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Carteret County: economic and social

Date: 1926 | Identifier: HC108.C33 L43X 1926
This book describes the background of Carteret County and its people; industry and agricultural production, including local practices and conditions of the region; schools; and the progress that the county has made. more...
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Map of Carteret County
North Carolina

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[Illustration:

Top—Dairy Cattle. Upper Middle— Carteret County Court House. Lower Middle—Grading and Packing Irish Potatoes. Bottom—Old Fort Macon.
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[Illustration:

Top. left—Scene on Old Canal. Top, right—Scene on New Canal. Middle—Cape Lookout Lighthouse. Bottom—U. S. Bureau of Fisheries.
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[Illustration:

Top—Beaufort Graded School. Middle—Morehead City Graded School. Bottom—Newport Graded School.
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I THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Aleeze Lefferts, H. C. Lay, C. W. Lewis

The location of Carteret on the Atlantic coast of North Carolina accounts for the beginning of its history at an early date. Old Topsail and Ocracoke Inlets are famous in the early history of North Carolina as gateways to the mainland and both of these inlets are passages to Carteret. These inlets offered harbors to vessels during stormy weather and proved excellent gates of entrance to the mainland. These are some of the reasons why the earliest explorers visited Carteret and why some of the earliest settlers came there.

Early Explorations

In 1524, Giovanni Davenazzano, a Florentine navigator in the service of France, visited the Cape Fear region, remained there a few days and then turned northward to explore the coast. He made stops at every opening or inlet, touching Carteret first at Old Topsail inlet, then at Ocracoke Inlet. Giovanni and his crew were probably the first white men to visit Carteret.

Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlow set out in 1854 to explore the coast of the new world for Sir Walter Raleigh. After sailing sixty-seven days they arrived at Roanoke Island. From Roanoke they explored the coast southward for six weeks, stopping on the mainland and islands where they found Indians friendly and food in abundance. These explorers reported to Raleigh the names of the territory as given by the Indians. “The Indian name of the Albemarle Sound was Occam, and into it flowed a river called Nomopana, and near the mouth of this river was a town called Chowanook, and the name of the king thereof was Pooneno. The Pamlico shores of the county of Carteret were called Secotan, and those of Craven, Pomonick. Secotan was under the king of Wingandaceo, and Pomonick under an independent king named Piamacum. In the interior, toward the setting sun, the country was called Newsiok, and through it coursed the river Neus.” Barlow's account of a visit to the Island of Wingandacoa, which was somewhere within Ocracoke Inlet and in Core Sound near the mainland called Secotan, is given by Ashe in his History of North Carolina. This island was probably Cedar Island or one of the islands near it.





After Barlow and Amadas reported a favorable trip to Queen Elizabeth, Raleigh secured a charter to send a colony to the new world. Ralph Lane was placed in charge of this colony of one hundred and eight men. They left England in seven ships in 1585 and were one month and twelve days in reaching the country later called Carolina. Three days later they narrowly escaped being wrecked on a beach which they called Cape of Fear. After three more days the colony reached Wocokon, a part of the North Carolina banks now known as Ocracoke. The colony spent the next month in exploring the mainland and islands of Core Sound and Pamlico Sound. This was the third expedition from the Old World which stopped at Carteret. At the end of a month the colony moved up to Hatteras and to Roanoke Island where they started the first English colony in America. Lane left for England in order to get supplies. When he returned in 1590 he found his colony gone and only the word Croatan carved on a tree to indicate their whereabouts. A legend still further connects this colony with the history of Carteret. Tradition says that this colony became mixed with the Indians by intermarriage, that some years later Indians in the locality of Carteret and adjoining counties told of parents with blue eyes and said that they could read out of books. The family names of many of the people in Carteret correspond to those given for Lane's Colony according to Hawks’ History of North Carolina. Some of these names are: White, Baily, Stevens, Howe, Johnson, Willes, Smith, Brown, Little, Taylor, Lucas, Berry, Butler, Wright, Chapman, Harris, Martin, Jones.

The next white men to visit Carteret, in 1652, were settlers from Virginia. Roger Green, a clergyman from Nansemond County, Virginia, played an active part in bringing settlers south of the Chowan river. This section includes Carteret County. In 1654 Francis Yeardley, a son of Governor Yeardley of Virginia, was sent on an expedition to explore the region which now includes the counties of Currituck, Camden, Pasquotank, Perquimans, Bertie, Washington, Tyrrel, Dare, Hyde, Beaufort, Pamlico, Craven, Carteret and Onslow. During the same year the Governor of Virginia reported, “Small sloops owned by Virginia settlers are employed in visiting the sounds of Carolina for the purpose of hunting and trading with the Indians.” These small vessels carried back much game and valuable products of trade made with the Indians as well as wonderful reports of the country visited. This news spread among the settlers in Virginia and caused those people to wish to move to the new region to the south because lands there





were free from quit rents. In 1656 the Virginia Assembly commissioned Thomas Dew and Thomas Francis to explore the coast between Cape Hatteras and Cape Fear and these men also visited Carteret. Settlers from Virginia were gradually spreading southward to the section known as Albemarle. In 1663 Charles the Second of Great Britain granted the land known as “Carolina” and part of Georgia to the eight Lords Proprietors. Among these proprietors was Sir George Carteret, and after his death in 1679 his son with three other proprietors bought Sir William Berkley's share of Carolina for three hundred pounds. At this time Albemarle was the only section settled by white men, but these settlers were looking for more land, better land, and cheaper land and continued to move slowly southward along the coast. Massachusetts and Pennsylvania had also sent out trading and exploring vessels to the shores of Carolina, and by the year 1650 the people of New England were beginning to migrate southward to Albemarle and counties along the coast. In 1669 the Proprietors decided to divide Albemarle into four precincts named Carteret, Berkley, Shaftesbury and Albemarle—this was a part of the Grand Model of the Proprietors. It did not meet with success as the thinly settled precincts, such as Carteret, objected to the rent on land being paid in silver rather than provisions. Peter Carteret, a relative of Sir George Carteret, was governor of the province at this time and the dissatisfaction increased to such an extent that he abandoned the colony and went back to England in 1673. By 1688 settlers from Albemarle had spread southward along the coast as far as the Cape Fear settlement.

Territorial Beginnings

In 1696 Bath County was separated from Albemarle, and Carteret by this division was in Bath County, Archdale Precinct. Bath County extended from Albemarle Sound down to the undivided limits of the province and when Carteret Precinct was established some years later, it included the entire unsettled region embracing the Cape Fear and down to the South Carolina line. The settlements in the region about Carteret were not growing rapidly because of trouble with the Indians. The northern part of the county around Cedar Island was most thickly settled. These first settlers were French Hugenots from Virginia. In 1710 De Graffenreid and Lawson brought a colony of Swiss and Germans who settled along the banks of the Neuse. Most of them remained around that vicinity but some of them, looking for more room and better land,





moved over to the Core Sound region. Carteret was now increasing in population. In 1712 the Core and Tuscarora Indians staged their last war on the whites in Carteret. They destroyed much property and many lives. Among those who lost their lives was John Lawson, the earliest historian of the state. Colonel Moore in 1712 closed the war by marching into Carteret and completely subduing the savages in a battle near the present town of Beaufort. In the same year a fort was built on Core Sound to protect the inhabitants. It was named in honor of Governor Hyde. After the Indian war was over settlers came more rapidly to the territory around Core Sound and North River. Most of these settlers came from the Berne colony, others came from Virginia, Albemarle and New England. In October, 1713, the town of Beaufort was laid out into lots which were sold to purchasers. In the following February tracts of land on Bogue Sound were taken up. Also in the same year a grant of land was issued to John Porter reaching from Drum Inlet to Topsail Inlet, which tract included Port Lookout. The Lords Proprietors allowed Governor Hyde to issue patents for land, not to exceed six hundred and forty acres in a body, requiring a cash payment of twenty shillings for every hundred acres and an annual rent of one shilling. These terms applied only to Bath territory as Albemarle was held under the reat Deed.

The Indian troubles were scarcely over when privateering became a menace to the settlers along the Carolina coast. The pirate most familiar in North Carolina history is Teach, better known as “Blackbeard.” He used Core Sound as a place to hide when he was being chased on the Atlantic, and all the harbors of Pamlico Sound were known to him. His ship, the Adventurer, was captured on November 22, 1718, by Lieutenant Mayard near Ocracoke Inlet. “Teach's Hole” is still pointed out by pilots on Pamlico Sound.

The Council established Carteret Precinct in 1722, including all the settlements in that direction and the town of Beaufort was incorporated into a seaport entitled to a collector of customs. A road was ordered opened from Core Point to New Bern. The following year it was decided that growth of this part of the province was being retarded for lack of commercial facilities. To improve this condition a navigation act was passed to encourage a settlement on Ocracoke Inlet because of the good harbor at this place. In 1729 the first Assembly was called together after Carteret was obtained by the English Crown. At this Assembly Carteret had two members





and in 1733 it still had only two members. Gabriel Johnson was the royal governor of the province.

Some Early Land Grants

From 1735 to 1750 a great many land grants were issued by the King's Council for lands in Carteret County or Precinct. In the following list of grants familiar Carteret County names are recognized.

Petitions granted in 1735:

Thomas Lovick and Francis Thornton, 640 acres.

Arthur Mabson, 640 acres.

Joseph Morgan, 640 acres.

Petitions granted in 1736:

John Webster, 208 acres.

Nic Bryant, 327 acres.

George Cummins, 400 acres

John Starkley, 400 acres.

Carry Godbee, 200 acres.

David Sheppard, 100 acres.

Petitions granted in 1737:

Theopelos Norwood, 640 acres.

Bryant McCullin, 500 acres.

Anthony Cox, 300 acres.

David Turner, 200 acres.

Charles Cogdale, 422 acres.

Petitions granted in 1738:

John Webster, 140 acres.

John Dudley, 270 acres.

Richard Lovit, 100 acres.

John Shaw, 640 acres.

Petitions ganted in 1739:

Joseph Sessums, 268 acres.

Joseph Calvert, 292 acres.

Bradberry Cook, 100 acres.

Sam Noble, 320 acres

Moses Houston, 300 acres.

John Small, 300 acres.

Nevil Bell, 200 acres.

William Shackleford, 500 acres.

Petitions granted in 1740:

Thomas Lovick, 400 acres.

William Houston, 300 acres.

John Roberts, 400 acres.

Francis Allways, 300 acres.

Joseph Bale, 100 acres.

Michiel Pasquornett, 400 acres.

John Hodgson, 350 acres.

David Shepard, 100 acres.





Petitions granted in 1741:

Frank Brice.

Joseph Noble, 500 acres.

Henry Stanton, 480 acres.

James Salter, 200 acres.

Petitions granted in 1742:

John Webster, 250 acres.

Stephen Lee, 200 acres.

John Shackleford, 640 acres.

Nicholas Hunter, 200 acres.

Petitions granted in 1743:

George Bell, Jr., 200 acres.

David Bailey, 300 acres.

James Yeats, 200 acres.

Charles Cogdale, 100 acres.

James Winwright, 375 acres.

Thomas Morton, 200 acres.

George Read, 300 acres.

Nath Martin, 275 acres.

Peter Barton, 100 acres.

Benjamine Weeks, 200 acres.

Sam Chadwick, 175 acres.

Jonathan Bangs, 48 acres.

Johnson Simpson, 480 acres.

Petitions granted in 1744:

Thomas Lewis, 100 acres.

Moses Houston, 300 acres.

Thomas Nelson, 300 acres.

William Coles, 200 acres.

George Styring, 100 acres.

Petitions granted in 1745:

John Saunders, 300 acres.

Nevil Bell, 200 acres.

James Johnson, 200 acres.

Lancaster Lovick, 200 acres.

Valent Wallace, Sr., 150 acres.

William Frazier, 100 acres.

Nathaniel Smith, 300 acres.

Petitions granted in 1746:

William Salter, 200 acres.

Peter Baston, 100 acres.

Petitions granted in 1747:

John Willison, 200 acres.

John Lipton, 200 acres.

Valentine Wallace, 100 acres.

John Hicks, 100 acres.

Thomas Nelson, 200 acres.





Petitions granted in 1748:

Nathan Smith, 400 acres.

Thomas Nelson, 640 acres.

George Bell, 200 acres.

George Cogdale, 200 acres.

Thomas Dudley, 400 acres.

John Nelson, 156 acres.

Robert Savage, 300 acres.

George McKeen, 250 acres.

James Johnson, 200 acres.

William Whitehurst, 350 acres.

Thomas Lewis, 100 acres.

Petitions granted in 1749:

Samuel Negus, 100 acres.

Samuel Smith, Cedar Island.

Habakuck Russel, 50 acres.

Joseph Roads, 100 acres.

Petitions granted in 1750:

David Hecks, 50 acres.

Western Williams, 300 acres.

Thomas Chadwick, 40 acres.

Andrew Bet, 50 acres.

Church Bell, 400 acres.

Seth Robens and Isaac Scrivers, 400 acres.

Jobeth Weeks, 100 acres.

Thomas Matchett, 100 acres.

John Anderson, 100 acres.

John Williams, 200 acres.

Petitions granted in 1751:

John Gillet, 250 acres.

Lancelot Lovett, 200 acres.

Lewis Trott, 200 acres.

By 1757 land grants in Carteret had reached 47,617 acres. The above list of grants given may not be entirely correct but it gives some idea of the families first taking up land in Carteret.

Carteret was divided into four districts in 1745 as follows: (1). Northeastern Part of Newport River. (2). Southeastern Part of Newport River. (3). From Beaufort Township to Core Creek Bridge. (4). From County Courthouse at Beaufort to North River and Extreme East. This was for convenience in building and repairing roads and bridges. Thomas Baker was appointed treasurer of Carteret and several other eastern counties.

The Spaniards

In 1741 several Spanish Privateers took possession of Ocracoke Inlet and seized the vessels arriving there. They also landed and carried off the cattle of the inhabitants. Eventually they were driven away but their depredations were so great that provisions





had to be supplied to the distressed people at a cost to the province of more than ten thousand pounds. Again in 1744 they boldly entered the harbor of Beaufort. Major Enoch Ward hastily gathered some militia and held them at bay until August 26, when they succeeded in gaining possession of the town itself. In a few days, however, Colonel Thomas Lovick and Captain Charles Cogdell came to the rescue with a sufficient force, and early in September the Spaniards were expelled, suffering considerable loss. Later in 1753 Gov. Dobbs recommended that another fort be built near Ocracoke Inlet and the town of Portsmouth laid out. This Fort was called Fort Granville. Here commerce would have the protection of guns. In the same year a poll tax was levied on all taxable persons of Carteret. Some funds were necessary. Thomas Lovick with a regiment at Beaufort consisting of two companies of 195 men was collector at Beaufort in 1754, and in one of his reports he says, “No arms, no ammunition and no Indians.”

In 1755 Governor Dobbs visited Beaufort and the surrounding vicinity. This visit was made because of the unopposed raids of Spaniards on the coast of North Carolina. He found the work started on a fort on the land side of the sound, but he immediately decided that the fort should be built on Point of Bogue Island near Old Topsail Inlet. This change was made at once and the fort was called Fort Hampton. It was made of wood and kept in use, more or less, until after the war of 1812. It was replaced by the present Fort Macon.

Internal Improvements

From 1754 to about 1761 a number of bills were passed for improvements in Carteret County. An act was passed for the creation of parishes in Carteret for the promotion of the Protestant religion. An act was passed in 1754 by the King's Council to improve, mend and repair roads, bridges and water courses already laid out or thereafter laid out in Carteret. Two years later another bill was passed to change the method of work on roads and operation of ferries to more economical methods. Another act in 1762 gave the right to every freeholder in Carteret to serve on the jury. All entries for land in Carteret at this time had to be made with the Surveyor-general at Bath. In 1767 an act was passed to erect a beacon at Old Topsail Inlet and others through Core Sound—each vessel coming and going through Old Topsail Inlet must pay a toll or tax. Another act passed by the English Council was to prevent the ultimate destruction of fish in Core Sound, Bogue Sound, and Straits of Carteret. Due to the fact





that Ocracoke was not included in any county, the Governor, the Council and the Assembly included it in Carteret.

Reverend John Reed was pastor of Saint John's Parish in Beaufort which was located where the present Methodist church is now. He complained of trouble with the Methodists and asked for aid from the secretary of the Church of England. The settlers of Carteret at this time were so destitute that they were incapable of supporting the minister of Saint John's Parish which was the Church of England's Parish.

Carteret in the Revolution

When the call for troops came in 1771 to support the Revolutionary forces Carteret's detachment, consisting of one company, marched into New Bern from Beaufort under the command of William Thompson, Colonel; Solomon Shepard, Lieutenant Colonel; Thomas Chadwich, Major; and Malachi Bell, Second Major. In 1774 the Craven and Carteret detachment marched out of New Bern with two field pieces, six swivel guns mounted on carriages, and with supplies that would last them on their route to Hillsboro. During this year the first free and independent assembly met in New Bern. William Thompson represented Carteret County. In 1776 John Blackledge offered to Congress his salt plant to make salt during the war for eight shillings per bushel. And Robert Williams in a letter to the North Carolina Council of Safety says: “I am going to abandon the salt works till summer and tend to rice crop which is on thirty acres.” John Easton was appointed paymaster for the two independent companies commanded by Captain James Anderson and Captain Enoch Ward. One thousand pounds were put in his hands for this purpose. He was also to run a salt plant for the government at Gallant's Point. John Easton and Bryce Williams were appointed by Congress to purchase, receive and procure fire arms for the use of the troops.

The last court held in Carteret that recognized George the Third met in Beaufort the 19th of March, 1776. The next court was held in June but George the Third was not mentioned.

When the English brigantine, William, anchored in Beaufort Harbor April 10, 1776, it was seized. On May 10, the North Carolina Provincial Congress opened negotiations with Virginia to supply two ships from that province to help guard Ocracoke Inlet. Congress was also of the opinion that the situation of Beaufort and the inlets adjacent were such that it appeared absolutely necessary that a considerable military force should be stationed near, or at that town. In 1777 British cruisers undertook to close the channel





of commerce through Ocracoke Inlet. But many vessels continued to come in bringing ammunition and supplies and privateers were constantly sallying forth to prey on the British. Among these vessels were the Sturdy Beggar, the Nancy and the General Washington. In September, 1777, two English frigates appeared at Ocracoke Inlet and destroyed several ships ready to sail. Immediately the Sturdy Beggar with fourteen guns, and the Pennsylvania Farmer with sixteen guns sailed to clear the harbor. The inhabitants of Carteret now demanded that Old Topsail Inlet be fortified.

June 6, 1778, a French ship arrived at Cape Lookout with dry goods. The ship was the French frigate, Ferdinand, carrying thirty-six guns and two hundred men. Her goods were advertised for sale at Beaufort March 12, 1778. The French in this way were a great aid to the war stricken settlers.

In 1783 a tax of four pence was levied on every hundred pounds of taxable property, to go toward repairing public buildings in New Bern. The General Assembly of North Carolina also levied a tax of eight pence on every hundred acres of land and two shillings and two pence on every hundred pounds value of town lots. The money from this was to go toward clothing and housing the poor. In 1785 another act was passed to tax inhabitants of the county, the money from which was to go toward granting bounties to persons who “killed or otherwise destroyed” any wolves, bears, panthers or wildcats in Carteret County. Years before, the historian Lawson had complained of not being able to sleep on account of howling panthers and wildcats when he visited Carteret and Craven.

In 1779 a part of Carteret was annexed to Jones County. Carteret was flourishing as a trade center. The report of John Dawes, customs collector, showed that Carteret owed the state 1,896 pounds of customs collected.

Carteret in the War of 1812

In the war of 1812 Carteret sent troops in the 2nd Regiment with other eastern counties. But her outstanding contribution was the noted commander, Otway Burns. He came to Carteret from Onslow, engaged in seafaring, and soon became captain of a coasting vessel plying between Beaufort and New York. When the war of 1812 commenced he obtained from the United States government letters of marque and reprisal, and built, through the aid of several wealthy persons as a stock company, a fast sailing ship called the Snap Dragon. She was fully armed and equipped with cannon, guns and men. His intimate knowledge of the Carolina coast and





the daring of a chosen crew of men soon made the name of Otway Burns a terror to all the British in American waters. He captured and destroyed a large number of English prizes and brought into Beaufort heavy cargoes of valuables. He established quite a market for the merchants of all eastern Carolina. From an observatory on the top of a high building, the old Atlantic Hotel, he used a spyglass and commanded an extensive view of the ocean. His ship was kept with a ready crew and anchor tripped. When he espied the English colors his fast vessel was soon in pursuit. In England the British Council decided that he must be captured and had a fast sailing vessel built as a merchant ship and with concealed arms. The Snap Dragon was deceived by his ruse and Burns and his crew were taken prisoners. They were released after the war.

Railway Development

The coming of the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad to the port towns of Carteret played a vital part in the history of the two towns. In 1852 the railroad received its charter—the road was to begin at Goldsboro and terminate at Beaufort at a cost of $900,000. In 1854 the town of Beaufort planned to take $100,000 worth of stock but in the following year decided to let the county take half of this amount. The Stock Company had Walter Quinn, a surveyor, measure the distance and pick out the best place for the railroad to terminate. The places picked were Gallant's point, Lenoxville, Shepard's Point and Beaufort. About this time land speculation sprung up around the vicinity of Beaufort. New Bern now tried to gain a controlling stock in the company, which it succeeded in doing, and the building of the railroad was delayed by the controersy arising over the change made in stockholders. When New Bern gained controlling stock they began to ask for contracts but in the meantime ex-Governor Morehead became interested in a tract of land known as Shepard's Point. He bought this tract of land from the Arrendell's estate and shortly afterward offered the Atlantic and North Carolina stockholders to take $100,000 of stock and build some of the road, the thirteen miles from Clumper's Creek to Shepard's Point, the cost of which he would deduct from his stock, if the stock company would build the road to Shepard's Point instead of Gallant's Point near Beaufort. The railroad company accepted the proposition and the road was started from Goldsboro to Shepard's Point. Land speculators began to buy up land in the vicinity at once, and three miles from Shepard's Point a town was laid out and named Carolina City. It was to be a resort





and commercial city because of the nearby harbor and the railroad connections being made with the western part of the state. Governor Morehead began to sell his land at Shepard's Point in 1857. Lots were laid out and a town planned. His land sale on November 11, 1857, was the first public land sale to be held in Carteret, and the first day $13,000 worth of property was sold. The town was named Morehead City in honor of Governor Morehead. He planned to make his town a second New York City, believing that with the excellent location of the seacoast and with a railroad running from Asheville to this port, it would be possible to bring the products of the state here for shipment to foreign countries and to larger cities. The first train ran from Goldsboro to Morehead City on June 7, 1858. This was the beginning of the present seaside resort named in honor of its founder, Morehead City.

In 1860, just before the beginning of the Civil War, Carteret contained four hundred square miles of territory and had a population of 8,186. Then in 1861 came the secession of North Carolina and the ravages of the civil struggle which Carteret felt rather heavily.

Carteret in the Civil War

Troops were formed at Beaufort and the “Old Topsail Rifles” tendered to the Confederate government in May, 1861. They were assigned as Company C to the 2nd regiment at Fort Macon and were taken to a camp at Weldon for training and returned in September to Fort Macon. Another fort was hastily constructed at Ocracoke and Fort Macon was put in good condition and well garrisoned. This fort, which had taken the place of Fort Hampton in 1836, was built of the strongest masonry at a cost of $175,000. The regiments at Fort Macon were the 27th Volunteers and the 1st North Carolina Volunteers. The 7th North Carolina Regiment went to New Bern in August, 1861, and did picket duty at Bogue Island, near Fort Macon. They were later moved to Morehead City and then to Newport. In March, 1861, they went to New Bern where they were defeated by the Federals and driven back toward Kinston. Company C of the 2nd North Carolina Regiment was organized at Beaufort with 133 men including officers. Captain S. D. Pool was executive officer. They were transferred to Coast Artillery later and Captain Pool was promoted to Colonel of the 10th Regiment. Companies B, F, G and H were stationed at Fort Macon under Colonel White until its capture. The 10th Regiment did picket duty around New Bern, Wilmington, Goldsboro and Kinston





until May, 1863. Picketing was also maintained on Shackleford's Banks and at Cape Lookout where much valuable information from the enemy was procured. A salt plant established at Morehead City was attacked and captured by the enemy just before the attack on Fort Macon. The attack upon the fort began on March 23, 1862, when General Parke of the Federals moved his forces to Carolina City, took possession of Morehead City and Beaufort, and demanded the surrender of Fort Macon. Colonel White refused. The armament of the fort was forty-four guns, fitted to defend the harbor from sea attacks but the guns were now brought to bear on the land side. Everything was prepared for a long siege. On April 11, General Parke began to land his troops on the “banks” and skirmishes took place in which the Federals were stronger. General Burnside came down to Morehead City to affect a surrender on April 24, but with no success. On April 25 an attack was made by land and also from the sea by the blockading squadron. The boats were driven off but the land guns could not do much to the Federal troops. Finally Colonel White realized that his flag would have to come down and on April 26, 1862, he surrendered the besieged fortress. The Confederate loss was seven killed and eighteen wounded. The captured garrison was paroled—some of them going inland and others to Wilmington.

After the capture of Fort Macon, Newport was attacked and the Confederates were defeated by the 103rd New York Cavalry. The 43rd Massachusetts Infantry came through Morehead City on their way to New Bern. They were transferred to Morehead City by boats.

When Sherman was at Goldsboro in March, 1865, getting his army in condition for further fighting, he had all his equipment and material transported from Morehead City and Wilmington over the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad and for this purpose he had many repairs made, especially on the bridges, eleven of which had been burned between Goldsboro and Morehead City.

Reconstruction

The days of reconstruction began in 1868 with a majority of Carpetbaggers in the legislature. The conflict between the whites and Negroes took on a threatening aspect. As far back as 1821 there had been an insurrection of the Negroes of Carteret and one or two adjoining counties. Now the Negroes stationed at Fort Macon committed atrocities at Beaufort and even threatened to turn the guns of Fort Macon on the town if the people did not release





some Negro prisoners. Finally General Ruger forbade any Negro leaving the fort unless with a white officer. Many colored troops were organized by carpetbaggers and in their enthusiasm at having so much power they drilled all day and celebrated all night. The Freedmen's Bureau settled free Negroes on confiscated and abandoned lands and helped them in many ways to get adapted to their new condition. They even established food stations to feed them. No help was given to the white people until the yellow fever epidemic when the government established a hospital at Beaufort. In 1867 a company of ninety men and three officers were stationed at Beaufort for the purpose of maintaining order among the conflicting factions of reconstruction programs.

The United States sloop, Huron, was wrecked off the coast of Carteret by a severe storm in 1874 and soon afterward the United States government established the line Life Saving Stations along the coast of North Carolina which are today the protection of men following the sea. The remarkable feat of N. H. Bishop who arrived at Beaufort after having traveled from Quebec in a canoe through inland waterways, pointed out the feasibility of an inland waterway which would lessen the danger of Cape Hatteras and plans for the present Boston-Beaufort Inland Waterway was the result of this discovery.

The Great War and After

Camp Glenn, formerly Carolina City, was established in 1913 as a training camp for the North Carolina National Guards and many thousand men were trained there for the Mexican War. During the great war Camp Glenn was turned into a Coast Guard Air Station where men were trained in the use of Hydroplanes with which to patrol the coast. The camp is still a Coast Guard Station. Carteret furnished men to the Army and Navy during the last war, built ships and patrolled the coast and made war savings investments. Most of Carteret's volunteers went into the Navy for which many of them were already trained and therefore Carteret's list of Naval Officers was long. Probably the most distinguished service done by a Carteret man in the late war was that of Youman Weeks who was a Corporal in Company F, 118th Infantry. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for extraordinary heroism in action near Bellicourt, France, September 30, 1918, and October 8, 1918. Corporal Weeks on the morning of September 30, when two enemy machine guns were making a part of the line untenable, advanced across open ground





upon one of the guns, rushed the position alone, captured the gun and five of the enemy, and shot down the sixth who endeavored to escape. By this gallant act he prevented the enemy from enfilading our position and thereby saved the lives of many of his comrades. In a later advance he was killed.

In Carteret's history, which is long and very hard to obtain accurately, the most historic features, as we have seen, are the old town of Beaufort and Fort Macon located on the banks near Old Topsail Inlet to guard the entrance to Beaufort Harbor. Beaufort is still the county seat of Carteret, it looks out upon the same historic harbor; and it holds within its old streets the marks of wars and of honors in the past. Its population has reached 3,500 and like its twin city, Morehead, just across the water, has become a resort town with tourists in summer flooding its water-front driveways and giving it, for the moment, a cosmopolitan appearance.

Fort Macon, no longer of service to the United States as a fortification, has long since fallen into decay and visited only by tourists interested in its history. In 1924 Congress gave Fort Macon and the four hundred acres of land belonging with it to the state of North Carolina to be used as a state park. The old fort is in the midst of a string of government establishments, among them Camp Glenn, near Morehead City, the United States Laboratory for research in marine biology on Piver's Island near Beaufort, and the numerous Coast Guard Stations on the beach.

SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Ashe, S. A., History of North Carolina, Vols. I and II, Greensboro, Charles L. Van Noppen, 1908.

Clark, Walter, The State Records of North Carolina, Goldsboro, Nash Brothers, 1905.

Conner, R. D. W., The History of North Carolina, Chicago and New York, Lewis Publishing Co., 1919.

Conner, R. D. W., Race Elements in the White Population of North Carolina, Raleigh, The College, 1920.

Hawks, F. L., The History of North Carolina, Vol. I, 2nd Ed., Fayetteville, Hale, 1857.

Jones, J. S., Memorials of North Carolina, New York, Scatcherd and Adams, 1838.

Hakluyt, Richard, Early English Voyages to America, Vol. II, Edinburgh, E. and G. Goldsmid, 1889.

Lawson, John, History of North Carolina, Charlotte, Observer Printing Co., 1903.

Moore, John W., History of North Carolina, Vols. I and II, Raleigh, Alfred Williams and Co., 1880.

Porter, O. D., Naval History of the Civil War, New York, The Sherman Publishing Co., 1886.





Saunders, William L., Colonial Records of North Carolina, Raleigh, P. M. Hale.

Scharf, J. T., History of the Confederate States Navy, New York, Rogers and Sherwood, 1887.

Todd, V. H., Von Graffenried's Account of the Founding of New Bern, Raleigh, Edwards and Broughton Co., 1920.

Weeks, J. W., History and Biography of North Carolina, Vol. I, Scrapbook.

Wheeler, J. H., Reminiscences and Memoirs of North Carolina, Columbus, O., Columbus Printing Works, 1884.





II NATURAL RESOURCES

H. C. Lay

Geography

Carteret County is situated in the east central part of the Coastal Plain of North Carolina. It is bounded on the north by Craven County, the Neuse River, and Pamlico Sound; on the east by Core Sound, on the south by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the west by Onslow and Jones Counties, being separated from Onslow County by White Oak River. According to the 1920 census report Carteret County contains 366,720 acres.

Topography and Soils

The topography varies from swampy country principally in the north eastern region, to fairly high land in the western part, although there is swampy country scattered here and there all over the county. The highest elevations occur in the western end of the county. The elevation at Newport is 19 feet above sea level while at Beaufort and Morehead the elevation is 12 feet.

Core and Bogue Sounds are separated from the ocean by a long narrow strip of land known as the banks, which extends along the ocean front of the county. The continuity of the banks is broken only at Beaufort, Ocracoke, Bogue, and Whalebone inlets. Many large sand dunes are found on these banks.

The county is split up very much especially in the eastern portion. Newport River, North River, and Cedar Island Bay serve to make communication difficult on the mainland while Core and Bogue Sounds separate the banks from the mainland.

The high sandy loam soils of Carteret County are well suited to the raising of truck products and general farming. Recently drained land that is very largely muck is suitable for corn, cabbages, onions, and celery.

Large quantities of fertilizer are used annually by Carteret farmers. In 1920, 806 farms reporting out of a possible 858 farms, used $163,613 worth of fertilizers.

Climate

The climate of Carteret County is very mild with few cold days in winter. It is a common sight to see roses and other varieties of





flowers in full bloom at Christmas. The average temperature for 1925 was 64.1 degrees Fahrenheit. The rainfall was well distributed throughout the year, September being the one exception. For 1925 the average rainfall was 3.9 inches per month. The following table shows the temperature as recorded at the United States Biological station at Beaufort.

Temperature Chart for Beaufort, N. C., for 1925.
MonthMean (Degrees Fahrenheit)HighestLowestTotal Precipitation (Inches)
January4768275.94
February5470303.97
March5671253.33
April6380401.47
May6988501.37
June7190697.11
July8193687.57
August8092653.55
September809265.49
October6687414.37
November5577412.89
December4869124.78
MEAN64.1Degrees Fahrenheit.3.9 ins.

Carteret County has a growing season of 365 days.

Forests

The forests of Carteret County form an important natural resource and lumbering gives employment to many people. The location of most of the standing timber is in the western and central parts of the county. The standing timber comprises 42,189 acres or approximately 11.2 percent of the total area of the county. A large part of it is in pine, but gum, poplar, oak, juniper, and cypress are plentiful. The timber is used for various purposes; pine lumber for shipment or for local building purposes forms the largest use, but large quanities of pine and gum are used in the manufacture of barrels. Cypress, juniper, and oak are used for boat building. There are three saw mills in the county besides a lumber manufacturing plant and several box and barrel factories.

The forests of the county are important in so much as they form a source of fuel and lumber, in the manufacture of which are employed many people who depend on it for a living.

Much of the waste land is cut over timber land which has been allowed to grow up in underbrush or has been burnt over from time to time. This land could be planted in trees after cutting over and owing to the natural rapidity of growth the trees would soon be ready to cut again. Disastrous fires have often destroyed valuable






[Illustration:

Top—Dairy Cattle. Upper Middle— Carteret County Court House. Lower Middle—Grading and Packing Irish Potatoes. Bottom—Old Fort Macon.
]









timber due to the carelessness of a camper or someone burning brush.

The present tax system does not encourage land owners to let their trees grow until they are big enough for timber. Each year the trees are taxed accordingly to their size and the tax increases in proportion to their size. Then the landowner cuts them for timber prematurely because the total tax has become so great that he considers it unprofitable to let them grow longer. Furthermore, the average landowner does not like to pay taxes on his property and get no return; it would be much more desirable to have the entire tax paid when the timber is sold.

Water Surface

Carteret County is different from most counties in that out of 366,720 acres within its boundaries 158,789 acres are water surface. A large part of the water surface is contained in Bogue, Core, and Pamlico Sounds. The principal rivers are North, Newport, and White Oak the last of which separates Carteret from Onslow County. There is approximately 19,802 acres of swamp land in the county. Since Carteret is a tidewater county it is natural for swamps to form. Some very good timber can be found in these swamps, and they afford an excellent refuge to wild animals. The drainage of the county is good because all the land is so near the water that a ditch will drain it unless it is unusually low.

The coast line of the county is approximately 85 miles long and consists of five reefs called “banks”. They are broken by Beaufort, Bogue, and Whalebone inlets. Beaufort and Morehead City are the two most important harbors in the county. Both towns are on the Inland Waterway which runs from New York to Beaufort. Twelve feet of water may be had by vessels on the Inland Waterway. In Core and Bogue Sounds vssels have navigable channels of three to six feet of water, while on the bar at Beaufort vessels drawing up to seventeen feet of water may enter.

Water transportation is furnished the county by two lines of freight boats running from Morehead City and Beaufort to Newbern, Washington City, and Norfolk.

Flora and Fauna

Carteret County is an ideal spot for the naturalist for it abounds in plants and animals. Nearly all plants can grow here although there is not enough clay for some. The climate is such that many plants do not have to be protected during the winter





months. It is a common sight to see roses and many other flowering shrubs blooming at Christmas. The Camelia Japonica flourishes in this mild climate. The county is noted for its holly, mistletoe, and yaopon.

The animal life of Carteret County is very abundant. Deer, bear, turkeys, wildcats, squirrels, minks, opossum, and raccoons are plentiful, especially around the swamps. Large numbers are killed every year and owing to the inroad of the sawmill on the refuge places there will soon be a very small number of these animals unless some steps are taken to preserve them. The bird life of Carteret County is large in variety and numbers. Most of the birds are migratory such as the ducks, geese, brant, swan, snipe, plover, herons, and many other species. Many bald-headed eagles have their habitat around Carteret County, while fish hawks, owls, and other birds of prey are common. There are several heron rookeries in the county, the one on Craney Island being of special interest.

The abundance of wild fowl attracts many hunters to the county every year and the fowl are suffering from their onslaughts.

Fishing Industry

The three natural industries of Carteret are agriculture, lumbering, and fishing. Of these three fishing is by far the most important. North Carolina is the most important fishing state on the South Atlantic coast, doing a $2,414,499 business in 1923. Carteret County carries on the largest fishing industry in the state, amounting to $729,363 in 1923, which is 30.2 percent of the total for the state.

The scallop industry of North Carolina is practically limited to Carteret County. Thousands of gallons of scallops are shipped to northern markets each year; 55,826 were shipped in 1924. Owing to heavy rains most of the scallops were killed last year and so the State Fish Commission declared a closed season until they have an opportunity to become abundant again.

Clams constitute another important phase of the fishing industry. They are able to keep well for several days and because of this hundreds of bushels are shipped north and to inland towns each year. In 1924, 11,468 bushels were shipped.

The oyster industry is an important item in the fishing industry. In 1924 Carteret County produced 128,905 bushels of oysters. There are more oyster shucking houses and canning plants in the





county than in all the rest of the state. The only two wholesale shippers of oysters in North Carolina are located at Morehead City.

Owing to the recent scare about the supposed oyster pollution the State Fish Commission equipped the patrol boat “Pamlico” with a laboratory under the charge of Mr. T. R. McCrea to ascertain as near as possible the amount of pollution of North Carolina oyster beds. As yet the pollution has been far below that of other states and there has been no cause to condemn any oyster beds.

Shrimps are another source of revenue to the fishermen. Shrimp trawling forms an occupation for many people. Hundreds of pounds of shrimp are canned annually at Morehead City and Beaufort. In 1924 the catch amounted to 42,540 pounds.

The shipments of food fish from Carteret County are very large, the catch in 1923 was 6,894,899 pounds, exclusive of oysters, clams, and scallops. The principal food fishes are trout, spots, croakers, bluefish, mackerel, shad, pigfish, mullet, sea mullet, harvest fish, butter fish, flounders, and drum. The wide variety of fish offers very good opportunities to fishermen with all types of nets. There are about 260 species of fish known around Beaufort and its vicinity.

Perhaps the most important phase of the fishing industry is menhaden fishing and the manufacturing connected with it. In 1918 the catch amounted to 90 million pounds, while in 1923 the catch was only 40 millions of pounds. The menhaden is used in the manufacture of fish scrap and oils. The fish scrap is used for fertilizer and for stock feed, while the oil is used in paints and in the manufacture of soap. There are approximately 1500 people employed in the menhaden fishing industry and its associated manufacturies.





STATISTICS OF FISHING INDUSTRY IN Carteret County SHOWING NUMBER OF PEOPLE ENGAGED AND INVESTMENT FOR 1918
Persons engagedNumber
On vessels fishing656
On vessels transporting35
In shore fisheries1,251
Shoresmen766
Total2,708
InvestmentNumberValue
Vessels fishing
Gasoline49$356,150
Tonnage1,026
Outfit142,350
Sail
Tonnage26
Outfit5,144
Vessels transporting
Gasoline22
Tonnage177
Outfit8,025
Sail4
Tonnage36
Outfit925
Boats
Sail, row, etc.4149,755
Power461112,875
Apparatus, vessel fisheries
Purse seines38102,600
Gill nets13800
Lines50
Dredges421,530
Tongs1682
Apparatus, shore fisheries
Haul seines1233,185
Purse seines11,000
Gill nets1,87749,305
Pound nets26824,750
Fyke nets
Lines230
Otter trawls13390
Dredges4921,525
Tongs and rakes182432
Eel pots2535
Other apparatus370659
Shore and accessory property543,480
Cash capital74,000
Total$1,475,828





PRODUCTS OF THE FISHERIES OF Carteret County 1918 AND 1923
Product1918 Pounds1918 Value1923 Pounds1923 Value
Alewives75,636$ 3,77424,850$ 895
Angel fish3,8001555,000252
Bluefish261,05532,545511,19045,199
Bonito3,01510727,8502,557
Butter fish71,9994,379177,4269,350
Catfish
Cero151,87110,6151,139124
Crevalle20411
Croaker232,2269,8631,734,49534,700
Drum, red and black32,1651,33296,4703,347
Eels1,50015015,5352,325
Flounders8,17554370,7623,419
Gizzard shad
Hickory shad23,61111,44966,8503,399
Menhaden90,232,799480,21240,707,940203,639
Mullet:
Fresh405,85519,804495,40434,365
Salted22,5004,0006,800760
Perch, white
Pigfish152,3804,859277,8355,714
Pike
Pinfish18,3802381,06040
Pompano2,76833215,3601,501
Sea Bass59,6505,763102,2658,217
Shad53,99413,753103,31926,044
Sheepshead17,099988136,1852,322
Spanish Mackerel115,33011,372131,17513,568
Spot792,56511,372766,24817,919
Squeteague1,584,096122,3231,234,19085,772
Striped Bass99513335,9906,502
Sturgeon54027
Suckers
Yellowtail8,108229
Shrimp450,1089,385252,7928,606
Crabs:
Hard2,000150
Soft233,66523,811181,99627,673
Terrapin6057
Turtles7,500443007
Clams47,1768,103115,19226,292
Oysters879,97731,9251,592,90689,602
Scallops415,57230,768554,57446,214
Shark hides19,1252,868
Other aquatic hides1,050157
Harvest fish, or “starfish”319,0707,892
Grunts1,10033
Sea Mullet190,65010,971
Snapper1,20084
Tautog755
Total196,479,790$857,82749,765,511$739,363





Carteret County COMPARED WITH THE TOTAL FOR North Carolina IN THE NUMBER OF POUNDS OF FISH FOR 1918 AND 1923 ACCORDING TO THE IMPORTANCE OF THE VARIOUS FISHES
SpeciesCarteret CountyNorth CarolinaPercent of State
191819231918192319181923
Alewives75,63624,85014,473,8206,522,397.5.3
Bluefish261,055511,190322,055896,69480.757.
Butterfish71,999177,426731,257298,9909.959.5
Clams47,176155,192197,576263,53624.43.7
Crabs235,665181,996379,310513,64662.35.3
Menhaden90,232,79940,707,940179,910,59963,289,94050.264.
Mullet428,355502,2041,128,0291,749,71238.28.8
Oysters879,9771,592,9061,518,7243,917,39658.41.
Scallops415,572554,574422,832554,57498.100.
Shad53,994103,3191,657,0362,370,2343.2.4
Spot729,565766,2481,236,0951,751,72364.24.4
Squeteague1,584,0961,234,1903,361,2463,984,34742.231.
Striped Bass99535,990286,538477,001.37.5

The United State Biological Station

The Bureau of Fisheries established a station on Piver's Island in 1902. The laboratory was established primarily to furnish aid to the fishing industry but it also serves as a laboratory for students doing scientific investigation. A terrapin hatchery is operated here in an effort to restock the marshes of North Carolina with the diamond back terrapin.

Some recent investigations directed from Piver's Island are: The Mullet Investigation, Investigation of Summer Fisheries of Pamlico Sound, and Investigation of the Scallop Problem.

Owing to the rapid decrease of the mullet in North Carolina, the United States Bureau of Fisheries started an investigation in 1925 under the direction of Mr. Elmer Higgins. Before any steps could be taken to conserve the mullet it was necessary to learn its life habits. In connection with this a tagging experiment was put on in which 3,000 fish were tagged. As yet no recommendations have been offered for the regulation of the fishery.

During the summer of 1925 the Bureau of Fisheries with the cooperation of the State Fish Commission investigated the action of pound nets and long haul seines on fish. The results were that, of the two species forming the bulk of the catch in pound nets, grey trout and harvest fish, about half were under the marketable size, while practically no destruction occurs by long haul seins





until October. The wastage of the pound nets occurs during June, July, August, September, and October. The State Fish Commission, upon recommendation, passed a ruling establishing a closed season on pound nets until August 1st.

During 1925 such heavy rains occurred that the scallops were seriously decreased. Accordingly Mr. James S. Gutsell was finally secured by The State Fishery Commission from the Bureau of Fisheries to work out a solution. After much study of the problem he recommended a closed season until the scallops had an opportunity to spawn. As a result the season was opened January 18th, 1926. Although the scallops are small they are found in considerable quantities in some parts of the county.

Scenic Places and Tourist Advantages

Carteret County is very fortunate in having very good natural advantages for pleasure seekers. Its excellent beaches on the sound and ocean attract thousands of people every summer. The prevailing breezes makes a delightful summer resort, while in winter it is warmed by the Gulf stream so that the climate is very enjoyable. The county is on the eastern end of Route 10 thus assuring good roads for those who prefer to motor down. In the waters around Carteret County abound large numbers of fish that are sought for by many sportsmen during the summer. The sounds and rivers offer a feeding ground for countless numbers of ducks and geese. Many sportsmen come each year to take advantage of the opportunities that nature affords them here.

Fort Macon, near Beaufort, is one of the historic spots in North Carolina. Fort Macon had its origin in 1755 under the name of Fort Hampton. Fort Hampton was only a wooden structure. In 1836 the fort was rebuilt of masonry and named Fort Macon. After its surrender to the Federal forces in 1862 it was held by a small garrison and finally dismantled. The Federal government has recently granted it to the state to be set aside as a State Park.





III THE COUNTY'S PEOPLE

Aleeze Lefferts

The Values of Human Bookkeeping

To have a record of Carteret's people which is based on statistics—to have written down how they have lived, with facts about their homes, health and interests; how they have worked, fished, farmed and manufactured; and how they have progressed from year to year is to view the county as it is and not as one hopes it is or imagines it to be. It is possible also by means of statistics to compare the achievements of Carteret's people with the achievements of the people of other counties. When Carteret's citizens are called upon to pass judgment upon county government and county programs of work they must judge the present and future needs of the county by their knowledge of the processes which brought success or failure in the past. Carteret's successful business men plan their work upon the basis of the facts obtained from good bookkeeping. Cannot a county do the same thing with success? This chapter presents some of the facts about the people of Carteret County.

Total Population

The one hundred counties of North Carolina averaged 25,591 inhabitants each in 1920. In that year Carteret ranked 68th in population with 15,384. But in the last nine census reports Carteret has shown a steady increase in population. Only one census report of the fifteen given below shows a decrease in the population of Carteret and that was a decrease of less than one percent in 1840. Carteret annexed a piece of territory from Craven County between 1880 and 1890 which affected the increase of population shown by the census of 1890.

Of the nine North Carolina counties bordering the Atlantic ocean, Currituck, Dare, Hyde, Pamlico, Onslow, Carteret, Pender, New Hanover and Brunswick, Carteret ranked next to New Hanover in both population for 1920 and the percentage increase of population between 1910 and 1920. New Hanover increased 26 percent in population during the decade and Carteret 11.7 percent.

There were 3,413 families in Carteret occupying 3,231 homes in 1920. Of these homes 851 were rented by the families occupying them and 2,446 homes were owned by the families, or in other





words, 76 percent of the homes in Carteret are owned by the families occupying them.

The following table shows Carteret's population by decades since 1790.

TOTAL POPULATION OF Carteret County: 1790-1923
YearPopulationPercent Increase or Decrease
CarteretNorth Carolina
17903,732
18004,39917.621.4
18104,8239.616.2
18205,60912.115.0
18306,59717.615.5
18406,591- .0012.1
18506,9395.315.3
18608,18617.914.2
18709,01010.07.9
18809,7848.530.7
1890*10,82510.515.6
190011,8119.117.1
191013,77616.616.5
192015,38411.716.0
1923†15,963
* Territory was annexed from Craven County between 1880 and 1890.
† The figures for 1923 are estimated by the Bureau of Census.

Townships

According to the last United States Census report there were thirteen townships in Carteret County. Nine of them were officially numbered and four were townships created since 1910 from parts of adjoining townships. The townships are: White Oak (1), Morehead (2), Newport (3), Beaufort (4), Straits (5), Smyrna (6), Hunting Quarters (7), Portsmouth (8), Merrimon (9). Harkers Island Township and Carteret Township were organized from parts of Straits Township; Cedar Island Township was organized from a part of Hunting Quarters Township; and Harlowe Township was organized from a part of Newport Township. These last four townships created since 1910 have not been officially numbered. The population figures for the townships in the following table will include any town or village within them. The table shows the trend of population for the nine townships from 1900 to 1920.





POPULATION OF TOWNSHIPS WITH PERCENTAGE INCREASE AND DECREASE: 1900-1920
Townships1920Percent Increase or Decrease1910Percent Increase or Decrease1900
White Oak881-11.91,0009.7912
Morehead3,86724.33,10937.72,259
Newport1,093-9.81,2122.61,181
Beaufort4,09918.43,45911.53,012
Straits905-37.41,44518.01,224
Smyrna894-20.71,25416.01,081
Hunting Quarters1,7241.41,70011.21,520
Merrimon4559.6415-12.0472
*Portsmouth376
Cedar Island376
Carteret5
Harkers Island681
Harlowe404
* Returns from Portsmouth and Cedar Island made together, 1920.

This table shows Merrimon Township losing population from 1900 to 1910, and White Oak and Symrna Townships losing population from 1910 to 1920. The decreased population of Straits and Newport Townships is perhaps explained by the decrease in territory since 1910.

Rural and Urban

The United States Census treats as urban all incorporated places of 2,500 inhabitants or more and the remainder of the county as rural. Carteret's population was counted as entirely rural until 1920. The census for that year gave the urban population of Carteret as 5,926 which was the combined populations of the two largest towns, Beaufort and Morehead City. In 1920 the urban population was 38.5 percent of the total population and the percent of increase of population of all incorporated places was 29.3 while the percentage increase of open-country population was only 12.3 showing a slight trend toward urbanization.

In 1920 North Carolina was 80.8 percent rural and 19.2 percent urban. The United States, on the other hand, for the first time showed a higher urban than rural percentage—51.4 percent against 48.6 percent.

Open-Country Population

In 1920 the percent of open-country population in Carteret was 53.6 percent of the total population. In the state the open-country population was 71.4 percent of the total population. By “open-country” is meant those who dwell for the most part in isolated farm houses.





The following table gives the open-country population with percentages for the last three decades.

OPEN-COUNTRY POPULATION OF CARTERET 1900-1920
YearOpen-CountryPercent in PopulationPercent Increase or Decrease
19007,90966.9
19108,40961.06.3
19208,15453.612.3

Carteret shows a decrease in open-country population from 1910 to 1920 and also from 1900 to 1910. This fact further illustrates the drift toward the town and city that is taking place in Carteret County.

Density of Population

The total density of Carteret per square mile was 26.8 inhabitants in 1920 while the state averaged 52.5 inhabitants to the square mile. Carteret's rural population per square mile was 16.5 which was the lowest rate of rural population per square mile of the forty-nine counties having one or more incorporated places of 2,500 inhabitants in 1920. The open-country density per square mile in Carteret in 1920 was 12.7 inhabitants and the open-country contained 53.3 percent of the total population. In the state 71.4 percent of the population lived in the open-country in 1920.

Race

The percentage of Negro population in Carteret has steadily decreased for the last thirty years. The same has been true of North Carolina and the United States. In 1920 the Negro population in Carteret had increased only 3 percent above that of 1890 while the white population increased 52 percent during that period.

The following table compares the population of the races in Carteret and also gives the percentage Negro population in North Carolina and the United States from 1890 to 1920.

WHITE AND NEGRO POPULATION OF CARTERET WITH PERCENTAGES FOR N. C. AND U. S., 1890-1920
Percentage Negro in Population
YearWhiteNegroCarteretN. C.U. S.
18908,5282,29721.234.711.9
19009,6842,12718.033.011.6
191011,4602,29216.631.610.7
192012,9622,38215.529.89.9





Foreign-Born Population

In the total population of Carteret County in 1920 there were only 24 of foreign parentage and 56 of mixed parentage. In the same year there were only 36 foreign-born whites. The fact that there are no great manufacturing industries in Carteret accounts for the small proportion of foreign-born inhabitants.

The native countries of Carteret's foreign-born population are given in the table below.

FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION OF Carteret County: 1920
CountryNumberCountryNumber
Canada2Hungary1
Denmark1Ireland1
England4Italy1
Germany1Netherlands1
Russia4Scotland3
Sweden6China1
Norway8Other Countries2

The fact that there are more people from Norway and Sweden than from other foreign countries is accounted for by the fact that they are notably sea-faring people and Carteret is on the sea coast.

Sex

Carteret County has more males than females according to the census report of 1920. This was true of the state at large which had a ratio of 101.6 white males to 100 white females.

SEX RATIOS IN Carteret County: 1860, 1920
Males per 100 FemalesMalesFemales
Total: 1920101.47,7467,638
Total: 186096.83,0603,156
Native White: 1920102.06,5466,414
Native White: 186097.93,0013,063
Foreign-Born White: 1920300.0279
Negro: 192096.61,1721,213
Negro: 186064.36093
Total 21 years and over: 192096.93,9013,922
Native White, native parentage99.33,2853,306
Native White, foreign or mixed parentage166.03521
Foreign-born White300.0279
Negro90.9533586
18 to 44 years inclusive: 192095.02,8192,965

The table shows 102.0 white males to every 100 white females and only 96.6 Negro males to 100 Negro females. The colored women are employed in domestic work and in the canning of sea foods which probably offers better chance of employment than is





offered to the colored men. So far the Negro men have not adapted themselves to the fishing industry very well and they have not found many farms to rent in Carteret County where farms are usually small and cultivated intensively.

In 1860 there were 97.9 white males to every 100 white females. The ratio of white males to 100 females has greatly increased in Carteret since 1860—a condition which is explained by the fact that there are few industries in Carteret which give regular employment to white women. The number of Negro males per 100 Negro females was only 64.3 in 1860. In 1920 the ratio was 96.9 males to 100 females.

Marriage and Divorce

The rate of divorce in the state in 1923 was 15.9 mariages per divorce. In 1916 the rate was 31.9 marriages per divorce. The number of marriages per divorce in 1906 was 52.8. The state's average increase in the divorce rate from 1906 to 1923 was lower than the average increase for the United States.

The following table gives marriage and divorce statistics for Carteret County from 1887 to 1923.

MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE IN Carteret County 1887-1906; 1916, 1922, 1923
Number of MarriagesNumber of DivorcesNumber of Marriages per Divorce
188779179
188875
188984184
1890105
189188188
1892100333.3
18931111111
189494194
189594194
1896129343
1897104
18981011101
1899115257.5
1900108254
19011111111
1902138434.5
19031371137
1904139434.7
1905144348
1906136
19161171011.7
1922106424
1923138434.5





In 1922 the number of marriages per divorce in Carteret was 24. In 1923 the number was 34.5 which shows a slight decrease. However, there were only 30 divorces in Carteret from 1887 to 1906, a period of ninteen years, while in the year 1916 alone the number of divorces reached 10. In the two-year period 1922 and 1923, there were 8 divorces which showed a much increased rate of divorce over that of the period from 1887 to 1906. The tendency towards urbanization in the county as shown from the table on rural and urban population has brought increased divorce.

Birth Rate

The birth rate for the white race and the birth rate for the colored race is approximately the same in Carteret County for the years 1920, 1921, and 1922. The majority of the white race is rural while the most of the Negro race which composes only a small part of the population live in the urban districts. Therefore the birth rates given in the table below are urban for the Negro race and to a large extent rural for the white race. This probably has some effect upon the result shown in the table.

BIRTHS AND RATE PER 1,000 OF POPULATION IN Carteret County: 1917-1922
WhiteNegro
YearNumberRateNumberRate
191737529.37129.4
191837194
191938975
192041031.48435.1
192146835.48234.2
192241731.16527.0
BIRTHS BY SEX AND COLOR FOR Carteret County: 1917-1919
WhiteNegro
YearMaleFemaleMaleFemale
19171871883833
19181881834454
19192271623738

This table shows that there were more males born among the white race in 1918 and 1919 than females while among the Negro race there were more female than male births.

Death Rate

The following table gives the number of deaths and the rate of deaths for both the white and the colored race from 1917 to 1922.





WHITE AND NEGRO DEATHS AND RATE PER 1,000 POPULATION IN Carteret County: 1917-1922
WhiteNegro
YearNumberRateNumberRate
191712411.24719.5
191821814.187
191918011.650
192020713.415831.4
192115111.414016.7
192214711.03414.1

Infant Death Rate

Considering the small percentage of Negro population in Carteret County, the deaths shown in the tables for the Negro infants under one year of age and under five years of age, make a much higher rate of deaths than for the white infants of the same ages. This is seen from the tables which follow:

DEATHS AND RATE PER 1,000 POPULATION OF INFANTS UNDER ONE YEAR OF AGE IN Carteret County: 1917-1922
WhiteNegro
YearNumberRateNumberRate
1917205311155
19182710020204
19193910014187
1920276611131
192137799110
19223789462
DEATHS OF INFANTS UNDER FIVE YEARS OF AGE BY AGE AND RACE IN Carteret County: 1923
RaceTotalUnder one YearOne YearTwo YearsThree YearsFour Years
White422910210
Negro961200

Health

Carteret organized a Department of Health in coöperative agreement with the State Board of Health on September 1, 1922, but this was discontinued March 1, 1923. During the time that work was reported the budget, expenditures, cost equivalents and average earnings were as follows:

BudgetExpendituresCost EquivalentsAverage Earning
$1,666.66$2,555.07$3,288.45$1.27

Carteret should not be satisfied with less than the best which can be secured in behalf of the health of her citizens. The health of Carteret's citizens means wealth to the county and progress to





the county's enterprises. The money spent on health is not a charitable gift to the needy when a county has an organized health force; it is rather an investment which will add money to the county's treasury. Therefore Carteret which prides itself upon being a popular summer-resort section of the state must not neglect its health program.

Crime In Carteret County

In the following tables comparing crime in Carteret County for the ten-year periods ending June 30 in 1914 and 1924, respectively, it should be kept in mind that:

1. The population of the county increased about 15 percent over the ten-year period.

2. Changes in the statutes increased the number of criminal acts that could be committed, for example, the prohibition law and changes in the definition of assault and battery.

3. The increasing complexity of urban life has brought a consequent loosening of communities and the increase of petty crimes.

4. Stricter enforcement may mean more prosecutions for fewer crimes. This is especially true of the law against carrying concealed weapons.

CRIMINAL CASES DISPOSED OF IN Carteret County DURING THE FALL AND SPRING TERMS OF THE SUPERIOR COURT: 1913-14, 1923-24
1913-19141923-1924
White4043
Colored3227
Male6869
Female41
Convicted5670
Acquitted11
Nolle pros
Otherwise Disposed of5





CRIMES AND MISDEMEANORS WITH WHICH DEFENDANTS WERE CHARGED DURING THE FISCAL YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 1914 AND 1924
Charged With1913-19141923-1924
Assault (inc. assault and battery)21
Abandonment11
Abduction02
Affray52
Assault with deadly weapon91
Assault to rape10
Carrying concealed weapons21
Cruelty to animals11
Disposing of mortgaged property01
False pretense11
Fornication and adultery20
Fish and game laws05
Forcible trespass01
Gambling and lottery04
Injury to property02
Intoxicating liquors037
Larceny78
Murder: Second Degree11
Resisting officer20
Retailing180
Seduction10
Trespass52
Miscellaneous142

Does Carteret Read?

Carteret County ranked 28th in 1924 in the number of inhabitants per county circulation of eight National magazines with 17.1 inhabitants per magazine. The eight national magazines are: The Ladies Home Journal, McCall's Magazine, Cosmopolitan, The Saturday Evening Post, the American Magazine, The Literary Digest, The Youth's Companion and The Woman's Home Companion. And although Carteret is largely rural it ranked 96th in 1924 in the number of inhabitants per county circulation of three farm periodicals with 53.7 inhabitants per paper. These periodicals are: Farm and Fireside, The Country Gentleman, and The Progressive Farmer.

Total Illiteracy

In 1920 the illiterate population of Carteret, ten years of age and over, was 1,121 which was 9.9 percent of its total population ten years of age and over. Of the counties adjoining Carteret, Pamlico has a lower percentage with only 7.6 percent. The percent of male adults in Carteret 21 years of age and over who are illiterate is 12.4, and the percent of females is 13.3. Between 16 and 20 years of age inclusive only 64, or 4.5 percent, are illiterate. Only





one adjoining county had a lower percent—this was Pamlico with 2.5 percent.

White Illiteracy

Of white illiterates in Carteret, ten years of age and over, in 1920 there were 754 or 7.8 percent of the white population ten years of age and over. Of the adjoining counties Pamlico and Craven have lower rates, Pamlico with 5.6 and Craven with only 3.3 percent. Of white male illiterates, 21 years of age and over, Carteret has 10.7 percent while Pamlico has 7.3 and Craven only 6.3 percent. The same is true of white females, 21 years of age and over,—Carteret has a percentage of 10.4 while Pamlico has 8.5 and Craven 4.6 percent. New Hanover ranks first in the state in white literacy of population 10 years of age and over, having only 1.8 percent illiterate.

Negro Illiteracy

Of the Negro population 10 years of age and over, 336 or 21.3 percent are illiterate. Of the adjoining counties only Pamlico has a lower rate with 11.5 percent. The number of male illiterates, 21 years of age and over, is 147 and the number of female illiterates, 21 years of age and over, is 177. The Negro population constitutes only a small percent of the population of Carteret, only 15.5 percent in 1920. These rates of Negro illiteracy are smaller than those of adjoining counties except that of Pamlico.

Non-Voting In Carteret County

The average number of votes cast in Carteret County in 1920 for Governor, United States Senator, Congressman, and President of the United States was 4,353. In 1924 the average number cast was 4,044 for the same four officials. The total number of qualified voters in Carteret County in 1920 and 1924 is not available but reckoning all inhabitants 21 years of age and over in 1920 as eligible to vote, there would be 7,823 eligible, 6,591 of which are white. Reckoning on the basis of the native white population alone, only 66 percent of the citizens of Carteret voted in 1920 while upon the basis of the possible eligibles in the total population in 1920 only 55.6 voted. In 1924 the average number of votes cast was 309 less than in 1920 which would make the percentage voting in 1924 show a marked decrease since the population had increased considerably since 1920.





Non-voting is at present assuming serious proportions in all sections of the United States. Collier's Magazine has pointed out the “descending curve of American Democracy” by revealing recent voting history as follows:

In 1896—80 percent of eligibles voted.

In 1900—73 percent of eligibles voted.

In 1908—66 percent of eligibles voted.

In 1912—62 percent of eligibles voted.

In 1920—50 percent of eligibles voted.

In 1924, in spite of an intensive campaign by the National League of Women Voters and other organizations, only 51.2 percent of all qualified voters in the United States voted. That our people should resume their responsibility of voting is apparent.

The table following gives the number of votes cast for four different officials in 1920 and 1924.

THE VOTE FOR GOVERNOR OF North Carolina IN Carteret County: 1920, 1924
Total vote: 19204,386
Cameron Morrison (D)2,094
John J. Parker (R)2,292
Total vote: 19244,145
A. W. McLean (D)2,313
I. M. Meekins (R)1,832
THE VOTE FOR UNITED STATES SENATOR IN Carteret County: 1920, 1924
Total vote: 19204,383
Lee S. Overman (D)2,094
A. E. Holton (R)2,289
Total vote: 19244,133
F. M. Simmons (D)2,311
A. A. Whitener (R)1,822
THE VOTE FOR UNITED STATES CONGRESSMAN IN Carteret County: 1920, 1922, 1924
Total Vote: 19204,357
Samuel Brinson (D)2,077
Richard L. Herring (R)2,280
Total Vote: 19224,146
C. L. Abernathy (D)2,583
Thos. J. Hood (R)1,563
Total Vote: 19243,769
C. L. Abernathy (D)2,213
W. H. Fisher (R)1,556





THE VOTE FOR PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES IN Carteret County: 1920, 1924
Total Vote: 19204,385
James M. Cox (D)2,070
Warren H. Harding (R)2,315
Total Vote: 19244,130
John W. Davis (D)2,261
Calvin Coolidge (R)1,854
Robert M. La Follette (I)15

Leisure Time Activities

In the summer Carteret abounds in places of amusement and sports from the gay palilions at Atlantic View Beach to the quiet summer cottages along Pamlico Sound. Swimming, sailing, and fishing are good everywhere on the shore line and it is said that no family in Carteret lives more than two miles from the water, thus everybody may enjoy it at will. The beaches are all free and as fine as any on the Atlantic coast, and gasoline launches are plentiful enough to carry everybody to and from the beaches whenever picnics, sailing parties or swimming is at hand. Also, in winter, the creeks and bays are the resort of thousands of wild geese and ducks which make the hunting clubs along the sound and beach quite popular places for sportsmen.

The larger communities of Carteret have well organized social groups such as community clubs and woman's clubs which plan leisure-time activities like ice-cream suppers, bazaars, and musical and dramatic programs. They also invite and sponsor Chatauqua and Lyceum entertainments and cooperate with the schools in giving support to their clubs and basketball and baseball teams.

The school buildings serve as community centers in all the smaller towns and villages. There the various clubs, fraternal lodges, and Parent-Teacher's Associations meet for work or for entertainment in the auditorium of the building. Home talent puts on entertainments here of music, plays, oyster suppers and holiday socials and here also the traveling speaker, artist, politician or magician meets the people at their leisure. Probably the most distinctive social of the smaller community of the tide-water section, however, is the oyster roast down at the water's edge on a moonlight night. This is the party that only a native can appreciate.





SOURCES OF INFORMATION

1. United States Census, Population, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910 and 1920, Estimates since 1920; Marriage and divorces, 1908, 1916, 1922, Preliminary reports, 1923, 1924; Birth Statistics, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1922; Mortality statistics, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914.

2. Atlas of Agriculture, 1919, Part 9, Rural Population and Organization, Section 1, Rural Population, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington.

3. Annual Report of the Bureau of Vital Statistics, North Carolina State Board of Health, 1923, Raleigh.

4. Biennial Report of the Attorney General of the State of North Carolina, *1912-1914, 1922-1924, Raleigh.

5. House, R. B., The North Carolina Manual, 1925, North Carolina State Historical Commission, Raleigh.

6. Clippings and records on file in the Department of Rural Social-Economics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.





TABLE OF FACTS ABOUT THE FOLKS OF Carteret County
Carteret's RankParticularRateLeading CountyRateLowest CountyRateNorth Carolina
29thIn land area, 1920 square miles573Robeson990Chowan16548,740
Population
68thIn total population, 1920 number15,384Mecklenburg80,695Clay4,6462,559,123
87thIn the percentage increase or decrease of population, 1910-1920 per cent11.7Forsyth63.3Mitchell-34.615.9
29thIn the percentage of townships losing population, 1910-1920 per cent16.7Ten Counties0.0Two Counties100.032.0
9thIn the percentage that urban population is to total population, 1920 per cent38.5New Hano'r82.2Robeson*4919.2
10thIn the percentage that open country population is to total population, 1920 per cent53.3Alleghany†97.8New Hano'r16.871.4
43rdIn the percentage increase of the population of all incorporated places, 1910-1920 per cent29.3Ashe292.0Alleghany-25.110.2
30thIn the percentage increase of open country population, 1910-1920 per cent12.3Stanley39.0Pamlico-11.39.5
Population Density
84thIn density per square mile of total population, 1920 number26.8Forsyth205.5Tyrrell12.452.5
96thIn the density per square mile of the rural population, 1920 number16.5Gaston97.6Tyrrell12.442.4
97thIn the density per square mile of the open country population, 1920 number12.7Forsyth73.5Tyrrell10.637.5
Sex
49thIn the number of males per 100 females for the white race, 1920 number102.2Swain112.0Durham93.4101.4
48thIn the number of males per 100 females for the Negro race, 1920 number96.4Graham150.0Buncombe84.696.2
* Lowest of the counties that had urban population in 1920; 54 counties had none.
† Of the counties that had incorporated towns in 1920; 3 had none.





TABLE OF FACTS ABOUT Carteret County'S PEOPLE
Carteret's RankParticularRateLeading CountyRateLowest CountyRateNorth Carolina
Race
56thIn the percentage increase of the white ratio in the total population, 1910-1920 percent1.1Vance6.9Scotland-5.51.7
55thIn the percentage decrease of the Negro ratio in the total population, 1910-1920 percent1.1New Hanover7.2Forsyth4.21.8
33rdIn the percentage of the total population that is white, 1920 percent84.3Mitchell99.5Warren35.669.4
67thIn the percentage of the total population that is Negro, 1920 percent15.5Warren64.0Graham0.129.8
Illiteracy
47thIn the percentage of total white illiteracy, 1920 percent7.8New Hanover1.8Wilkes17.18.2
39thIn the percentage of adult white male illiteracy, 1920 percent10.2New Hanover1.7Wilkes20.810.9
56thIn the percentage of adult white female illiteracy, 1920 percent10.4New Hanover3.1Wilkes25.310.4
33rdIn the percentage of adult Negro female illiteracy, 1920 percent30.2Pamlico15.6Graham100.032.3
13thIn the percentage of adult Negro male illiteracy, 1920 percent26.5Pamlico16.2Clay50.032.5
23rdIn the percentage of total Negro illiteracy, 1920 percent21.3Pamlico11.3Mitchell42.224.5





TABLE OF FACTS ABOUT Carteret County'S PEOPLE
Carteret's RankParticularRateLeading CountyRateLowest CountyRateNorth Carolina
Marriage and Divorce
31stIn the number of marriages per divorce, 1922 number26.5Few Counties0.0Macon4.216.0
22ndIn the number of marriages per divorce, 1923 number34.5Six Counties0.0Cherokee3.731.0
Church Membership
49thIn the percentage of church members, ten years of age and over, in the total population, 1916 percent43Bertie74.0Edgecombe23.045.0
52ndIn the percentage of population, ten years of age and over, who were not church members, 1916 percent41Bertie0.0Edgecombe69.038.0
75thIn the percentage of population, ten years of age and over, who were not church members, 1906 percent52Bertie4.0Edgecombe77.044.0
Reading
28thIn the number of inhabitants per county circulation of eight national magazines, 1924, number17.1Buncombe6.0Graham87.815.0
96thIn the number of inhabitants per county circulation of three farm periodicals, 1924, number53.7Currituck14.4New Hanover88.828.7
Poverty and Pauperism
12thIn the number of paupers per 100,000 of population, 1923 number97Wake160.0Nine Counties0.0
42ndIn per capita cost of County Home and outdoor relief, 1924 dollars.04McDowell.14Lee.015.069
2ndIn the tax rate per $100 valuation for County Home and outdoor relief, 1921 dollars.076Avery.083Two Counties.002





TABLE OF FACTS ABOUT Carteret County'S PEOPLE
Carteret's RankParticularRateLeading CountyRateLowest CountyRateNorth Carolina
Births and Deaths
57thIn the number of births per 1,000 inhabitants for the rural population, 1922 number30.5Swain38.9Camden21.631.3
34thIn the number of births per 1,000 inhabitants for the rural population, 1921 number35.2Columbus41.0Alleghany23.633.8
26thIn the number of deaths per 1,000 inhabitants for the rural population, 1922 number9.7Graham4.3Alleghany22.711.0
56thIn the number of births per 100 deaths for the rural population, 1922 number266Transylvania511New Hanover169285
72ndIn the number of deaths of infants under one year of age per 1,000 births for the rural population, 1922 number85Graham22New Hanover13077
91stIn the number of births per 1,000 inhabitants for the total population, 1923 number25.3Rutherford40.2Alleghany21.231.3
29thIn the number of deaths per 1,000 inhabitants for the total population, 1923 number10.0Graham3.2Buncombe18.812.0
70thIn the number of deaths per 1,000 inhabitants for the white population, 1923 number9.3Graham3.3Two Counties16.710.5
49thIn the number of deaths per 1,000 inhabitants for the Negro population, 1923 number14.4Two Counties0.0Watauga49.015.4
73rdIn the number of deaths of infants under one year of age per 1,000 births, 1923 number86.4Graham3.0Washington127.381.6
20thIn the number of deaths of mothers at childbirth per 1,000 births, 1923 number2.4Six Counties0.0Hoke20.26.5
Disease Rates
62ndIn the number of deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis per 100,000 of population, 1923 number75.1Alleghany0.0Buncombe553.794.7
16thIn the number of reported cases of venereal diseases per 10,000 of population, 1923, number2.5Six Counties0.0New Hanover131.325.5





IV WEALTH AND TAXATION

C. W. Lewis.

It is the object of this chapter to give a review of the wealth resources of our county. The chapter is based on the table to be found at the close which compares Carteret in various particulars with each of the 100 counties of North Carolina.

ASSESSED VALUATION OF PROPERTY: 1902-1925
YearValuation
1902$ 1,016,683
19102,140,374
19193,751,709
192014,175,841
192113,619,389
192212,861,389
192312,753,407
192512,086,497

The above table shows that Carteret's taxable wealth rose from $1,016,683 to $14,175,841 over a period of 18 years, from 1902 through 1920. In 1920, taxable property reached its highest mark and from this year to 1925 the value of taxable property has dropped from $14,175,841 to $12,086,497. In this period from 1920 through 1925 the wealth of the county has decreased $2,089,344. There are two reasons for the gradual decrease in taxable wealth. The first cause was the revaluation of 1919 which came at a time of abnormally high land values. Since 1919 the county officials have found it necessary from time to time to change the ratio of assessed valuation to real valuation. The county officials did this because they knew that some of the values placed on property were higher than the real value of the property. The second cause of the decrease in taxable wealth since 1919 is the deterioration of the value of the property. Such property buildings, boats, farms and machinery deteriorate when left idle and not repaired.

When compared with other counties Carteret ranks low in wealth. In 1917, Carteret ranked 77th among the counties in taxable wealth. Durham led with $804 per inhabitant, Carteret had $267 per inhabitant, Dare was at the bottom with $391 per inhabitant. In 1923, Cartret ranked 56th among the counties in taxable property. Durham led with $1930 per inhabitant, Carteret had $876 per inhabitant, Wilkes was at the bottom with $465 per inhabitant. In 1925, Carteret ranked about 60th among the counties of the state with 755.40 per inhabitant.





For the taxable property of the white people of Carteret in 1921 we ranked 66th with an average of $1,016 per white inhabitant. This was just a little above the state average of $1,009 per white inhabitant. In negro taxable wealth per inhabitant we ranked 8th with an average of $187. The state's average in this particular was $135.

FACTORS OF CARTERET'S WEALTH: 1925
Value of all school property$ 451,000.00
Value of all land10,116,271.00
Value of all automobiles526,000.00
Value of all bank resources1,690,760.00
Value of all railroads475,613.00
Value of all highways1,999,062.70
Value of all farm products1,850,650.00
Value of all farm property6,985,096.00
Value of all fish and products (1923)739,363.00
Investment in fish industry (1918)1,475,828.00
Value of all industries1,781,946.00
Value of all products manufactured1,146,858.00

Personal Property

Under this head all property is included except land, buildings, and permanent improvements. In 1925, personal property in Carteret County was valued at $729,053.00 or $45.50 per inhabitant in the county. In 1921, according to the report of the State Department of Revenue, Carteret ranked 73rd among the counties of the State in personal property per inhabitant. Durham County led with $1,480 per inhabitant. Carteret had $161 for each inhabitant, and Macon was lowest with $93 per inhabitant. The state's average of personal property for each inhabitant was $252.

Real Property

Carteret occupies an area of 252,965 acres. There are fifty other counties which have a larger acreage than Carteret. Robeson is the largest with 567,513 acres and the smallest is Chowan with 109,810 acres. The total value of land in Carteret was $2,993,060 in 1920. It was $10,006,334 in 1924, and $10,116,271 in 1925.

When the value of real property in our county was compared with other counties of the State in 1920, we were found to rank 59th. Buncombe ranked first with $7,664,587. Dare ranked lowest with $474,859. In 1924, Pitt ranked first with $27,657,466. Carteret ranked 54th with a total value of $10,006,334. Clay ranked lowest with $1,278,459.





The number of town lots in 1920 were 2,242; in 1924, 3,344. In a period of four years Carteret County has gained over one thousand town lots. In 1920, Buncombe ranked first in the value of town lots with $13,484,771. Carteret ranked 41st with $1,097,840 and Clay ranked lowest with $22,336. In 1924, Mecklenburg ranked first with $66,138,499, Carteret ranked 35th with $3,671,189, and Clay was at the bottom with $67,594.

Agricultural Wealth

There has been something like a three million dollar increase in the value of farm property over a period of six years in Carteret County. In 1919, the value of all farm property was $3,002,241. At this time the County ranked 93rd among the other counties of the state. Pitt ranked first with $44,937,177 as the value of all farm property. Dare was at the bottom with $184,893. In 1925, the value of all our farm property was $6,985,096. This three million dollar increase was due to the use of improved methods of farming and of planting more and larger money crops.

Value of Farm Land

The value of farm land in Carteret County has increased about six million dollars during a period of fourteen years. In 1909, Buncombe County led with $5,708,474 as the value of all farm land. Carteret ranked 81st with $927,939 as the value of all farm land. Dare County was ranked the lowest with $350,163 as the value of her farming land. In 1923, Mecklenburg County led with $24,734,106. Carteret ranked 58th with $6,118,801. Clay County ranked lowest with $1,278,459.

Farm Machinery and Implements

Along with the increase in farm land has come an increase in the value of farming utensils. This is proof that the farmers are keeping up with the modern method of farming. The use of machinery has to some extent taken the place of farm labor. The farmers have made a good increase over a period of fourteen years, but there is yet a great deal of room for improvement. In 1909, Swain County ranked first with $240,796 invested in farm implements. Carteret ranked 90th with $29,467 and Dare ranked lowest with $1,275 as the value of farming utensils. In 1923, Guilford County led with $6,602,474, Carteret ranked 60th with $376,480, and Graham County ranked the lowest with $51,205.





Carteret's increase in the value of farming utensils over a period of fourteen years was $347,013.

Value of Livestock

The value of live stock in the county has increased at a slow rate when compared with other counties. During a period of five years we have increased the value of livestock over $200,000. This is too small an increase for Carteret when the opportunities of our county are considered. If the people of the county would only look around them they could turn much idle land into livestock wealth. In 1920, Johnson County led in livestock wealth with $2,111,555. We were way down near the bottom with a rank of 92nd and a rate of $195,742 for our livestock wealth. Dare ranked lowest with a rate of $41,163 as the value of livestock. Our value of livestock in 1925 was $395,815.

Value of Crops

Carteret does not produce as much wealth as it should from its farms. We rank very low in money making crops. It is possible for our county to rank among the first in farm wealth because the soil is capable and will produce almost any crop on a good yield basis.

In 1919, Robeson County led all the other counties in the state in crop values with a rate of $22,955,950 for all crops. We ranked 79th with the rate of $1,580,851 for all crops. Dare was the lowest with a total crop valuation of $40,384.

Carteret had 858 farms in 1919 and produced $1,981 worth of agricultural wealth per farm. The state average for each farm was $2,104 of agricultural wealth. If the money received from the crops of the county in 1919 had been divided among each male farmer, each would have received $408, just about enough to buy a Ford car. That is what many of the farmers did and their year's expenses went unpaid.

CARTERET'S AGRICULTURAL WEALTH
19191925
Value of all farm property$ 3,002,241$ 6,985,096
Value of all crops produced1,580,851
Value of livestock per farm375.00461.32
Number of farmers858910

School Wealth

In the school year of 1913-14, Carteret had $2.19 invested in school property for each inhabitant. Our rank in this particular was 75th, Durham ranked first, and Tyrell ranked last with $.44





per capita. In the school year 1923-24, Durham ranked first with the rate of $40.08 per inhabitant. Our rank in this particular was 11th with the rate of $28.00 per inhabitant. Clay's rank was at the bottom with the rate of $4.38 per capita.

In the school year of 1923-24, Buncombe County led all the counties in the value of school property with the rate of $2,486,075. In this particular our county ranked 36th with $435,500 as the value of all school property. Clay ranked the lowest with $48, 380.26 as the value of all school property. In the school year 1924-25 the value of all school property was $451,000. The school property has increased $15,500 in value during the period of one year.

Taxation

Taxable wealth and taxes have greatly increased in the county during the past fourteen years. In 1910, the total taxable wealth was valued at $2,226,658 and the tax rate was $.70 on the $100 valuation. In this year, 1910, Carteret collected $33,127.89 in property taxes. The county paid $481 of the amount collected to the State. In 1924, the taxable wealth of the county was valued at $12,205,176. The tax rate was $1.50, not including the school tax. The county collected $230,663.79 from taxes and paid $2,325.40 to the State. In fourteen years the county has increased $9,928, 518 in the value of taxable wealth. The tax rate has been increased $.80 on the $100 valuation during this period of fourteen years. The county's tax collections has increased $187,535.90 over the period of fourteen years. In 1912, the total tax burden for each inhabitant was $1.81; in 1922, the tax burden for each inhabitant was $6.35. Thus over a period of ten years the tax burden has increased $4.54 for each inhabitant of the county.

In 1919, Mecklenburg ranked first in the amount of income taxes collected. In this year Mecklenburg paid $24,119.12. Carteret ranked 44th on the income tax collection by paying $589.67. Alleghany County was ranked the lowest in income tax collections with only $1.50. In 1922, Mecklinburg ranked first again by paying $80,695. Our county ranked 37th and paid $15,759 in income taxes. Clay ranked the lowest with only $4,646.

SALARIES OF COUNTY OFFICIALS
County auditor$ 2,000
Clerk of court2,000
Register of deeds2,000
County commissioners951.60
County demonstrator1,279.21





Fisheries

COMPARATIVE TABLE OF WEALTH FROM FISHERIES
19181923
Value of fish and products$ 857,828$ 739,363
Number of pounds caught196,479,79049,765,511
Value of the vessels$ 1,475,828
Value of manufacturing plant$ 576,893

The fishing industry in Carteret County contributes a large portion of the county's wealth. The value of the fish caught in 1918, was $379,363. In this same year $1,475,828 was invested in the fishing industry for the county.

Banks and Bonds

BANKING WEALTH
19231925
Number of banks55
Number of inhabitants per bank3,0003,200
Bank capital$ 151,900$ 167,326.23
Bank resources$ 1,607,350$ 1,690,760.14

Carteret has five banks as follows: Beaufort Banking and Trust Company, Bank of Beaufort, Bank of Morehead City, Marine Bank of Morehead City, and Bank of Newport. In 1925, the total bank surplus was $167,326.23, or an average of $10.75 per inhabitant. The bank capital per inhabitant in 1923, was $9.82. At this time Carteret ranked 59th among the counties. Mecklenburg led with $96.27 per inhabitant. Caswell County was at the bottom with $1.32 per inhabitant.

In 1923, New Hanover led other counties in per capita bank resources with $522.65 per inhabitant. Our county ranked 50th with $103.73 per inhabitant. Brunswick County ranked last with only $10.21 per inhabitant. In 1925, the total bank resources of the county were $1,690,760.14 or $108.35 per inhabitant.

Bonded Debt

In 1923, Lenoir County ranked first among the counties in per capita bonded debt with $74.40 per inhabitant. Our county ranked 11th with $44.80 per inhabitant. Columbus County ranked the lowest with a rate of $.33 per inhabitant. In 1925 the county bonded debt was $1,326,000 or $84.40 per each inhabitant. Our county had a difference in 1925 of $23.95 between per capita bank resources and per capita county bondage. The bank resources were $108.35 per inhabitant and the bonded debt was $84.40 per inhabitant.





Automobiles

AUTOMOBILES, SCHOOLS, AND BANKS
1925
Number of automobiles561
Amount invested per capita in automobiles$ 28.1
Total amount invested in automobiles$ 568,000
Total amount invested in schools$ 451,000
Total amount bank capital$ 158,330

The automobile has increased in number very rapidly since 1915. In this year Guilford County led with a total of 985 cars. Carteret ranked 81st among the counties with a total of 27 cars. Graham, Alleghany, and Mitchell ranked the lowest with no automobiles at all. In 1924, Guilford led in the number of cars with 13,790. Carteret ranked 88th in the total number of automobiles with 561 cars. Graham ranked last with only 18 automobiles. In nine years Carteret has increased the number of autos from 27 to 561. This is an increase of 534 automobiles in nine years. In 1924, the county had invested in automobiles $568,000.

Highways

HIGHWAY TABLES: 1925
Total mileage290 miles
Hard surface50 miles
Soft surface240 miles
Cost of road labor$ 8,978.82
Cost of road supervision1,598.49
Cost of machinery and material9,334.89
Total expenses$ 19,912.20
Cost of bridges built and under construction845,000.00
Cost of hard surface roads1,133,150.50
$ 1,998,062.70

In 1925, Carteret spent $19,912.20 for the maintenance of its roads. In addition to this we built 50 miles of hard surface which cost $1,133,150.50. These roads cross several wide streams of water by means of concrete or wood bridges. These bridges number eleven in all, of which eight are wood and three are cement. The wooden bridges cost about $195,000 and all the cement bridges cost about $650,000. The total value of all road work is $1,998,062.70.

Railroads

Our county has only one railroad system to render service to the people. This system is the Norfolk and Southern Railroad. It has 26 miles of rail which passes through the north central part of the county and ending on the seashore. The value of the railroad equipment for 1925 was $475,673.





SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Report of Controller of Currency—1923.

United States Census Report of 1920 on Agriculture and Manufacturing.

Tables compiled in the Department of Rural Social-Economics at the University of North Carolina.

The report of the Auditor of Carteret County.





FACTS ABOUT WEALTH AND TAXATION
Carteret's RankParticularCarteret's RateLeading CountyRateLowest CountyRateNorth Carolina
Total Taxable Wealth
56thAll taxable property per inhabitant, 1923797Durham1,930Wilkes465988
60thAll taxable property in 192312,753,407Forsyth155,576,512Dare2,462,439
73rdValue of personal property per capita, 1921161Durham1,480Macon93252
66thTaxable wealth per white inhabitant, 19211,016Scotland3,423Dare2351,009
8thTotal taxable wealth per negro inhabitant, 1921187Caswell1.61Alleghany.41
Tax Burdens
10thTax rate per $100 of taxables not including school tax, 19221.50Two Counties1.75Forsyth.551.15
11thTax rate per $100 of taxables not including school tax, 19231.50Clay2.26Forsyth.551.15
37thIncome tax returns per 1,000 inhabitants, 192210New Hano'r72.2Tyrrell0.313.4
63rdIncome tax, 1920628.40Mecklenburg64,778.74Yancey110.08498,780.71
11thThe county's bonded debt per inhabitant in 192244.80Lenoir74.70Cabarrus.3323.52
71stTax burden per inhabitant in 19216.35Wilson16.10Alleghany3.588.60
86thTax paid to the State treasury by the county 1923159.04Edgecombe54,058.35Bladen20.22510,803.86
Agricultural Wealth
58thTotal value of all land except town land in 19246,118,801Mecklenburg24,734,106Clay1,278,459.00943,679,075
80thTotal value of all land except town land in 1909927,939Buncombe5,708,474Dare350,163.00176,881,261
54thAverage values of farming land per acre in 192034.19Wilson113.17Dare7.9538.94
79thValue of all crops produced in 19191,580,851Robeson22,955,956Dare40,384.00503,229,373
60thValue of all farm machinery in 1923376,480Guilford6,602,474Graham51,163.00106,272,138
92ndValue of livestock for 1920195,742Johnson2,111,555Dare41,163.0077,830,074
83rdFarm wealth per county dweller in 1919408Wayne1,497Dare39.00836





FACTS ABOUT WEALTH AND TAXATION
Carteret's RankParticularsCarteret's RateLeading CountyRateLowest CountyRateNorth Carolina
Banking Wealth
11thNumber of banks in proportion to population in 19143Gates4Mitchell1
11thNumber of inhabitants per bank in 19141,201Gates.654¼Mitchell17,904
59thBank capital per inhabitant in 19239.82Mecklenburg96.27Caswell1.3224.04
50thBanking resources per inhabitant in 1914103.73New Hanover522.65Brunswick10.21176.40
Real Estate
51stNumber of acres of land in the county in 1924258,097Robeson567,513Chowan109,010
54thValue of all land in the county in 192410,013,334Pitt27,657,466Clay1,278,459
29thNumber of town lots in Carteret County in 19243,344Buncombe22,583Graham40
35thValue of town lots in Carteret County in 19243,671,189Mecklenburg66,138,499Clay67,594
School Wealth
36thTotal value of all school property in 1924446,500Buncombe2,486,075Clay21,50048,874,830
Automobiles
88thNumber in 1924561Guilford13,790Graham82248,414
84thTotal amount invested in automobiles, 1924568,000Guilford14,220Dare54,20060,514,000





V Carteret County INDUSTRIES

H. C. Lay

One of Carteret's sources of wealth is her industries. A majority of the industries are centered around Beaufort and Morehead City. In 1919, 62 establishments in the county totaled an output valued at $1,512,170.

Carteret has considerable manufacturing wealth, but good advantages could be taken of the natural resources of the county. Abundant opportunities are offered for peanut factories, fertilizer factories and fish packing industries.

PRIMARY SOURCES OF WEALTH IN Carteret County
Value of InvestmentValue of ProductsPersons Engaged
Agriculture (1920)$ 3,002,241$ 1,580,581858
Fisheries (1918)1,475,828857,8272,708
Industries (1919)181,0181,512,170467

Following is a consideration of certain industries in the county made possible by data submitted by the management in response to questionnaires sent out.

Beaufort Fish Scrap and Oil Company

The Beaufort Fish Scrap and Oil Company was established in 1911 with a capital stock of $150,000. The plant which is valued at $175,000 produces fish scrap and oil. The output in 1924 was valued at $150,000. The company owns and operates five large fish steamers. The present officers are: Mr. W. B. Blades, president, and Mr. A. R. Marks, secretary.

Beaufort Ice Company

The Beaufort Ice Company was organized in 1910. The present officers are: Mr. J. H. Potter, Sr., president, and Mr. C. H. Bushall, secretary. The plant, which is valued at $12,000, had an output valued at $27,511 in 1924. Because of the heavy demand for ice the company enlarged its plant in 1924 to meet the demand.

Beaufort Machine Shop

The Beaufort Machine Shop is owned and operated by Mr. G. M. Paul. The business has been operating since 1911. The output which consists of general repair work amounted to $4,839 in 1924.





Beaufort Lumber and Manufacturing Company

The Beaufort Lumber and Manufacturing Company was established in 1925 with a capital stock of $100,000. The present officers are: Mr. F. E. Wilson, president; Mr. L. J. Winans, vice-president, and Mr. F. R. Seely, secretary and treasurer. The output, consisting of lumber, barrels and fish boxes, amounted to $174,000 in 1925.

Until 1924 this company existed as the Carteret Lumber Company. This company did a big business in band sawed lumber, but in 1924 sold out to the Beaufort Lumber and Manufacturing Company.

The Beaufort News

The Beaufort News was established in 1911 under private ownership. It was incorporated in 1920 with a capital stock of $8,000 and valued at $12,000. The paper has grown from a four-page affair to an eight page weekly. The present officers are: Mr. W. A. Mace, president, Mr. J. F. Duncan, vice-president, Mr. W. S. Mebane, treasurer, and Mr. J. P. Betts, secretary.

Bell-Wallace Company

The Bell-Wallace Company, of Morehead City, was organized in 1917 to engage in boat building and boat repair work. The plant, which is valued at $10,000, employs about ten men.

Carteret Ice, Transportation and Storage Company

The Carteret Ice, Transportation and Storage Company was organized in 1898 with a capital stock of $70,000. The company is mainly engaged in the production of ice with a yearly output valued at $21,600. The value of the plant is $60,000. The present officers are: Mr. C. S. Wallace, president, and Mr. Allen C. Davis, secretary.

Bogue Sound Lumber Company

The Bogue Sound Lumber Company was established in 1910 with a capital stock of $50,000. The present officers are: Mr. G. D. Canfield, president, Mr. E. H. Gorham, vice-president, and Mr. Percy Godwin, secretary. The output of 1924, which was rough and dressed lumber was valued at $110,000. The quantity of output was 3,000,000 board feet. About seventy-five men are employed at the plant.

Coaster Publishing Company

The Coaster was established in 1899 by Mr. R. F. McCullen. A few years later it was sold to Webb and Gaskill who sold it to





Mr. R. T. Wade in 1913. In 1925 Mr. Wade sold it to the present owner, Mr. F. C. Salisbury, in order that he might devote his time to other business activities. The plant is valued at $6,000 with a yearly output of $6,000. Besides publishing a weekly paper with a circulation of 1,500, the company carries on a large commercial trade.

Dey's Fish Factory

The first fish factory in North Carolina was started by Mr. C. P. Dey, of Beaufort, in 1881. The factory was built at Lenoxville, about three miles from Beaufort. Mr. Dey was a pioneer in a field then undeveloped and owing to his example the industry prospered and developed wonderfully.

Mr. Dey has added to his factory from time to time until now it is valued at $100,000. In 1923 the factory was burned down with a total loss but was rebuilt. Besides producing fish scrap and oil Mr. Dey makes a specialty of chicken and hog feed which is made from fish scrap.

Morehead City Coca-Cola Bottling Company

The Morehead City Coca-Cola Bottling Company was organized in 1919 with a capital stock of $6,000. The plant, which is valued at $47,500, has a yearly output of $58,408. The company has several trucks and boats which carry their output all over the county. The officers of the company are: Mr. C. H. Hutoff, president, and Mr. C. A. Seifert, secretary.

Morehead City Manufacturing Company

The Morehead City Manufacturing Company is engaged in the manufacture of lumber, boxes and crates. The plant has a yearly output valued at $25,000. The company was organized in 1907 by Mr. J. C. Long.

Newport Fisheries Company

The Newport Fisheries Company was established in 1917 with a capital stock of $77,300. The plant is valued at $100,000, with an output of $33,556 in 1924, which consisted of fish scrap and oil. The present officers are: Mr. J. R. Laughton, president, and Mr. J. W. Oglesby, secretary and treasurer. The plant is situated on the Inland Waterways just north of Morehead City.

Orion Knitting Mills

The Orion Knitting Mills was established in 1914 at Beaufort. This is a branch factory of the Orion Knitting Mills of Kinston. The present officers are: Dr. Henry Tull, president, and Mr. J. E. Taylor, secretary. The output consists of misses’ ribbed cotton hose.





Portsmouth Fisheries Company

The Portsmouth Fisheries Company was organized in 1917 with a capital stock of $105,000. The output of the plant which consists of fish scrap and oil amounts to $70,000 annually. The present officers are Mr. Charles S. Wallace, president, and Mr. W. M. Webb, secretary.

Taylor's Fish Scrap Factory

The Taylor's Fish Scrap Factory, of Newport, was organized in 1911 by Mr. T. G. Taylor with a capital stock of $30,000. The plant is valued at $25,000 and employs about 20 men. The output consists of fish scrap and oil.

Southgate Packing Company

The Southgate Packing Company was established at Beaufort in 1912. The plant is valued at $5,000 with an annual output of $65,000. The output consists of canned oysters, beans, tomatoes, potatoes, and shrimp. The oyster shells are used in the manufacture of agricultural lime and chicken feed. The local manager is Mr. Richard Whiteburst.

The Sweet Potato Storage House

In Carteret County at Beaufort there is probably the best sweet potato storage house in North Carolina. This house is divided into six compartments, each having a storage capacity of 3,000 bushels. In the house is a receiving platform which extends its entire length, making another ideal curing room holding an additional 3,000 bushels. There is a railroad siding at one end of the house and if the volume should increase, an addition holding 18,000 bushels can be built.

The potatoes are cured by the “Forced Air Draft” method. A large furnace is built in a small brick building at one end of the storage house, and fans force the air through the furnace and into the rooms where the potatoes are. When fully cured the air draft is turned off. The temperatures and humidity are well regulated through this method. This house has the greatest storage capacity of any house in North Carolina. The varieties stored are Porto Ricans, Nancy Halls and Jersey Yellows. There is a growing tendency in this section to plant Jersey Yellows, both for early and late crops as this variety grows to a large size early in the season and yields a large proportion of prime stock. Also this variety sells at higher prices than other types in the Northern markets because of their yellow color and the consumers have developed a taste for them. The market for this type of sweet potato in the





North is well established and the trade in these markets will pay a premium of from 25 to 50 cents per hamper for this type of stock. The Southern yam sells at a discount in the Northern markets because it appeals to a cheaper class of trade and because of its poor quality due to inferior grading and packing.

When one storage room is filled in this Beaufort house, the doors are closed and the roof drafts opened, which can be cut off by two separate ventilators and the air draft is forced into the room through its slatted floor. This method of curing removes the humidity, which is generally held about 30, and the temperature in all portions of the room is kept even.

The house, containing about 21,000 bushels, reduces its overhead per bushel because of the large volume, the insurance is low with the fire outside of the building and with each of the rooms separate. The large volume also assures the buyers of a regular supply, being the equivalent of 40 carloads; and, if well graded and packed, a good reputation will be established, which will bring repeated orders for the same brand of goods.

Mr. G. W. Huntley, of Beaufort, who owns and operates this house, is a far-sighted business man and is keenly interested in the agricultural development of his section; he is trying to create an all-year-round business for Carteret County and thus insure their agricultural prosperity. He deserves the coöperation of all public agricultural workers.

Wallace Fisheries Company

In 1913 the Wallace Fisheries Company was organized with a capital stock of $50,000. The present officers are: Mr. Charles S. Wallace, president, and Mr. W. M. Webb, secretary. The plant, located at Morehead City, has a value of $50,000 with a yearly output of $75,000, which consists of fish scrap and oil. The company employs about 20 men.

Willis Marine Railways

The Willis Marine Railways at Morehead City had its origin in 1910. The plant is valued at $5,000 with a yearly output of about $1,000. Boat repair work forms the output of the plant.

Woodland and Company

Woodland and Company was incorporated in 1918 with a capital stock of $77,800. The officers are: Mr. J. E. Woodland, president, and Mr. Gordon C. Willis, secretary. The plant which is valued at $160,000 has an output amounting to $450,000 annually,






[Illustration:

Top. left—Scene on Old Canal. Top, right—Scene on New Canal. Middle—Cape Lookout Lighthouse. Bottom—U. S. Bureau of Fisheries.
]









consisting of canned vegetables and seafoods. In conjunction with the packing plant the company operates an ice plant and box factory. The plant is located at Morehead City.

Eubank Lumber Company

The Eubank Lumber Company was organized in 1920 by Mr. W. M. Eubanks at Newport. The plant gives employment to about thirty men.

SOURCES OF INFORMATION

United States Census for 1920.

Thirty-fourth Report of the Department of Labor and Printing of the State of North Carolina. 1923-24.

Report of the Commission of Revenue of North Carolina. 1924.





VI FARM CONDITIONS AND PRACTICES

Aleeze Lefferts

Agriculture and Manufacturing

Farming occupies the time of a great many more people in Carteret than does manufacturing. The United States Census for 1920 gives the number of individuals who have the responsibility of farms as 858, although, of course, more than 858 people are employed on the farms. The value of the agricultural products in 1920 amounted to $1,700,104. This amount came from the 858 farms which had an average of 20 cultivated acres each.

The number of people employed in manufacturing industries in 1920 was 467 and the value of the products of these industries was $1,512,170. While the value of the agricultural products exceeded that of the manufactured products in 1920 the number employed to produce the agricultural products greatly exceeded the number required to produce the manufactured products. Thus while Carteret's major human interest is rural, manufacturing plays an important part in the county's economy and deserves our study for that reason.

Land Under Cultivation

In 1920 only 4.7 percent of the total number of acres in Carteret County were under cultivation. Of the 366,720 acres of land 69,464 acres were cultivated. In 1910 there were 77,181 acres of Carteret in cultivated lands and in 1900, 74,751 acres.

Unimproved Lands

By improved lands is meant, according to the Census definition, “all lands regularly tilled or mowed land in pasture, which has been cleared or tilled, land lying fallow, land in gardens, orchards, vineyards, and nurseries, and land occupied by farm buildings.” The 1920 Census shows Carteret with 24.9 percent of its total acreage improved. The state as a whole has an average of 40 percent improved lands. The fact that Carteret contains many marsh lands and islands, which are typical of the low coastal region, explains its low percentage of improved lands to some extent. However, the percentage is still too low. The number of acres in improved land in 1910 was 20,175 acres and in 1920 only 17,304 acres. Only one county has a smaller percentage of land under cultivation





than Carteret—this is Dare with only .4 percent of its acreage under cultivation. Carteret's problem is evident. It must develop its land resources further.

Farm Ownership and Tenancy

In 1920, 81 percent of the white farmers of Carteret owned the farms that they cultivated. In this particular the county ranked 17th among the 100 counties of North Carolina. Dare county ranked first with 96 percent white ownership. Carteret ranked 31st in Negro farm ownership in the state with 52.2 percent while Dare again led the state.

Of the 858 farms in the county 20.4 percent or 175 were operated by tenants in 1920. This rate of tenancy was a decrease, however, from 1910 of 19 percent. Carteret ranked 18th in 1920 among the counties with a decreasing rate of farm tenancy. The state's average rate of tenancy is 43.5 percent showing an increase of farm tenancy in the state since 1910 of 9.5 percent. The marked decrease in farm tenancy in Carteret from 1910 to 1920 was due to some extent to the 12.6 percent decrease in the number of farms. There was also a marked decrease in farm acreage. In fact, the 1910 Census shows the farm acreage then to have been 77,181 whereas in 1920 it was only 69,464 acres. The farms in Carteret show a slight increase in size from an average of 78 acres in 1910 to an average of 81 acres in 1920. This fact might suggest increased farm tenancy but such was not the case. The increase in size of farms and the decrease in farm tenancy at the same time may probably be interpreted to mean the increased interest of the farm owners in this industry. Farm tenancy, although a vital problem, is not the most serious problem in Carteret. The problem with us is the changing of vast acres of rich soil, now lying idle, into farms that will produce wealth.

The following table gives the forms of farm tenancy in Carteret and the number of tenants employed in each in 1910 and 1920.

FORMS OF FARM TENANCY IN CARTARET COUNTY: 1910, 1920
19101920
Share Tenants15073
Croppers86
Share-Cash Tenants123
Cash Tenants3818
Standing Renters
Unspecified16145
Total216325





Size of Farms

The average size of the 858 farms in Carteret County in 1920 was 81 acres with 20.2 acres of cultivated land per farm. In 1910 the number of the farms was 982 and the average size was 78.5 acres. In the following table the farms of Carteret are classified according to size.

CLASSIFICATION OF FARMS IN Carteret County ACCORDING TO SIZE IN 1910 AND 1920
19101920
Under 3 acres
3 to 9 acres16092
10 to 19 acres172188
20 to 49 acres260290
50 to 99 acres176154
100 to 174 acres10886
175 to 295 acres5025
260 to 499 acres3414
500 to 999 acres164
1,000 and over65
County average78.581
State average78.874.2

Farm Wealth

The total value of all farm property in Carteret in 1910 was $3,002,241 while in 1910 it was $1,492,453 with a greater farm acreage. The ten-year increase in farm wealth from 1910 to 1920 amounted to 100 percent—48 other counties had a larger percentage increase. The state's average increase in farm wealth for the ten-year period was 134.5 percent.

The average value of farm land and buildings in Carteret in 1920 was $2,895 while the state average was $3,990. Carteret ranked 75th in this respect. The value of farm land per acre in Carteret was $27.11 in 1920 while in the state the average value per acre was $42.84. The total value of farm buildings in 1920 was $600,610. In 1910 the value of farm buildings was $389,525 and in 1900 only $168,050.

The total agricultural wealth in 1919 was $1,700,104. Eighty-four other counties surpassed Carteret. The production of agricultural wealth per farm in 1919 was $1,981, and per rural inhabitant, $232. The rural per capita increase from 1910 to 1920 reached 277 percent and Carteret ranked 5th in the state in this respect. The state's average was 112 percent.

Carteret ranked 79th in the total production of crop wealth in 1919 with a crop value of $1,580,851. The crop value per country inhabitant was $216.00 and Carteret ranked 54th in the state. The





state's average was $256.87 per country inhabitant. In 1919 the crop production per farm worker was $1,024 and Carteret ranked 37th. The average for the state was $1,054. The value of the crop yield per acre, in 1919 was $91.33 for Carteret and $61.40 for the state. Carteret ranked 16th among the counties of the state in crop yield per acre. This is a significant fact which corresponds with the small size of farms and low rate of tenancy already considered. It also points out the wealth which might be derived from thousands of acres in Carteret which are not under cultivation.

Food and Feed Crops

In 1920 Carteret imported food to the value of $1,148,795. Thirty-three other counties imported less. In that year the cereal crop amounted to $163,341; other grain and seed $10,830; hay and forage $18,955; vegetables $406,656; fruits and nuts $8,155. The total value of the food crop was $607,937 and of the non-food crop $972,914.

Grain

Corn and oats are the only grains which are raised in Carteret County. In the production of these Carteret ranked 98th and 97th respectively in 1919 with a total production of 83,547 bushels of corn and 385 bushels of oats. These crops are raised as feed for stock chiefly and are not usually money crops.

Potatoes

In 1919 Carteret ranked 11th in the state in the production of Irish potatoes with a total production of 60,787 bushels. In that same year Carteret ranked 14th in the production of sweet potatoes with a total production of 152,505 bushels. The yield per acre of Irish potatoes was 114.6 bushels and the yield per acre of sweet potatoes was 145.2 bushels. This yield per acre was far above that of Duplin and Johnson, leading counties in the production of Irish and sweet potatoes. The value of these two crops alone in Carteret was $213,289 in 1919.

Non-Food Crops

The cotton crop of Carteret in 1919 amounted to 2,665 bales from 3,849 acres of land. The cotton yield per acre was 366 pounds and only eleven other counties in the state had a better average yield per acre. The tobacco crop of the same year reached 778,265 pounds from 991 acres—the yield per acre being 785.3 pounds. Carteret ranked 2nd in the state in the production of tobacco per acre in that year. The value of the non-food crops in 1919 was $972,914





and in 1922 amounted to 57 percent of the total agricultural wealth produced.

Livestock and Livestock Products

The total value of Carteret's livestock in 1919 was $32,750. The horses were valued at $82,587, the mules at $115,600, the cattle at $16,071, sheep at $244, and the swine at $54,018. The value of poultry was $13,421 and bees $1,194. Carteret increased 79 percent in the value of its domestic animals since 1910.

The value of livestock per farm in 1919 was only $375. In this Carteret ranked 68th. There were only 424 dairy cattle in the county and the per capita production of butter was .2 pound. The total value of dairy products was $1,041. However, from 1910 to 1920 the increase in number of dairy cattle was 63 percent which shows some improvement over the past.

The pork production per capita in 1919 was 78.8 pounds while the state averaged 99 pounds per capita. The total value of chickens and eggs produced was $27,566. The egg production per capita was 14.9 dozens and Carteret ranked 98th in that respect among the other counties. The honey and wax produced amounted to $788.00.

Farm Implements and Improvements

In 1920 the farmers in Carteret had $182,100 invested in farm implements and machinery. This amount equalled $212.00 per farm. The state averaged $202.50 per farm. Thirty-seven other counties invested larger amounts in farm implements per farm than Carteret farmers did. In 1910 the total amount invested in farm implements was $60,420 and in 1900 only $20,890. The increase in the investment in farm implements from 1900 to 1910 was 140 percent and from 1910 to 1920 the increase was 201 percent. These marked increases show the trend to be toward better farming and more professional interest in it.

Farm Bookkeeping

If the farmers all over Carteret would do better bookkeeping their interest in, and returns from, farming as a business would increase. The United States Census is the only recorder of the crop values for many farmers. Many farmers never know exactly what they spend on their crops, what their family spends, or what their entire crop sells for. They do not know whether the family cost more or the entire crop and farm products brought less when





the end of the farming year finds them in debt. Any manufacturing enterprise knows what its plant spends for operation and improvements and exactly what the proceeds from all sales amount to. If the average farmer would only consider himself a business man!

SOURCES OF INFORMATION

United States Census, 1910 and 1920, Agriculture.

Tables Compiled in the Department of Rural Social-Economics at the University of North Carolina.





TABLE OF FACTS ABOUT FARM CONDITIONS AND PRACTICES IN Carteret County
Carteret's RankParticularRateLeading CountyRateLowest CountyRateNorth Carolina
Land and Average
99thIn land under cultivation, percent of total area, 1920 percent4.7Scotland66Dare.426.3
95thIn farm land improved, 1920 percent24.9Camden67Brunswick13.640
94thIn number of farms, 1920 number858Johnston7,026Dare77
40thIn acreage per farm, 1920 acres81Brunswick148.2Wilson41.774.2
97thIn cultivated acres per farm, 1920 acres20.2Alleghany65.1Dare14.630.4
Ownership and Tenantry
17thIn white farm owners, 1920 percent81Dare96Scotland30.166.7
31stIn Negro farm owners, 1920 percent52.2Dare100Edgecombe6.629.2
17thIn farm tenancy, 1920 percent20.4Dare2.6Scotland79.643.5
Farm Values and Wealth
75thIn average value of farm land per farm, 1920 dollars$2,195Robeson$6,472Cherokee$1,024$3,180
85thIn total production of agricultural wealth, 1920 dollars1,700,104Wayne24,045,294Dare53,234
49thIn ten-year increase in farm wealth, 1910-1920 percent100Green310Dare13.8134.5
73rdIn value of farm property per farm, 1920 dollars3,499Wayne8,296Cherokee1,7564,634
83rdIn farm wealth per country dweller, 1919 dollars408Wayne1,497Dare39684
79thIn total production of crop wealth, 1919, dollars1,580,851Robeson22,955,950Dare40,384
16thIn crop yielding power per acre, 1920 dollars91.33Wilson162.20Alleghany12.0061.40
37thIn crop production per farm worker, 1919, dollars1,024Scotland2,716Avery2631,054
62ndIn agricultural wealth produced by non-food crops, 1922 percent57Alleghany.6Scotland8460
Crop Records
2ndIn tobacco production per acre, 1920 pounds785Green825Durham359610
12thIn cotton production per acre, 1919 pounds346Scotland425Orange211312
98thIn total production of corn, 1919 bushels83,547Robeson1,376,224Dare4,701
95thIn corn production per capita, 1919 bushels6.1Hyde46.3New Hanover.716





TABLE OF FACTS ABOUT FARM CONDITIONS AND PRACTICES IN Carteret County
Carteret's RankParticularRateLeading CountyRateLowest CountyRateNorth Carolina
100thIn wheat production per acre, 1920 bushels0Chowan23.1Carteret0.07.7
100thIn per capita production of wheat, 1920, bushels0Randolph9.6Dare0.01.8
97thIn total oat production, 1920 bushels385Anson108,276New Hanover0.0
98thIn hay and forage production, 1919 tons638Mecklenburg12,963Dare106
14thIn sweet potato production, 1919 bushels152,502Johnston418,750Avery1,274
11thIn Irish potato production, 1919 bushels60,787Duplin246,212Dare1,715
Livestock and Animal Products
68thIn livestock values per farm, 1920 dollars375Alleghany735Dare241413
In increase in value of domestic animals, 1910-1920 percent79Pitt170Dare685
98thIn production of dairy cattle, 1920 number424Mecklenburg12,960Dare106
97thIn gain in dairy cattle, 1910-1920 percent63Wilson142Washington70
97thIn per capita production of butter, 1919, pounds.2Alleghany29.1Dare0.010
59thIn pork production per capita, 1920 pounds78.8Tyrrell364New Hanover999
98thIn egg production per capita, 1919 dozens14.9Tyrrell29.4Dare.74
Farm Machinery
38thIn farm implements and machinery per farm, 1920 dollars212Scotland441Graham38202
47thIn investment in farm implements per acre of land in farms, 1920 dollars2.62Scotland7.07Graham.452.70





VII THE LOCAL MARKET PROBLEM

H. C. Lay

Food Shortage

In 1920 the feed and food consumed in Carteret County amounted to $1,899,364.50 more than the farmers produced. In other words the total amount of food and feed needed in 1920 was valued at $2,638,787.50 whereas the total produced was only $739,422. During the same year our cotton and tobacco crops amounted to $972,914. It can easily be seen that our cash crops are not paying for our imported food and feed, and that Carteret County's farms are failing to produce enough to feed our people and animals. It is important to note that Carteret County produces large quantities of fish and that it forms a large part of our diet. Fish was not included in any of these figures because of the lack of statistics.

Why Our Farmers Fall Behind

The farmers of Carteret County failed to the extent of $1,899,364.50 in supplying the food and feed needed, mainly for four reasons:

1. Lack of ready cash markets. Too often we hear farmers say that if they grew food crops, they could not be sold—that there is no demand for them. The merchant claims the western meats and produce are more in demand than home products. But if the farmers would meet the consumer's needs with meat and vegetables of good quality there is no reason why he should not have a market for his produce. Carteret County has an ideal climate and soil for raising truck the whole year round and it should supply the market at home and have a surplus. If the farmer would study the demand of the market, producing when the market was not flooded, he would benefit himself as well as his customer.

2. Lack of coöperation of farmers in marketing their produce. Until very recently the farmers of Carteret County have coöperated very little. The farmers should coöperate in marketing their produce and in outside markets. Only very recently have there been sweet potato storage houses in the county. These storage houses enable the farmers to hold their crop and make a good profit, otherwise they would all be trying to sell their potatoes at the same time and receiving a correspondingly low price. The Irish potato crop is sold in the late spring for a fairly low price and





nearly all shipped away from the county. In the winter we need Irish potatoes and pay a high price for them. Why cannot a large part of the potatoes shipped in the spring at low prices be stored for home use?

3. The excessive growing of tobacco and cotton. The growing of cotton and tobacco is carried on very largely because of the fact that the farmer can secure a cash return. From an economic standpoint this is highly commendable as long as the food crops are not neglected. But there is a willingness on the part of a large number of farmers to produce only cash crops and to depend on canned goods as a food supply. Consideration of the kinds of crops planted should precede the investment in labor and money in order to get the maximum returns.

4. General lack of modern methods of cultivation and management. The deficit in our food supply is not caused by our farmers failing to work or that the soil is poor. Our farmers are usually hard workers and good rich soil is found all over the county. The trouble lies in the fact that the farmer as a general rule does not employ the best methods of farming and in some instances overworks the soil.

Too Little Home-Raised Supplies

In 1919 Carteret County had to import nearly two thirds of the food and feed consumed by her people. The chances of Carteret County being a success agriculturally will never materialize unless we discontinue sending away money which should be kept at home. The farmers are giving too much attention to the production of cotton and tobacco and neglecting the production of food crops. Then too many of the farmers have as their major occupation fishing, tending their farms only when the fishing is poor.

According to the annual consumption figures given out by the Federal Department of Agriculture, 2,338,268 pounds of meat were needed in 1920 by the people of Carteret County. Only 1,654,133 pounds were produced at home, leaving a deficit of 684,235 pounds to be imported. Carteret County has ample natural resources to raise hogs, cattle, poultry, and sheep, not only for home use but for exportation. Fifty-two counties produced more pork than did Carteret whose average in 1920 was only 79 pounds per capita.

In per capita production of butter, Carteret ranked 97th. In 1919 only .2 pounds of butter per person were produced whereas a minimum of 48 pounds was needed for each person. Carteret needed 123,072 pounds, yet only 4,348 were produced, leaving a





deficit of 118,724 pounds to be imported. There is a growing demand for dairy products and Carteret farmers have taken advantage of this opportunity with good results.

In 1919, 199,992 fowls were needed for our 15,384 people, while only 13,236 fowls were produced—a deficit of 186,756 fowls. Furthermore 269,220 dozen eggs were needed and only 40,097 were produced, leaving a deficit of 229,123 dozen. Carteret's rank in egg production was 98th among the counties—we produced only 14.9 dozen per capita. There is always a sure market for poultry and eggs. The fact that many farmers think that poultry raising is not important and leave it for their wives to do partly explains the shortage. Every farm ought to have a large flock of poultry well cared for. Several farmers have made good profits from their poultry yards besides supplying themselves with fresh eggs and poultry.

Carteret ranked 95th in corn production per capita in 1919. The crop amounted to 6.1 bushels per capita whereas the amount needed was 31 bushels per person for man and beast. The total production of corn was 83,547 bushels and in this respect Carteret ranked 98th among the counties. This means a shortage of 393,357 bushels.

In 1919 Carteret ranked 11th in the production of Irish potatoes, producing 60,787 bushels. Since 1919 the farmers have increased their acreage and produce more. Irish potatoes are one of the most important crops in the county.

The sweet potato crop for 1919 was 152,562 bushels, Carteret ranking 14th among the counties. The crop for 1925 proved to be the best one in several years. A large potato storage house capable of holding 21,000 bushels of potatoes has been built at Beaufort and has already been filled. These potatoes will sell for an excellent price after the crop has been sold.

Carteret County ranked 98th in the production of hay forage, producing only 638 tons in 1919. She also ranked 98th in the number of dairy cattle on farms. Our county had only 424 dairy cattle on the farms in 1919. Carteret needs good cows to produce good milk for growing children and in order to do this there must be raised enough hay and forage to make it profitable to keep cows. Milk is very important for babies and growing children and canned milk is not a good substitute. The lack of milk will make for underweight and poorly developed children. During a recent test of all school children many children in the county were found undernourished and underweight—some children as much as forty pounds underweight.





Our Livestock Status

Carteret County's farms have very little livestock in comparison to what they ought to have. Our farms should have 13,893 animal units (a moderately stocked farm means one animal unit for every five acres—a horse, a dairy cow, five hogs, seven sheep, or one hundred hens) while we have only 3,469 animal units leaving a deficit of 10,484 animal units. In other words Carteret County is 75.1 percent below the moderately stocked level. The utilization of our idle land by the raising of livestock would go a long ways toward supplying food for home consumption.

Suggested Solutions of Carteret County's Food Need Problem

1. Diversified farming: There is no reason why the farmers of Carteret County should not supply the county with food. The climate affords a long growing season and the soil is very easily cultivated. The main difficulty lies in the fact that our farmers may be too content to sit back while growing a cash crop such as cotton, tobacco, or potatoes and depend on the town as a source of food, chiefly canned food and staples. Another drawback to the county is the large number of people who fish for a living and do not have an opportunity to raise food stuffs. They use canned goods of all kinds, even canned milk for the baby. The farmer should have a garden to supply the family needs besides a surplus to be marketed in town.

2. More hogs and cattle: With the large acreage of idle land in Carteret County there ought to be a large number of hogs and cattle available for the market each year. As it is now large quantities of meat have to be shipped in each year. Every farmer ought to have a herd of swine, which would be very economical because of the utilization of scraps as feed. According to the North Carolina Crop Report Service for 1921 Carteret County had an acreage of 2,309 acres in peanuts. Hog raising might be very successful in connection with peanut growing. A herd of cattle on every farm would form a source of income for the farmer without much labor at the same time utilizing his idle land.

3. Better banking practices: Large numbers of farmers depend on the banks to carry them over from year to year on the feed and fertilizer bills. The banks could do much to influence farmers to produce more food. The farmer depends too much on cash crops to pay his debts to the supply merchant and to the bank. If the banker would stipulate so many acres in foodstuffs instead of cotton or tobacco as a prerequisite to a loan it would go a long way towards





solving our food need problem. The banker would lose nothing by this far-sighted policy as the rate of interest would be the same while the farmer would make just as much as if not more, at the same time supplying the demand at home and keeping money in the county.

4. Standardized marketing: A certain standard has to be maintained in order for produce to demand a uniform price. If the farmers would coöperate and make their products as attractive as possible all the time they would find no trouble in selling their produce, for fresh vegetables are in demand in Carteret County all the year round. The hotels will form a big source of consumption, for since the influx of summer and winter tourists the demand has been very great.

SOURCES OF INFORMATION

United States Census for 1920.

Tables Compiled in the Department of Rural Social-Economics at the University of North Carolina.

North Carolina Department of Agriculture Crop Reports.

FOOD AND FEED NEEDS AND DEFICITS FOR Carteret County (Based on the 1920 Census Report)
1. Food and Feed—Needed:
15,384 people at $155 a year$2,384,520.00
1,171 work animals at $78 a year121,338.00
424 dairy cattle at $37 a year15,688.00
1,914 other cattle at $16 a year30,624.00
112 sheep at $3 a year336.00
6,096 hogs at $14 a year85,344.00
13,838 poultry at $.75 a year937.50
Total Food and Feed Needed$2,638,787.50
2. Produced:
Food and feed crops$ 607,937.00
Dairy products3,100.00
Poultry products27,566.00
Honey and wax788.00
Animals sold and slaughtered100,031.00
Total Food and Feed produced739,422.00
Deficit$1,899,364.50





3. Distribution of food and feed shortage or surplus:
(1) Meat needed for 15,384 people at 152 lbs.lbs. 2,338,368
Produced:
655 calves at 150 lbs.lbs. 98,250
13,838 poultry at 3.5 lbs.lbs. 48,433
1,259 other cattle at 350 lbs.lbs. 440,650
6,096 hogs at 175 lbs.lbs. 1,066,800
Total meat producedlbs. 1,654,133
Deficitlbs. 684,235
(2) Butter needed for 15,384 people at 48 lbs.lbs. 123,072
Producedlbs. 4,348
Deficitlbs. 118,724
(3) Fowls needed for 15,384 people at 13 fowlsfowls 199,992
Producedfowls 13,236
Deficitfowls 186,756
(4) Eggs needed for 15,384 people at 17.5 doz.doz. 269,220
Produceddoz. 40,097
Deficitdoz. 229,123
(5) Corn needed for 15,384 people at 31 bu.bu. 476,904
Producedbu. 83,547
Deficitbu. 393,357
(6) Wheat needed for 15,384 people at 4 bu.bu. 61,536
Produced0
Deficitbu. 61,536
(7) Hay needed for:
1,171 work animals at 10 lbs. a daytons 2,132
424 dairy cattle at 6 lbs. a daytons 464
1,914 beef cattle at 6 lbs. a daytons 2,162
78 sheep at 3 lbs. a daytons 42.5
Total hay neededtons 4,800.5
Producedtons 638
Deficit,tons 4,162.5





Carteret County LIVESTOCK, 1920 CENSUS
1. Animal units on hand:Animal units
1,124 mature work animals1,124
47 colts, (1-2)23
245 dairy cattle245
834 calves (1-2)417
1,269 other cattle, (1-2)628
2,757 hogs, (1-5)551
3,339 pigs, (1-10)333
65 sheep, (1-7)9
13 lambs, (1-10)1
13,838 poultry, (1-100)138
Total animal units3,469
2. Animal units needed:
Acres in farms, 69,464 acres divided by 513,893
Percent that units on hand are of the units necessary to stock county on a moderately stocked basis.*24.9
Percent that Carteret County is below the moderately stocked farm75.1
*A moderately stocked farm means one animal unit for every five acres—a horse, a cow, five hogs, seven sheep, one hundred hens.





FOOD AND FEED NEEDS AND DEFICITS FOR Carteret County
Carteret's RankParticularRateLeading CountyRateLowest CountyRateNorth Carolina
94thNeeded food and feed supplies produced at home per cent28.Currituck119Dare752
52ndPork production per capita lbs.79.Tyrrell364New Hano'r999
97thButter production per capita lbs..2Alleghany29.1Dare010
98thEgg production deficit per capita doz.14.9Tyrrell*11.9Dare16.76
95thCorn production per capita bus.6.1Hyde46.3New Hano'r.0716
99thWheat production per capita, bus.0.0Randolph9.6Dare0.01.8
14thSweet potato production bus.152,562Johnston418,750Avery1,274
11thIrish potato production bus.60,787Duplin246,212Dare1,715
98thDairy cattle on farms424Mecklenburg12,963Dare106
58thFarms buying stock feed per cent48.9Swain19.7Dare47.847.8
* Surplus.





VIII SCHOOLS

C. W. Lewis

Carteret County is located in the extreme eastern part of the State. It is one of the oldest counties in the State and has many points of educational interest connected with its history.

The first public schools in the county were established in 1840. These schools were small and had only one or two teachers in each. They were supported by the toll or money collected from the boats that used the Harlan Creek Canal. This was one of the first ways that education was supported from public funds. This old Canal remains today as a useless relic and a symbol of former service.

SCHOOL POPULATION
19201923-24
School population, 7 years or older3,8905,498
School enrollment3,1064,374

There were 2,648 children in the county, seven years through thirteen years, in 1920. There were 2,218 children, at the above age, attending school. In the same year there were in the county 663 youths fourteen years through sixteen years of age. Of these 574 attended school. Also in the same school year there were 579 youths seventeen years through twenty years of age and 314 of these attended school. There were altogether 3,106 pupils enrolled in the public schools of the county in 1920. In 1923-24, the school population had 1,608 more than in 1920. In 1923-24, Guilford County led all the other counties of the state in school population with 30,414 children. Carteret in this particular ranked 66th with 5,498 children of school age. Graham County ranked lowest with 1,375 children of school age. In 1923-24, the school enrollment in our county had increased by 1,268 children. In this same year Guilford County led the other counties in school enrollment with 24,707 children enrolled in school. Our county ranked 60th in the number of pupils enrolled with 4,374 children enrolled. Graham County was lowest in this particular with 1,266 children enrolled in its public schools. In 1923-24, Carteret had 25.6 pupils to each teacher employed. In this particular we ranked 63rd. Johnston County led all the other counties with 29.1 pupils per teacher. Bertie County was lowest with 20.1 pupils for each teacher in






[Illustration:

Carteret County AFFORD EDUCATION?
]





the county. In the same school year 3,137 of the 4,374 pupils attending public schools were rural children. In this particular we ranked 83rd. Wake County led all the other counties with 16,164 rural children attending school. Clay was lowest with 1,548 children attending rural schools.

Carteret's Schools

Carteret has forty school buildings and in this particular the county ranks 82nd. Mecklenburg led all the counties with 148 school buildings. Clay County ranked lowest with 16 school buildings. In 1925, Carteret had only seven secondary schools. In these seven schools there were about 300 high school students. Four of these high schools are consolidated. Three of them are accredited. Two are urban schools. The two secondary schools have nine months’ terms. The other five rural secondary schools have an eight months’ term each.

Teachers’ Salaries

In 1921-22, Carteret had 136 teachers of which 117 were white. These white teachers received an average annual salary of $682.25. Each of the 19 colored teachers received an annual salary of $451.32. In 1923-24, Carteret spent $102,420.14 for teaching and supervision. In this same year the county paid to each white teacher an average annual salary of $712.47. The colored teachers of the county received $506.19 as an average annual salary.

Cost Per Pupil

The county spent $.156 on each pupil per day during the 1922-23 term. It ran 75th while New Hanover ranked first with $.281 for each pupil. Madison ranked lowest with $.135 for each pupil enrolled.

School Investments and Expenditures

The county had $451,000 invested in the 50 school buildings in 1923-24. At this time the county ranked 64th in this particular. Buncombe County ranked first with $2,486,075 invested in school property. Carteret has $28.00 invested in school property for each inhabitant. The county ranked 11th while Durham ranked first with $40.08 invested in school property per capita. Clay County was at the bottom with $4.38 invested in school property for each inhabitant.

The total expenditures of the county for the school year 1923-24 was $237,612.41. The school levy for that year brought in $237,675.85. The county's levy was $63.44 more than the total expenditures.






[Illustration:

Top—Beaufort Graded School. Middle—Morehead City Graded School. Bottom—Newport Graded School.
]









In the total expenditures we ranked 45th among the counties. Mecklenburg ranked first with $1,574,243.37 as the total expenditures. Clay ranked lowest with $48,380.36 for the total school expenditure. In the school tax levied we ranked 54th among the other counties of the state. Guilford ranked first in the school tax levied with a total of $1,942,313.30. Dare County ranked lowest with $17,113,.44 tax levy for her public schools.

Automobiles and Schools

In 1924, the county had invested in automobiles $568,000 and $451,000 invested in the public schools of the county. It is very plain and clear that automobiles are more attractive in Carteret than education. It should be of interest to the people of Carteret to think which is of most value and real service to the county.

Below is given a table showing a comparison of school facts in 1914 and 1924:

TEN YEAR GAINS IN Carteret County SCHOOLS
19141924
School Population—Rural2,9883,452
Total for county4,5245,498
School Enrollment—Rural2,2352,374
Total for county3,3014,374
Average Daily Attendance—Rural1,5562,227
Total for county2,3893,536
Total number of teachers employed79117
Total number of rural teachers employed5881
Average annual salary of white rural teachers$ 239.51$ 601.25
Average annual salary of colored rural teachers156.15308.57
Paid all white teachers for the year20,836.7283,369.28
Paid all colored teachers for the year2,113.759,617.63
Paid Beaufort teachers for one year2,40015,674.25
Paid Morehead City teachers for one year4,54518,993.28
Number of Teachers
White teachers19141924
Total white teachers79117
Rural white teachers5881
Beaufort white teachers814
Morehead City white teachers1322
Total158234
Colored teachers19141924
Total colored teachers919
Rural colored teachers67
Beaufort colored teachers36
Morehead colored teachers36
Total2138
Scholarship of Teachers in 1923-24UrbanRural
Number of teachers having normal training1219
Number of teachers having 4 years experience1016
Number of teachers having college degrees144





Number of Schools in 1924TotalRural
White schools4137
Colored schools97
Average term in Days
White schools: 1923-24
All schools141
Rural schools130
Urban schools170
Colored schools: 1923-24
All schools150
Rural schools120
Urban schools170

Extra-Curricula Activities

The schools of the county rank very low in playground equipments. The average playground equipment for the schools of Carteret are as follows: basketball and baseball courts, slides and swings for the smaller children. There is a great need for some other sports in the schools of the county. Some of these sports are: tennis, track, football, boating and swimming.

In most of the schools of the county the pupils have plays, parties, debates and societies. These extra-curricula activities are carried on in the small schools as well as the large schools. There is a great need in the county for some one who can direct all these activities with skill.

The Needs of Carteret's Schools

a. The county needs one more accredited high school.

b. The county needs more consolidated schools.

c. The county needs better equipped school buildings.

d. The county needs more and better prepared teachers.

e. The county needs a better system of raising school funds.

f. The county's pupils need better transportation.

g. The county has need of a larger variety of athletics.

h. The county needs more playground equipment.

i. The county has a great need in extension of the social activities of the schools.

j. The schools need more money.

Solution of School Problems

The first big problem of the schools of the county is the lack of funds. This can be solved by doing away with the present system of local taxation and adopting the unit system of taxation. At present the taxes in school districts are different and it is placing an extra heavy burden on some of the districts. In a district where the property value is high the tax rate is lower than in a





place where the property value is lower. An example of this is two small districts in the county. One of them is Atlantic which has 264 school children with a property value of $130,158.00 and a school tax of $.80 on the $100 valuation. The other district is Camp Glenn which has 175 school children. The value of property in the district is $1,300,000.00 with a school tax of $.40 on the $100 valuation. Under such conditions the pupils in the Camp Glenn district will receive more than $61.00 worth of training or schooling per pupil. The pupils in the Atlantic district will receive about $2.00 worth of schooling per child. It would be necessary for Atlantic to pay about $2.40 on the $100 valuation for each of its children to have the same advantages as the children at Camp Glenn. Any one can see that such a system of taxation can not turn out a standard product and such a system is harder on some districts than others. The county unit plan will eliminate this unfair way of taxation and give all an equal chance in educational training. The unit plan would levy a tax for the entire county for less than $.60 on the $100 on all rural property. The funds from this would go to support the rural schools of the county. This blanket fee of less than $.60 on the $100 would give all the schools in the county as they stand, nine months terms.

The next step in problem solving is that of consolidation. There are 50 public schools in the county and only 8 of these are high schools. Three of these high schools are accredited and the other five are only doing some high school work. The county needs five consolidated schools. It would be impossible to have more than this because certain sections of the county are isolated and do not have enough children to support a consolidated school. By having five consolidated schools it would be possible to educate the pupils better and very much cheaper. Most of the rural districts would be given the chance to send its pupils to an accredited high school. These pupils could get the advantage and privileges that they are now being denied. The expense of these five consolidated schools could be met by the $.60 blanket fee or tax.

SOURCES OF INFORMATION

J. W. Workman, County Superintendent of Public Instruction in Carteret County.

Tables compiled in the Department of Rural Social-Economics at the University of North Carolina.

Tables compiled in the report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina.





FACTS ABOUT Carteret County SCHOOLS
Carteret's RankParticularCarteret's RateLeading CountyRateLowest CountyRateNorth Carolina
11thInvestments in public school property per capita in 1923-24$ 28.00Durham$ 40.08Clay$ 4.38$ 17.50
School Tax
61stPer capita school tax, 1924$ 3.48Wilson$ 12.90Macon$ 1.58$ 4.32
82ndNumber of tax districts, 192444Wilkes150Clay167,242
40thFour year gains in school tax on the $100 (1920) valuation$ .31Northampt'n$ .47Forsyth$ .20$ .31
15thFour year gains in school tax on the $100 (1924) valuation$ .70Northampt'n$ .90Alleghany$ .32$ .57
School Property
82ndNumber of buildings, 192450Mecklenburg148Clay167,623
64thValue of all school property, 1924$451,000Buncombe$2,486,075Clay$21,500.$48,874,830
Enrollment
60thTotal enrollment, 1923-244,374Guilford24,707Graham1,266793,046
63rdNumber of pupils per teacher, 1923-2425.6Johnston29.1Bertie20.1
83rdEnrollment in rural schools, 1922-233,137Wake16,164Clay1,548693,067
66thSchool population in 1923-245,498Guilford30,414Graham1,375921,315





FACTS ABOUT Carteret County SCHOOLS
Carteret's RankParticularCarteret's RateLeading CountyRateLowest CountyRateNorth Carolina
Expenditures
45thTotal expenditures in 1923-24$237,612.41Mecklenburg$1,594,243.37Clay$48,380.26$35,682,543.37
54thTotal school fund 1923-24$237,675.85Guilford$1,942,313.30Dare$47,213.44$38,340,526.14
80thTotal expenditure in rural schools, 1924$ 98,215.67Guilford$ 863,261.48Graham$35,560.15$18,720,860
21stSchool expenditure per pupil for rural schools, 1924$ 35.59Currituck$ 79.91Cherokee$ 15.84$ 31.08
62ndSchool expenditure per $1000 of taxable property, 1920$ 4.24Pamlico$ 8.55Graham$ 1.94$ 4.41
56thAverage expenditure per child enrolled for instruction, 1924$ 19.34New Hano'r$ 39.59Surry$ 12.21$ 20.07
75thCost of education per day per child 1923-24$ 1.58New Hano'r$ .281Madison$ .135
40thAmount paid teachers, 1923-24$ 92,986.91Guilford$ 724,758.50Clay$21,772.50$15,334,711.80
Teachers and Salaries
43rdNumber of teachers in 1923-24136Guilford746Tyrrell4416,382





FACTS ABOUT Carteret County SCHOOLS
Carteret's RankParticularCarteret's RateLeading CountyRateLowest CountyRateNorth Carolina
47thAverage salary paid teachers in 1924$ 682.25Guilford$ 971.52Clay$571.11
18thAverage annual salary paid colored teachers, 1921-22$ 451.32New Hano'r$ 949.11Yancey$190.00
63rdAverage annual salary paid white teachers in 1921-22$ 616.82New Hano'r$1,259.15Watauga$402.26
26thAverage annual salary paid rural colored teachers in 1924$ 308.57New Hano'r$ 939.98Watauga$172.95$361.31
65thAverage annual salary paid rural white teachers in 1922$ 601.26New Hano'r$1,101,84Mitchell$466.17$669.18
Length of Term
51stNumber of pupils in rural schools having less than 160 days, 19241,841Johnston8,227Wilson24
80thNumber of pupils having more than 160 days in rural schools, 1924677Gaston7,732Tyrrell329
Graduates
64thHigh school graduates per 10,000 white population, 192328.2Northampt'n93.7Graham033.7
57thCollege enrollment per 10,000 population, 1924$ 32.00Orange129Graham2.14.1





IX EVIDENCES OF PROGRESS

H. C. Lay, C. W. Lewis

Industries

Carteret's industries have expanded greatly in the last decade. There have been established all over the county fish factories to take care of the increased yearly catches of Menhaden. There are innumerable fish packing houses that ship fresh fish all over the eastern United States. The lumber business has grown rapidly since 1900. There have been several new mills established since then.

Means of Communication

Great progress has been made in Carteret's highways and railroads. The increased number of automobiles has naturally demanded better roads. In 1915 Carteret County had 27 automobiles and now there are 561 in the county. The total amount of miles of highway in Carteret is equal to 290 miles. Within the last two years Carteret County has constructed 50 miles of hard surfaced roads and now has contracts out for about 30 miles. Both Morehead City and Beaufort have all their principal streets paved and more under construction. As further evidence of progress and development there is now under construction a half million dollar bridge connecting Beaufort and Morehead. Recently there has been established a bus line to Beaufort and to Morehead City, and from Beaufort to Atlantic. Railroad service has increased and improved in recent years. Large shipments of fish and farm products are shipped the year round over the county's only railroad, the Norfolk Southern.

A great factor in communication is water transportation. Ever since the beginning of the county boats have played a leading part in the development of communication.

Telephones have broken down the barrier of isolation that is so dangerous to a community. The inhabitants of the outlying districts of Carteret County are no longer isolated. Communication is now carried on by automobile, boat, telephone, telegraph, and radio. There is a government radio station located at Camp Glenn.

The two newspapers of the county, The Beaufort News, of Beaufort, and The Coaster, of Morehead City, are very progressive and do a great deal for the betterment and advancement





of the county. They have fairly large circulations that cover the entire county.

Schools

In recent years the development of schools in Carteret County has gone forward by leaps and bounds. Many new school buildings have been erected with a corresponding increase in attendance. There are four consolidated schools in the county and eight school trucks are used to transport the pupils to and from school. Both Beaufort and Morehead City have public schools for white and colored. A movement is underway now in Beaufort to erect a new up-to-date school building. Morehead City has recently completed a handsome modern school building.

Churches

There has been a steady advancement among the churches in the last twenty years. This improvement includes the building of several new churches and the remodeling of several old ones. In Beaufort the Methodist and Baptist churches have built annexes recently. In Morehead City an Episcopal church was built a few years ago.

Civic Organizations

In recent years there has been a well defined movement towards the formation of civic organizations, namely: Women's Clubs, Parent-Teachers Associations, Chambers of Commerce, and other civic bodies. The club life aspect has aided very much in the organization, development, and coöperation of these organizations. The following data were secured from the secretaries of the organizations in the county.

Atlantic Parent-Teachers Association

The Parent-Teachers Association of Atlantic was organized in October, 1924, with an enrollment of 125 members. The purpose of the organization is “to get the coöperation of every parent, teacher, and child in the interest of our school”. The association has already improved the school buildings and grounds to a large extent and plans a great deal more work of this nature. The present officers include a president, vice-president, and secretary and treasurer. Mrs. Lee Daniels is the president at this time and she has done a great deal in the interest of the organization.

Beaufort Community Club

The Beaufort Community Club was organized in 1921 with 40 charter members. Since then the membership has increased to 75 members and 20 associate members. The object of the club is





“the intellectual, philanthropic, social, civic, and domestic betterment of the community”. Various results of the Community Club are: fall and spring flower shows, garden club, beautification of the town, means of bringing a Chautauqua to Beaufort, formation of library, and maintains rest room with the help of the town commissioners. The present officers are: Mrs. Leslie Davis, president; Mrs. W. A. Mace, vice-president, and Mrs. Wallace Brinson, treasurer.

Beaufort Chamber of Commerce

The Beaufort Chamber of Commerce was organized several years ago to serve as an agency through which the merchants and business men of the town may act. Good work has been done by this organization since its start. It has been instrumental in securing many public improvements for the town and harbor by the Federal government. It is now agitating for dredging to be done in the harbor in order to have a bigger turning basin. A breakwater is also needed to keep the harbor from filling up again. The present officers are: Mr. W. H. Taylor, president; Mr. J. A. Hornaday, first vice-president; Mr. W. G. Mebane, second vice-president, and Mr. J. P. Betts, secretary and treasurer.

Morehead City Woman's Club

The Woman's Club of Morehead City was organized in 1920 with only one department—a civics department. Since then Music, Literature and Art, and Social departments have been formed. The aims and purposes of the club are “in every way to work for the betterment and uplifting of the town”. The club which has 135 members, has done a great deal to beautify the town and has helped the school by giving a curtain for the auditorium. The present officers are: Mrs. A. H. Webb, president; Mrs. J. C. Taylor, secretary, and Mrs. Alvah Hamilton, treasurer.

Newport Parent-Teachers Association

The Parent-Teachers Association of Newport was organized in October, 1924. The aims of the association are “to bring into closer relations the home and the school, that parents and teachers may coöperate intelligently in the education of the child”. This organization has been very active in beautifying the school grounds and in supplying equipment for the school. The present officers of the association are: Mrs. J. C. Mizelle, president; Miss Josie Pigott and Mrs. C. E. Herrington, vice-presidents, and Mr. S. D. Edwards, secretary and treasurer.





Sea Level Parent-Teachers Association

The Parent-Teachers Association at Sea Level was organized in October, 1924, with 33 members. The aims of the organization are to promote the welfare of the school and the community as a whole. A great deal has been done for the school with gratifying results. The association has purchased a piano, seats for the auditorium, window shades, stage curtain and athletic equipment. Mrs. Calvin Taylor is president of the association.

Straits Community Club

The Straits Community Club was organized in 1921 by consolidating the Ladies’ Aid Society and the Young People's Betterment Society. The club has been very active in social and civic affairs, particularly concerning the schools and church. The present officers are: Mrs. Bulah Stewart, president; Mrs. Nellie Watson, secretary, and Mrs. Fannie Nelson, treasurer.

Old Topsail Club

The Old Topsail Club was established at Beaufort several years ago to serve as a social center and as a gathering place for the men of the community. It also serves as host to visitors stopping in Beaufort. The membership of the club consists of about 30 members.

Morehead City Hospital

Carteret County's only hospital is located at Morehead City. It is modern and thoroughly equipped in every way and has thirty beds. This brick hospital is located on the water's edge of the harbor at Morehead. Cool breezes make it delightful in summer while in winter the southern exposure keeps it warm. Doctor Ben Royal was instrumental in getting this hospital established at Morehead and owns the controlling interest in it now.





X CARTERET COUNTY PROBLEMS

Aleeze Lefferts

In this chapter are briefly reviewed six major problems of direct vital concern to Carteret County people. We have many others, but those presented here are deemed fundamental and basic. They are hard and knotty ones but not incapable of solution. Our people applying themselves to the task of making Carteret a better county to live in will daily grow in the graces of citizenship and fraternity, which, after all, are the best products of human existence anywhere.

Education

Education is the means by which competent citizenship is developed—by which the level of human adequacy is raised. We have made a great deal of progress along educational lines in Carteret County but there is still much to be done. For example, Carteret County in 1922 paid her white rural school teachers an average salary of only $533.18 each. Sixty-nine other counties did better, ranging all the way from $1,169.72 in Montgomery to $533.64 in Chatham. Colored teachers in Carteret fared even worse, with an average of only $451.32 per annum. Seventeen counties pay their colored teachers more than Carteret and these include some of our neighbors. New Hanover heads the list with $949.11. We cannot say too much in praise of the teacher but how poorly do we reward her services.

White school children in Carteret attend school better than colored school children but there is room for improving both. Our white school population in average daily attendance in 1921-22 was only 76.8 percent of the total enrollment: in Washington County 82 percent of them are on hand every day. Only 67 percent of our negro school population attended school regularly, and in this respect fourteen counties outrank us. The school can not reach the boy or girl not in attendance. Here is a problem for our truant officers but they cannot solve it without the support of the strongest public opinion that Carteret people can give them.

Carteret County in 1921 taxed herself $3.48 per inhabitant for school purposes but sixty other counties did better. Wilson County, for example, averaged $12.90 school tax per inhabitant. With twelve school districts, she had in that year sixty-two school trucks,





or one-ninth of all such trucks in the State, transporting daily about 2,500 pupils to and from school. Carteret is not spending too much money in behalf of education. We had $451,000 invested in public school property in 1924, but then, on the other hand, we had $65,000 more than this amount invested in automobiles. Perhaps an enduring civilization can be built on this basis but one may be permitted to doubt it.

The education of its youth is the biggest business of a community, and Carteret County must not lag behind in this important work.

Illiteracy

A good part of our educational work in Carteret must concern itself with illiteracy. While it is true that we are far from the bottom of the list of North Carolina counties in this matter, we will do well to remember that there is always room at the top and literacy for all our citizens is no impossible ideal. In Denmark illiteracy is practically non-existent and what has been done there we can do if we will but apply ourselves to the task.

In North Carolina there were 44,000 illiterate white women in 1920—almost enough to fill a city the size of Charlotte. There were 344 of them in Carteret County. Or, in other words, we ranked 56th among the counties of the State in adult white female illiteracy with 10.4 percent of our total number unable to read or write their names—voters, now, who cannot make out a ballot! And 10.2 percent of our white men were in the same condition. But what shall we say of our negro illiterates—21.3 percent of the race in Carteret County? Is it possible for Carteret County whites to reach their highest and best development alongside of an illiterate, unsanitary, immoral negro race? For these things are bred by ignorance.

The way out is education and more education with strict enforcement of our compulsory attendance laws impartially administered to both races. Moonlight schools, vacation schools, night schools, are helping to solve the problem among adults in many places. “North Carolina needs an earnest, concentrated campaign to wipe out the blot of illiteracy. The level of a state's progress must always be gauged by the extent of the peoples’ ability to share in the thoughts, hopes, aspirations, discoveries, and movements of humanity. So long as North Carolina has a white illiteracy rate higher than that of forty-six other states in the Union, her level of progress will be lower than it ought to be.

  • ‘Great is our heritage of hope, and great
  • The obligation of our civic fate’.”





Farm Tenancy

A little more than one-fifth of Carteret County farmers are landless and homeless, according to the 1920 Census report. Or exactly 20.4 percent of all our farmers, both white and colored, were tenants in that year. Tenancy is one of the major problems of the State and its eradication presents itself as a real task for our statesmen and leaders. President W. B. Bizzell, formerly of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, summarizes the social and economic effects of farm tenancy as follows:

1. A lower intellectual standard of living and a corresponding influence on the moral standards of those who compose this class.

2. A decreased interest in education and a neglect of educational opportunity on the part of the children of tenants.

3. A general indifference to the religious motive and a corresponding neglect of church attendance.

4. An increasing difficulty in promoting efficient rural organizations because of the low educational standards and the transient habits of a tenant class.

5. A gradual decline in the effectiveness of political action due to indifference and ignorance of farm tenants with reference to governmental policies.

6. The development of undemocratic tendencies in American life due to the social disintegration resulting from class consciousness that has developed between landowner and tenant.

7. General instability of rural institutions due to the transient habits of farm tenants who cherish no sentiments of attachment for the land they occupy and feel no concern about the development of the farmstead where they live.

8. A lowering of aesthetic appreciation because of the influence of this class on the standards of the entire community in which they reside.

9. Depletion of soil fertility.

10. Impossibility of maintaining proper rotation of crops and the application of other scientific methods under a transient tenantry system.

11. A general reduction in the average farm income by virtue of these conditions.

12. Economic income influences to a large degree standards of living and cultural opportunities. The average income of the farm tenant is too low to secure these advantages.





Conservation of Natural Resources

North Carolina in 1912 was cutting away her timber resources faster than thirty-eight other states. And in the six-year period between 1916 and 1921, $1,497,732 worth of timber in this State went up in forest fires. The rate of cut and fire damage is not available for Carteret County specifically, but it is safe to say that we are doing none too much in the way of sane conservation and preservation of our natural resources. Our forests are dwindling and how badly do we need a State-wide policy for their better protection.

Improved County Government

Relatively there are few people in Carteret County who contribute anything to the support of State government. State taxes are paid by those who have productive properties sufficient to yield net incomes beyond $2,000 a year, by producing corporations, and by wage and salary earners with incomes of $1,000 if single and $2,000 if married. On the other hand, everybody pays county taxes who owns land or has more than $300 in personal effects. Carteret County in 1922 had a higher county tax burden than thirty-five other North Carolina counties with an average of $6.35 for each individual within it. Out of this, $6.15 comes from general property—farm lands, buildings and livestock, city lots and factory sites and improvements thereon, merchandise, mill products on hand, solvent credits, etc. Not one penny goes to the support of county government from inheritance, income and other special taxes. An average of sixteen cents per inhabitant is paid by Carteret County people as poll taxes in support of county government. And five cents per individual is the average derived from licenses and permits. General property bears the chief burden of county support in Carteret County, as indeed, in every other county in the State. If county taxes are an unduly heavy burden in Carteret, we are likely to find the chief causes in (1) inequities in the county tax lists, (2) uncollected taxes, (3) fees and fines uncollected or unreported, and (4) primitive methods of bookkeeping and reporting to the public in annual statements.

County government in North Carolina is a headless, traditional affair; county officials in great measure work independently of each other with no manuel of instructions to guide them. We need to put our county government and finances on a more business-like basis. It would seem that a State-wide county law providing for responsible headship—a county manager, perhaps,—is the first great need of county government in North Carolina.





Church Membership

The latest comparative data on church membership is for the year 1916 obtained from the United States Census of Religious Bodies. This Census is issued once every ten years and the next is not available until 1926. In 1916, 52 percent of our population, ten years of age and over, belonged to no church whatever. In 1916, 41 percent were non-church members. In all probability we have an even lower percentage at the present time, but still the number of our people without the direct influence of the church, many perhaps members in name only, is large enough to cause us much concern. As to the social function of the church itself we shall content ourself with two quotations, the first from the University News Letter:

“Three distinct religious tasks confront us: (1) social integration in our countryside, (2) the cure of widespread illiteracy, black and white, (3) the settling of our landless, homeless multitudes.

“These are religious as well as secular problems. And what tremendous problems they are in every land and country! Unsolved, they will be as certainly fatal to our civilization as they have been to every other in history. Church authorities ought to be even more active than State authorities in solving them—so, in sheer self-defense. The church must put an end to illiteracy and tenancy in North Carolina, or illiteracy and tenancy, town and country, will put an end to the church.”

And in the language of another writer, the creation of such a Christian world “is no impractical motive. . . . . . . The Christian church undertakes no impossible task. It summons men to devotion to no impossible ideal. A Christian world is not only practicable; in the long run it will be found that no other sort is practicable.”





BUREAUS AND SERVICE OF THE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION DIVISION

Chapel Hill, N. C.

The University of North Carolina through its University Extension Division offers to the people of the state:

I. Class Instruction: Regular university courses given by members of the faculty in many communities throughout the State. Minimum enrollment fifteen. Write for free extension class catalogue.

II. Correspondence Instruction: Standard university courses by mail, either for credit or non-credit. Courses credited toward university degrees and state teachers’ certificates. Write for free correspondence instruction catalogue.

III. Public Discussion: Programs for women's clubs and other groups. Package library loans. Home reading courses. Programs and guidance for debating clubs, parent-teacher associations, etc. General information. Write for list of bulletins.

IV. Lectures and Short Courses: Popular or technical lectures, individual or in series for clubs, community organizations, etc., addresses for commencement or other special occasions. Upon request short courses at the University for educational and commercial groups; institutes on road engineering, country life, newspaper work, community drama, etc. Write for free lecture bulletin.

V. Community Drama: Guidance and direction in the writing and production of community plays, pageants, home chautauquas, and festivals. Write for list of bulletins. Field representative available.

VI. Commercial and Industrial Relations: Coöperate with business and manufacturing organizations of the State. Special studies, business surveys, and research on economic problems. Commerce and Industry monthly free.

VII. Community Music: Leadership for community sings. Formation of community choruses. Lectures on public school and community music. Piano and organ recitals and other music programs.

VIII. Visual Instruction: Lantern slides for loan to schools, community organizations, clubs and individuals. Write for list of subjects.

IX. Municipal and County Government Research and Information: Gives assistance and information on city, county and township government; lends documents; collects data and issues reports on important problems; drafts local ordinances and proposed legislation; and gives advice on modern efficient methods of administration and local improvements. An expert adviser is available for consultation and visits to communities.

X. Economic and Social Surveys: Of counties and communities for use by them in efforts to improve their economic and social conditions. Information about economic, social and civic conditions in the State and Nation. University News Letter weekly free of charge.

XI. Recreation and Community Organization: Promotes community organization. Recreational programs and lectures. Laying out playgrounds. Equipment. Community recreation surveys. Physical ability tests for schools. Play institutes. Recreational bulletins, leaflets, and aids. Home chautauquas. Field day programs. County and local fairs. Field representative available.

XII. High School Debating and Athletics: Annual state-wide contests in high school debating, academic subjects, and all branches of athletics.

XIII. Design and Improvement of School Grounds: Designs and planting plans for grounds of schools, churches, and charitable institutions. Write for list of bulletins.

XIV. Educational Research and Information (the School of Education): Educational test and measurement supplies and assistance. School surveys. Advice and counsel with reference to school buildings, equipment, and general administrative problems.

















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