate Army. He was captured and was a Federal prisoner for a brief time. Before Governor Vance appointed him Adjutant General (March 14, 1813) he was a Lieutenant Colonel in the C.S.A.

He was first elected to the Legislature, then appointed a provisional judge. In 1866 he was elected to the Superior Court Bench for life. However, he did not serve long, preferring to resign rather than enforce orders of the military governor during the reconstruction years.

His ability, his charm, and his oratory kept him in the public eye. He stumped the state in behalf of his favorite political candidates on the Democratic ticket. Several times he, himself, ran, and was defeated, for public office. Victory came in 1888 when he was elected Governor. Washington, his native town, celebrated the election with a mammoth torchlight parade.

Daniel Gould Fowle was inaugurated as Governor on January 17, 1889. It was pouring rain in Raleigh on that day and the ceremonies had to be held in Stronach's warehouse.

By this time he had lost both of his wives. Ellen had died during the war and in 1867 he had married Mary E. Haywood of Raleigh. Their grandson, Robert A. Fowle, is a well-known citizen of Washington today.






Governor Fowle and his children—there were six—moved into the uncompleted Governor's Mansion. It was being built by inmates of the State Penitentiary. The bricks used were made by the convicts in a brick kiln at the prison.

The Governor immediately held an elaborate reception for members of the Legislature and other government officials. This was the first social function held in the present Governor's Mansion. It established a tradition of entertaining legislators as soon as they arrive in Raleigh, which has continued to this day.

Governor Fowle was not destined to serve as Chief Executive for long. He died on April 8, 1891, one month after his sixtieth birthday. During his brief administration he created the Railroad Commission which was designed to protect the state from the abuse of power while at the same time recognizing the railroads interests.

P.M.W.

ANGUS DHU MACLEAN

Angus Dhu MacLean was born in Maxton, North Carolina, on July 12, 1877, the son of John Allan MacLean and Mary Virginia Brown MacLean. His early education was in private schools in Maxton and in the Academy of Professor W. G. Quakenbreak at Laurinburg. He then entered the University of North Carolina, where he studied law.

Mr. MacLean married Annetta Everett, of Laurinburg, in October 1900. To them were born one son and four daughters.

At the insistence of his uncle, Judge George H. Brown, he came to Washington, North Carolina, the former home of his mother, and became a law partner of the Honorable John H. Small. Mr. Small was the Representative in the United States Congress from the First Congressional District of North Carolina and Mr. MacLean carried the responsibility of their law practice. From time to time other lawyers became associated with the firm, among them being Mr. Harry McMullan, Judge Stephen C. Bragaw, Judge William B. Rodman, Jr. and John C. Rodman, Jr.

Mr. MacLean devoted himself to his profession until 1927 when he was elected to the General Assembly of North Carolina. He served there in 1927-1929-1931 and in the Senate in 1933. His legislative career was notable for the bitter fight led by him in the behalf of the public schools, which resulted in enactment of legislation providing for an eight months school term at the expense of the state.

In 1933 he was appointed Assistant Solicitor General of the United States. Later he became Assistant Attorney General. In this capacity he was in charge of preparing the Gold Clause Cases, which have been called the most important cases since the —Civil War. These cases tested whether bonds, notes, and securities payable in gold coin could be legally paid in other currency. The cases were won by the United States Government, thereby averting the bankruptcy of the Government.

He resigned his position in 1935 and became senior member of the law firm of James H. Pou, Sr., upon Mr. Pou's death. Shortly after beginning practice in Raleigh he died on September 1, 1937.

Mr. MacLean was a reserved and dignified man, considered by many who did not know him well to be cold and unfeeling. His family knew a very different person, one who bestowed loving care on all its members, with a keen interest in their activities. It was his great pleasure to take his wife and four daughters on shopping trips, taking much interest in the selection of their clothes—with a favorite color for each one. His warmhearted concern for his daughters is what they remember best about him.

(Information furnished by Mrs. A. T. Jennette).

The following tribute to Ford S. Worthy is quoted from a speech made by the Hon. Lindsay C. Warren in presenting a portrait of the late United States Marshal to the U. S. District Court at Washington , N. C. on October 30, 1956.

UNITED STATES MARSHAL

In 1933 President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Ford S. Worthy United States Marshal for the Eastern District of North Carolina. He served for twenty-one years, longer than anyone else in the history of the state save General Beverly Daniel of Raleigh, who, appointed by President Jefferson, served as Marshal from 1808 to 1840. Worthy was the second man to serve as Marshal from Beaufort County. Col. S. T. Carrow, a Republican, was named by President Grant as Marshal and served from 1869 to 1873.

Mr. Worthy was born on November 2, 1881, and died on July 13, 1956. His father, James Alexander Worthy, was a well-known attorney in Moore County, and his mother was Emma Eugenia Spencer, a native of Hyde County. His father died in his early manhood. Times were hard in those days so young Worthy looked






beyond his home for a job. He found it here in Washington in the drugstore of Drs. William A. and John G. Blount, and from then until his death he was a resident of this city.

By hard work and diligence, he became a registered druggist and was highly regarded in his profession. In 1911, he formed a partnership with S. B. Etheridge, under the firm name of Worthy and Etheridge. This business was an institution in eastern Carolina and lasted for thirty-five years.

From the beginning of his residence here, Ford Worthy became actively identified with Washington and Beaufort County. He stood for the best things in the community and he was one of the leaders in causes near to his heart. In those days our schools were hardly worthy of the name, our streets and roads were mud holes; we ignored public health and sanitation; a county rich in its soils ranked near the bottom in agricultural know-how. In each of these movements for a better county and a better state, he was a progressive and out in the forefront. He shocked those staid old-timers in our town when he advocated higher taxes for public improvements and those things that would make Washington a better place to live in.

He served on the Board of Aldermen; was Chairman of the Beaufort County Board of Elections; and for twenty years was a member of the Democratic State Executive Committee. In 1921, he was appointed by Governor Cameron Morrison as a member of the N. C. Board of Conservation and Development. He was reappointed by Governors McLean and Gardner and served for a period of twelve years.

Ford Worthy was one of North Carolina's pioneer conservationists. He loved the great outdoors, the woods and the streams, the game and the fish. He strove for the conservation of our forests under intelligent cutting and replanting programs. He advocated fire protection and drainage. He had the greatest interest in our seafood and went to other states to look over their programs. He hewed to a delicate line for the rights of the commercial fisherman to make a living and for the protection and encouragement of the sports fisherman. He stood adamant in his opposition to those who sought the profits of the hour by breaking down and weakening our statutes for the protection and conservation of our natural resources.

He also loved people. He lived by the side of the road. His personality, together with his contagious smile, drew people to him as a choice spirit worth knowing. He was a fair adversary and

fighter, intolerant of shortcuts and underhand methods. In every action he took the high road.

One of the leading citizens of eastern Carolina, Worthy helped to make this a richer town and county by reason of his presence here.

NORTH CAROLINA ATTORNEY GENERAL

The record of Harry McMullan is also noteworthy. Flags atop the State Capitol and every building in Raleigh fell to half staff when Harry McMullan died. An able and devoted public servant, he held the office of State Attorney General for seventeen years.

Born in Hertford on July 23, 1884, the son of Dr. J. H. McMullan and Carolina Tucker, he graduated from the University of North Carolina Law School. In 1907 he moved to Washington to join the firm of Small and McLean. On October 4, 1911 he married Pattie Baugham and in 1913 he opened his own law office.

After many years of public service in various capacities in his home town of Washington, McMullan went to Raleigh in 1933 to become Director of the Collections and Assessment Division of the North Carolina Department of Revenue. Five years later he became Attorney General.

After his sudden death from a heart attack on June 24, 1955, Lynn Nisbet wrote in his syndicated column:

—In the death of Harry McMullan, attorney general of North Carolina for the past 17 years, the entire South has suffered distinct loss. His absence is likely to be more fully appreciated as time goes on. For North Carolina the loss is greater and is coupled with a feeling of personal sadness by nearly every citizen of the state.

Just a few months past his 70th birthday, he had served in high official capacity longer than any other person presently connected with the administration of state government. . . McMullan was appointed attorney general in April of 1938. Before that, however, he had served for two years as chairman of the Industrial Commission and a year as Assistant Attorney General.

As chairman of the National Association of Attorneys General and of many important committees of that body, he had contributed tremendously to the maintenance of Southern ideals in connection with the off-shore land cases, segregation decisions and other matters involving the principle of states rights.

As constitutional adviser to the Council of State and the entire