Drawing of North Carolina state flag and Confederate flag]
FIRST AT BETHEL
FARTHEST TO THE FRONT AT GETTYSBURG
LAST AT APPOMATTOX
Copyright, 1902, by T.S. Kenan.
UNITED STATES MILITARY PRISON.
Johnson's Island, near Sandusky, Ohio.
HISTORIES OF THE SEVERAL REGIMENTS AND BATTALIONS FROM NORTH CAROLINA, IN THE GREAT WAR 1861-'65
WRITTEN BY MEMBERS OF THE RESPECTIVE COMMANDS
EDITED BY WALTER CLARK, (LIEUT.-COLONEL SEVENTIETH REGIMENT N. C. T.)
VOL. IV.NASH BROTHERS,BOOK AND JOB PRINTERSGOLDSBORO, N. C.
|ORGANIZATION OF RESERVES, by the Editor,||1|
|SEVENTIETH REGIMENT (FIRST RES.) by Colonel Charles W. Broadfoot,||9|
|SEVENTY-FIRST REGIMENT (SECOND RES.) by Captain David E. McKinne||25|
|SEVENTY SECOND REGIMENT (THIRD RES ) by Colonel John W. Hinsdale||35|
|SEVENTY-THIRD REGIMENT (FOURTH RES.) by the Editor,||65|
|SEVENTY-FOURTH REGIMENT (FIFTH RES.) by the Editor,||69|
|SEVENTY-FIFTH REGIMENT, (SEVENTH CA V.) by Colonel John T. Kennedy and Lieutenant W. Fletcher Parker,||71|
|SEVENTY-FIFTH REGIMENT (SEVENTH CAV.) by Lieutenant E. J Holt||91|
|SEVENTY SIXTH REGIMENT, (SIXTH RES ) by the Editor||99|
|SEVENTY-SEVENTH REGIMENT (SEVENTH RES.) by Lieutenant John G. Albright,||99|
|SEVENTY-EIGHTH REGIMENT (EIGHTH RES.) by the Editor||107|
|SEVENTY NINTH REGIMENT (EIGHTH CAV ) by S. V. Pickens, Adjutant,||109|
|EIGHTIETH REGIMENT, by Captain R. A. Aiken||117|
|EIGHTY-FIRST REGIMENT ( FIRST DETAILED) by the Editor||129|
|EIGHTY-SECOND REGIMENT (SECOND DETAILED) by Colonel A. G. Brenizer||131|
|EIGHTY-THIRD REGIMENT (THIRD DETAILED) by the Editor,||133|
|SIXTEENTH REGIMENT, by Lieutenant G. H. Mills,||137|
|TENTH REGIMENT, by Lieutenant T. C. Moore||221|
|BATTALION ORGANIZATION, by the Editor||224|
|FIRST BATTALION. by Major R. W. Wharton||225|
|SECOND BATTALION, by Lieutenant-Colonel Wharton J. Green,||243|
|THIRD BATTALION, by Major John W. Moore,||261|
|FOURTH BATTALION, by the Editor,||270|
|FIFTH BATTALION, by Captain Virgil S Lusk,||271|
|SIXTH BATTALION, by Major Matthew P. Taylor,||293|
|SEVENTH BATTALION, by the Editor,||301|
|EIGHTH BATTALION, by the Editor,||302|
|NINTH BATTALION, by Sergeant T. A. McNeill,||303|
|TENTH BATTALION, by Captain Woodbury Wheeler,||315|
|TENTH BATTALION, by Lieutenant F. C. Frizzier,||325|
|TENTH BATTALION, by Adjutant C. S. Powell,||329|
|ELEVENTH BATTALION, by the Editor,||338|
|TWELTH BATTALION, by the Editor||339|
|THIRTEENTH BATTALION, by Lieutenant J. H. Myrover,||341|
|THIRTEENTH BATTALION, by Captain Lewis H. Webb,||355|
|THIRTEENTH BATTALION, by Captain James D. Cumming,||361|
|FOURTEENTH BATTALION, by Adjutant S. V. Pickens||363|
|FIFTEENTH BATTALION, by Lieutenant-Colonel James M. Wynns,||365|
|SIXTEENTH BATTALION, by Colonel John T. Kennedy||370|
|SEVENTEENTH BATTALION, by Major A. C. Avery,||371|
|EIGHTEENTH BATTALION, by Major James C. MacRae.||379|
|NINETEENTH BATTALION, by the Editor,||383|
|TWENTIETH BATTALION, by E. R. Hampton, Hospital Steward,||385|
|TWENTY-FIRST BATTALION, by the Editor,||397|
|TWENTY-SECOND BATTALION, by the Editor,||398|
|TWENTY-THIRD BATTALION, by the Editor,||399|
|TWENTY FOURTH BATTALION, by the Editor,||400|
|TWENTY-FIFTH BATTALION, by the Editor||401|
|UNATTACHED COMPANIES, by the Editor,||401|
|NORTH CAROLINIANS IN OTHER COMMANDS, by the Editor,||403|
|THE TWO BROTHERS, by Captain David G. Maxwell,||405|
|THE CONSCRIPT BUREAU, by the Editor,||407|
|THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS, by Captain C. B. Denson,||409|
|BRIGADE ORGANIZATION, by the Editor,||435|
|ANDERSON-RAMSEUR-COX BRIGADE, by Brigadier-General W. R. Cox,||443|
|BRANCH-LANE BRIGADE, by Brigadier-General J. H Lane,||465|
|CLINGMAN'S BRIGADE, by Captain TV. H. S. Burgwyn, A. A. G||481|
|COOKE'S BRIGADE, by Captain James A. Graham,||501|
|DANIEL-GRIMES BRIGADE, by Captain W. L. London, A. A G||513|
|GARLAND-IVERSON-JOHNSTON BRIGADE, by Lieutenant J. F. Johnston, A. D. C.||521|
|HOKE-GODWIN-LEWIS BRIGADE, by Major J. F. Beall,||525|
|MARTIN-KIRKLAND BRIGADE, by Captain C. G. Elliott, A. A. G||527|
|PENDER-SCALES BRIGADE by Adjutant T. L. Rawley,||551|
|PETTIGREW-KIRKLAND-MACRAE BRIGADE, by Captain Louis G. Young, A. A. G.||555|
|RANSOM'S BRIGADE, by Captain W. H. S. Burgwyn||569|
|ROBERTS CAVALRY BRIGADE, by Lieutenant E. J. Holt,||580|
|GORDON-BARRINGER CAVALRY BRIGADE, by Private Julian S. Carr,||581|
|JUNIOR RESERVES' BRIGADE, by Lieutenant F. H. Busbee,||583|
|CHAPLAIN SERVICE, by Chaplain A. D. Betts,||597|
|THE MEDICAL CORPS, by Surgeon P. E. Hines,||623|
|THE MILITIA, by Captain James M. Grizzard,||645|
|THE HOME GUARD, by the Editor,||649|
|PRISON LIFE AT JOHNSON'S ISLAND, by Colonel R. F. Webb,||657|
|PRISON LIFE AT JOHNSON'S ISLAND, by Colonel Thomas S. Kenan,||689|
|PRISONERS AT JOHNSON'S ISLAND TO GOVERNOR VANCE||697|
|LIST OF PRISONERS AT JOHNSON'S ISLAND, by Lieutenant T. F. Cross,||703|
|PRISONERS AT MORRIS ISLAND, by Captain W. G. MacRae,||713|
|LIST OF N. C. PRISONERS AT MORRIS ISLAND, by Col. Jno. L. Cantwell,||721|
|PRISON LIFE AT FORT DELAWARE, by Sergeant C. W. Rivenbark,||725|
|ESCAPE FROM FORT WARREN, by Lieutenant-Commander J. W. Alexander C. S. N||733|
|SALISBURY PRISON, by Chaplain A. W. Mangum,||745|
ORGANIZATION OF RESERVES.
BY WALTER CLARK, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL 70 N. C. T.
When the Southern leaders were contemplating separation, they estimated largely upon the expectation that all the States South of Mason and Dixon's line, the Ohio and the northern boundary of Missouri would go with the South, including Indian Territory and New Mexico. This would have given the new Confederacy nearly one-third of the population of the old Union. In this event there would have doubtless been a peaceable separation and no war. But it proved that in the States of Maryland, Delaware, that part of Virginia since known as West Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri, the majority were largely on the northern side and there was no small defection among the whites in East Tennessee and other localities, to say nothing of the colored refugees who swelled the Union army. It is estimated that no less than 350,000 men from the Southern side of the line above indicated served in the Federal armies which also contained, besides the troops from the populous Northern States, a host of foreigners attracted by high bounties and good pay.
The result was that instead of the Confederate armies being one-third of the forces in the field (which would have insured early success if there had been war) the official records show that first and last over 3,000,000 of men served in the Northern armies and 600,000-certainly not more than 650,000-in those of the South. This disproportion of 5 to I struck the cold calculating mind of Edwin M. Stanton, who perceived that in an exchange of prisoners, man for man, the South therefore was largely advantaged. With an iron will, and reckless of all considerations of humanity, he stopped the exchange of prisoners. The blow was a staggering one to the Confederacy. It could not recruit its armies from abroad and the loyal population, capable of bearing arms, was already almost en masse in service.
President Davis, contrary to the course pursued by Governor Vance, instead of shipping cotton as a basis of credit and to procure supplies, conceived the fatal idea, and pursued it to the disastrous end, that by withholding our cotton, a "cotton famine" would force the nations of Europe to raise the blockade, and come to our aid. Thus besides the natural -weariness of war, the lack of supplies caused the soldiery to 'be half fed and badly clothed and shod, and more than this, when the cry of want went up from wives and little ones in many an humble home, the cancer of desertion became an open sore.
With ranks daily depleted by deaths on the battlefield and in the hospitals, by wounds, by the growing volume of desertions, by the necessity of detailing troops from the front to prevent depredations at home, and the "unreturning brave" who languished in Northern prisons, the necessity to replenish the ranks was overpowering. A resort to the colored population for many reasons was deemed impracticable and when tried in a small way, in the last days of the war, in the spring of 1865, the experiment was not satisfactory.
There was only one other resource, to extend the age of the military conscription, which already embraced all able-bodied men between the ages of 18 and 45, except those exempt as State officers, physicians, and ministers of the gospel, and perhaps some others. In the presence of a necessity which would admit of no denial, the Confederate Congress on 17 February, 1864, passed a law placing in the "Reserves" those between the ages of 17 and 18 and between 45 and 50. A salvo was added that they were not to serve out of their respective States, but this was, by reason of the same necessity, disregarded. Junior Reserves from this State served in South Carolina and Virginia and our Senior Reserves fought in South Carolina and Georgia, though the bulk of the latter relieved other troops to go to the front by taking their places in preserving internal order, arresting deserters, forwarding conscripts, guarding bridges on the great railway lines (over which passed the supplies and recruits for our armies) and guarding the prisoners at Salisbury.
A brief breathing spell was given in which those who
wished might volunteer. Then the General Orders to embody the Reserves were formulated and issued. Those between 17 and 18 years of age were embodied in April and May, 1864. Those between 45 and 50 were, with the exception of two regiments and two battalions, left at home till August and September to make and harvest the crops, and the remainder were organized into regiments in the Fall. The reserves ordered out in April were organized into companies and sent to camps of instruction at Wilmington, Raleigh and Morganton and during May and June nine battalions were organized, as follows-the men electing their company officers and these latter electing the Field Officers:
First Battalion (three companies), Major Charles W. Broadfoot, 25 May, at Raleigh.
Second Battalion (three companies), Major John H. Anderson, 28 May, at Raleigh.
Third Battalion (three companies), Major B. F. Hooks, 31 May, at Goldsboro.
Fourth Battalion (three companies), Major J. M. Reece, at Raleigh, 30 May.
Fifth Battalion (three companies), Major W. F. Beasley, at Goldsboro, 2 June.
Sixth Battalion (five companies), Major Walter Clark, 3 June, at Raleigh.
Seventh Battalion (three companies,) Major W. Foster French, 4 Juno, at Wilmington.
Eighth Battalion (three companies), Major J. B. Ellington, 10 June, at Morganton.
Ninth Battalion (three companies), Major D. T. Millard, Asheville, 28 June.
The Sixth was the only battalion having more than three companies when organized. On 15 June another company each was added to the First, Fourth and Fifth Battalions and later another company to the Second.
All these were Junior Reserves except the Third Battalion, which were Seniors. This battalion of Seniors went into immediate service as bridge guards and later on were in several battles and became part of the Eighth Regiment of Reserves-or Seventy-eighth North Carolina. Another
Battalion was partially organized with three companies at Morganton where over 100 of them were captured 28 June, 1864, in Geo. W. Kirk's raid. The remainder were recruited up by the addition of Juniors from other counties and two new companies were thus created which later at Salisbury were added to -Millard's Ninth Battalion. This battalion after seeing services at Wilmington as is narrated in its history herein, was brigaded with the three Junior Reserve Regiments (Seventieth, Seventy-first and Seventy-second North Carolina) at Kinston in January, 1865, and attached to Hoke's Division whose fortunes that brigade thenceforward shared till Johnston's surrender. As to the other eight battalions, the First (Broadfoot) and Sixth (Clark) Battalions with two other companies added, were organized into the First Regiment of Reserves (Seventieth North Carolina) at Weldon 4 July, 1864. The Second (Anderson) and Fifth (Beasley) were organized into a larger battalion at Weldon 16 July, and this on 7 December, 1864, by the addition of two companies, was raised to a regiment, the Second Reserves or Seventy-first North Carolina. The Fourth (Reece), Seventh (French), and Eighth (Ellington) Battalions were organized into the Third Regiment of Reserves or Seventy-second North Carolina, at Wilmington, 3 January, 1865. Major Reece, with six other officers and between one hundred and two hundred men of these three battalions, which were then under his command, were captured near Fort Fisher the night of 25 December, 1864, under circumstances not creditable to him, His brave but inexperienced boys, many of them, stoutly refused to be surrendered and saved themselves. The report made by one of these, the gallant young Adjutant, F. M. Hamlin, will be found in Serial Volume 87, Official Records Union and Confederate Armies, p. 1025.
The Junior Reserve Brigade, composed of the above three regiments and Millard's Battalion, was commanded at first by Colonel F. S. Armistead, of the Seventieth. At the battle of Smith West Creek below Kinston 8-9 March, 1865, it was under General L. S. Baker, and 15 March Colonel J. H. Nethercutt, of the Sixty-sixth North Carolina, was assigned to it just before the battle of Bentonville and commanded the
brigade till the surrender under Johnston. At first, Adjutant A. T. London and Lieutenant E. S. Foster of the Seventieth acted as Assistant. Adjutant General and Ordnance Officer, respectively, of this Brigade but when Colonel Nethercutt took command 15 March he assigned Lieutenant Wm. Calder as Assistant Adjutant General and Lieutenant E. S. Martin as Ordnance Officer, both of the First Heavy Artillery Battalion.
The field officers of the Junior Reserves without exception had seen previous service in the army. The writer was the only field officer who was himself a Junior Reserve (under 18) and only one other (Beasley) was under 21 years of age, which fact it appears from General Holmes' letter book he reported to the authorities at Richmond. The company officers were, as a rule, 17 years of age when elected, but those who passed the Examining Board were retained after they reached that age and there was a good sprinkling of company officers of maturer age and army experience who having resigned, or been discharged, from the army by reason of wounds or physical disability reentered service with the Juniors. The Examining Board was composed of Majors C. W. Broadfoot, J. H. Anderson and Walter Clark. As may be imagined at first many of the young company officers were found by this board deficient in education or knowledge of tactics and dropped. These as fast as they, became 18 years of age were sent, together with all noncommissioned officers and privates who arrived at that age, to the regiments in Virginia. The company officers who passed the required examination were retained with their companies. The vacancies caused by those failing to pass were filled usually by electing old soldiers "on light duty" by reason of wounds, or other disability or by the election of young men of better education, resulting in a very decided improvement in the personnel of the company officers. Towards the last, amid the pressure and hurry of events, privates and noncommissioned officers arriving at 18 years of age were not always sent off to the older regiments.
So much for the three regiments and the battalions of the Juniors. Of the Seniors, there were five regiments and two
battalions. The words "Junior" and "Senior" were not officially used and the first three were designated simply "First, Second and Third Regiments of Reserves" (or Seventieth, Seventy-first and Seventy-second North Carolina). The latter were designated as the "Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Regiments of Reserves" (or Seventy-third, Seventy-fourth, Seventy-sixth, Seventy-seventh, and Seventy-eighth North Carolina, for a cavalry regiment has some how gotten switched into the enumeration in Moore's Roster as the Seventy-fifth). There were also three battalions, besides that of Major Hooks', above mentioned, which was incorporated into the Eighth Reserves (Seventy-eighth North Carolina). These were a battalion of Seniors organized at Asheville and commanded by Major L. P. Erwin, who did good service in that section, another from Catawba and adjacent counties, commanded by Major A. A. Hill, and the Third Battalion organized at Raleigh, which served at Fort Fisher and was commanded by Major J. T. Littlejohn. A large part of the officers of these five regiments and three battalions of Seniors had doubtless seen service in the army and probably many of the privates had also.
The Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Reserves were formed into the Second Brigade and commanded by Colonel John F. Hoke, with headquarters at Salisbury. Of this Brigade Major M. P. Beardon was Quartermaster and Captain R. P. Waring Adjutant General. The Seventh, together with the companies late organized into the Eighth Reserves in December, 1864, were in a brigade at Wilmington commanded by Colonel Jno. K. Connally, of the Fifty-fifth North Carolina. 87 Official Records Union and Confederate Armies, p. 1021. From December, 1864, to March, 1865, the Seventh Reserves served in Georgia, South Carolina and this State, brigaded with the Tenth North Carolina Battalion (Young) and part of the time with the Fiftieth North Carolina, the brigade being commanded by Colonel Wash. M, Hardy, of the Sixtieth North Carolina.
The services of the above regiments and four battalions of Reserves are narrated, as well as they can now be recalled, in the following sketches of their respective regiments and battalions,
but this history of their organization is here given as the reference thereto in Major Gordon's admirable article on the organization of troops in Vol. 1 (p. 16) of this work was very brief from his lack of information in this particular matter. Major H. R. Hooper was Quarter Master of all the Reserves of North Carolina and Dr. Thomas Hill, Surgeon in Chief. Lieutenant-General T. H. Holmes commanded the Reserves with Captain John W. Hinsdale Assistant-Adjutant General till his promotion to Colonel of the Seventy-second North Carolina (Third Juniors) when he was succeeded by Major Chas. S. Stringfellow as Assistant-Adjutant-General.
The rolls kept in Raleigh of our regiments were duplicates and naturally not kept up with the care of those used as pay rolls, which were sent to Richmond, hence much of the complaint of the defects in Moore's Roster, which is nowhere more incomplete than in regard to the Reserves. The State can not now get a complete and correct roster of her troops unless an act of Congress is passed to have a complete transcript made from the original Confederate pay rolls which were surrendered at Greensboro, where they had been carried from Richmond, 100 (Serial Vol.) Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, 8.42, and which are now on file at Washington, and this ought to be done with a careful collation of the rolls which were sent in from time to time, of each company and regiment.
RALEIGH, N. C.,
4 July, 1901.
- SEVENTIETH REGIMENT.
- 1. Chas. W. Broadfoot, Colonel.
- 2. Walter Clark, Lieut.-Colonel.
- 3. N. A. Gregory, Major. (Picture in 71st Regiment.)
- 4. Thos. L. Lee, Captain, Co. G.
- 5. Christopher C. Smith, 1st Lieut., Co. A.
- 6. B. I. Breedlove, Private, Co. B.
- 7. Lucullus Hunter, Private, Co. B.
(FIRST .JUNIOR RESERVES.)
BY COLONEL CHARLES W. BROADFOOT.
Under the inexorable necessity of filling the ranks depleted by the waste of three years of war, the Confederate Congress on 17 February, 1864, passed the act by which the military age, previously 18 to 45, was extended to embrace all from 17 to 50. Those from 17 to 18 years of age, known later as Junior Reserves, were embodied into companies in April and May, and in May and June were formed into battalions, and later on into regiments forming a total in this State of three regiments and one battalion, which became the Junior Reserves' Brigade in Hoke's Division, Ilardee's Corps. The embodying of those from 45 to 50 years of age was postponed a few weeks to enable the men to make and save their crops and make arrangements for the care of their families.
The First Regiment of Junior Reserves was formed by the consolidation of the First and Sixth Battalions, of whose organization it is proper to speak at this place.
This battalion consisted of three companies. Company A, Captain Charles Price, 81 officers and men; Company B, Captain D. S. Speed, 78 officers and men; Company C, Captain C. J. Richardson, 93 officers and men. Total, with field and staff, 255.
It. was organized into a battalion at Camp Holmes, near Raleigh, 25 May, 1864, by electing as Major, the writer, who had served in the "Bethel" Regiment and afterwards in Company D, Forty-third North Carolina, but at this time was an Aide on the staff of Lieutenant-General Holmes, and had recently returned with him from the campaign in Arkansas.
The battalion was equipped with clothing, shoes and accoutrements as well as the government at that time could do,
but were armed with Enfield rifles, which had been changed to percussion from flint and steel, and which were well nigh worthless. Later on better guns which had been captured in Virginia, were issued to the Juniors.
On 29 May the battalion was ordered to Weldon, where it went into camp on the Northampton side of the river, on the ground formerly occupied by the Fifty-sixth Regiment, near the residence of Mr. John M. Moody, who with his entire family was as kind and considerate of the soldier boys as it was possible to be. The camp was styled "Camp Daniel" in honor of Brigadier-General Junius Daniel. then recently killed in battle and who was born a few miles distant in Halifax County.
THE SIXTH BATTALION.
The Sixth Battalion consisted of five companies. Company A, Captain A. M. Heitman, 89 officers and men; Company B, Captain C. D. Dowd, 80 officers and men; Company C, Captain W. S. Lineberry, 78 officers and men; Company D, Captain W. H. Carter, 76 officers and men; Company E, Captain Thos. L. Lea, 82 officers and men. Total when organized, including field and staff, 408 officers and men.
This battalion was organized at Camp Holmes near Raleigh, 3 June, 1864, by electing Walter Clark, Major. Major Clark, a cadet at T'ew's Military School, had in May, 1861, entered the service as drillmaster and later went to Virginia with Pettigrew's regiment, Twenty-second North Carolina; in 1862-'63 he had served as Adjutant of the Thirty-fifth North Carolina (Colonel M. W. Ransom). On the return to this State of that brigade in 1863, he resigned and entering the senior class at the State University, graduated 2 June, the day before his election as Major. His battalion was equipped much as the First had been and was ordered to Goldsboro, 8 June. After a few days stay it was ordered to Weldon 18 June and went into camp 19 June, near the First Battalion, in a camp styled "Camp Ransom," in honor of General M. W. Ransom, whose residence was close by and on whose staff (when Colonel Ransom) the Major commanding had served.
The post at Weldon was commanded by Colonel James W. Hinton, of the Sixty-eighth North Carolina, and the district was under the command of General L. S. Baker, with headquarters at Goldsboro. Pickets were kept out by the two battalions to guard against surprise by raiding parties, or a sudden advance of the enemy from the Chowan. The command was rigidly and constantly drilled and with the facility of boys soon acquired military discipline and efficiency. On 27 June the Sixth Battalion was ordered to Gaston and took post on the east side of the river to protect the railroad bridge at that point from a threatened cavalry raid, but returned to Weldon 1 July.
ORGANIZED INTO A REGIMENT.
On 4 July, 1864, the First and Sixth Battalions were, in pursuance of General Orders, organized into a regiment. On 15 June, Captain M. C. Nixon's company had been assigned to the First Battalion. The Halifax County company of Captain W. R. Williams, was now added to the two battalions, making ten companies whose officers on that day elected
CHARLES W. BROADFOOT, Colonel.
WALTER CLARK, Lieutenant-Colonel.
N. A. GREGORY, Major.
The election was conducted by Lieutenant Graham Daves, Aide to General Holmes. Upon his report of the election, orders were issued assigning above officers to duty accordingly. Major Gregory had seen service as First Lieutenant of Company I, Twenty-third North Carolina Regiment, but having been wounded and disabled at Chancellorsville, had resigned. He now patriotically acepted his election and reentered the service.
During July, the headquarters of Lieutenant-General Holmes were removed to Weldon. Not long after his arrival, he sent for the above field officers of the First Regiment and explained to them his earnest wish that his chief of staff, Lieutenant-Colonel F. S. Armistead, might be made Colonel of the First Regiment, as thereby he felt confident that he would without delay be appointed Brigadier-General of the
Junior Reserves Brigade (which was to be formed) by President Davis, who had been a cadet at West Point with himself and a lifelong friend. Colonel Armistead was himself a West Pointer and brother of General Armistead who was killed at Gettysburg. Their mother was a Stanly, of New Bern. In deference to General Holmes' wishes the field officers resigned and at. the new election F. S. Armistead was elected Colonel, C. W. Broadfoot Lieutenant-Colonel, Walter Clark Major, and N. A. Gregory accepted the vacant captaincy of Company H. This arrangement was expected to endure for a very brief period and in order to carry it out fully, General Holmes delayed the formation of the other battalions into regiments as long as he could. But the expected promotion of Colonel Armistead, for some reason, did not materialize, and the arrangement continued to the end, except that on formation of the Second Regiment, Gregory was elected Major of that. As Colonel Armistead for many months commanded the post, or the brigade, the regiment was in the actual command of Lieutenant-Colonel Broadfoot and in his absence by Major Clark. On the second organization, the company of Captain W. R. Williams was transferred to Anderson's Battalion and that of Captain John A. Manning was substituted.
The companies as relettered after the second organization were officered as follows:
COMPANY A-Warren, Franklin and Nash-Captain, Charles Price, of Warren; First Lieutenant, C. C. Smith, of Nash; Second Lieutenants, E. S. Foster and W. B. Coppedge, both of Franklin. This company was the only one which had no change in its officers from its organization in May, till the surrender a year later. Captain Price is a distinguished lawyer, living in Salisbury and has been United States District Attorney for Western North Carolina; Lieutenant Foster is a promising physician in Louisburg.
COMPANY B-Granville-Captains, D. S. Speed, R. L. Crews, F. R. Gregory; First Lieutenants, A. Thorpe, T. W. Taylor; Second Lieutenants, F. S. Daniels, W. H. Gregory, R. H. Andrews, Alex. Turner.
COMPANY C-Davidson-Captain, A. M. Heitman; First Lieutenant, J. A. Parks; Second Lieutenants, C. L. Badgett, R. W. Lindsay, F. E. Thomas.
COMPANY D-Wake-Captain, C. J. Richardson; First Lieutenants, A. J. Alford, G. R. Smith; Second Lieutenants, G. R. Smith, W. H. Crabtree, R. Halyburton.
COMPANY E-Moore and Montgomery-Captains, C. D. Dowd, W. W. Beard; First Lieutenant, W. A. Fry, R. W. Wellborn; Second Lieutenants, J. T. McCaulay, D. J. Dye, E. J. Dye, J. C. Neal.
COMPANY F-Randolph-Captain, W. S. Lineberry; First Lieutenants, L. S. Gray, H. C. Causey; Second Lieutenants, H. C. Causey, Z. T. Rush, W. T. Glenn, W. R. Ashworth.
COMPANY G-Caswell and Stanly-Captain, Thos. L. Lea, of Caswell ; First Lieutenant, J. W. Smith, of Stanly; Second Lieutenants, J. G. Denny and L. Eudy, of Caswell, Waverly Johnson, of Northampton.
COMPANY H-Chatham-Captains, W. II. Carter, N. A. Gregory, J. A. Faison; First Lieutenants, J. T. McAuley, Carson Johnson; Second Lieutenants, W. Y. Fulford, J. J. Watson, J. W. Treloar.
COMPANY I-Orange-Captains, M. C. Nixon, J. S. Farthing, A. D. Markham, W. F. Hargrave, B. F. Weaver, Gabriel Holmes. The latter was a son of Lieutenant-General Holmes and grandson of Governor Holmes.
COMPANY K-Martin, Northampton, Bertie and Chowan-Captains, Jno. A. Manning, Frank S. Faison; First Lieutenants, Frank S. Faison, W. D. Pruden; Second Lieutenants, W. D. Pruden, J., K. Wheeler. Lieutenant Pruden is now the well known lawyer of Edenton.
There were many changes among the officers by the operation of the Examining Board and resignations and some names may he indavertently omitted. Among the company officers, Captain N. A. Gregory, F. R. Gregory, J. A. Faison and W. W. Beard and Lieutenant W. H. H. Gregory had seen previous service in the army. Captain Faison was a West Pointer.
The staff of the regiment was as follows:
A. T. LONDON, of Wilmington, Adjutant.
N. M. JONES, of Chatham, Sergeant-Major.
C. S. WEDDEN, of Wake, Quartermaster Sergeant.
ASSISTANT SURGEONS, James Jordan, of Northampton; F. R. Gregory, of Granville ; Cr. G. Smith, of Concord. Dr. Gregory had previously been Captain of Company B.
When first organized into battalions, we had no surgeons and the following extract of a letter from the writer at that time gives an idea of the situation:
"June 2, 1864.
"I have no surgeon and have to prescribe for the sick myself. A doctor of Major Hahr's Battalion has kindly furnished me with some medicines with full directions how to use. Today I dosed about thirty. * * * I have a good deal to amuse me in camp. My men come to me for everything. One wants a furlough, one has broken his gun and expects me to mend it for him; another wants to go home to get married, etc."
An assistant surgeon reported for duty on 17 June, 1864, but with no medicines. These came within a short time, however, and thereafter we had the services of kind, attentive and competent surgeons. This regiment, with the other Junior Reserves, joined in the following letter:
"CAMP OF JUNIOR RESERVES,
"NEAR WELDON, N. C., October 10, 1864.
"Hon. Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:
SIR:-We, the undersigned Field Officers of the Junior Reserves of North Carolina stationed near Weldon, N. C., at the unanimous request of the officers and enlisted men of the commands, respectfully tender their services to the department for duty in Virginia during the present emergency, while our National Capital is threatened and its brave defenders stand in need of reinforcements."
This letter was a source of pride to Lieutenant-General
Holmes, commanding the Reserves of North Carolina, who often spoke of it in highly complimentary terms to the writer.
On 16 October, 1864, the regiment went to Boykin's Depot, met a raid from the Blackwater where it remained a day or two, and returned to Weldon, as the enemy had retired, where we continued to furnish guards for bridges at Gaston and elsewhere, and heavy details for outpost duty.
THE LOWER ROANOKE.
This regiment and Anderson's Battalion were ordered to Plymouth on Saturday, 29 October. We left Weldon and went by rail to Tarboro. On Sunday marched eighteen miles, on Monday twenty-five to within thirteen miles of Plymouth, where we met our troops returning from the capture of the place and the blowing up of the Albemarle by the enemy, and were ordered to Hamilton, N. C. This was extraordinary marching for raw levies. There was little or no straggling and the regiment was highly complimented by General Baker, commanding.
Camp "Baker," near Hamilton, was headquarters, and from this point the outpost service become both arduous and important, as our advanced posts extended to Foster's Mills, below Williamston, in Martin County. Covering the approaches to Martin, Edgecombe and Pitt Counties, whence at the time large supplies were drawn for the support of Lee's army.
Early in November, four companies (B, E, H and I), were sent under command of the Major of the regiment to Williamston where he was placed in charge of the post, relieving Lieutenant Colonel Van Hook with six companies of the Fiftieth. Two companies of cavalry, Captains Pitts and Brown, of the Sixty-fifth North Carolina, and Lee's Alabama Battery of artillery were also under his command, seven companies altogether. With these he was to guard the crossings at Foster's and Rawls' Mills and patrol the roads leading to Plymouth and Washington where the enemy were in force. One of the principal objects served by the outpost at that time was to cover the movements of Dr. Fretwell, who had been sent out from Richmond to place torpedoes in the Roanoke below
Williamston, which he did successfully with a force of detailed men as experts. The enemy made two or three attempts to disturb our quiet, and on one occasion Major Clark followed them with part of the cavalry, and three companies of infantry and a section of artillery nearly to Jamesville, the rest being left to guard the road from Washington.
BELFIELD, V A.
About 10 December, six companies, A, C, D, F, G and K were ordered from Camp Baker to Virginia and went as far as Belfield, Va., where they took part in the fight at that place which turned back the raid under General Warren. The other four companies, B, E, H and I, were at the time below Williamston at and near Foster's Mills, and were ordered to follow the others as rapidly as possible. These four made a forced march to Tarboro, when they were immediately ordered back to meet a raid from Plymouth.
On 12 December, after marching one hundred miles in eight days, they were in line behind breastworks at Butler's Bridge, near Hamilton, Fort Branch and Camp Baker, with a section of Lee's light battery from Montgomery, Ala., and two companies of cavalry of the Sixty-fifth North Carolina State Troops, Captains Brown and Pitts in the immediate front. The whole force under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Broadfoot. Just before daylight on the morning of the 13th, we were attacked in front and rear at the same time, the party in the rear having been piloted through the swamps by one or more traitors, known as Buffaloes. The cavalry companies were dismounted and in front as skirmishers, and their horses were a few yards in rear of the breastworks, on the Hamilton side, when they were fired upon by the enemy and broke away from the few men in charge of them and dashed over the bridge and up the road in the direction of Tarboro. The noise of these loose horses crossing the bridge was mistaken by the enemy in front for a charge, and they fell back, allowing the entire command to escape, and reform on the Tarboro road about one-fourth of a mile distant, in a line of old breastworks commanding the road.
Map of Butler's Bridge and Vicinity.
In this affair the regiment lost Dr. Gregory captured in Camp Baker, where he went to attend the wounded, Lieutenant VanB. Sharpe, of Pitt County, who had been wounded while on the skirmish line, and several privates were also captured, and we had our camp plundered, if a camp of Junior Reserves at that time can be said to be the subject of plunder. Colonel Hinton and Adjutant Hinton, of the Sixty-Eighth, who had spent the night at the Sherrod house in our rear, waiting the coming up of that regiment, were captured, as they came out expecting to meet it, but the Adjutant soon escaped. He had a leave of absence in his pocket to go home to be married and he kept his tryst. The enemy returned hastily to Plymouth. Upon the return of the six companies from Belfield, the regiment resumed its duties at Camp Raker of protecting the approaches from below and thus guarding Tarboro and Weldon.
Late in December, the enemy sent several boats up the Roanoke, threatening Fort Branch, and on 23 December, two companies of the regiment, with a section of Dickson's light battery (Company E, of Starr's Battalion), the whole under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Broadfoot, who had volunteered for this service, went to Poplar Point on the Roanoke, a short distance below Fort Branch, to reconnoitre, and prevent, if possible, their further ascent of the river. The loss of a boat, sunk near Williamston by a torpedo placed in the river the night before by Dr. Fretwell, who had been sent from Richmond as already stated, for the purpose of obstructing the river, had checked the gunboats which were advancing slowly, dragging the river from open boats as they went. When they passed a bend in the river below Poplar Point and came into view, the guns of Dickson's Battery located on the bluff, opened fire and stopped them. The enemy shelled the banks, which were lined with two companies of our regiment, without damage, and upon 24 December another battery having been placed below the gunboats and the infantry having been reinforced by Colonel Whitford's Sixty-seventh
Regiment, the enemy retired, shelling heavily the woods as they withdrew. General Leventhorpe, commanding the District of North Carolina, complimented our command for its part in this affair.
Just here an anecdote: While passing along the line the officer in command caught one of the boys with an unexploded shell from the enemy between his knees, trying to extract the powder. Upon being sharply reprimanded and told of the danger to himself and others, the boy replied: "I am not skeered of the d-d things when they are coming at me through the air, and I know I ain't afraid of 'em when I have 'em in my hands." About 29 January this regiment, with the Second and Third Regiments and Millard's Battalion of Junior Reserves, commanded by Captain C. M. Hall, were formed into a brigade under command of Colonel F. S. Armistead, by General Order No. 1, of this date, and Captain B. F. Smith, Assistant Quartermaster, was assigned to duty as brigade Quartermaster. This was our first acquaintance with a quartermaster, as our dealings heretofore with that branch of the service were at long range. We never had a commissary officer, but our brigade had an excellent ordnance officer in Lieutenant E. S. Foster, of Company A, of our regiment, assigned to duty as such.
About the middle of February, 1865, our regiment as part of the First Brigade Reserves, went to Kinston, N. C., and were accounted worthy to stand with their older brethren of Hoke's Division, as part and parcel of the same; and from this time to the farewell address of that gallant General made to his division on I May, 1865, we shared its hardships, as well as its glories.
SOUTH WEST CREEK.
After being encamped with the brigade for some three weeks at Kinston (about one mile west of the Jno. C. Washington residence), news came that the enemy was advancing from New Bern in force. The brigade was placed under command of General L. S. Baker, and attached to Hoke's Division, and on 6 March we crossed the river and marched down to South West Creek, where we lined the bank of that
stream, the right of our brigade (the First Regiment.) resting on the county road where it crosses that stream north of the railroad. The morning of the 8th we heard the heavy fighting and joined in the cheering as the news came down the line that Hoke had captured 1,600 prisoners and a general officer on the right. About 3 p. m. we were ordered to cross the stream before us, which we did on an improvised bridge under firing going on between our skirmishers and those of the enemy.
On the other side the brigade formed line of battle in the same order as before, the First Regiment Reserves (Seventieth North Carolina.) on the right. On orders from General Baker the brigade moved handsomely forward, and drove the enemy from behind their temporary breastworks of fence rails and logs. We captured some prisoners and the loss in the brigade was not very heavy.
General D. H. Hill, writing a month after, says in his report of this battle, speaking from hearsay, for he states therein that the Reserves were not under his command, as follows, 98 (Serial Vol.) Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, 1087. The Reserves advanced handsomely for a time, but at length one regiment (the First, I think), broke and the rest lay down and could not he got forward." Had General Hill been writing of troops under his own command, or of matters of his own knowledge, his statement would be accepted. But by the very reason of his high character this statement. by him on hearsay can not be allowed to go down in history uncorrected. I, who saw the whole matter, must say, and all others who were present (of whom hundreds are still living,) among them the editor of this work, will concur with me that this statement is a gross injustice to the gallant boys. The facts are that the whole brigade went forward handsomely, as General Hill says, and while closely engaged, a portion of the First. Regiment (not all) misconceiving a command that was given to the skirmish line, did break and fell hack some 150 yards to the stream. They did not attempt to cross it by the bridge or otherwise and were
readily and promptly rallied and immediately went forward again. They were much chagrined at misunderstanding the orders which alone had caused them to fall back. No part of the brigade at any time lay down and refused to go forward. Those who commanded the Juniors or saw them in action know that there were no troops who had more enthusiasm or were more easily led than they.
About dark General Hoke placing himself at the head of our brigade, some other troops being added, marched us down the road towards Neuse river with the intention of turning the enemy's flank, but about midnight the scouts brought in news which induced General Hoke to retrace our steps and at daylight we had recrossed the creek and were back in our breastworks.
The enemy in front were repulsed, but Sherman's army was coming up from South Carolina and we were in danger of being "in a strait betwixt two." On the 10th we retreated through Kinston, thence through Goldsboro to Smithfield, where we saw General Joseph E. Johnston, who was in chief command. There one morning the Junior Reserves Brigade was drawn up on three sides of a square to witness the execution of three men from Zachary's Georgia Regiment, who were to be shot for mutiny. There were threats of rescue, hence this precaution. The men were tied to stakes and shot by a detail, half only of whose guns were loaded with ball, the other half with powder (the loading being done by others) so no man would know that he fired the fatal shot. It was a painful scene.
On 16 March the battle of Averasboro was fought and the next morning we moved forward to meet Sherman. The night of the 18th we camped in the woods beyond the stream which runs through Bentonville. The next day, 19 March, was a bright Sunday morning. Hoke's Division lined the road and at right angles to us was the Army of the West. The enemy were in the angle. In the afternoon we saw the western army at right angles to us as it charged and took two successive lines of breastworks, capturing the enemy's
artillery. Several officers led the charge on horseback across an open field in full view, with colors flying and line of battle in such perfect order as to be able to distinguish the several field officers in proper place and followed by a battery which dashed at full gallop, wheeled, unlimbered and opened fire. It looked like a picture and at our distance was truly beautiful. It was gallantly done, but it was a painful sight to see how close their battle flags were together, regiments being scarcely larger than companies and a division not much larger than a regiment should be. In the meantime Hoke's Division was sharply engaged with a corps which was trying to turn our flank. The enemy's large force enabled him to do this and next morning Hoke's Division was thrown back and formed a new line of battle facing nearly due east, whereas the day before we had been facing southwest.
This new line the division promptly fortified with breastworks hastily thrown up of logs, filled in with earth dug up with bayonets and tin pans and a few spades and shovels. In front of this line, two hundred yards, was the skirmish line of each brigade. That of our brigade was commanded by Major Walter Clark, of the First Regiment. During the two days we held that position the enemy repeatedly charged and sometimes drove in the skirmishers to our right and left, but being favored by the ground or for some other cause, the skirmishers of our brigade held their ground the entire time. On Tuesday afternoon, the enemy having broken through to our extreme left, threatened our communications. That night General Johnston withdrew across the stream, having held 70,000 of Sherman's troops at bay with forces in the beginning not exceeding 14,000, and at no time reaching 20,000. In many respects this was one of the most remarkable battles of the war.. Sherman's troops were evidently demoralized by a long course of pillaging and plunder.
Sherman did not follow our retreat, but sheered off to Goldsboro. General Johnston's army was encamped around Mitchener's depot and was reorganized 31 March, 100 Official Records Union and Confederate Armies 732--736. On 6 April we had the last great review held of any of the Confederate armies and Governor Vance made one of his most
inspiring speeches. No brigade there made a finer appearance than the Juniors. It was the largest brigade in Hoke's Division, nearly doubling in numbers Clingman's, and in-deed was the largest brigade in the whole army by the official returns.
On 10 April we began our final retreat. On 12 April we passed through Raleigh, Hoke's Division being the rear guard and our last pickets passed through the town at midnight, Governor Vance passed out just ahead of us and spent the night in General Hoke's tent about seven miles west of Raleigh. We passed through Chapel Hill and the Alamance Regulator battle ground (of 16 May, 1771) and thence on up to Red Cross in Randolph, where we halted several days awaiting the result of the "Bennett House" surrender of 14 April,
In passing through Alamance the streams were much swollen by recent rains, and there was great difficulty in crossing and many narrow escapes from drowning occurred, especially among the boys.
The first treaty for surrender, the most creditable thing in the career of General Sherman, having been disallowed by President Johnson, we were again moved westward but we were again stopped at Bush Hill, near Trinity College, by the news that a final surrender had been made on 26 April. There on I May $1.25 in silver was paid to each one from general to private and on the next day, what was left of the command received paroles from the commanding officer of their respective regiments. By this time the army had dwindled to a skeleton, the certainty of a surrender and the unwillingness to be made prisoner having rapidly thinned the ranks.
On the afternoon of 2 May, 1865, what was left of the First Regiment of Junior Reserves received their paroles and quietly dispersed to their respective homes. The regiment was off duty forever.
We suffered, we fought, we failed, it has pleased some to call us rebels because we had done our duty, but history will record the names of the gallant, bright faced buys of the
North Carolina Junior Reserves on that page where only those of heroes are written.
CHARLES W. BROADFOOT.
FAYETTEVILLE, N. C.,
2 May, 1901.
- SEVENTY-FIRST REGIMENT.
- 1. W. F. Beasley, Lieut.-Colonel.
- 2. N. A. Gregory, Major.
- 3. D. E. McKinne. Captain, Co. A.
- 4. J. Q. Holland, Captain, Co. C.
- 5. Wm. H. Overman, Captain, Co. B.
- 6. B. F. Rogers, 2d Lieut, Co. E.
- 7. R M. Furman, 2d Lieut., Co. B.
- 8. M. P. A. Ludwig, Drummer, Co. F.
- 9. J. W. Denmark, Drummer, Co. A.
(SECOND .JUNIOR RESERVES.
BY DAVID E. McKINNE, CAPTAIN COMPANY A.
The Second Regiment Reserves (Juniors) was formed by the consolidation of the Second and Fifth Battalions, with the addition of other companies.
THE SECOND BATTALION.
This battalion was composed of three companies, Company A, Captain W. H. Overman ; Company B, Captain J. Q. Holland; Company C, Captain John K. Wells, and was organized 31 May, 1864, at Camp Holmes near Raleigh. by the election of John H. Anderson, Major. Major Anderson had served as a private in the "Bethel" Regiment and later as First Lieutenant Company D, Forty-eighth North Carolina, and had resigned on account of wounds. His battalion 2 June was ordered to Goldsboro. There on 15 June Captain T. C. Rowland's company was added as Company D.
THE FIFTH BATTALION.
This battalion was also of three companies. Company A, Captain A. R. Hicks; Company B, Captain J. W. Grainger, and Company C, Captain McD. Boyd. It was organized at Goldsboro 2 June, 1864, by electing W. F. Beasley Major. Major Beasley had seen service as First Lieutenant Company H, Forty-eighth North Carolina Regiment. A few days later Captain S. Spears' company, afterwards commanded by Captain Corl, was added to this battalion and both these battalions were ordered to Weldon.
On 16 July at Weldon the Second and Fifth Battalions were combined into Anderson's Battalion of eight companies by electing J. H. Anderson Lieutenant-Colonel and W. F. Beasley Major.
The fall of 1864, this battalion spent at Weldon. On 4 October Captain W. S. Flynn's company was added and on 10 October this battalion and the First Regiment of Reserves united in an offer of their services to go to Virginia.
The writer, in August, was assigned to duty as Adjutant of the post of Weldon and filled that position until called to the command of his company by the subsequent retirement of Captain Hicks and Lieutenant Draughon. The following personal experiences may be of interest. On 31 August, a dispatch came that the enemy had burnt Winton and Newsom's and were advancing. The commander of the subdepartment issued an order to Major Walter Clark, of the Seventieth Regiment (First Junior Reserves) to go to the front, and take command of the scattered companies, infantry, cavalry or artillery in that section and keep the enemy in check till he could send back authentic information. The writer was ordered to accompany him as Acting Adjutant-General. An engine and a box car containing our horses, were obtained by an order for them from General Arnold H. Elzey, commanding at Richmond, who happened to be passing through Weldon. The engine ran down the Seaboard road, car in front, till we reached Boykins, where Lieutenant Bienvenu, of the Louisiana Artillery, was on post with a section of his battery. He and some of his men armed with rifles were taken on board. Lieutenant Bienvenu and his men, took post with us on the top of the front end of the car and we ran down to the end of the track at Nottoway river. The enemy had burnt a few houses but our pickets reported they had left. Returning to Boykins the special train was sent back to Weldon while we saddled our horses and reached Murfreesboro by 10 o'clock at night. Off at daylight next morning, we went to Winton to find the enemy had burnt houses there and withdrawn. Thence we went on in the Coleraine section towards Pitch Landing, everywhere visiting our cavalry outposts. Nothing more being left to be done, we got back to Murfreesboro by dinner and here a singular thing happened. Major Clark seeing a soldier sitting on
the porch with a Spencer seven-shooter, captured from the enemy, reached out his hand to look at it, when to his surprise the soldier held on to one end of it and declined to let it go out of his hand. When we went to the stables to order our horses, he kept at a respectful distance, but in sight. Soon after Captain Hugh L. Cole, enrolling officer of that district, whom we knew, came over to the hotel, and at sight of us seemed much amused for some unknown cause, while the soldier suddenly and mysteriously disappeared. Not till after the war did we learn the solution. The sight of two boys of 17, one wearing the stars of Major and the other the bars of a Lieutenant together with our very rapid movements, had caused some of the cavalry the former had been sent to command to suspect we were spies and we had been virtually prisoners in the hotel "unbeknownst to ourselves" till Captain Cole raised the blockade. That evening we reached Jackson, having ridden that day 72 miles, capturing on the way a Yankee straggler and a Confederate deserter, both of whom, with the aid of two cavalrymen, picked up by us, we carried into Weldon next day as the sole result of our commission to "take command of our forces on the Chowan and skirmish with the enemy, falling back if necessary, but sending all the information to be gathered."
After this, in October, the Seventieth Regiment and Anderson's Battalion were ordered to Tarboro and thence to Plymouth, where the "Albemarle" had just been blown up by Lieutenant W. B. Cushing, of the Federal Navy. After a forced march, just as we were nearly to Plymouth, we met the Fiftieth North Carolina, which had been forced to evacuate the town by the Federal fleet now that. their dreaded enemy, the iron-clad "Albemarle," was out of the way. Anderson's Battalion returned to Tarboro and thence to Weldon, leaving the First Regiment at Fort Branch near Hamilton.
SECOND REGIMENT ORGANIZED.
On 7 December the company of Captain W. R. Williams was added, making a full regiment, of which Jno. H. Anderson
was elected Colonel, W. F. Beasley Lieutenant. Colonel, and N. A. Gregory Major. W. G. Hunter, of Salisbury, was appointed Adjutant; J. P. Jordan, Assistant Surgeon; Chas. R. Ramseur, of Lincoln, Sergeant-Major; C. F. Bisaner, of Lincolnton, Commissary Sergeant; J. W. Worth, Quarter-master Sergeant.
The companies as finally reorganized and relettered, were as follows (including all the officers from the beginning):
COMPANY A-Wayne and Duplin-Captains, Albert R. Hicks, of Duplin, David E. McKinne, of Wayne; First Lieutenant, James Walter Draughan, of Sampson; Second Lieutenants, David E. McKinne and Buckner H. Smith, of Wayne, and Hugh F. Murray, of Pitt.
COMPANY B-Rowan-Captain, W. H. Overman; First Lieutenant, Nevin D. Fetzer; Second Lieutenants, J. J. Trotter and Turner P. Trotter, all of Rowan.
COMPANY C-Lincoln and Gaston-Captain, J. Q. Holland, of Gaston; First Lieutenant, J. A. Beale, of Bertie; Second Lieutenants, L. M. Hoffman of Gaston, C. F. Bisaner of Lincoln, G. F. Lucas and J. N. Hopper.
COMPANY D-Cleveland and Rutherford-Captain, J. K. Wells, of Cleveland ; First Lieutenant, H. G. Logan, of Rutherford; Second Lieutenants, J. G. Falls, Jr., of Cleveland, H. H. Weatherman and R. J. Durham.
COMPANY E-Cabarrus-Captains, S. Spears and G. F. C. Corl, of Caharrus; First Lieutenants, W. G. Hunter of Rowan, Thos. J. Shinn of Cabarrus; Second Lieutenants, Frank Winecoff, John O. Wallace and B. F. Rogers of Cabarrus, and W. R. Hines of Edgecmobe.
COMPANY F-Union-Captain T. C. Rowland; First Lieutenant, B. H. Benton; Second Lieutenants, S. R. Robinson and H. E. Nelson.
COMPANY G-Greene and Lenoir-Captain, Jesse W.
Grainger, of Lenoir; First Lieutenant, Samuel Laughinghouse of Pitt; Second Lieutenants, J. Ed. Clarke of Pitt, Jno. F. Humphrey of Wayne, Charles S. Smith of Halifax.
COMPANY H-Pitt, Johnston and Wilson-Captains, McD. Boyd and Joseph J. Laughinghouse; First Lieutenants,
J. J. Laughinghouse, Benj. Sheppard; Second Lieutenants, R. B. Anderson, -. -. Smith, all of Pitt, and Robert M. Furman, of Franklin.
COMPANY I-Beaufort, Hyde and Tyrrell-Captain William S. Flynn, of Beaufort (previously in United States Army); First Lieutenant, Samuel Selby, of Hyde; Second Lieutenants, John W. Wilkinson and John Adams.
COMPANY K-Halifax-Captain, W. R. Williams; First Lieutenant, David C. Whitaker; Second Lieutenants, W. K. Martin, Jr., and W. T. Purnell, all of Halifax.
This last company had done provost duty at Weldon from its organization in May, 1864. Captain Williams had been Captain Company F, Forty-third Regiment, and had resigned on account of wounds. It had been attached to the Seventieth North Carolina as Company K, 4 July, when it was first organized, but subsequently Captain Jno. A. Manning's company was substituted.
On 8 December, the regiment, together with six companies of the Seventieth Regiment (First Juniors), hastily ordered from Hamilton, and the Seventh Battalion (French's), Eighth Battalion (Ellington's), and Ninth (Millard's) battalion, all of Junior Reserves, ordered from Wilmington, were sent to Belfield, Va., to meet the advance of Warren's Corps. The Junior Battalions from Wilmington were under the command of Colonel George Jackson. They were there under the enemy's fire for the first time and followed the enemy several miles on his retreat. The weather was intensely cold and the boys, poorly clad and badly fed, suffered terribly from exposure, though only a few were killed or wounded in the fight. For their conduct in this expedition, the Legislature of North Carolina passed a special vote of thanks to the Junior Reserves.
In January, the regiment was joined by Millard's Battalion and sent to Coleraine, on the Chowan, to meet an expected advance of the enemy. The command forded rivers,
marched in the rain without tents at night, with almost no camp equipage, to find that the enemy had withdrawn. On our return, we were ordered to Goldsboro, thence to Kinston where the three regiments of Junior Reserves (Seventieth, Seventy-first and Seventy-second North Carolina) and Millard's Battalion-being all the Juniors-were placed in a brigade commanded by Colonel F. S. Armistead and en-camped on the north of the railroad, about one mile west of the residence of John C. Washington.
SOUTH WEST CREEK.
The enemy advancing from New Bern on 6 March, we crossed the river with Hoke's Division (to which we were thenceforward attached) and other troops and marched down to South West Creek four or five miles below Kinston, where we were on the left of our army, the right of our brigade resting on the county road which runs north of the railroad. For some reason, Millard's Battalion was not with us in this battle, but was placed farther to the right. On the afternoon of the 8th we crossed the creek in our front on an improvised bridge and as soon as the brigade was formed in line, we moved forward in handsome style and drove back the enemy in front of us. After dark General Hoke put himself at our head, some other troops being added, and we moved by the left flank down the road towards Neuse river, the object being to turn the enemy's right flank. About midnight, scouts came in with information which caused General Hoke to order us to retrace our steps and by daylight we were again in our intrenchments west of the creek, which we had marched out of the afternoon before.
As news came that Sherman was coming up by way of Fayetteville on the 11th, we were withdrawn, passing through Kinston. We marched through Goldsboro on to Smithfield, where we united with the Western army and saw General Joseph E. Johnston. En route, on 15 March the brigade which at the battle of South West Creek was commanded by General L. S. Baker, was placed under Colonel John H. Nethercutt, of the Sixty-sixth North Carolina, and that gallant officer and good fighter remained with us to the close.
On 17 March the army took up the movement to meet Sherman. On the night of the 18th we encamped just beyond Bentonville. The next day was a bright Sunday morning, and we were in the fight on the left of Hoke's Division. In the afternoon we witnessed the gallant charge of our depleted army of the West when it charged and took two successive lines from the enemy. His overwhelming numbers, however, enabled Sherman to outflank us on our left during the night and next morning our line of battle which had faced southwest on Sunday was thrown back and faced nearly due east, This line was strengthened by a hasty breastwork of logs and dirt which we held, against all assaults, on the 20th and 21st. On the night of the latter day the enemy having outflanked us again on our left we quietly withdrew, and leisurely fell back to Mitchener's depot. Sherman did not pursue, but moved on to Goldsboro to join the column from New Bern which we had met at South West Creek. The conduct of the Junior Brigade at Bentonville was admirable and elicited high praise not only from Colonel Nethercutt, commanding the brigade, but from Generals Hoke and Hardee, commanding the division and the Corps. General Jos. E. Johnston in his published writings since the war has added his encomiums. Our loss in killed and wounded was reported as 41. For three days with 14,000 men, at no time, with all reinforcements, reaching 20,000, Johnston had held at bay Sherman's 70,000, and had fought one of the most remarkable battles of the war.
At Mitchener's depot, the army was reorganized and took a much needed rest. On 6 April we had a grand review, the last held in the Confederate armies. The Junior Brigade was the largest on the parade. Governor Vance was present and made one of his most stirring speeches.
On 9 April General Lee surrendered at Appomattox. On the next day, we began our retreat simultaneously with Sherman's advance from Goldsboro. On 12 April we passed through Raleigh, Hoke's Division being the rear guard.
Here a few of the officers heard of Lee's surrender, but it was not known to the army at large. At midnight, our last pickets passed through and early on the 13th the United States forces took possession of the Capital of the State.
We encamped the night of the 12th about seven miles west of Raleigh. Next morning our army divided, part going via Hillsboro to Greensboro, while Hardee's Corps, to which we belonged, took the route through Chapel Hill and via Al-alliance battle ground. Haw river and Alamance creek were greatly swollen by the rains and with great difficulty were crossed.
A striking incident of the crossing is thus related by Lieutenant R. M. Furman, of our regiment (since State Auditor). One of the smaller boys disappearing under the water, a taller and stouter comrade grabbed him and pulled him up, he dived down a second and third time and on being pulled up his comrades, suspecting an attempt at suicide, asked what he meant. "Why," said the little fellow, shivering and dripping, "My gun's down thar and I'm trying to git hit."
We halted several days at Red Cross, in Randolph, to await, as it turned out, President Johnson's action on the Johnson-Sherman treaty made at the Bennett house near Durham 14 April. This being disapproved at Washington, we again moved westward but the definite surrender of 26 April near Greensboro having been arranged, we were again halted at Bush Hill, half way between Trinity College and High Point. This proved our last march and our last halting place as Confederate soldiers. After it became apparent that a surrender was at hand, many left, fearing a prison. At our last halt $1.25 in silver was paid to each man in the army without respect to rank and at the close the mule teams were divided among the members of the regiment to which the wagons belonged.
On 1 May, Major-General Robert F. Hoke, who was one of the youngest and best generals in the army and commanded our division, issued the following farewell address to the division.
"Soldiers of my Division:
"On the eve of a long, perhaps final separation, I desire to address to you the last sad words of parting.
"The fortunes of war have turned the scales against us. The proud banners which you have waved so gloriously on many a field are to be furled at last; but they are not disgraced. My comrades, your indomitable courage, your heroic fortitude, your patience under suffering have surrounded these with a halo which future years cannot dim. History will bear witness to your valor and succeeding generations will point with admiration to your grand struggle for constitutional freedom. Soldiers, your past is full of glory. Treasure it in your hearts. Remember each gory battle field, each day of victory, each bleeding comrade. Think then of your future.
- "Freedom's battle once begun,>
- Bequeathed from bleeding sire to son,
- Though baffled oft, is ever won."
"You have yielded to overwhelming forces, not to superior valor; you are paroled prisoners, not slaves; the love of liberty which led you in the contest still burns as brightly in your hearts as ever, cherish it, nourish it, associate it with the history of the past. Transmit to your children, teach them the rights of freemen and teach them to maintain them; teach them that the proudest day in all your proud career was that on which you enlisted as a Southern soldier, entering that holy brotherhood whose ties are now sealed in the blood of your compatriots, who have fallen and whose history is covered with the brilliant records of the past four years.
"Soldiers amid the imperishable laurels that surmount your brows, no brighter leaf adorns you than your late connection with the Army of Northern Virginia. The star that shone with splendor over its oft repeated field of victory, over the two deadly struggles of Manassas Plains, Richmond, Chancellorsville and .Fredericksburg has sent its rays and been reflected wherever true courage is admired and wherever freedom has a friend. That star has set in blood, but yet in glory. That army is now of the past. Its banners trail, but
not with ignominy; no stain blots its escutcheon, no blood can tinge your face as you proudly announce that you have a part in the past history of the Army of Northern Virginia.
"My comrades, we have borne together the same hard-ships, we have braved the same dangers, we have rejoiced over the same victory; your trials and your patience have ex-cited sympathy and admiration and I have borne willing witness to your bravery. It is with a heart full of grateful emotion for your service and ready obedience that I take leave of you.
"May the future of every one of you be as happy as your past career has been brilliant and no cloud ever dim the brightness of your fame. The past looms before me in its illuminating grandeur. Its memories are a part of the past life of each one of you: but it is all now over. The sad, dark veil of defeat is between us and a life time of sorrow is our only heritage.
"You carry to your home the heartfelt wishes of your General for your prosperity.
"My command, farewell!
"R. F. HOKE,
"Headquarters Hoke's Division, near Greensboro, N. C., 1 May, 1865."
On 2 May, 1865, we fell in ranks for the last time and our paroles were given to each man and dividing into squads, we took our several ways to our homes, where "amid departed hopes there lingered (for many) the melancholy attractions of the grave." Those days have passed, so has our youth. The Juniors are now more than Seniors, but while one of our regiment remains, he will always say with pride "I belonged to the Second Regiment of the North Carolina Junior Reserves."
DAVID E. MCKINNE.
PRINCETON, N. C.
2 MAY, 1901.
- SEVENTY-SECOND REGIMENT.
- 1. John W. Hinsdale, Colonel.
- 2. W. Foster French, Lieut.-Colonel.
- 3. W. W. King, 1st Lieut., Co. A.
- 4. Jno. W. Harper, 2d Lieut., Co. C.
- 5. H. W. Connelly, 2d Lieut., Co. C.
- 6. J. M. Bandy, 2d Lieut., Co. E.
- 7. D. S. Reid, 2d Lieut., Co. K.
- 8. C. W. Taylor, Orderly Sergt., Co. C.
- 9. J. L. McGimpsey, Private, Co. B.
THIRD JUNIOR RESERVES.)
By JOHN W. HINSDALE, COLONEL.
It affords the writer pleasure to respond to the invitation of Judge Walter Clark, himself a distinguished officer of the boy-soldiers, to make a lasting memorial of the courage and heroism of the brave and patriotic lads who composed the Third Regiment of Junior Reserves, known since the war as the Seventy-second Regiment of North Carolina Troops. It is to be regretted that the task has not been performed at an earlier day, before the stirring scenes in which these youths took so conspicuous a part have faded into the dim outline of a shadowy dream. Some inaccuracies must now necessarily creep into this sketch. Fortunately, the writer was Assistant Adjutant-General of Lieutenant-General Theophilus H. Holmes, who commanded the Reserves of North Carolina, and has in his possession many valuable records pertaining to that office, access to which has been of great assistance in the preparation of this regimental history.
It is deemed not inappropriate here to narrate some things of a general nature concerning the Reserves.
The year 1863 closed with depression and gloom through-out our young Confederacy. Missouri, Kentucky, Louisiana, Tennessee and the Arkansas and Mississippi Valleys had been lost. Vicksburg, with its ill-fated commander, had surrendered. Gettysburg, in spite of the heroic efforts of Carolina's best and bravest, had been turned by Longstreet's default into a Union victory. All of our ports had been blockaded. Sherman with his army of bummers, was preparing for his infamous march through Georgia and the Carolinas in which he emulated the atrocities of the Duke of Alva, proclaiming as his excuse that "War is hell," and violating, with fire and sword, every principle of civilized warfare. Grant
had been placed in command of all the Union armies and was preparing to take personal charge of a campaign of attrition against the Army of Northern Virginia, willing to swap five for one in battle, if need be, in order to exhaust his straitened adversary-a process by which with his unlimited resources of men, he knew he was bound to win in the end.
It was under such dire distress that the Confederate Congress 17 February, 1864, aroused to a full sense of the magnitude of the struggle, and recognizing the necessity for putting forth our whole strength in the contest for Southern independence, passed an act for the enrollment of the Junior and Senior Reserves-the former, lads between 17 and 18 years-the latter, old men, between 45 and 50 years-thus, in the language of President Davis, "robbing the cradle and the grave."
Lieutenant-General T. H. Holmes was entrusted by President Davis with the organization of the reserve forces in North Carolina. A true son of the Old North State, he had promptly responded to her call, and resigning a Major's commission in the United States Army, had been appointed by the President first Colonel, then Brigadier, then Major-General and finally Lieutenant-General. As courageous as a lion, he was as gentle as a woman. At the battle of Helena, Arkansas, amid a storm of shot and shell, with a coolness which the writer has never seen surpassed, he rode into Graveyard Hill, upon which was concentrated the fire at short range of fifty cannon and five thousand muskets. It was a daring and fearless ride. Like General Pettigrew, he was one of the few men who declined promotion. Well does the writer remember the receipt by General Holmes, when commanding the Trans-Mississippi Department in Little Rock, of a Lieutenant-General's commission, all unsought and unexpected. He at once dictated a letter to the President, declining with grateful thanks the high honor and requesting him to bestow it upon a worthier man. It was only upon Mr. Davis' insistance that the promotion was afterwards accepted.
Mr. Davis in his "Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government," says of him:
"He has passed beyond the reach of censure or of praise,
after serving his country on many fields wisely and well. I, who knew him from our school boy days, who served with him in garrison and in the field, and with pride watched him as he gallantly led a storming party up the rocky height at Monterey, and was intimately acquainted with his whole career during our sectional war, bear willing testimony to the purity, self abnegation, generosity, fidelity and gallantry which characterized him as a man and as a soldier." A truer, braver, purer heart never beat under the Confederate grey.
General Holmes on 28 April, 1864, established his headquarters at Raleigh, N. C., and undertook the task of organizing the Reserves of the State. His staff consisted of Lieutenant-Colonel Frank S. Armistead, a graduate of West Point, as Inspector-General. He was later elected Colonel of the First Regiment of Junior Reserves and was after-wards assigned to the command of the brigade consisting of the first three regiments. He was recommended by General Holmes for the appointment of Brigadier-General in terms of high praise.
Captain John W. Hinsdale, as Assistant Adjutant-General, who had served in this capacity on the staffs of Generals Pettigrew at Seven Pines, and Pender, through the Seven Days' Fight around Richmond, and also with General Holmes in the Trans-Mississippi.
First Lieutenants Theophilus H. Holmes, Jr., and Charles W. Broadfoot, Aides-de-Camp. The first, a mere boy, soon afterwards gave his young life to his country while gallantly leading a cavalry charge near Ashland, Virginia. The latter, a member of the Bethel Regiment, rose from private to Colonel of the First Junior Reserves, and is now one of the first lawyers of the upper Cape Fear.
First Lieutenant Graham Daves was appointed Aide-de-Camp after the death of young Holmes and the promotion of Lieutenant Broadfoot. He was a brave and efficient officer of scholarly attainments and high integrity. A. W. Lawrence, of Raleigh, was appointed ordnance officer, and Dr. Thomas Hill, now an eminent physician of Goldsboro, was appointed Medical Director.
Major Charles S. Stringfellow, now one of Richmond's most distinguished lawyers, succeeded Captain Hinsdale as Assistant Adjutant-General upon the latter's promotion.
ORGANIZATION OF REGIMENT.
The Third Regiment of Junior Reserves was formed 3 January, 1865, by the consolidation of the Fourth Battalion, commanded by Major J. M. Reece; the Seventh Battalion, commanded by Major W. F. French; and the Eighth Battalion, commanded by Major J. B. Ellington. It is proper, therefore, to give an account of their services as separate organizations.
THE FOURTH BATTALION.
The Fourth Battalion, four hundred strong, was organized at Camp Holmes, near Raleigh, N. C., on 30 May, 1864, by the election of J. M. Reece, of Greensboro, Major; Jelin S. Pescud, of Raleigh, was appointed Adjutant. Pescud was a brave, true-hearted lad, and is now an honored citizen of Raleigh. The battalion was sent to Goldsboro 2 June. It was composed of the following companies:
COMPANY A-From Guilford County-John W. Pitts, Captain; J. N. Crouch, First Lieutenant; T. A. Parsons and George M. Glass, Second Lieutenants.
Upon the resignation of all the company officers, W. W. King was elected First Lieutenant and Davis S. Reid Second Lieutenant. The former was in command of the company at Fort Fisher, Kinston and Bentonville. He also acted as Regimental Adjutant for a time, when D. S. Reid commanded the company. Both of these officers were intelligent, brave and efficient.
COMPANY B-From Alamance and Forsyth Counties-A. L. Lancaster, Captain; A. M. Craig, First Lieutenant; William May and C. B. Pfohl, Second Lieutenants.
COMPANY C-From Stokes and Person Counties-R. F. Dalton, Captain ; G. Mason, First Lieutenant; G. W. Yancey and J. H. Shackelford, Second Lieutenants.
COMPANY D-From Rockingham-A. B. Ellington, Captain; J. P. Ellington, First Lieutenant; F. M. Hamlin and William Fewell, Second Lieutenants. This company was
added to the Battalion 15 June. Captain Ellington was promoted to the Majority when the regiment was formed.
Lieutenant J. P. Ellington in July, 1864, was drowned in Masonboro Sound, while in the discharge of his duty as officer of the day, visiting the pickets on the beach. His body was recovered by exploding torpedoes in the sound.
Lieutenant F. M. Hamlin was promoted to the First Lieu-tenancy and commanded the company until he was made Adjutant of the regiment.
The battalion soon after its organization was ordered to Goldsboro to report to Brigadier-General L. S. Baker, commanding the district of Southern Virginia and Eastern North Carolina. It was sent thence to Kinston and there did guard and picket duty. On 15 June it was ordered to report to Colonel Frank S. Armistead at Weldon. He had been placed in command of the defences at that point. On 26 June the battalion was ordered to report to General W. H. C. Whiting, at Wilmington, the only remaining port of the Confederacy. The battalion thereupon was stationed at Camp Davis near Wilmington, on Masonboro Sound, under command of Colonel George Jackson, an efficient officer, and did picket and guard duty on the sound and the beach to prevent the landing of the enemy, the escape of slaves to the blockaders and all communication with the passing vessels. It was here that young Ellington, of Company D, lost his life, crossing the Sound in a storm while on his rounds as officer of the day. He was a zealous and capable officer. The salt works, from which large supplies of salt were obtained for the army, were in the vicinity of this camp, and were guarded by the battalion.
From Camp Davis the battalion moved to Sugar Loaf, on the Cape Fear River, about fifteen miles below Wilmington, six miles above Fort Fisher and one mile from the ocean, where it drilled and did guard and picket duty. "Sugar Loaf" is a singular formation. It is a high sand hill running from the river bank half way across the peninsula, steel, on the exterior, but sloping on all sides to a basin in the centre. It is a natural fortification, which the engineering skill of General Whiting, by fosse and rampart, had converted
into an impregnable intrenched camp, containing perhaps one hundred acres.
On 9 December, 1864, the battalion went from Sugar Loaf to Belfield, Virginia, in company with the Seventh and Eighth Battalions. Its future movements will be described in connection with the other two batteries.
THE SEVENTH BATTALION.
The Seventh Battalion, 300 strong, was organized at Camp Lamb, near Wilmington, in June, 1864, by the election of W. F. French, of Lumberton, Major, and E. F. McDaniel, of Fayetteville, was appointed Adjutant. This battalion was composed of the following companies:
COMPANY A-From Cumberland, Robeson and Harnett Counties-T. L. Hybart, Captain; D. S. Byrd, First Lieutenant; C. C. McLellan and C. S. Love, Jr., Second Lieutenants.
Upon the death of Captain Hybert, on 9 September, D. S. Byrd was promoted to the Captaincy.
COMPANY B-From New Hanover, Brunswick and Columbus Counties-John D. Kerr, Captain; J. B. Williams, First Lieutenant; E. H. Moore and B. F. Gore, Second Lieutenants.
COMPANY C-From Richmond County-Donald McQueen, Captain; A. B. McCollum, First Lieutenant; A. C. McFadyen and S. A. Barfield, Second Lieutenants.
The battalion did guard duty at Wilmington until the middle of July. Here Captain Donald McQueen died of typhoid fever on 25 June. He was a fine soldier, an honor to his name and to his cause. Lieutenant McCollum succeeded him in command of the company.
On the night of 3 July, 1864, Lieutenant Cushing, of the Federal Navy (the same who blew up the Confederate ram "Albemarle" at Plymouth), with a few detailed men, entered the Confederate headquarters at Smithville (now Southport) and carried off General Paul O. Hebert's Adjutant-General to the Federal fleet. Thereupon the Seventh Battalion was ordered from Wilmington to Smithville for its protection.
It camped in a beautiful grove of live oaks back of the town. Here it did its full share of guard and picket duty under the command of General Hebert, an old officer who had served with distinction in Mexico and had been Governor of Louisiana. It was here that Captain T. L. Hybart, of Fayetteville, was stricken with typhoid fever and died 9 September, 1864. He was one of the best officers in the command, and had he lived and the war continued, would have made his mark. The battalion remained at Smithville until 9 December when, with the Fourth and Eighth Battalions, all under Colonel Jackson, it moved to Belfield, Virginia, to repel a Federal raid.
THE EIGHTH BATTALION.
The Eighth Battalion, 300 hundred strong, was organized at Camp Vance, near Morganton, N. C., on 7 June, by the election of James B. Ellington (First Lieutenant in Company D, Sixty-first North Carolina Regiment), as Major. It. was composed of the following companies:
COMPANY A-From Iredell County-W. G. Watson, Captain; George Rufus White, First Lieutenant; Amos M. Guy and Sinclair Preston Steele, Second Lieutenants.
Captain Watson resigned in January, 1865, for the purpose of joining a cavalry regiment in Lee's army. He returned home to procure his outfit for the service, but was captured by Stoneman and sent to prison in Louisville, Ky. He is now the excellent and popular clerk of the Superior Court of Rowan County. Upon his resignation, Lieutenant White was promoted to the Captaincy.
COMPANY B-From Catawba-J. R. Gaither, Captain; J. M. Lawrence, First. Lieutenant (both captured at Fort Fisher); Charles Wilfong and J. M. Bandy, Second Lieutenants.
Lieutenant Wilfong resigned after the battle of Kinston, and Lieutenant Bandy thereafter until the surrender, commanded the company. He made a fine officer. After the war he was for a number of years a professor in Trinity College. He now resides in Greensboro, where as a civil engineer he ranks high in his profession. Sergeant James M. Barkley
was elected Second Lieutenant and F. B. Busbee Junior Second Lieutenant. Both of them were excellent officers. Lieutenant Barkley is now an able and eminent minister of the Gospel in Detroit, Mich. I am indebted to him for many data which I have incorporated into this sketch. Lieutenant Busbee is now one of the first lawyers of the State a brilliant advocate and a wise and learned counsellor.
COMPANY C-From Burke and Caldwell Counties-Lambert A. Bristol, Captain; Marcus G. Tuttle, First Lieutenant; George T. Dula and Horace W. Connelly, Second Lieu-tenants.
George T. Dula resigned and John W. Harper was elected Junior Second Lieutenant. He soon thereafter laid down his young life on his country's altar. He was killed at the battle of Kinston.
The battalion remained for some days at Camp Vance and was drilled by Lieutenant Bullock, a drill master. On 24 June, it was ordered to Raleigh and at Camp Holmes was uniformed and equipped with small rifles, which were very inferior and quite dangerous-to the "man behind the gun.' On 26 June the battalion was ordered to Wilmington. It went into camp at Camp Davis. It afterwards did picket and patrol duty on Masonboro and Wrightsville Sounds under Colonel George Jackson. On 4 August it was ordered to re-port to General L. S. Baker, at Goldsboro, but returned to Wilmington 16 August and was again placed under Colonel Jackson's command at Masonboro Sound.
On 2 September, under orders from the War Department, Major Ellington, who when elected Major was disabled from active service by wounds, and who afterwards recovered, was relieved of his command and sent to his company near Petersburg, Virginia. He was soon afterwards killed at Fort Harrison, Virginia. Major Ellington was a gallant officer and much beloved by the boys. It. was a mistake to have relieved him. General Holmes afterwards secured a ruling of the War Department by which the officers of the Junior Reserves after they reached the age of 18, were retained. But the privates and non-commissioned officers were
still required to be sent to General Lee as fast as they became eighteen years old.
Captain William G. Watson succeeded Major Ellington in the command of the battalion. In the fall, the battalion was ordered to Sugar Loaf, on the Cape Fear river, where for several months it did picket duty, drilled, etc. On 10 December it was ordered to Belfield, Va., under Colonel Jackson. Its further career will be traced in connection with the Fourth and Seventh Battalions from which it never after separated until Johnston's surrender.
On 8 December, 1864, General Whiting was notified by General Lee that the Fifth and Second Corps of Grant's army, with Bragg's Division of Cavalry, were moving under General Warren upon Weldon, and that they were near Belfield and that Hill and Hampton were following them. One object of this raid was to destroy the railroad bridge at Weldon and thus cut off supplies for Lee's army from that direction. General Whiting at once ordered Colonel George Jackson to proceed with the Fourth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Battalions of Junior Reserves and four pieces of Paris' Artillery with three days' cooked rations, to Weldon, and there report for temporary service to General Leventhorpe, commanding. The latter, an Englishman by birth, was the first Colonel first of the Thirty-fourth and then of the Eleventh North Carolina Regiments, and had done splendid service in clearing the enemy from the Roanoke river and in defending the Wilmington & Weldon Railway.
The four battalions assembled in Wilmington from Sugar Loaf and Smithville. Through the efforts of Major French, the troops were here shod. They were placed on flat cars and thus exposed, were transported to Weldon. The weather was intensely cold. More than once the train had to be stopped, fires made in the woods and some of the boys lifted from the train and carried to the fires and thawed out. Many went to sleep in their wet clothes to find them frozen stiff upon awakening. This suffering was undergone without a murmur. The old guard of Napoleon on the retreat from
Moscow, never displayed more heroism and fortitude than did the boy-soldiers-the Young Guard of the Confederacy.
Under the law, the reserves could not be required to cross their State lines, but without hesitation and without an exception, the brave boys at Weldon hurried on to Belfield, Virginia, there to meet the invading foe. The Federals withdrew, leaving their dead unburied, after a sharp fire and repulse from the reserves who had just reached the battlefield, and the latter joined in the pursuit across the Meherrin river at Hicks' Ford. On 17 December, 1864, the General Assembly of North Carolina, recognizing their heroism, passed the following resolutions:
"WHEREAS, The Legislature has heard with satisfaction of the good conduct of the officers and soldiers of the Junior Reserves and Home Guards, who volunteered to cross the State line into Virginia, in order to repel the late advance of the public enemy on Weldon; therefore,
"Resolved, That the officers and soldiers of the Junior Re-serves and Home Guards, so acting, deserve the commendation of their fellow citizens, and are entitled to the thanks of this Legislature.
"Resolved, That a copy of these proceedings be transmitted to Lieutenant-General Holmes and Major-General R. C. Gatlin, that it may be communicated to the commands which they are intended to honor."
From Belfield the four battalions, together with the First and Second Regiments of Junior Reserves, were ordered, under Colonel Leventhorpe, to Tarboro to repel a Federal raid from Washington, N. C. The command moved to Hamilton, some miles below Tarboro. The enemy retired upon the advance of the Confederate troops. The battalions remained there a day or two and returned to Tarboro. The troops camped about a mile northeast of the town for several days. The boys were without overcoats, tent flies or tents, and lay upon the bare ground in the rain and sleet and snow Many of them were frost bitten A good old farmer along side whose fence the boys camped on the first night of their stay, kindly gave them leave to start their fires by using the top rail of his fence. When he came back next morning there was
not a rail to be seen. When he remonstrated, saying that they had taken more than he had given them leave to take, one wag said: "No, sir; as long as there was a top rail, we had your permission to burn it. We never took any but the top rail." The old man laughed good naturedly and left.
The severity of the experience of the Reserves on the Belfield expedition may be realized when it is stated that although they had been in camp over six months and had been somewhat. enured to a soldier's life, over one-half of them were sent to the hospital when the battalion returned to Wilmington.
The command marched thence to Goldsboro and by train was conveyed to Wilmington, and thence back to Sugar Loaf. There they remained under the command of General W. W. Kirkland until the battle of Fort Fisher. This officer was a splendid fighter and a superb soldier. He was Colonel of the Twenty-first North Carolina Regiment, and afterwards commanded Early's Brigade, Pettigrew's Division. He had taken part in many of the desperate battles of Virginia and had been twice severely wounded. He was transferred to Wilmington late in December and established his headquarters at Sugar Loaf.
FIRST ATTACK ON FORT FISHER.
The three battalions composing the Third Regiment of Junior Reserves participated brilliantly in the defence of Fort Fisher, when attacked by General B. F. Butler and Admiral Porter on 23, 24 and 25 December, 1864.
Fort Fisher was located on the point of a narrow peninsula which extends southwardly from New Inlet between the ocean and Cape Fear river, near its mouth. It defended Wilmington, the last remaining port through which army supplies, ammunition, clothing and food for Lee's Army were brought in by blockade runners. Under its guns, the "Advance" brought in supplies of inestimable value to our North Carolina troops. Its defence was of supreme importance to the Confederacy. It was an earthen fort of an irregular form, with bastions at the angles. The land face, 250
yards long, was continuous from ocean to river. The sea face was 1,300 yards long. Both faces were mounted with heavy guns, mortars and light artillery, presenting a formidable front to the enemy. It was the strongest earthwork built by the Confederacy, really, as Admiral Porter said, "stronger than the Malakoff tower which defied so long the combined power of France and England. Two miles above the fort were the Half Moon and the Flag Pond Batteries, and a mile and a quarter below, and at the extreme end of the peninsula, Battery Buchanan with four heavy guns.
When Butler's expedition of 8,000 men set forth against it, the fort was garrisoned by only 667 men-a totally inadequate force for its defence. General Butler, with General Weitzel and his troops, appeared in transports off New Inlet, near Fort Fisher, on 15 December. The navy under Admiral Porter, did not appear until the 18th. He had collected the largest and most formidable naval expedition of modern times. The weather being stormy, prevented any hostile operations until the 23d. On the night of the 23d, Admiral Porter anchored a powder ship, containing 215 tons of powder, about 800 yards from the northeast salient of the fort. It was anticipated that the explosion of this mass of powder would greatly impair, if not destroy, the works, and the least effect expected was that the garrison would be so paralyzed and stunned as to offer but small resistance to subsequent attacks. The explosion did no more harm than a Chinese firecracker. Colonel William Lamb, then in command of the fort, wired General Whiting at Wilmington that one of the enemy's fleet had blown up, so little impression did it make on him.
General Benjamin F. Butler, of New Orleans fame, in his autobiography, gives an amusing account of an interview with Major Reece, who commanded the Fourth Battalion of Junior Reserves and was captured at Fort Fisher. Butler says: "I inquired of him where he was the night before last (the night of the explosion of the powder boat). He said he was lying two miles and a half up the beach. I asked him if he had heard the powder vessel explode. He said he did not know what it was, but supposed a boat had blown up,
that it jumped him and his men who were lying upon the ground, like popcorn in a popper, to use his expression." It is hard to tell which most to admire. Butler's gullibility or Reece's "jollying" extravagance.
The next day, 24 December, was employed by Porter in bombarding the fort, dropping into it as many as 130 shells a minute. At this time the three battalions of Junior Reserves, about 800 strong, were encamped near Sugar Loaf, six miles up the Cape Fear river from the fort. On the night of the 24th, the Fourth, Seventh and Eighth battalions were assembled at Sugar Loaf under Brigadier-General William W. Kirkland. Major French had been temporarily assigned to the command of a regiment of Senior Reserves, but at his request was permitted to return to his own command and follow its fortunes. General Whiting directed General Kirkland to send these battalions to Battery Buchanan, there to take boat for Bald Head and relieve Colonel J. J. Hedrick and his seasoned veterans, in order that they might reinforce Fort Fisher. They marched soon after midnight through Fort Fisher to Battery Buchanan, on the extreme end of the peninsula. In the darkness, many of the boys while passing through the fort, stumbled into the holes which were made in every direction by the shells. All the battalions arrived at Fort Buchanan before day. The boat which was to carry them to Bald Head could not make a landing on account of the tide, whereupon Captain Bristol early in the morning reported in person the situation to Colonel Lamb, who ordered the Juniors into the Fort. This was early Christmas morning.
Between Fort Buchanan and Fort Fisher is a clear, open beach, upon which a partridge could not hide himself, over which they must pass in full view of the fleet. As soon as the march began the fleet poured upon the command a terrific discharge of shot and shell. The first one killed at Fort Fisher was Private Davis, of French's Battalion of Juniors, who on this march was cut in two by a large shell. Another private was severely wounded by the same shell. Nothing but the poor practice of the fleet saved the boys from utter destruction on this perilous march. When they reached
Fort Fisher a scene of desolation met their gaze. The bar-racks had been destroyed and the interior of the fort was honeycombed by holes in the ground large enough to bury an ox team made by the huge shells from the fleet. French's battalion and as many of the others as could be accommodated, were placed in the already overcrowded bombproofs. Those who could not obtain protection here were carried by Major Reece to the breastworks at Camp Wyatt, three miles above the fort. The gunboats soon discovered their presence there and enfiladed the trenches with a terrific fire. The boys sought shelter under the banks of the river, where they spent the day listening to the music of the great guns of the fleet and watching the great shells as they passed over them into the river-a grand, but not a very engaging spectacle.
It was after dark when Major Reece determined to take his command back to the fort. Late in the afternoon he heard the report of small arms in the direction of the fort. He knew that a land force was attacking the fort, and he felt that it was his duty to take his boys to the rescue. He marched them down the river towards the fort But unfortunately he failed to put out a skirmish line and fell upon a regiment of General Weitzel's troops by whom he and a majority of his command were captured and carried to Point Lookout. The following is a list of the officers who were taken prisoners:
Major J. M. Reece; Captain J. R. Gaither, First Lieutenant J. M. Lawrence, of Company B, Eighth Battalion; First Lieutenant M. G. Tuttle, Company C, Eighth Battalion; Second Lieutenant George W. Yancey, Company C, Fourth Battalion; Second Lieutenant C. P. Pfohl, Company B, Fourth Battalion. Those officers who escaped were Captain A. L. Lancaster, Company B, Fourth Battalion; First Lieutenant G. R. White, Company A, Eighth Battalion; Second Lieutenant Amos Guy, Company A, Eighth Battalion; Third Lieutenant S. P. Steele, Company A, Eighth Battalion.
First Lieutenant F. M. Hamlin, Company D, Fourth Battalion, a brave young subaltern, led a part of his company up
the river and escaped capture. They found their way to Kirkland's Brigade at Sugar Loaf and rejoined their command at the fort. next day.
The fleet bombarded the fort until 12 o'clock Christmas day, when Butler landed 2,500) troops near the Half Moon Battery, about two miles north of Fisher. He immediately pushed up Curtis' Brigade within a few hundred yards of the parapet of the fort. A skirmish line was then advanced to within seventy-five yards of the fort. Upon the approach of the enemy, the Junior Reserves sprang to the parapet of the land face which was swept by the guns of the fleet, and by a well-directed fire, delivered with a coolness which could not be excelled, they repelled the attack. One little fellow from Columbus County, whose name is not remembered, being too small to shoot over the parapet, mounted a cannon and fired from there as coolly as if he were shooting squirrels, until he fell wounded. About dusk the Reserves were ordered to the palisades in front of the parapet and immediately under the guns of the fort, where they remained till morning. The guns of the fort were discharged over their heads. The rain was descending in torrents. That night the Federals reembarked most of their men.
General Whiting in his report says: "colonel Tansill was ordered to the command of the land front. The gallant Major Reilly, with his battalion and Junior Reserves, poured cheering, over the parapet and through the sallyport to the palisades. The enemy had occupied the redoubt (an unfinished fort) and advanced into the port garden. A fire of grape and musketry checked any further advance. The garrison continued to man the outworks and channel batteries throughout. the night, exposed to a pelting storm and occasionally exchanging musket shots with the enemy. The fire had been maintained for seven hours and a half with unremitting rapidity."
Colonel William Lamb who, under General Whiting, commanded the troops, in his report says: "At 4:30 p. m., 25 December, a most terrific fire against the land face and palisades in front commenced, unparalleled in severity. Admiral Porter estimated it at 130 shot and shell per minute.
advanced towards the works. When the parapet and the guns were manned by regulars and the Junior Reserves.
"During the night the rain fell in torrents, wetting the troops and their arms, but it did not dampen their spirits nor interfere with their efficiency. *
"On Tuesday morning the foiled and frightened enemy left our shores. I cannot speak too highly of the coolness and gallantry of my command."
Colonel Lamb at another time said: "Be it said to the eternal credit of these gallant boys that they, from this first baptism of fire, emerged with a reputation for bravery established for all time, and that to no troops more than these is due the honor of our splendid victory."
The troops were complimented in general orders by General Bragg for their heroism and gallantry. The heaviest loss suffered by any one command in the fort was by the Junior Reserves. Thus ended the first glorious defence of Fort Fisher.
When the news was flashed to Raleigh that Butler's ships had appeared off Fort Fisher, Lieutenant-General Holmes promptly tendered his services to assist in repelling the threatened attack and was assigned to duty by General Bragg in the city of Wilmington, where he was put in charge of the movement of troops at that point,. The writer who accompanied General Holmes as his Adjutant-General, unfortunately did not participate in the battle of Fort Fisher. He is indebted to Lieutenant-Colonel French for most of the foregoing details.
On 26 December, the reserves were moved to camp on Bald Head Island, where they remained on guard and picket duty for several days when they were ordered to Camp McLean, at Goldsboro, N. C.
On 6 December, there had been an attempted consolidation of these three battalions near Sugar Loaf, when Captain William R. Johns was elected Colonel; Captain C. N. Allen, Lieutenant-Colonel; and A. B. Johns, Major. Captain W. R. Johns, a disabled officer, was then in the enrollment service under Colonel Peter Mallett, the Commandant of Conscripts of North Carolina, and being unable to undergo the hardships
and exposure of camp life, declined the election. Captain Allen, the Lieutenant-Colonel, declined for the same reason. Major Johns was never assigned and never entered upon the discharge of the duties of Major and so the battalions continued to serve under separate organizations. Major Johns afterwards formally tendered his resignation, which was accepted.
On 3 January, 1865, while the regiment was at Camp McLean, near Goldsboro, it was finally organized by the election of Captain John W. Hinsdale, Colonel; W. F. French, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Captain A. B. Ellington, Major. On 7 January the last two were assigned to duty. Frank M. Hamlin, one of the gallant young officers who refused to surrender with Major Reece, was appointed Adjutant. But from time to time Lieutenants W. W. King, Andrew J. Burton and Frank S. Johnson, son of Senator R. W. Johnson, of Arkansas, who had shortly theretofore left the University of North Carolina and volunteered in the Third Regiment, acted as Adjutant. J. K. Huston was appointed Quartermaster Sergeant., and George B. Haigh, of Fayetteville, grandson of the Hon. George E. Badger, Commissary Sergeant, Drs. E. B. Simpson and J. S. Robinson were assigned to the regiment as Surgeon and Assistant Surgeon.
The companies composing the regiment were then lettered and designated as follows:
COMPANY A-From Guilford County-Captain, John W. Pitts.
COMPANY B-From Alamance and Forsyth Counties-Captain, A. L. Lancaster.
COMPANY C-From Stokes and Person Counties-Captain R. F. Dalton.
COMPANY D-From New Hanover, Brunswick and Columbus Counties-Captain, John D. Kerr.
COMPANY E-From Catawba County-Captain, J. R. Gaither.
COMPANY F-From Iredell and Rowan Counties-Captain, W. G. Watson,
COMPANY G-From Burke and Caldwell Counties-Captain, L. A. Bristoe.
COMPANY H-From Cumberland, Robeson and Harnett Counties-Captain, D. S. Byrd.
COMPANY I-From Richmond County-Captain, A. B. McCollum.
COMPANY K-From Rockingham County-Lieutenant F. M. Hamlin.
Colonel Hinsdale, upon receiving notice in the city of Raleigh of his election, at once signified his acceptance, but it was questioned by General Holmes whether he was eligible under the orders of the War Department, by reason of the fact that he was not a disabled officer. The matter was referred to the authorities in Richmond and after considerable delay the department decided in Colonel Hinsdale's favor and he was assigned to the command of the regiment on 14 February, 1865, by the following all too partial general order:
- "HEADQUARTERS RESERVES NORTH CAROLINA,
- RALEIGH, N. C., 14 February, 1865.
General Orders No. 4.
"Major C. S. Stringfellow, Assistant Adjutant-General C. S. P. A., will relieve Captain John W. Hinsdale, Assistant-Adjutant-General of Reserves of North Carolina, and the latter officer will proceed to join the Third Regiment Reserves of North Carolina as its Colonel, he having been duly elected to that office on 3 January, 1865.
"The Lieutenant-General commanding in taking leave of Colonel Hinsdale, tenders his warm congratulations on his promotion and earnestly hopes that the intelligence, zeal and gallantry, which has characterized his services as a staff officer may be matured by experience into greater usefulness in his new and more extended sphere.
- "THEO. H. HOLMES,
- "Lieutenant-General Commanding."
While at Camp McLean, near Goldsboro, the regiment was ordered to Halifax to repel another Federal raid. It
remained there only a day or two, the enemy having withdrawn. It returned to Goldsboro where it remained drilling and doing guard duty until the last of January. It was then ordered to Kinston and camped near the beautiful home of Colonel John C. Washington. It was here employed in constructing the breastworks and fortifications for the defence of the town and especially of the county bridge across the Neuse river. Kinston was in easy reach from New Bern and had been visited by many Federal raiding parties from time to time. Our boys were heartily welcomed by the good people of that town.
The rations which were issued to officers and men while here and at Goldsboro were very scant. They consisted of half a pint of black sorghum syrup, a pint of husky meal every other day, a third of a pound of pork or Nassau bacon and a few potatoes occasionally. The old soldiers will all remember Nassau bacon, a very gross, fat, porky substance which ran the blockade at Wilmington and was distributed among Lee's veterans as bacon. When a ration of cornfield peas was issued the boys were in high jinks indeed. But never was there collected together more uncomplaining men. They recognized the fact that the Confederacy was doing for them its best.
BATTLE OF SOUTH WEST CREEK.
Upon the discovery of the advance of the enemy from New Bern, whence they set out early in March, General Hoke's Division was ordered to Kinston. On 6 March, the Junior Reserve Brigade, consisting of the First Regiment under Lieutenant-Colonel Charles W. Broadfoot; the Second under Colonel John H. Anderson, and the Third under Colonel Hinsdale, and Millard's Battalion under Captain C. M. Hall, all under Colonel F. S. Armistead, marched through Kinston and across, to the south side of Neuse river, which here runs in an easterly direction past the breastworks which they had so laboriously constructed. They marched down the river road which leads out in a southeasterly direction to Southwest creek. This creek is a sluggish, unfordable stream, which runs in a northerly direction and empties into the river about
six miles below Kinston. The regiment was placed in some old breastworks on the margin of a swamp, about a hundred yards from the creek. Our pickets were stationed on the creek. The next day the enemy made their appearance on the other side of the stream and established a line of skirmishers and sharpshooters. During the day our skirmishers were engaged and occasionally a minie ball would whistle over the breastworks as each individual boy of the regiment believed, "just by my ear." On the morning of 8 March, General Hoke, whose troops were also stationed along the line of the creek, was relieved by the arrival of D. H. Hill's troops. Hoke's Division crossed the creek and made a detour down the lower Trent road which crossed the British road at Wise's Fork, about three miles in our front. The lower Trent road runs in a southeasterly direction to Trenton. The British road runs in a northeasterly direction towards the river. General Hoke with his usual dash surprised a Federal brigade, captured it and sent it to the rear. The reserves held the breastworks throughout the 8th. On the morning of the 9th, the reserves crossed Southwest creek on an improvised bridge constructed by them about 200 yards above the bridge on the Dover road which had been destroyed. This bridge was made by felling trees across the creek and covering them with lumber taken from Jackson's mill in the vicinity. Line of battle was formed on the east side of the creek on swampy ground and the brigade was ordered forward under fire through fallen trees, brush, brambles, and bullets-making it difficult to preserve the alignment. They advanced as steadily as veterans driving the enemy who were fresh troops from New Bern, well dressed, well fed, well armed and well liquored, as was evidenced by the condition of some prisoners captured. The Third Regiment suffered the loss of a number of brave officers and men, among them Lieutenant John W. Harper, a gallant young officer of Company C, from Caldwell. Here also Lieutenant Hamlin was wounded in the arm. That night General Hoke undertook a flank movement down the British road and the Neuse river road, the Junior Reserves being a. part of his command. We could plainly hear the enemy at work on their fortifications. The night was
rainy and so dark you could not see your hand before you. After marching through slush and rain about six miles, we countermarched and returned. On the afternoon of the 10th all of our troops fell back to the entrenchments on the British road, and later in the day we recrossed the Neuse, burning the bridge behind us, and marched through Kinston, our brigade camping at Moseley Hall. This retrograde movement was the consequence of the arrival of Sherman's army in North Carolina.
The operations near Kinston, sometimes called the battle of Kinston, but usually the battle of South West Creek, were upon the whole a Confederate success, and when the disparity in numbers between the contending forces is considered, were very creditable to the Confederates. General Bragg in general orders thanked the troops for their heroism and valor and complimented them upon their achievements.
The arrival of Sherman in Fayetteville and the approach of the troops from Wilmington to form a junction with Sherman at Goldsboro, made it necessary for us to withdraw to prevent being cut off and in order to form a junction with General Johnston's Army, which was moving in the direction of Smithfield. On 15 March Colonel John H. Nethercutt, of the Sixty-sixth North Carolina, was placed in command of our brigade which was permanently assigned to Hoke's Division.
A MILITARY EXECUTION.
Arriving at Smithfield 16 March, we remained two days and there witnessed one of the saddest spectacles of the war-a military execution. The regiment constituted a part of the military pageant. which attended the shooting to death of G. W. Ore, a private of Company B, Twenty-seventh Georgia Regiment, who had been tried for mutiny by a court-martial and had been condemned. The poor fellow was first marched around to the solemn music of the Dead March, in front of the regiments which were drawn up in an open square, facing inwards, he was then made to kneel, and was tied to a stake on the open side of the hollow square. A detail of twelve men drawn up at ten paces performed the painful duty of carrying
out the sentence of the court At this late stage of the ' war, when the. struggle was perfectly desperate and all hope of success had fled, this seemed to us to be little less than murder.
On 18 March we marched again, not to the West, but to the South. We knew that Sherman was approaching from that direction, and we surmised that there was serious work before us. General Joseph E. Johnston, who rode for a short distance on that day at the head of the Third Junior Reserves, said as much to its commander. Sherman was moving from Fayetteville in the direction of Goldsboro in two parallel columns, about a day's march apart. General Johnston had determined to take advantage of the fact that Sherman's left wing was thus separated from the right, and to strike a bold blow on the exposed flank at Bentonville in Johnston County.
As soon as General Hardee, our corps commander, reached Bentonville with his troops, he moved by the left flank, Hoke's (our) Division leading, to the ground previously selected by General Hampton. It was the eastern edge of an old plantation, extending a mile and a half to the west and lying principally on the north side of the road and surrounded east, south and north by a dense thicket of blackjacks. There was but one road through it. Hoke's Division formed in the road with its line at right angles to it on the eastern edge of the plantation and its left extending some four hundred yards into the thicket on the south. The Junior Reserves constituted the right of Bloke's Division and supported a battery of Starr's Battalion of artillery commanded by Captain Geo. B. Atkins, of Fayetteville. The brigade of Juniors were led by Colonel John H. Nethereutt, who had superseded Colonel Armistead. This gallant officer was Colonel of the Sixty-sixth North Carolina Regiment-a plain, blunt man, but every inch a soldier. The Third Regiment threw out a skirmish line which was commanded by Captain Bristol and hurriedly constructed a rail fence breastwork. Here under a fire of artillery we suffered many casualties.
Averasboro, N.C., fought March 16th, 1865.
The troops belonging to the Army of Tennessee were formed on the right of the artillery. A wooden farm house in front of the Third Regiment for some time afforded cover for a number of sharpshooters, who did excellent practice on our line, until Captain Atkins, with a few well-directed shells, caused them to pour out like rats out of a sinking ship.
The enemy soon thereafter charged Hoke's Division, but after a sharp contest at short range was handsomely repulsed.
On the morning of the 20th it was reported that the Federal right wing had crossed over to unite with the left wing which had been driven back and was coming up rapidly upon the left of Hoke's Division. That officer was directed to change front to the left. By this movement, his line was formed parallel to and fronting the road. Here light entrenchments were soon made out of dead trees and such material as could be moved with our bayonets. From noon to sunset Sherman's army thus united made repeated attacks upon Hoke's Division of six thousand men and boys, but were uniformly driven back. The skirmish line of our brigade was commanded by Major Walter Clark, of the Seventieth Regiment (First Juniors), on the 20th and 21st On the 21st. the skirmishing was heavy, and the extreme of the Federal right, extending beyond our left. flank, made our position extremely hazardous in view of the fact that the bridge over the creek in our rear was our only chance of retreat. The Seventeenth Army Corps of the enemy late in the after-noon broke through our line considerably to the left, but by superhuman effort, its leading division was driven back along the route by which it. had advanced.
That night the Confederate Army recrossed the creek by the bridge near Bentonville and were halted beyond the town two miles north from the creek. The Federals made repeated attempts to force the passage of the bridge, but failed in all. At noon the march was resumed and the troops camped near Smithfield. Sherman proceeded on his way to Goldsboro to form a junction with Schofield, without further molestation. The Confederate losses in the battle of Bentonville were 2,343, while that of the Federals was nearly double as many. (For many of the foregoing facts, see Johnston's
Narrative, pages 384 to 393, from which liberal extracts have been made.)
The Confederates never fought with more spirit, and the Federals with less, than in the battle of Bentonville. General D. H. Hill remarked upon this and said: "It may be that even a Yankee's conscience has been disturbed by the scenes of burning, rapine, pillage and murder so recently passed through."
General Hampton said of this last great battle of the Civil war, that in his opinion it was one of the most extraordinary: "The infantry forces of General Johnston amounted to about 14,100 men, and they were composed of three separate commands which had never acted together. These were Hardee's troops, brought from Savannah and Charleston; Stewart's from the Army of Tennessee; and Hoke's Division of veterans, many of whom had served in the campaigns of Virginia. Bragg, by reason of his rank, was in command of this latter force, but it was really Hoke's Division, and the latter directed the fighting. These troops, concentrated only recently for the first time, were stationed at and near Smithfield, eighteen miles from the field, where the battle was fought, and it was from there that General Johnston moved them to strike a veteran army numbering about 60,000 men. This latter army had marched from Atlanta to Savannah without meeting any force to dispute its passage, and from the latter city to Bentonville unobstructed save by the useless and costly affair at Averasboro, where Hardee made a gallant stand, though at a heavy loss. No bolder movement was conceived during the war than this of General Johnston when he threw his handful of men on the overwhelming force in front of him, and when he confronted and baffled this force, holding a weak line for three days against nearly five times his number. For the last two days of this fight he only held his position to secure the removal of his wounded, and when he had accomplished that he withdrew leisurely, moving in his first march only about four miles."
The Junior Reserves lost quite a number of officers and boys in this battle. Their conduct was creditable to the last degree. General Hoke, their attached and beloved
commander, thus writes concerning them: "The question of the courage of the Junior Reserves was well established by themselves in the battle below Kinston, and at the battle of Bentonville. At Bentonville you will remember, they held a very important part of the battlefield in opposition to Sherman's old and tried soldiers, and repulsed every charge that was made upon them with very meagre and rapidly thrown up breastworks. Their conduct in camp, on the march, and on the battlefield was everything that could be expected of them, and I am free to say, was equal to that of the old soldiers who had passed through four years of war. On the return through Raleigh where many passed by their homes, scarcely one of them left their ranks to bid farewell to their friends, though they knew not where they were going nor what dangers they would encounter."
THE LAST REVIEW.
The regiment remained in camp near Smithfield until 10 April. During this time our corps under command of General Hardee was reviewed by General Johnston, General Hardee, Governor Vance and others. There was not in the grand parade of that day-the last grand review of the Confederate Army-a more soldierly body of troops than the Junior Reserves. Later in the day, Governor Vance made a stirring speech to the North Carolina troops, which by its eloquence aroused enthusiasm and caused fire of patriotism to burn more brightly in our hearts. On 10 April we begun our last retreat. before Sherman.
On 12 April we reached Raleigh. I recall how we marched through Raleigh past. the old Governor's Mansion on Fayetteville street, facing the Capitol, then up Fayetteville street and west by Hillsboro street past St. Mary's young ladies school in a beautiful grove on the right. How the servants stood at the fence with supplies of water for us to drink! How the fair girls trooped down to see us pass! How one tall, beautiful damsel exclaimed: "Why, girls, these are all young men," and how one of our saucy Sergeants replied:
"Yes, ladies, and we are all looking for wives!" It was in Raleigh that we heard the heartrending rumor of General Lee's surrender.
Our line of march was through Chapel Hill. The University at that place was deserted and many refugees from the lower counties were preparing to fly again. After leaving Chapel Hill we camped on the Regulators' Battleground, thence our line of march was on the Salisbury and Hillsboro road, over which 200 years before the Catawba Indians passed in their visits to the Tuscaroras in the East. Governor Tryon and later Lord Cornwallis had led their troops over this historic way in the vain endeavor to subdue the men whose sons now trod footsore and weary over the same red hills, engaged in a like struggle for local self government.
When we reached Haw river on Saturday, 15 April, we found the stream rising rapidly. In crossing the river, several of our boys were drowned by leaving the ford to reach some fish traps a short distance below and being caught by the swift current and swept down into the deep water below. On reaching Alamance creek, we had a novel experience. On account of heavy rains the stream was much swollen and the current very strong. General Cheatham's command was moving in front of General Hoke's Division and on attempting to ford the stream several men were swept down by the current, whereupon the others absolutely refused to move. This halted the entire column, and as the enemy's cavalry were closely pressing our rear, the situation was becoming critical. General Cheatham rode to the front and learning the cause of the halt, ordered the men to go forward, but, emphasizing their determination with some pretty lively swearing, they doggedly refused to move, whereupon General Cheatham seized the nearest man and into the stream they went. After floundering in the water awhile, he came out, and after repeating the process for a few times, they raised a shout and proceeded to cross. Three wagons, two with guns and one with bacon, capsized and were swept down the river. Some lively diving for the bacon followed, but I guess the guns are still rusting in the bottom of the creek. I am sure none of them were disturbed on that occasion.
In the midst of the peril of the crossing of the river, Lieutenant-Colonel French realizing the danger to which the smaller boys were exposed, jumped from his horse, and stationing himself in midstream just below the line of march, rescued several of the brave lads from inevitable death. Standing there, watching his chance to save life, he was every inch the faithful officer and brave soldier, and no wonder the boys loved him. Within the last twelve months he, too, has crossed over the river and is now resting under the shade of the trees. Farewell my dear old comrade!
We reached Red Cross, twenty miles south of Greensboro, late on 16 April. Here we stayed until the following Easter Sunday morning. On Saturday afternoon, a bright boy from Cleveland County, named Froneberger, was killed in camp by lightning within ten steps of regimental head-quarters. His death was instantaneous. The next morning, 17 April, after a scanty breakfast we made ready as usual to resume the march, but received no orders. We waited till noon, then all the afternoon, then till night, and still no orders. The next morning we heard that General Johnston had surrendered.
We camped at Red Cross for a few days. Meanwhile it became known that we had not surrendered. That Johnston and Sherman had undertaken to make terms for the surrender of all the then existing armies of the Confederacy and for the recognition of our state governments-about the only decent act of Sherman's life. But it came to naught by reason of its disapproval in Washington. The armistice which had been entered into for this purpose was terminated, and the toilsome, weary, hopeless march was resumed, but we all knew that the war was over.
It was at this time that a quantity of silver coin, in Greensboro, belonging to the Confederate Government was seized by General Johnston and distributed among his officers and men-each receiving one dollar and twenty-five cents without regard to rank. The writer has in his possession the identical Mexican milled silver dollar which came to him on this occasion. On one side of it has since been engraved "Bounty to John W. Hinsdale for four years' faithful service in the
Confederate Array." One hundred times its weight in gold would not purchase this old piece of silver, associated as it is with the distressing memories of the heart breaking surrender.
The regiment marched about eight miles to Old Center Meeting House, in Randolph County, staying here about three days and then we moved by way of Coleraine's Mills to Bush Hill (now Achdale), and came to a halt one mile from old Trinity College.
General Johnston on 26 April made his final surrender of the army to General Sherman and on 2 May, 1865, at Bush Hill, what remained of the Third Junior Reserves were paroled, and turned their faces sorrowfully homeward. The regiment had been disbanded for all time.
This was the end of all our hopes and aspirations. Might had prevailed over right and the conquered banner had been furled forever.
North Carolina has much to be proud of. She was first at Bethel, she went farthest at Gettysburg, she was last at Appomattox, her dead and wounded in battle exceeded in numbers those of any other two States of the Confederacy together. But, her last and most precious offering to the cause of Liberty were her boy-soldiers, who at her bidding willingly left their homes and marched and fought, and starved, and froze, and bled, and died that she might live and be free. God bless the Junior Reserves. Their memory will ever be cherished by the Mother they loved so well.
The following patriotic lines, written by the author of the "Conquered Banner," will appeal to the heart of many a mother whose young son marched away with the Junior Re-serves:
- "Young as the youngest, who donned the Gray,
- True as the truest who wore it,
- Brave as the bravest he marched away
- (Hot tears on the cheeks of his mother lay),
- Triumphant waved our flag one day
- He fell in the front before it.
- Firm as the firmest where duty led,
- He hurried without a falter;
- Bold as the boldest he fought and bled,
- And the day was won-but the tield was red-
- And the blood of his fresh young heart was shed
- On his country's hallowed altar.
- On the trampled breast of the battle plain,
- Where the foremost ranks had wrestled,
- On his pale pure face not a mark of pain,
- (His mother dreams that they will meet again),
- The fairest form amid all the slain,
- Like a child asleep he nestled.
- In the solemn shade of the wood that swept
- The field where his comrades found him,
- They buried him there-and the big tears crept
- Into strong men's eyes that had seldom wept,
- (His mother-God pity her-smiled and slept,
- Dreaming her arms were around him).
- A grave in the woods with the grass o'ergrown,
- A grave in the heart of his mother
- His clay in the one lies lifeless and lone;
- There is not a name, there is not a stone,
- And only the voice of the winds maketh moan
- O'er the grave where never a flower is strewn,
- But his memory lives in the other."
JOHN W. HINSDALE.
RALEIGH, N. C.,
26 APRIL., 1901.
- SEVENTY-THIRD REGIMENT.
- J. F. Hoke. Colonel. (Also Colonel of Twenty-third.)
By THE EDITOR.
The Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Regiments of Reserves (Seventy-third, Seventy-fourth, Seventy-sixth, Seventy-seventh and Seventy-eighth North Carolina) being composed of men at that time between 45 and 50 years of age, those few still living are over 81 years of age. Hence it has been impossible to get their histories written by participants as has been rigidly required of other commands. We have to rely for our scanty data upon the order books and letter books of General T. H. Holmes, who was in charge of the organization of the Reserves in this State, which books have been fortunately preserved by Colonel John W. Hinsdale, his Adjutant-General, and upon such references as are found in the "Official Records of the Union and Confederate armies." As to the Seventy-seventh North Carolina (Seventh Reserves) alone we have a partial sketch, written by John G. Albright, First Lieutenant of Company A, which was published in "Our Living and Dead" October 1874, pp. 134-137, and which is used as the basis of the sketch of that regiment. We also have in Moore's Roster, Vol. 4, pp. 333-344, the muster rolls of six companies purporting to belong to the Seventy-third regiment, but the Field officers and all the companies except Company A (which belonged to the Seventy-seventh) seem to have belonged to the Seventy-eighth (Eighth Reserves). At pp. 345-358 are the muster rolls of seven of the companies of what purports to be the Seventy-fourth and its field officers, but in fact they seem to have belonged to the Seventy-seventh (Seventh Reserves.) To those should be added Company A, which is erroneously given on pp. 333-335 as belonging to the Seventy-third.
The muster rolls of all the regiments of Junior and Senior Reserves were captured, with the other Confederate muster
rolls, after the fall of Richmond, and are now in the Bureau of Pensions and Records at Washington, but to an application by the writer, backed by an official request of Governor Aycock, General F. C. Ainsworth, in charge of the bureau, gave only the list of the field officers of the eight regiments of reserves (which we already had in General Holmes' Order Book), and stated that owing to the precarious condition of the rolls writ-ten on Confederate-made paper, he could not give a list of the company officers or men without an act of Congress. We know by incidental mention in General Holmes' letter book that Captains Turner and Surratt commanded two of the companies.
The Fourth Regiment of Reserves (Seventy-third North Carolina) were as already stated, Senior Reserves, i. e., men between the ages of 45 and 50. The names of the company officers can only be had from the rolls at Washington, which are now not accessible. The regiment was organized in July, 1864, at. Salisbury, by the election of
JOHN F. HOKE, Colonel.
LEROY W. STOWE, Lieutenant-Colonel.
JNO. N. PRIOR, Major.
All three of these had seen previous service. Colonel Jno. F. Hoke in the beginning of the war was Adjutant-General of North Carolina, and later for a time, Colonel of the Twenty-third Regiment; Lieutenant-Colonel Stowe and Major Prior had both served in Virginia, and been wounded, in con-sequence of which the former (who was Captain in the Sixteenth North Carolina) had resigned, and the latter assigned to light duty was Lieutenant and Enrolling Officer when elected Major of this regiment. R. P. Waring, of Mecklenburg, who had served as Captain Company B, Forty-third North Carolina, was appointed Adjutant, and J. M. Williams Surgeon, and Daniel W. Perry Assistant Surgeon. John F. Hill was captain of one of the companies. A portion of the regiment was assigned to the important. duty of guarding the bridges on the lines of railways upon which depended the sustenance and recruiting of our armies and the remaining companies were sent to Salisbury to guard the thousands of
prisoners there confined, thus relieving other troops for the field.
The regiment was ordered to Raleigh 21 August for service at Wilmington, but was stopped at Greensboro and soon after it was sent to Salisbury where it performed the duties above mentioned till 4 March, 1865, when not being longer needed to guard prisoners, it was placed in the Eighth Congressional District to arrest deserters with regimental headquarters at Salisbury.
A brigade was formed in November, 1864, of the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Regiments of Reserves (Seventy-third, Seventy-fourth and Seventy-sixth North Carolina) all of which were on the same service, guarding prisoners at Salisbury, bridges on railroads and arresting deserters. This brigade was placed under command of Colonel Jno. F. Hoke with headquarters at Salisbury. The services performed were useful and indispensable and relieved other troops for service in the field. On some occasions there were fights with deserters who were armed and when banded together made themselves a terror to certain neighborhoods. The only time these three regiments seemed to have come in contact with the enemy was when Stoneman made his raid to Salisbury to release the prisoners at that point.
Upon Johnston's surrender, some few of the regiment were paroled, but the majority doubtless went home without ceremony.
BY THE EDITOR.
The history of this regiment is substantially told in what has been said of the Seventy-third. It was organized 3 December, 1864, by the election of
DAVID J. CORPENING, Colonel.
GEORGE C. STOWE, Lieutenant-Colonel.
JOSEPH K. BURKE, Major.
All these were doubtless officers who had seen previous service and had been retired or had resigned on account of wounds. The only company officer whose name is accessible (till we get copies of the captured rolls filed at Washing-ton) is Captain Nicholson, of Company A. The companies composing the regiment either separately or organized as battalions, had been in service several months. Except detachments guarding prisoners and on local service against deserters, the regiment was at Salisbury guarding prisoners till March, 1865, when being no longer needed for that service, they were sent to the Sixth Congressional District to arrest deserters and patrol and protect the country districts with regimental headquarters at Greensboro.
Upon Johnston's surrender some of them were paroled, but the bulk of them probably returned quietly to their homes.
- SEVENTY-FIFTH REGIMENT.
- 1. John A. Collins, 1st Lieut. Co. F.
- 2. W. F. Parker, 2d Lieut., Co. F.
- 3. E. J. Holt. 1st Lieut., Co. A.
- 4. W. H. Call. Ord. Sergeant.
BY COL. JOHN T. KENNEDY, AND
LIEUT. W. F. PARKER, COMPANY F.
By paragraph 8 of Special Orders No. 161, from Adjutant and Inspector General's Office, Richmond. Va.. 11 July, 1864, it was ordered as follows: "The five North Carolina companies of the Seventh. Confederate Regiment, the three North Carolina companies, D, E and I, of the Sixty-second Georgia Regiment and Company C, of the Twelfth North Carolina Battalion will constitute the Sixteenth Battalion North Carolina Cavalry to the command of which Lieutenant-Colonel Jno. T. Kennedy is hereby assigned: This order will be found in, 82 Vol. (Serial No.) Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies at p. 763, and also in Serial Vol. 129 of same publication at page 536. One of the North Carolina companies (Kennedy's) in the Sixty-second Georgia had become so large that it had already been divided into two companies (Richardson and Dees), so that at the time of above order there was really four North Carolina companies, which obeyed the order of transfer, making a complete regiment. This was to be the Seventh North Carolina Cavalry, or Seventy-fifth North Carolina Regiment, of which John T. Kennedy was Colonel, Jno. B. Edelin was Lieutenant-Colonel, and Captain Pitts was promoted to Major. But Colonel Kennedy being wounded, was placed on detached service, and Lieutenant-Colonel Edelin was in command till his capture in March, 1865, when Major Pitts took command. In the rush of events the formal order to change the designation to Seventh Regiment of Cavalry (or Seventy-fifth North Carolina) was either not issued or not observed. Though having ten companies and a Colonel, Lieutenant-Colonel and Major, it was in fact a regiment commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Edelin, it officially retained the designation of
Sixteenth Battalion till the very end. Jno. R. Moore was Adjutant and W. H. Call, of Company G, was made Ordnance Sergeant; Sergeant-Major John McGuy; Surgeon, Dr. Eves.
The North Carolina companies, D, E and I, of the Sixty-
second Georgia, were all raised in 1862. They became in the new command:
COMPANY A-Wayne and Johnston-Captain, W. A. Thompson.
COMPANY B-Wayne, Wake and Johnston-Originally commanded by Captain J. T. Kennedy, then divided into two companies, Captain John A. Richardson and Geo. T. Dees.
COMPANY C-Forsyth and Guilford-Captain, T. R. Duvall. These three companies had been assigned to Colonel Griffin's Sixty-second Georgia in August, 1862. They served in 1862-'63 and till May, 1864, on the Blackwater in Virginia and Eastern North Carolina. This command was engaged in scouting and was in frequent skirmishes with the enemy, especially around Plymouth, Washington, N. C., and New Bern. Captain J. T. Kennedy was elected Major of the Sixty-second Georgia.
The five companies transferred from Colonel Claiborne's, later Colonel James Dearing's Seventh Confederate Cavalry, became:
COMPANY 1)-Captain J. J. Lawrence, later Captain L. G. Pitts, from Wilson and Johnston.
COMPANY E-Captain B. C. Clement, from Davie.
COMPANY F-Captain W. K. Lane, of Wayne. The company was from Halifax.
COMPANY G-Captain J. A. Clement, from Davie.
COMPANY H-Captain E. A. Martin was from Northampton and had been, till the above order, Captain Company C in the Twelfth (Wheeler's) Battalion, and as such had done service since its organization in 1862 on the Chowan.
COMPANY I-Captain F. G. Pitts, from Edgecombe, and after his promotion to Major, by Captain J. B. Edgerton.
COMPANY K-The fourth company transferred from Griffin's Sixty-second Georgia, and which had been created by dividing Kennedy's original company became Company K in
the new regiment and was commanded by Captain George T. Dees.
The Seventh Confederate Cavalry, to which five of these companies belonged, was broken up into companies and squadrons, and performed similar duties to the Sixty-second Georgia throughout Eastern North Carolina and Southeast Virginia. In May, 1864, both commands were ordered to Petersburg and there the North Carolina companies in these regiments were assembled into a new command, entirely composed of North Carolina companies as above stated. In the meantime, Lieutenant-Colonel J. T. Kennedy had been severely wounded in a hot fight near City Point in June, 1864, and was not able to be with the new regiment after its organization but very little.
To give a history that will embrace these companies after their organization in 1862 up to the formation of the regiment in 1865, it will be necessary to give something of their history while parts of Griffin's Sixty-second Georgia, and while the others were in Claiborne's, later Dearing's Seventh Confederate Cavalry, and then of their career after the formation of the Sixteenth Battalion (later Seventy-fifth Regiment) 11 July, 1864.
The Sixty-second Georgia Regiment was organized at Garysburg. Joel R. Griffin was Colonel, -. -. Towns, of Georgia, Lieutenant-Colonel, and .1 no. 'I'. Kennedy, Major, as an acknowledgment to the three North Carolina companies in the regiment. We were drilled by General Beverly H. Robertson, an officer who had been in the cavalry service in the West. There were seven companies of Georgia and three from North Carolina, which were afterwards increased to four by the division of Kennedy's old company as above stated. Captain Duvall's, from Guilford County; Captain W. A. Thompson's, from Wayne County; Captain J. A. Richardson's, of Wayne, who succeeded the writer, who was then Major, and G. T. Dees, of Wayne also. The Seventh Confederate Regiment drilled with us. In November, 1862, the camp of instruction was left for active service. Colonel Griffin was ordered to Franklin, Va., and remained there
during the winter of 1862, doing duty the most of the time between Franklin and Suffolk, where his services seemed to be most needed. Also Colonel Claiborne's Regiment went up the Blackwater with headquarters at Ivor, in the same section, near enough to combine their forces when necessary. It did excellent and gallant work on every occasion.
EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA.
In the spring of 1863, both regiments were brought back to North Carolina and were carried down to a little village on the railroad a few miles this side of Morehead City called Newport, in order to capture some guns and other stores which were being deposited there by the Federals. In this expedition Major Kennedy was not a party, having been sent home with a critical ease of typhoid pneumonia. When the troops returned from this expedition the Sixty-second Georgia was sent to the vicinity of Greenville, on the Tar river, where they remained only a few days on picket and camp duty.
Colonel Griffin was then ordered to take half his regiment and report to Petersburg with it in person. Soon after he left Major Kennedy was ordered to take a position between Greenville and Washington, and stop all communication between us and the Federals either by land or water. The plantation of Mr. William Grimes, the older brother of General Bryan Grimes, was selected for headquarters, and every effort was made to enforce the order, keeping pickets both on the creeks and river and on all the public roads and private landings leading across the river and into the town of Washington. This was a hard order to fill, but no exemption was made except in one single instance, and that was in the case of the Rev. Mr. Kenerly, who was allowed to go every Sunday to fill his engagement to his congregation. But we lost nothing by extending him this courtesy.
The service just named was on the south side of the Tar river and extended down to Hill's Point, below Washington, N. C., and often below Blount's Creek Mills. Also on the
north side of the Tar and over to the Roanoke at Williamston, a line was kept up, Captain Gray was in charge, a very vigorous and careful officer, and it may be added, one who was not easily frightened. Seeing our long lines of picket duty to be kept up and orders to stop all intercourse between the sections, the enemy conceived the idea that they would reopen communications and trespass on the adjacent country. Aware of their intent, we caused a large cypress seven feet at the stump, standing near the road in the swamp below the Red Bill, two and a half miles from Washington, to be felled across the road as a protection for its, and flattening the top so that a log one foot in diameter would lay easily on it, we then cut trenches for the guns to protrude under the small log. Lieutenant-Colonel Kennedy selected good men in camp that were able for duty and got behind our work.
We had double-barrel guns heavily charged with buck-shot and only twenty-five men behind the log. In this position we waited until the enemy made their appearance on the opposite side of the swamp, about four hundred yards from us. A couple of guns were unlimbered and placed in position and two rounds from each were discharged at our work, making the splinters fly, but not affecting our log. They then got up their tools with which to move the obstruction and by fours took the march on the causeway. Not a man showed himself until the enemy's first four were in about twenty paces of us, when the command to rise and fire was given. One barrel only was discharged. Though this was the first time any of these men had been called on to show what they would do, the order was executed with great unanimity, and evidently many of the shot struck far clown the line. This caused a halt in their column and just at that time the order to fire the other barrels was given and to mount our work with a yell. This last action completely demoralized them and officers and men all seemed only too anxious to get out of the swamp and back to Washington, the most of our little force in pursuit to the bridge. The result, seven prisoners, two of whom were thought to be mortally wounded. and the others only gun shot wounds. No casualties to us nor any firing from the enemy save desultory pistol shots as they ran.
About the time we were getting back from the pursuit and caring for the prisoners, General D. H. Hill arrived at the Red Hill to make a demonstration against Washington.
Colonel Leventhorpe with others was sent down the river as far as the Blount's Creek Mill (then Ruff's Mill), our command being familiar with the country leading thither. At the mill a considerable little fight occurred, chiefly artillery, in which Colonel Leventhorpe did himself and regiment credit, as well as all the troops engaged with him. There was an old path at the head of the mill pond leading from the plantation of General Blount across the creek out to the New Bern road. Knowing of this pass Colonel Leventhorpe was informed of it, and a part of our little command was sent over in order to strike them on the flank, but their videttes were on the lookout and when that movement was discovered they hurriedly withdrew all their forces towards New Bern, and the Blount's creek affair ended, the enemy having been pursued several miles on their retreat.
General Hill and most of his command went down to Rodman's farm and did some handsome artillery practice at the block house and other objects of interest over in Washington. The companies of Captain Pitts and Captain Barrett were with us doing their whole duty around Washington and afterwards until we went out to recuperate, when they were allowed to take their choice for a resting place. They were with us so much that we called them ours, though they were Colonel Claiborne's companies of the Seventh Confederate Cavalry.
General Hill left in a day or two after this and was frank enough to say he believed he had found a few cavalrymen who would fight if they got the opportunity. He left without giving us any orders except to do the best we could with opportunities presented. Not more than 48 hours after this General Wessell, from New Bern, came over to Washington with about 5,000 men, it was said. We did not fight him much, but got one man killed and Captain John A. Richardson captured. Captain Richardson, with a number of
others, was placed on board of some craft (name not remembered) and started to Fortress Monroe. When off against Elizabeth City or Edenton, they managed to get control of it and went into port. Richardson was only gone from his company about a month, and died not long after his return, very suddenly of heart failure. He was a young man of splendid character and much esteemed not only by his men, but by all who knew him. He died in camp at Greenville, Pitt County, and an escort was sent with his re-mains to his home in Wayne County, where he was interred. We had had a busy winter and spring, having done duty steadily and without complaining. The horses had given way considerably and General Martin knew that a rest was needed both by men and horses and so ordered.
We got pasturage from Mrs. Virginia Atkinson and moved headquarters to the place known as the Clark place, on the north side of the river. This section was selected because it was easy to secure supplies of anything necessary to our consumption and here Captains Edgerton, Thompson and Ellis were encamped from about the middle of May until after Potter's raid on Rocky Mount. Captain Gray was encamped twelve miles below Greenville near Mr. Gray Little's, and kept pickets over near Williamston, as well as on the Tar. Gray's and Ellis' companies were Georgians, the other three companies were North Carolinians, and half of them from Wayne County.
On the morning of 19 July, 1863. a courier from General Martin ordered Major Kennedy to take the gallop and report at once to Colonel Martin, of the Seventeenth North Carolina Troops, near Hamilton. Collecting every available man in camp, amounting to only eighty-four, including the wagoners, he proceeded as per order. Colonel Martin being sick, Lieutenant-Colonel Lamb was in command, and by him the order was given to take the gallop for Tarboro, where he expected we would meet the enemy on his return from Rocky Mount, and if so, hold them in check until he could get up with his regiment and artillery. The order was obeyed as promptly as
could be done until we reached Daniels' school house, some three or four miles from town, when it was thought prudent to send videttes ahead and feel our way. Accordingly Captain J. B. Edgerton was detailed for the work and ordered to take such men with him as he chose and taking five men with him, he went forward. He did not find the enemy until he arrived at the bridge. Their attention was directed to his posse by one of his men firing at them contrary to his orders. They mounted as soon as they could collect their scattered forces and started after him. He reported at once that their whole force had come over the bridge and were feeling their way and were then two miles from us. He was then instructed to go back and make a show of fight and he could toll them on our way perhaps. This would give time to make arrangements to meet them. To our right and on the north side of the road was a little flat land, pretty well timbered, and on the south side of the road and between the school house and a field by which they were bound to come, if they continued to pursue our detachment, was another flat or pond wooded also. Two hundred yards to our rear was a nice old pine field where the horses could be concealed from sight. They were hurriedly carried around with the wagons, the men dismounted and two men beside the wagoners left with the horses. We then hurried back to the school house and the men were placed three paces apart on each side of the road and about fifteen paces (or steps) from the road, forming a long triangle with legs nearly the same length. We calmly awaited the report of Captain Edgerton.
DANIEL'S SCHOOL HOUSE.
He soon appeared at the crook in the road up at the field; then cautioning the men to be sure to hold their fire until ordered and not to aim at any one above the stirrups, Edgerton and Major Kennedy with his detachment, took their stand in the road, there being only six or seven mounted men. The whole number engaged was 81, as follows: Captain Edgerton, 34; Captain Ellis, 28; Captain Thompson, 19. Captain Edgerton was on the south side of the road with his men and Major Kennedy was on the north side with his. This was
what we baited with, and the enemy very carelessly took the bait.
When they came to the corner of the fence in full view they unlimbered a small piece of cannon and give us a couple of rounds, but did not move us. They then thought perhaps it was the same little party that had been showing up before them all the way from Tarboro, prepared for a charge and made the movement handsomely until fired upon from the right and left, and seventeen of their horses were shot down at a single volley. The command to fire was not given until it was believed by firing at that time we would succeed in cutting off as much as we would be able to take care of, and this so proved for being only a few of us mounted, many that were dismounted ran off before us and we could not help our-selves, our horses being two hundred yards from us back in the old field. In making the charge they could see none of the men in the woods and all whom they could see being mounted it emboldened them not to surrender when asked; and when their column was cut in two and their rear had gone tilting back for Tarboro these fellow's in front kept right on fighting, using their sabers after their pistols and carbines had been discharged.
Captain Edgerton and the mounted men, as well as Major Kennedy, had their hands full for a while in hand-to-hand encounters. Captain Edgerton had the Yankee Major (Clark-son) on his side of the road, and right vigorously he gave him the saber as he went by him in the road. The Yankee Captain (Church) was on the other side of the road, but did not have as good luck as the Major-not that any did his duty any better than Captain Edgerton, for he was just as good as a true soldier ought to be-but Major Kennedy had shot out all he had loaded and did not have time to draw saber before the Captain and others were pressing him, and having his rifle in his hand he raised himself in his stirrups and gave the Captain such a blow as sent him reeling off his horse. Those of us who were mounted then had some exciting races to catch those of them who, seemingly, had gone completely wild since the little fight commenced.
The dismounted men having done all they could in securing
prisoners and horses were ordered to procure their horses and mount preparatory to a pursuit, and while this preparation was being made the six of us who were already mounted had some exciting races through the woods and paths adjacent to the school house in running down and catching a number who had got cut off from the Major in his rapid flight in the direction of Mr. John Daniels'.
The enemy lost in this melee seventeen horses killed, forty-five captured, five prisoners left in the school house, two of whom were thought to be mortally wounded, and ten of the last captured sent back to Lieutenant-Colonel Lamb, who was only a few miles in our rear; also Captain Church, severely wounded, and sixty-two saddles and equipments.[note] The gallop was then taken to the bridge at Tarboro in the hope to cut off any who might not have had the fortune to pass the bridge before our arrival. As we approached the bridge we found a small portion of it torn up and that portion next to town on fire. Dismounting and going as far as we could, for the fire on the bridge, we called on the town to aid us with all the help and buckets they could and we would save the bridge. The call met a hearty response from the citizens. The first bucket handed was from Governor Clark, who happened to be in town on that day. The bridge was saved and by 8 p. m., we could have been across, and why we were not allowed to continue the pursuit at once we never were able to understand. The next morning after the enemy had had a whole night to travel we were ordered to pursue them, but had not at that time any idea of overtaking them before they were captured. Claiborne with a part of his regiment and a battery of artillery, was in his front and on the opposite side of the creeks which the enemy had to cross, and below him still were Colonel Martin's troops; but in some way the battery and troops at the bridge near Scuffleton were removed, giving the only gap whereby he could possibly have escaped and as the gap had been opened for him he accepted and went on his way rejoicing with many mules, horses,[note]
carriages, wagons and a large quantity of bacon, to say nothing about negroes to eat it. Having safely crossed the creek he had smooth sailing until he could get to the neighborhood of New Bern unless some one could get in his front, which in that locality was bad to do, as nearly all parties you met down there were doubtful until you had time to understand them fully. Our command followed them on some miles after crossing the creek and finally commenced to press them, when perhaps a wagon load of meat and negroes would be dropped. We pursued the most of the day, occasionally capturing women and children and vehicles of various kinds with varied supplies. About half an hour before sun down we came up with the main body on the road leading from Swift creek to Street's Ferry, across the Neuse river.
By this time Colonel .Jno. N. Whitford (then Major Whitford) with a part of his battalion had come in from the river road and joined us; his command and our exhausted little force, made a dash or two at them until dark shut in upon us. So we concluded to delay further operations until next morning and demand a surrender, and if refused, go at them determined to win. While we were arranging our plans of operation, the Fiftieth North Carolina Infantry came up and struck camp near us. After supper (such as we had) Lieutenant-Colonel Washington, of the Fiftieth, came around to see us and while we were discussing the chances for an immediate surrender the next morning a courier arrived instructing him, as the ranking officer, to at once move all troops from that locality and as hurriedly as possible.
This was a blow entirely unexpected and well calculated to vex and perplex troops who had been doing faithful duty and cheerfully looking forward to the time when they could march the enemy proudly out to our own headquarters. The enemy, though only eight miles from New Bern, remained where we left them the whole of the next day. They were without rations and not a round of ammunition, and would
not have made a demonstration the next morning and were amazed to find us all decamped. These facts we knew then from accounts given by a few stragglers taken up on our march and since then we have seen parties who certify to the same thing, men who were eye witnesses and knew.
EVAN S' MILL.
After this transaction we were ordered back to our camp where we rested until about the last of August, when we went back to our work on the Tar river, doing only picket duty. Captain Gray in the meantime was keeping his pickets straight between the Roanoke as far down as Jamesville and Tranter's creek on the Tar. The companies were ordered to the neighborhood of Kinston in October and directed to build winter quarters; this work was soon finished and' except regular picket duty nothing of importance transpired through the winter, so the next spring (1864) the command was ready for active and full work, and they got it. Generals Barton and Ransom demonstrated as far as Evans' Mill, below New Bern. They sent us down to the mill (Evans') near the block house where we surrounded the troops at the block house, making them leave and only getting two horses and one man and about fifty of as fine chickens as I ever saw. Corning back over to our old camp we only had a little time to rest before an order was sent from General Dearing to meet him at a specified time at Williamston. He was at that time Colonel of Artillery and was in command of Griffin's Regiment and the Seventh Confederate Regiment, and also of a battery (if not all the artillery carried on the field) at the battle of Plymouth. He displayed iii that engagement in the management of that branch of the service as much coolness and discretion as he could had he been 60 years old.
Though a young Virginia officer, no one will ever be able to say more than deserves to be said of his generous kindness, of his stately and manly qualities of head and heart, and of his genuine and affectionate appreciation of the love and esteem of his friends and companions in arms. Much like General R. E. Lee, to see him one time was to always know and love him.
CAPTURE OF PLYMOUTH AND WASHINGTON.
Major Kennedy was not present at the disposition of the troops to make the assault on the town of Plymouth, but arrived in time to find where the command of Dearing was placed and went in. A portion of Griffin's Regiment, also the Seventh Confederate, were occupying positions to the right and soon it became necessary to change and cross Conaby creek in order to cut off any who might attempt to leave the town in the direction indicated, as many were already passing over in the hope to save themselves from being captured. Many were so badly frightened that when asked to halt and surrender they kept running and were fired upon and killed; but I saw none killed who promptly obeyed the order to halt. The troops under Dearing's command, it is allowable to say, contributed their full share in proportion to numbers in the hasty reduction of the little town, and while there were quite a number killed and wounded we were truly glad to see it no worse, and to be convinced that victorious as we were, mercy had not been dethroned.
The next day the march was taken up for Washington on the Tar river, and being familiar with the country, Major Kennedy was ordered to proceed at once with that portion of the Sixty-second Georgia present and the Seventh Confederate was sent with him and we were followed by Colonel Mayo's infantry regiment. We found no obstruction until we came to the works near the town. A few shots and a charge disposed of all forces in our front and we went quietly in and taking the gallop down to the river a few shots were fired at the transports as they made their way slowly down the river. The rejoicings of the inhabitants of the once lovely and beautiful little town can be better imagined than described. No people in the State nor any where else had more of the milk of human kindness in their hearts and could come nearer making a stranger feel like he was at home. We had seen and knew some of them before the war and also quite a number in the surrounding country, who were equal to the occasion at all times when generous kindness was in demand.
A courier from Dearing ordered us off and the next morning we breakfasted at Mr. Bradford Perry's, on the road to
Greenville. Before we got to Greenville Washington was burning we were informed. We can not believe that any Confederate soldier after having been as well treated as they were by the citizens would have applied the torch to that town.
Plymouth and Washington having both fallen into Confederate hands in a few days a start was made by General Hoke for New Bern. After passing Kinston and Trenton, on the Trent river, Major Kennedy was ordered to take a guide whom he could trust and make through the swamp (or Dismal as designated by the settlers) to a crossing of the creek a short distance from Fort Croatan on the railroad, twelve miles below New Bern. This was a very tiresome order to carry out. The road we had to travel was only a cattle path and used only by pedestrians as a hunting path, and I think that over half of the surface was from fetlock to knee-deep in water. We tried it by twos the first half mile and then concluded that single file would do better. This did better, but by no means well, for by the time 300 horses follow one another through mud and water the last that pass in the track are as muddy as coons and often they go up to stirrups and even to the saddle skirts, so that in this march through that Dismal it often happened that it was necessary to make a new track in order to get along at all for we had about 300 horses, and "get there" was the word of command. Finally we came to the creek about 100 yards from the county road leading by the fort. Where we struck it the banks were high for that country and the water deep. There was a large oak lying across it which had the appearance of having been used as a foot-log for years, so we concluded to use this log as a causeway for our horses by adding to its breadth a foot on each side; so at it we went. Taking the measurement of the stream, we cut down two pines standing a little way off and hewing them as best we could at 3 o'clock in the night, we brought them up to our old oak and milling them on it until we could balance them round to the desired localities, we placed them by the side of the old oak. They were flattened on the top and sides, and then we went on top of our old oak and flattened it to correspond
to those just put by its side, and to complete the temporary structure we hastily put on some railings extending from one bank to the other. All things being ready to resume the march the horses were led across and the order to mount given.
As we mounted, and before the order to march was given, General Dearing and Colonel Folk rode up. The sun had just risen and as we got out to the road with Captain Edgerton and Captain Pitts, a few of the enemy came in sight, a dash was made at them by about four men, catching only one. As soon after this as the troops could be collected and proper dispositions made the attack on the fort was ordered. The advance on the work was participated in by all the troops present and without any disposition to show the white feather anywhere along the line of attack. A few well directed volleys and the white flag appeared as we advanced. A few over 200 well equipped soldiers were captured and what there was of supplies, of all kinds, in the camp.
The city of New Bern was not well supplied with troops and was ready to capitulate had an attack been made, with a proper demand, but an order from General Lee hurried General Hoke at once back to the Army of Northern Virginia and but a few days elapsed before all our cavalry were ordered there, arriving just in time to aid in what should have been the decimation or bottling up of the whole of Butler's army. After Butler was disposed of then five companies of our regiment, with two of Claiborne's (Pitts and Barrett) were ordered to dislodge the enemy from Dunn's farm. We went for them and they hastened to Bermuda Hundreds and Port Walthall, taking refuge in the boats and under cover of their guns.
One whole night they shelled us without any casualty, for without knowing it at the time we had selected a position which gave us all the protection we needed. The next morning a few ventured out but in a very short while they were glad to get back under the protection of their guns. We remained on this farm only a few days when General Dearing
himself took us across the river and below Petersburg to the front of our last work on the City Point road. Here we encamped and got a few hours rest for our men and horses; and it was fully appreciated and much needed, for we had not had any solid, good rest in eight or ten days. An old soldier knows how to appreciate such opportunities.
WOUNDED AND PRISONER.
Having rested here about two days, we were ordered to go down the river to an old church called Broadway, and dislodge any of the enemy we might find. When in about a half mile of the church one-half the command was halted and the front companies carried forward ; when in plain view a considerable force made its appearance which was immediately attacked with such determination as to demoralize and scatter them, driving them from their camp and its equip-age. It was here that Lieutenant-Colonel Kennedy received wounds that partially disabled him from a full participation in the remainder of the struggle-one through his leg, one through his arm and one through the body, entering the right side just above the kidney and passing by the other in a straight line. The enemy were moved and the command under General Dearing was brought back to camp and remained on the south side until Grant's grand move. on Petersburg, when it was called upon and did as much gallant service as it was possible for any troops to have done under the circumstances.
When wounded Lieutenant-Colonel Kennedy was carried to the house of a friend who lived near and in full view of our first line of works which had to be carried before the enemy could proceed. This was a long line and the only troops engaged on our side were a part of Dearing's Brigade (cavalry), General Wise's Brigade (infantry), and Sturdivant's Battery of artillery. 'Unable to be removed he was in their lines and near enough to the road to see every one of the enemy's detachments as they passed by to the attack, and there were so many that he could not believe it possible for our small force to withstand them at all. As they marched up the hill he had his bed moved to a window that commanded a view of the whole situation and with his field glasses could
see distinctly every charge made and the repulsed blue coats hurriedly retreating to their main body. On our line of works he could also see the brave Wise and the gallant Dearing leading and encouraging their little forces. Dearing seemed to be most in the work and most conspicuous in repulsing every charge made, but he was a cavalry officer, and naturally a leader, of great courage and ability. The writer saw during the day several lines of the enemy advance and retire, leaving their dead and wounded at times. The gallantry and determination of our officers and men held them in check until the evening when they were reinforced by 20,000. At this time Dearing and Wise retired in good order to our next line and continued the fight until General Hoke's Division came to their aid. The charges were very daringly executed and repulsed, almost hand-to-hand, and all the officers of Dearing's Brigade who were in the engagement unite in the belief that Dearing's gallantry and the determined bravery of his men and officers saved Petersburg from then falling into the hands of the enemy.
The next day Lieutenant-Colonel Kennedy was cared for by Gen. Burnside's division surgeon, and to him and many officers of this division he is thankful for many acts of generous kindness. As soon as he was able to be moved he was sent down to Fortress Monroe and exchanged for an officer of his rank who had been captured at the Crater in Petersburg. From this time he was not with the regiment nor brigade a great portion of his time, but was with it. occasionally and some times on duty. What is said after this will be in part what he has learned from the officers and men as well as from personal knowledge.
After the investment of Petersburg until the surrender there were many conflicts in which the brigade participated. At Blacks and Whites we had a heavy engagement, losing Major Claiborne and several men, and the brigade will always remember with pride and pleasure the timely aid of the First
North Carolina Brigade in this conflict, for we had fully as much as we desired to handle. After the capture of many of the enemy and their supplies by our commanding General, W. H. F. Lee, and the return of the troops to their camps, General Dearing remarked if "Aunt Nancy" (Gen. Barringer) had not got there just at the time he did, that he would have had a much harder time, for, said he, they outnumbered us three to one. In all the fighting along the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad, the Davis House, Peebles' Farm, Burgess' Mill, Hatcher's Run, and along the Squirrel Level Road, Five Forks and the Boisseau House, these troops under Generals Roberts and Dearing did their full share, leaving no stain on their shields.
Soon after the fight of Burgess' Mill a reorganization of the cavalry was effected and General Rosser was made a Major-General and General Dearing was assigned to Rosser's Brigade, and General W. P. Roberts, who had been the gallant young Colonel of the Second, was placed in command of our (Dearing's) Brigade.
SEVENTY-FIFTH REGIMENT FORMED.
At the reorganization the Georgia material was placed together in Georgia commands, and the North Carolina troops in North Carolina commands. When General Dearing left to take charge of the Virginia Brigade he brought Lieutenant-Colonel Kennedy official notice of promotion to Colonel and assignment to the Seventh North Carolina Cavalry, which was the Seventy-fifth North Carolina Regiment. Being then on crutches he was assigned to duty as commandant of the post at Stoney Creek.
As Colonel Kennedy was leaving for his post General Hampton started to City Point after 2,500 head of cattle, General Dearing being familiar with the country led the way, taking our regiment with him. The cattle were brought out as desired and the finest ever seen, there were 2,485 brought out, as stated in Major Bates' report. This was a handsome and a very acceptable acquisition to General Lee's commissariat at that time, and that winter the beef ration was fine. About this time a raid was made on Belfield and
the warehouse burned. A part of our regiment, especially Dees' company, did very fine work there in aid of the North Carolina Junior Reserves who acted very gallantly. When it was known the raiders had gone in the direction of Belfield, Colonel Kennedy was ordered to take every available man and join in the pursuit. When we got to Belfield they were a few hours ahead of us and having been very handsomely repulsed at the bridge they turned back for their own lines. We followed until it was considered useless to go further, when we were ordered back to Belfield.
The weather was very cold, but we camped in a very finely timbered piece of woodland and soon had good fires made of just such logs as the men chose to use. The writer went to sleep that night with a chunk of wood for his pillow, throwing a light oil-cloth over and covering him entirely. The next morning when he awoke there was at least four inches of snow on his oil-cloth, but our fire was not quite extinguished. His crutches were also completely covered up with the snow and it took several minutes to locate and scratch them out. We remained in this camp near a week before orders to return to the lines. The weather was cold, good wood was plentiful, we had good rations and good fires to warm by and much of our beef was consumed.
IN ROBERTS' BRIGADE.
Soon after returning to our line the gallant and brave young General W. P. Roberts, took command of our brigade, and a Maryland officer, Major Edelin, was assigned as Lieutenant-Colonel to the Sixteenth Battalion (for so we were still styled, though really a regiment). He did not succeed well and soon was captured and it was thought by those who ought to know that the capture was coveted by him-at any rate men and officers agree that his capture was no loss to us, as he was not a favorite of either men or officers. General Grant continued to push his numberless cohorts against General Lee's constantly decreasing army until the bloody fighting at the Boisseau house and Five Forks demonstrated the necessity of giving up Richmond and Petersburg. On 2 April the retreating army commenced to move. General
Sheridan's Cavalry, elated with recent victory, vigorously pursued, but they were so gallantly and defiantly held in check by Roberts' Brigade that they not only surprised their enemies, but attracted their admiration and esteem. Again on the 3d when every brigade of cavalry, including Bushrod Johnson's Division of infantry, became panicstricken and gave way it was the Sixteenth Battalion (Seventy-fifth Regiment) more than any other that checked General Sheridan's impetuous onslaught, holding his whole corps of cavalry at bay for over two hours and until General W. H. F. Lee could rally his forces and restore confidence.
This command was complimented by General Lee himself and many other prominent officers for its gallant conduct, and its officers received the thanks of all for their Tar Heel pluck and fortitude which became known throughout the command; and again at Jetersville the Seventy-fifth did good work, not failing to charge time and again until General Roberts saw that it was useless to continue to throw his weak line against Sheridan's vast army in the vain endeavor to break through, so as to enable General Lee to retreat by Burkeville to Danville. Then followed constant skirmishing to Appomattox Court House, in all of which the brigade acted a conspicuous part, and especially the Seventy-fifth, led by Lieutenant E. J. Holt, who gallantly helped to lead the last cavalry charge made by the Army of Northern Virginia. When first organized its true worth was not known, but when placed under command of General Dearing it soon became entitled to be classed among the best troops sent to the war from North Carolina. Not in a single action was it known to falter.
At Blacks and Whites, at Battery 7, below Petersburg (the heaviest fight we ever had), at Plymouth, at Broadway, Burgess' Mill, the Davis House, Peebles' Farm, Hatcher's Run, Boisseau House, Newport, Croatan, Tarboro or Daniels' School House, Chinquepin; Evans' Mill, Red Hill, Blount's Creek, Ruff's Mill, and many other minor engagements, our companies exhibited the sticking qualities of a true soldier which did so much to immortalize that army.
GOLDSBORO, N. C., J. T. KENNEDY,
ENFIELD, N. C., W. F. PARKER.
9 April, 1901.
ADDITIONAL SKETCH SEVENTY-FIFTH
BY E. J. HOLT, FIRST LIEUTENANT, COMPANY A.
In the spring of 1862, there were several companies of mounted troops raised in North Carolina as independent companies, with the understanding that they were to remain in the State and were to be used only in its defense.
Captain W. A. Thompson, sheriff of Wayne County, raised a company in February and March, 1862, in Wayne and Johnston. First Lieutenant, E. J. Holt; Second Lieutenants, W. P. Holland and H. B. Ham. This company had a sharp encounter with the enemy at Kenansville. Captain J. T. Kennedy raised in Wayne, Johnston and Wake Counties in July another company. On his promotion to Major this company, which had become very large, was divided into two, Captain Jno. A. Richardson, with Jas. B. Edgerton First Lieutenant; M. Whitley, James Ii. Parker, and later William Hooks, Second Lieutenants; and Captain Geo. T. Dees, with A. M. G. Wiggins First Lieutenant, and John M. Miller Second Lieutenant. Captain T. R. Duvall raised a company in Forsyth and Guilford, of which S. S. Lindsey was First Lieutenant, and S. C. Thornton Second Lieutenant. Captain E. A. Martin's company was from Northampton; Jesse B. Boone was First Lieutenant, and Jesse T. Britton with Jas. G. Odom Second Lieutenants. Captain W. K. Lane, of Wayne, a company from Halifax County, of which Jno. H. Branch was First Lieutenant and Jno. A. Collins and W. Fletcher Parker were Second Lieutenants. Captain J. J. Lawrence a company in Wilson and Johnston Counties, of which later L. J. Barrett became Captain, with First Lieutenants Moses T. Mays and then R. P. Edwards (promoted from Second Lieutenant), and Second Lieutenants Joseph B. Davis and Joseph W. Taylor. Captain F. G. Pitts a company in Edgecombe, with Van B. Sharpe First Lieutenant, and B. P. Jenkins and Mark B. Pitts Second Lieutenants. Captain B. C. Clement a company from Davie
County, of which S. M. Johnson was First Lieutenant, and S. L. Lander and John A. Welch were Second Lieutenants. Captain J. A. Clement a company from Davie, with L. G. Gaither First Lieutenant, and B. F. Nichols and C. E. Harper Second Lieutenants.
In August, 1862, Thompson's, Kennedy's and Duvall's companies became a part of the Sixty-second Georgia Regiment, in which they served through 1862, 1863 and till 11 July, 1864. When it was organized in 1862, Captain J. T. Kennedy was made Major, and Captain R. P. Howell Quartermaster. These officers were all the recognition the North Carolina companies received at the hands of their Georgia comrades.
The Sixty-second Georgia, during the fall of 1862 and the whole of 1863 till May, 1864, was on picket duty and frequently engaged with scouting and raiding parties of the enemy who were in strong force in Plymouth, Washington, New Bern, N. C., and in Suffolk, Va., and from the Spring of 1863 it and the Seventh Confederate Cavalry were all the cavalry between Petersburg, Va., and Wilmington, N. C. They were broken up into companies and squadrons and for months at a time the men were on picket every other day. They were forced to depend for forage for their horses and food for themselves on the country in which they happened to be.
They were present and bore their full share in the capture of Plymouth and the investment of Washington and New Bern. Near Tarboro the three North Carolina companies under the command of Major Kennedy, engaged a largely superior force of the enemy in Potter's raid, and in an open, square fight, killed, wounded, captured or put to flight every Yankee in the party. We pursued the raiders to the hanks of Neuse river, near New Bern, N. C., and if the infantry Colonel who was in command at that point had yielded to Major Kennedy's request to push them, the whole force would have been captured. The whole of 1 863 and till May 1864, was spent in guarding the eastern part of the State and the southern part of Virginia.
In May, 1864, we marched to Petersburg, Va., and were
part of General Beauregard's forces that met and successfully drove back the first assault on Petersburg, and were on hand on the north side of the Appomattox when Butler was bottled up at Bermuda Hundreds. In June Lieutenant-Colonel Kennedy was severely wounded in a hot fight near City Point, below Petersburg, Va. We were then in Brigadier-General James Dearing's Brigade. We were kept busy all through the summer of 1864 in guarding General Lee's right and in June we followed the Wilson raiders from the time they crossed the Weldon Railroad to near. Danville, Va., and back to Reams Station. On that raid we were hotly engaged at Blacks and Whites, on the Richmond & Danville Railroad, and had several running fights. It was a sorry lot of Yankees we let go back. A few, however, did go through.
There was more or less fighting almost every day on our part of General Lee's line in that awful summer of 1864. General Grant was moving south and stretching General Lee's line continuously and our brigade was always expected to meet them on every move, and we did, at Jones' farm, Reams Station, the Davis farm, Burgess' Mill, Armstrong's Mill, Poplar Spring Church and several other points which have passed from the writer's memory. In July, 1864, the North Carolina companies were taken out of the Sixty-second Georgia Regiment and Captain E. A. Martin's company from the Twelfth Battalion, and added to the Sixteenth North Carolina Battalion, which had been formed by the North Carolina companies of Captain W. K. Lane, Captain B. C. Clement, Captain J. A. Clement, Captain L. J. Barrett, and Captain F. G. Pitts, which had been taken from the Seventh Confederate Cavalry.
During Colonel Kennedy's absence Lieutenant-Colonel J. B. Edelin, of Maryland, was in command of the Seventy-fifth Regiment, which was thus formed, though it was still styled usually the Sixteenth Battalion. Captain F. G. Pitts was promoted to Major, John R. Moore Adjutant, W. H. Call, of Company G, Ordnance Sergeant.
In February, 1865, General Dearing was transferred to a Virginia command. He was a splendid officer and his whole brigade regretted his change of command.
Brigadier-General Roberts, of North Carolina, was assigned to a new brigade composed of our regiment and the Fifty-ninth North Carolina in February, and commanded us till the end. In December, 1864, we were moved from General Lee's right, near Dinwiddie Court House, and went into winter quarters at Belfield, Va. We built nice, cozy quarters and hoped to pass the winter in resting our tired and run-down horses, but there was hardly a week we did not have to meet a raiding or scouting party of Grant's cavalry. In February we hurriedly marched to Dinwiddie Court House and for five days we were in the worst snow and sleet of the winter and what as worse, were absolutely without food of any kind for men or horses. Some of the men found some spoiled corn where artillery horses had been fed and eat that. For four days the writer never tasted even corn. It was fearful, but the men did not complain.
The brigade returned to Belfield for only a short time. We went back to General Lee's right flank and were there 28 March when Grant began his flank movement which forced the Confederates back till we were on the White Oak road. The Seventy-fifth was engaged every day from the 28th till Richmond and Petersburg were evacuated and the retreat to Appomattox was begun, and on 31 March in a charge made on a portion of Sheridan's cavalry, captured a beautiful silk flag, which is now in the possession of a member of my old company. On 1 April Captain B. C. Clement, a sergeant, and thirteen men, were captured by a small squad of the enemy who had gotten in our rear. 95 (Serial) Vol. Off. Rec. Union and Con f ed. Armies, 827.
About the 30th our commander, Lieutenant-Colonel Edelin charged a solid line of battle by himself. We were drawn up in line of battle expecting to either make an assault or receive one when Colonel Edelin drew his sabre and charged alone directly upon a large body of cavalry. The Yankees quietly opened ranks and our brave Lieutenant-Colonel rode through, waving his sabre and yelling like a maniac. That was the last we saw or heard of him.
Major Pitts took command and held it till about 2 April, when he literally broke down from exhaustion and was
supposed to be captured. On the morning of 28 March the Seventy-fifth had about 315, rank and file, but the constant fighting, marching and the want of rations and sleep had caused all but the strongest to give out, and by 5 April I am sure there was not over one hundred men for duty. The losses continued till at the surrender we numbered only 51. On 3 April General Roberts with our regiment, stopped a stampede which, if allowed to have gone further, would have ruined General Lee's chance of ever getting his army beyond Amelia Court House.
Our brigade was the rear guard on the county road just south of the Appomattox river, and another regiment had been posted with orders to hold the Yankees in cheek while ours fell back to another position. We had not gone a mile when a cavalry regiment hastily pursued by a squadron of cavalry came at a dead run and in wild disorder upon us. Our regiment got panic-stricken and joined in the race, but General Roberts placed himself in the road in their front and managed to halt about fifty men; he had us to about face and in a hurry we sent the pursuing force back on their main column. If General Roberts had not halted us when he did there is no telling what the result would. have been-disastrous certainly. That day General Roberts placed the writer in command of the regiment and he held it till 9 April.
There was not a mile that we did not fight over from the time the retreat begun till we reached Appomattox Court House. The losses from wounds were not very heavy, but the constant fighting and marching day and night just wore men and horses completely out. On the 5th the writer was shot from his horse, but was not severely wounded, and did not leave the command.
On the night of 8 April the brigade halted about half a mile east of the Court House, at daybreak on the 9th we were mounted and marched to the west side of the village, and at sunrise were in line of battle. Shortly after a battery in our front opened on us and General Roberts promptly ordered a drawn sabre charge. We as promptly made it and captured the battery (four brass guns) and about fifty of Sheridan's dismounted cavalry. We took the guns and prisoners
back to the point where we had formed a line that morning and while there the writer saw about fifty dismounted enemy in a piece of woods about half a mile in our front and a little to the right of where we had captured the battery. I informed General Roberts and he ordered us to charge them, which we did with drawn sabres. We had an open field to cross, cut up by ditches. We passed the ditches safely and reached a point not over fifty yards from the enemy, who had taken shelter behind a rail fence built on the bank of a five or six foot canal. Of course we knew nothing of the canal till we were nearly at it. We saw that we could not reach the boys in blue with cold steel and we returned sabres, unslung carbines and fired a volley at them, and then fell hack; just as the men fired my horse was killed, so I had to go out on foot. Two or three of my men were wounded, but kept their seats.
That was the last charge ever made by our command, and was as gallant as any it ever made, and was certainly the last made by any part of General Lee's army. I think I had ample opportunity to know that it was the last charge made, for I went back alone and on foot and I noticed there was no firing any where along the lines.
When I got back where I had left the brigade, General Roberts and a few others had got news of the surrender and had made their escape. I might have done so too, but I was with-out a horse and was too tired to walk. General Roberts' absence left the writer in command of the brigade, and we were soon camped in a field near the Court House where we made out a roll of men and officers present, drove our guns into the hard earth to tie our horses to, made a fire, burned our flag to keep the Yankees from getting it, and waited for further orders and something to eat.
The next day we lay and rested. On Tuesday evening we got our paroles ready and left for our homes in North Carolina. The writer signed all the paroles (95) for Roberts' Brigade and Barringer's Brigade (23)-in all 118 men. A copy of my own parole is hereto appended.
E. J. HOLT.
SMITHFIELD, N. C.,
9 April, 1901.
By THE EDITOR.
This regiment was organized in October or November, 1864, at. Wilmington, by electing the following Field Officers:
A. A. Moss, Colonel.
JAMES V. SYMONS, Lieutenant-Colonel.
TERRELL BROOKS, Major.
The companies composing the regiment seem to have been in continuous service since July and were all ordered to Wilmington 22 October. They were commanded as follows:
CAPTAIN JOHN M. BRAWLEY, Rowan.
CAPTAIN LEVI CARROLL, Rowan.
CAPTAIN T. W. GRIFFIN, Union.
CAPTAIN J. M. STEWARD, Union.
CAPTAIN JOSHUA ROUSE, Lenoir.
CAPTAIN J. POWELL, Columbus.
CAPTAI.N J. L. COBB, Robeson.
CAPTAIN GEORGE E. KNOX, Brunswick.
CAPTAIN JOHN W. TURNER,
CAPTAIN DUNCAN KELLY, Bladen.
LeRoy Jones is also Mentioned as Captain in this regiment in General Holmes' Order book. The above were Captains in the Senior Reserves, but it is not certain that they were all in this regiment.
Dr. G. H. Cox was Assistant Surgeon, and J. M. Williams was transferred to the regiment as Surgeon from the Seventy-third.
The Seventy-sixth was sent to Salisbury 24 November probably to relieve the Sixty-eighth North Carolina, which was soon thereafter ordered to the Roanoke section. It was placed with the Seventy-third and Seventy-fourth in John F
Hoke's Brigade and seems to have performed the same duties as those regiments of guarding the prisoners at Salisbury, with details for bridge guards and arresting deserters and keeping order in neighborhoods disturbed by them.
On 4 March, 1865, being no longer needed to guard the prisoners at Salisbury, the regiment was ordered to High Point and then was placed in the Seventh Congressional District to arrest deserters with regimental headquarters at Ashboro. On 16 March it was ordered to Greensboro. At Johnston's surrender, they were either paroled or went home without that ceremony.
By JOHN G. ALBRIGHT, FIRST LIEUTENANT COMPANY A.
This regiment was organized at Greensboro in July, 1864, by the temporary appointment of Chas. E. Shober, Colonel; J. A. Barrett, Lieutenant-Colonel; J. C. Dobbin, Major.
These last two were disabled officers on light duty and were released in November when their successors were selected.
From Lieutenant Albright's sketch and from General Holmes' order book also, it appears that their successors were elected at Camp Davis, on Masonboro Sound, in November, when Lieutenant-Colonel Barrett and Major Dobbin were ordered to other duties; upon the regiment being sent south.
In Moore's Roster, Vol. 4, p. 345-358, where it is erroneously given as the Seventy-third, we find the muster rolls of seven companies, the names of whose officers were given below, and on pages 333-335 we find the muster roll of what is given there as Company A, Seventy-third Regiment, but which we know from Lieutenant Albright's narrative, printed in "Our Living and Our Dead," October, 1874, pp. 134-137, was Company A, of this regiment. The roster of officers, if those given in Moore's Roster (amended by adding Company A) is correct is as follows:
COMPANY A-Alamance-Captain, W. S. Bradshaw; First Lieutenant, Jno. G. Albright; Second Lieutenants, Alfred Sharp and James Gilliam. This company was organized 13 June, 1864.
COMPANY B-Guilford-Captain, Jacob Boon; First Lieutenant, George Kirkman; Second Lieutenants, T. M. Woodburn and John Soots. This company was organized 18 June, 1864.
COMPANY C-Guilford-Captain, W. B. Johnston; First Lieutenant, W. R. Pearson; Second Lieutenants, John Blaylock
and Frederick Smith. This company was organized 13 June, 1864.
COMPANY D-Person-Captain, R. S. Davis; First Lieutenant, T. IL Brooks; Second Lieutenants, Chesley Hicks and Alfred Blalock. This company was organized 21 June.
COMPANY E-Stokes-Captain, W. H. Watts; First Lieu-tenant, W. G. Haynes; Second Lieutenants, Dempsey Bailey and Matthew Phillips. This company was organized 28 June, 1864.
COMPANY F-Caswell-Captain, A. A. Mitchell; First Lieutenant, J. S. Glass; Second Lieutenants, A. M. Fuller and J. J. Chandler. This company was organized 23 June, 1864.
COMPANY G-Forsyth-Captain, E. E. Holland; First Lieutenant, Jno. H. Shore: Second Lieutenants, David Shouse and Solomon Tice.
COMPANY H-Stokes-Captain, William Clinard; First Lieutenant, N. S. McGee; Second Lieutenants, E. B. Cook and Israel Moser.
The muster rolls of the other two companies are not given in Moore's Roster.
This regiment was ordered to Raleigh 27 October, 1864, and on 1 November General Holmes telegraphed General Bragg at Wilmington that he had sent him this regiment together with Erwin's Battalion (Seniors); three companies of Milliard's Battalion (Juniors) and thirteen other companies of Seniors, and that there were no others except those guarding prisoners at Salisbury. The thirteen companies of Seniors were probably the ten soon after organized into the Eighth Reserves and the three companies that formed Little-john's Battalion. On 10 November it was reported at Wilmington with nine other companies of Seniors, 89 Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, 1207, at Masonboro Sound. On 28 November the regiment elected
CHAS. E. SHOBER, Colonel.
EZEKIEL W. HANCOCK, Lieutenant Colonel, who was promoted Colonel 26 January, 1865, upon the resignation of Colonel Shober.
JAMES R. MCLEAN, Major.
It was soon sent south and as appears from the above Official Records it left Charleston for Savannah 7 December and on 9 December was in the battle of Coosawhatchie under the command of General Beverly H. Robinson, 92 Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, 446, and on 26 December it was in the skirmish at Tullifinny Iron Works, 130 of the regiment being present. Another detachment of 263 were in Harrison's Brigade at Coosawhatchie, same Vol., pp. 992, 999. From January to March, 1865, inclusive, it was in a brigade commanded by Colonel Wash. M. Hardy, of the Sixteenth North Carolina, composed of this regiment, the Fiftieth North Carolina and Tenth North Carolina Battalion, which brigade belonged to McLaw's Division.
So far this sketch has been taken from General Holmes' Order Books and the above Official Records published by the United States Government. What follows is the above cited sketch of Lieutenant Albright, of Company A. It probably gives a fair idea of the scope of duties imposed upon the Senior Reserves. To read it causes us to regret that the histories of the other regiments of Senior Reserves were not obtained from members of those commands, while it was possible to do so. Lieutenant Albright's interesting sketch is as follows:
LIEUTENANT ALBRIGHT'S HISTORY.
The Senior Reserves of Alamance County, having been conscripted, met in Graham in June, 1864, and elected the following officers: W. S. Bradshaw, Captain; John G. Albright, First Lieutenant; Alfred Sharp, Second Lieutenant; James Gilliam, Junior Second Lieutenant. These officers were never commissioned, but were ordered into the service. Fifteen men were selected out of the company and were sent to Greensboro as a guard at that place. In a short time the remainder were ordered into the southern part of the county to catch deserters from the army. A detachment under the First Lieutenant was sent to scour the Cane Creek Mountains, where they caught a deserter and found five caves, dug for the purpose of hiding provisions, etc., in which was found one quilt, one large jug, tin cups, etc., which had just been
deserted by the proprietors. The detachment went on to Cane Creek factory. The officer in command sent to a man's house to see if he was at home, when two men leaped out of the back door and started through a corn field at the top of their speed. One of them was a large man and the other a small one. At first the superior strength of the large one gave him the advantage, but before they got to the end of the field the small one was before. It was the most ludicrous foot race ever witnessed by the writer. Each one ran, not as running from danger, but as if for a thousand dollar wager. The large man was at first supposed to be a deserter, but was not, for he had once been taken to Camp Holmes and presented for service, but not accepted. The small one was the one to whom the house belonged. After the race was over the officer went in and told the good woman that the running would be of no service to her husband, and told her to tell him that the company had to go to Greensboro, and that he must come on immediately, which, be it told to his credit, he (lid. He belonged to our company.
From Cane Creek Factory we went to Greensboro, where we were put in a regiment of other reserves, and a set of field officers placed over the company. Our next move was to Ashboro. Here our small man who ran so at the factory came up and delivered himself to the authorities. He had gone to Greensboro just in time to be too late, and had followed us to this place. At Greensboro he was furnished with gun and cartridge box. On his way to Asheboro he came across one, like himself who was a deserter and Senior Reserve, and on whom he prevailed to go with him to camp.
We drove over the mountains in Randolph County, scaring up wild turkeys, foxes and owls in great abundance, but no deserters. The turkeys were seared so terribly that they could not get out of the way. One of the men wanted to shoot, and when the officer would not let him, tried to bayonet it.
About this time we received orders to forage on those who had sons in the bushes, which was done to some extent. This rigid system brought up a great many who were sent off as conscripts, and not deserters.
We were sent from Ashboro to Wilmington. From Wilmington we were ordered to Camp Whiting, thence to Plymouth, thence back to Wilmington, thence to Camp Davis, on Masonboro Sound, where our young field officers disappeared.
There we had an election for the officers of Lieutenant-Colonel and Major. Wheeler Hancock, of Rockingham, was elected to the former and J. Robert McLean, of Guilford, to the latter office. We had no fight there but could see the enemy frequently in their vessels.
From Camp Davis we were ordered to Savannah, from thence to Coosawhatchie river. The next day after our arrival we got. in a fight with General Foster's forces, which numbered about seven thousand men, while ours were only about three thousand. We held the fort (at Savannah) for 37 days and nights they shelling us nearly all the time from a fort near by. We had nothing but rifle pits to protect us from their fire. After the fall of Savannah, Sherman being about to surround us, we evacuated our position, setting fire to the bridge across the Tullifinny river, which, not burning rapidly, was cut down by a detachment which had been felling trees across the road. When we reached New Pocataligo the enemy were within a quarter of a mile of us. We would have been captured had it not been for the Fiftieth North Carolina Regiment, which kept the enemy at bay until we got by. We retreated across the Salkehatchie river, about a mile above the railroad crossing, where we remained some time. There our commanding Colonel (Shober) left us, and the command devolved upon Wheeler Hancock, the Lieutenant-Colonel. but the brigade was commanded by Colonel (Wash.) Hardy, (Sixtieth North Carolina), for we were brigaded with the Fiftieth Regiment and Tenth Battalion, ours being called the Seventh Regiment of Reserves. We were marched up the Salkehatchie river to Buford's bridge to prevent Sherman's crossing. While we were there he succeeded in crossing at Rivers' bridge, after having a pretty lively time with a Georgia regiment, who captured some of his advance guard. We were next marched to Branchville and stationed on the Edisto river, while Sherman passed on towards Columbia. We next went to a place called Ridgeville, where a great many
wounded and sick men were relieved from duty by Dr. Cherry, the only man who seemed to have any mercy or humanity. Several of those relieved died soon after getting home.
From Ridgeville we were marched to Florence, where we got on the train and went to Cheraw, and from Cheraw to Wall's Ferry. While there the men got completely disheartened, went to the officers and asked them what they must do for something to eat, who told them that they could do nothing for them. Upon this some of the men went home.
From there we were marched fifteen miles west of Fayetteville, where General Wade Hampton charged Kilpatrick, capturing some of his men, and from there to Averasboro, where we halted for a day or two. We were marched back a mile or so, where we threw up breastworks by cutting down pine trees and chinking underneath with pine knots. There we were attacked by Sherman's forces. The line of battle extended from the Cape Fear to a small stream eastwards. If two brigades next to the river had not given way, we could have held our own, but as they did Sherman proved too hard for us. Under cover of the darkness we retreated from the place in good order and marched on to Bentonville, where we engaged Sherman on one Sunday morning (19 March). In the evening our brigade was double-quicked from the left to the right of the line, where Colonel Hardy rushed us up within twenty feet of the enemy's breastworks, telling the officers it was to relieve our men. We received a terrible volley, upon which one of the officers called out to cease firing, that they were shooting their own men. Still the firing went on. We took shelter the best we could behind the pine trees, except some of us who were in a pond about sixty or seventy yards wide. These retreated across the pond, the officers shouting all the time, "You are shooting your own men." There we lost about fifty-one men in about half a minute, out of about four hundred. When the firing ceased Captain Bradshaw ordered Lieutenant Blalock to go forward and see if they were our own men who fired into us. When he got within fifteen or twenty feet of their works, two videttes leaped out, took him by the arms and led 'him across the
breastworks. Then, knowing who they were, we fired into and drove them from their works.
After the firing ceased two of the officers gathered up all the men they could find, marched out about three hundred yards and built small fires of pine rails-one for Colonel Wortham's Regiment (Fiftieth North Carolina) and one for the Senior Reserves.
The men being ordered to look after the wounded, split lightwood rails, and, having lighted them, went hack to the breastworks and brought them out to the fires, where they were placed into ambulances and carried away. We marched hack about half a mile, where we encamped for the night. At daylight the firing was renewed, and continued until Tuesday night at 12 o'clock. The enemy never broke our lines during the whole fight.
After the battle we were marched four miles out towards Smithfield, when we were ordered into line of battle again. Sherman's forces ceased to pursue us, and we went on to within about two miles of Smithfield, where we rested two or three days. Here, to the gratification of all, Hardy was relieved, the Tenth Battalion and Fiftieth Regiment being ordered into Haygood's and Kirkland's Brigades. Here, also, we were joined by those who had left us at Wall's Ferry. From Smithfield we went to Raleigh (27 March) when General Holmes gave our regiment a furlough for twenty days. Two days before this had expired Johnson had surrendered.
Thus ended the connection of the Senior Reserves, of Alamance County with "The Lost Cause."
JNO. G. ALBRIGHT.
GRAHAM, N. C.,
27 March, 1874.
BY THE EDITOR.
This regiment is erroneously given in Vol. 4 of Moore's Roster at pp. 333-344, as the Seventy-third. The muster rolls of only six of the ten companies are there given, of which we know that Company A belonged to the Seventy-seventh (Shober's Seventh Reserves).
The officers of the remaining five companies there given are:
COMPANY B-Robeson and Richmond-Captain, Nathaniel McLean (afterwards Lieutenant-Colonel of the regiment); First Lieutenant., Kenneth McKenzie; Second Lieutenants, William McRae and J. B. McRae. This company was organized 5 July, 1864.
COMPANY C-New Hanover and Brunswick-Captain, Benj. J. Jacobs; First Lieutenant, Edwin W. Grissett; Second Lieutenants, Richard L. Bordeaux and Boney Southerland. From the dates of the commissions of the officers and enlistments of the men, this company was raised 22 April, 1864.
COMPANY D-Bladen-Captain, David Callahan; First Lieutenant, James H. Tyson; Second Lieutenants, Joseph Hester and R. A. Williamson. This company was raised early in May.
COMPANY F-Cumberland-Captain, W. J. Kelly, First Lieutenant, Randall McDaniel; Second Lieutenants, Jno. T. Wright and John Shaw. This company was organized 11 April, 1864.
The order book of General Holmes mentions as also belonging to this regiment Captain F. A. Hart.
The officers of the other companies and the counties where raised can not now be ascertained until the copies of the rolls can he had from Washington. Indeed it is not certain that Moore's Roster has correctly placed the above, for the dates of the organization of the companies do not correspond with the letters given them, which were usually bestowed according to seniority.
Three of the companies were organized at Goldsboro in May into a battalion commanded by Major B. F. Hooks, who did service in guarding the bridges along the line of the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad, relieving other troops to go to the front. On 1 June, 1864, 160 men of Hook's Battalion were guarding the bridge over the Neuse just south of Goldsboro. which had once been destroyed by the enemy.
On 22 December, 1864, at Wilmington, it was organized with other companies into the Eighth Regiment of Reserves by the election of
ALLMAND A. McKoy, Colonel.
NATHANIEL. A. MCLEAN, Lieutenant-Colonel.
BOAZ F. Hooks, Major.
McAlister was appointed Adjutant, David Berry Assistant Surgeon.
Colonel McKoy was elected Judge of the Superior Court in 1874, and served as such till his death in 1885.
This regiment was in garrison in the forts below Wilmington and in December was brigaded with the Fourth (Reece), Seventh (French), Eighth (Ellington) Battalions of Junior Reserves. This brigade commanded by Colonel J. K. Conally, of the Fifty-fifth North Carolina, mustered 1,200 men present for duty and assisted in the defence of Fort Fisher 24 and 25 December, 1864. Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, Serial Vol. 87, p. 1021.
The regiment was also in the vicinity of Wilmington during the second assault of Fort Fisher.
Whether it was at Bentonville or in reserve, does not positively appear, but. it was at Goldsboro 9 March and was probably in the brigade commanded at Bentonville by Colonel George Jackson. It was ordered to Raleigh 27 April and disappeared from view with Johnston's surrender.
- SEVENTY-NINTH REGIMENT.
- 1. Robert L. Coleman, Colonel.
- 2. George Tait, Colonel.
- John W. Woodfin, Major. on his horse " Prince Hal," from whose hack he was killed.
BY S. V. PICKENS, ADJUTANT.
This regiment had its nucleus in three companies known as Woodfin's Battalion. Afterwards it was raised to six companies and was then known and reported officially as the Fourteenth Battalion. It was only in the Spring of 1865 that it was raised to a regiment by the addition of four more companies. It is therefore proper to give some account of these battalions.
WOODFIN'S BATTALION OF CAVALRY.
In order to give a connected history of this command it is not amiss to write something of a sketch, at the outset of Company G of the First North Carolina Cavalry, for this was, in a sense, and to a limited degree, the nucleus of said battalion. It was one of the earliest organizations in the State for the Confederate service, made up of men and boys from Buncombe, Henderson and Rutherford, with a few from other western counties, aggregating in numbers one hundred and twenty. Many of them were from the very best families of the country, some of them attaining distinction in the long and bloody war which followed. The commander, Jno. W. Woodfin, a born horseman and as chivalrous as any knight of the olden time and full of patriotism and devotion to the dear Southland, was an inspiration to this gallant hand he had gathered around him, and it is not surprising that they were so early and so eager to go forth to meet in mortal combat the horde of invaders that in 1861 threatened on every hand the peace and quiet of our whole country. The company organized with the following officers, to-wit: John W. Woodfin, Captain; Wm. Riley West, First Lieutenant: James L. Gaines, Second Lieutenant; John Blasengame, Junior See-
and Lieutenant. Leven Edney, Orderly Sergeant, succeeded very soon by Henry Coleman.
The company was quartered for a short time at the Jesse Smith house, corner of West College and Haywood streets (now the "villa" property), it then went into camp of instruction north of Asheville, about one and a half miles out, near the foot of Woodmen Mountain (now called "Lookout"), the horses being temporarily stabled in the barns at the negro quarters of Captain Woodmen. This camp, the first in Western North Carolina, was named in honor of the commanding officer and his elder brother Nicholas, a true and most thorough Southerner, giving liberally of his ample means to the advancement of the South's interests. After the lapse of a month or two "Camp Woodmen" was vacated, the company removing to Ridgeway, N. C., leaving Asheville 9 August.
At Ridgeway the company was assigned to Colonel Bob. Ransom's Ninth North Carolina (First Cavalry), and the men were engaged in perfecting their drill until late in the fall, when they were ordered to Manassas, Va. Here they were put on outpost duty, scouting and skirmishing almost daily, eventually going into winter quarters and remaining until Spring, when, about March, they were returned to North Carolina, first stopping at Goldsboro, thence to Pollocksville, near New Bern, and there put on picket duty, remaining in that locality until some time in May, when they were again sent back to Virginia, this time to Richmond, thence to Culpepper and Brandy Station, doing picket duty and scouting on both the Rapidan and Rappahannock rivers. On 9 June was engaged in the heavy cavalry fight at Brandy Station.
On 23 September, 1861, Captain Woodfin was promoted to Major and transferred to the Nineteenth Regiment (Second Cavalry), commanded at the time by Colonel M. L. Davis, Jr., of Rutherford County, and later by James L. Gaines, of Asheville, who lost an arm at Five Forks in April, 1865. Henry Coleman, also a Buncombe man, having succeeded to the Captaincy of Company G, of which as I have noted, he was orderly, was killed at same time and place.
Although but little more than a boy, he had established a reputation for cool courage and daring. Lieutenant West and others mentioned as leaving Company G, returned to Western North Carolina and set to work to organize another command and very soon the former had a company and with two others, Captains Harris and Fortune, formed a battalion, the composition of which was as follows:
FIRST COMPANY-Buncombe-Wm. R. West, Captain; William Henry, First Lieutenant; A. E. Posey, Second Lieutenant; F. M. Corn, Junior Second Lieutenant.
SECOND COMPANY-Transylvania-I. A. Harris, Captain; Ben Brittain, First Lieutenant; Branch Johnston, Second Lieutenant; Thomas Harkins, Junior Second Lieutenant.
THIRD COMPANY-Buncombe-Wm. P. Fortune, Captain; Wm. Gilliam, First Lieutenant; James Wilson, Second Lieutenant; B. F. Fortune, John Step, Junior Second Lieutenants.
On account of ill health Major Woodfin had resigned his position in the Nineteenth Regiment and on returning to Asheville, impelled by that same spirit that prompted him to offer himself as a sacrifice upon his country's altar in the early days of 1861, he accepted the leadership of this battalion.
The Federal army having taken possession of Knoxville and occupying other sections of East Tennessee, it became necessary for Western North Carolina, and more especially the town of Asheville,' having taken so early and active a part in furnishing troops and giving aid in every possible way to the Confederate forces as to embitter all in sympathy with the other side, to defend its own borders from invasion, pillage and robbery. Hence this newly organized battalion was the nucleus of a small "defensive army" and was actively engaged in repelling demonstrations made along the border lines of North Carolina and Tennessee principally by a band of marauders under the command of the notorious George W. Kirk, made more bold and aggressive by the nearness of the regular army at Knoxville and less distant points. Ever on the alert and guarding with zealous care all
invasions of this territory, when his scouts on or about 20 November, 1863, reported a small force as having crossed the Tennessee line into North Carolina and advancing in the direction of Warm Springs, Major Woodfin, with a hastily gotten together detachment of his battalion, then at Marshall, sixteen miles from the Springs, dashed with that impetuosity characteristic of the man, down the French Broad river, hoping to reach that point before the invaders. But in this he failed, and in turning an abrupt angle in the road not far from "Lover's Leap" and in close proximity to the bridge across the river leading to the hotel, he found himself confronted by a larger force than he expected. Being several paces in advance of his "troop," he waved it to hold up, presumably with the purpose of allowing him to take in more fully the situation, so as to intelligently direct further movements, but unfortunately he had gotten into the outer circle of an ambuscade, and was ruthlessly shot from his horse by a party hidden under a small building near the road side. A young man of Captain West's company named Jake Davis was at the same time wounded, and afterwards died. J. J. Ramsay, of same company, and Smith, of Harris' company, were also wounded. The detachment being out-numbered and having lost its leader, fell back to Marshall. A committee of citizens, headed by Esquire Albert T. Summey, of Asheville, went down under flag of truce to recover the body of the much lamented citizen and soldier. They found it stripped of all valuables, but glad to get the lifeless remains they brought it to his bereaved family and friends, and with all the honors that could be paid a martyred hero, he was laid to rest in the Methodist cemetery on Church street and later removed to Riverside. In the funeral cortege was his favorite charger "Prince Hal," upon which he was killed, fully caparisoned, being led by his trusted camp servant.
The battalion, after the death of Major Woodfin, continued in this defensive work for a time, acting rather independently as companies; not a great while elapsed however, until there united with these three companies three others, making what
was afterwards known as the Fourteenth Battalion. The additional companies were as follows:
Wiley F. Parker, Captain, of Buncombe; Joe Hale Smith, First Lieutenant, of Buncombe, killed in 1865 by a band of marauders; Wm. Eller, Second Lieutenant, of Buncombe.
E. Russell, Captain, of Haywood.
Jim Ray, Captain, of Madison; Whitfield Morgan, Lieu-tenant, killed in 1865, by band of marauders; and -. -. Boone, Lieutenant.
Of this battalion, James L. Henry was made Lieutenant Colonel and Charles M. Roberts Major. Lieutenant-Colonel Henry had been Adjutant of the Ninth North Carolina (First Cavalry) under Colonel Robert Ransom, and when the latter had been promoted Brigadier-General, had became Captain and Assistant Adjutant-General of his brigade. After the war he was judge of the Superior Courts from 1868-1874. Major C. M. Roberts had also seen previous service. The staff were A. M. Alexander, Quartermaster; Robert Farnsworth, Commissary; Washington Morrison, Surgeon; William Murdock, Assistant Surgeon ; S. V. Pickens, Acting Adjutant; Aaron Wright, Quartermaster Sergeant, and W. L. Norwood, Sergeant Major. The last has since been judge of the Superior Court.
The writer, who had from 20 May, 1861, served as a private in Company G, Ninth North Carolina (First Cavalry), about 1 March, 1864, transferred to this battalion and became its Adjutant. He found the command, officered as above stated, encamped at Webster, Jackson County. The services of Woodmen's Battalion and of this larger battalion had been manifold in guarding this section, picketing roads, fighting bushwhackers, with occasional brushes with the enemy, but the details are now irrevocably lost.
Major Roberts was fatally wounded in September, 1864, in an engagement on Laurel, in Madison County, with Kirk's men, and other bushwhackers. He was a true and brave soldier, beloved while living by the entire command, and lamented when dead. His remains were taken by a military escort, in command of the writer, and buried in his own yard
with military honors. All his assailants were slain on the spot and houses burned from which they fired. Captain Harris then became Major, and Lieutenant James P. Deaver became Captain of Company A.
Lieutenant Morgan and Sergeant Robert Wells, of Company I), were shot down in cold blood near Asheville by some of Kirk's men, pending the armistice agreed upon by Generals Sherman and Johnston. Lieutenant II ale Smith died or was killed, near the same date.
This command had much good material among the men and officers, many of whom had been long in active service in Virginia, or the Army of Tennessee, and had been sent here to defend their immediate homes against the ravages and outrages of men who were true to neither side.
The Fourteenth Battalion was kept in that part of North Carolina near to, and west of the Blue Ridge, with frequent raids into East Tennessee.
The service was a peculiar service and a particularly hard and dangerous one. Men who had grown fat in General Lee's army wasted away to skin and bones amidst the hard-ships of these mountain campaigns, having no assurance of safety in the day or night, in camp or on the march, these mountain gorges serving as cities of refuge for deserters and bushwhackers. Truly the men of this command needed to be always on the alert and wide awake.
If time, space and memory would allow, it would be a great pleasure for me to enroll the names of more than five hundred of the noble men who served in the ranks of the Fourteenth (sometimes called the "One Eyed Battalion" from the fact that Lieutenant-Colonel Henry had lost one of his eyes) who marched over these mountains through heat and cold, and fearlessly met and fought foes who forced guerrilla war upon them in and around their homes and firesides; and foes, too, who had lived in this section and were familiar with the roads, rivers and locations of houses, and very many of them deserters from the Confederate army and of the cause they had sworn to support. In April, 1864, the battalion was at the mouth of Ivy and reported 221 present out of a total of 510. 59 Off. Rec. Union and Con f ed. Armies, 865.
This command had several engagements with the enemy on Laurel in Madison County, on Indian creek, Red Banks and other points in Tennessee during the years 1864 and 1865. It was in its last line of battle in the city of Asheville, about four hundred yards to the north of the female college, about 15 April, 1865.
This battalion was with Colonel Palmer, who commanded the Western District of North Carolina, at Greenville, Tenn., on the day after that brave soldier, General John H. Morgan, was betrayed and killed in Mrs. Williams' garden, or vineyard; the writer saw the spot, marked by two rude stakes, placed at his head and feet where he died, and it was shown me by Mrs. Williams.
In the Fall of 1864, J. E. Rankin was made Adjutant. He was for many years, since the war, chairman of the Beard of County Commissioners for Buncombe and is now a prominent banker of Asheville.
ORGANIZATION OF THE REGIMENT.
In the Spring of 1865 four companies were added as follows:
Job Barnard, Captain, of Buncombe; Hezekiah E. Barnard, First Lieutenant of Buncombe; Taylor Buckner, Second Lieutenant, of Buncombe.
A. E. Posey, Captain, of Henderson; Ben. Brittain, Lieutenant, of Henderson; F. M. Corn, Lieutenant, of Henderson.
William Gilliam, Captain, of Buncombe; John Step, Lieutenant, of Buncombe.
Galloway, Captain, of Transylvania; William Ducker, Lieutenant, of Transylvania; Dick Owens, Lieutenant, of Transylvania.
This made us a full regiment, being the Eighth Cavalry, or Seventy-ninth North Carolina Regiment. Of this regiment Lieutenant-Colonel George Tait, of the Fortieth North Carolina (Third Artillery) was first appointed Colonel, but not liking the service for some reason, resigned and Robert L. Coleman, who had been Captain A. C. S. in the Sixtieth North Carolina, and later the Chief Commissary of the Department of Western North Carolina, was made Colonel. He was a splendid soldier and a most excellent man.
In one of the darkest hours towards the last, Captain "Jim" Ray, with part of his company and part of another, deserted to the enemy.
The last service of the command was around Asheville. On 6 April, 1865, the regiment aided to repel Colonel Kirby's raid coming in from Greenville, Tenn., and as news travelled slowly then, there being no railroad or telegraph station nearer than the then terminus of the Western North Carolina Railroad, six miles below Morganton, a part of the command was in a skirmish as late as 10 May. On being made certain of Johnston's surrender the regiment quietly dissolved and the men went home without being paroled.
I am much indebted to Lieutenant-Colonel J. M. Ray, of the Sixtieth Regiment, for aid in preparing this sketch of the Eighth Cavalry.
Incidentally it may here be noted that the eight cavalry regiments from this State were all odd numbers, i. e., Ninth, Nineteenth, Forty-first, Fifty-ninth, Sixty-third, Sixty-fifth, Seventy-fifth and Seventy-ninth, while the three artillery regiments were all even numbers-Tenth, Thirty-sixth and Fortieth.
Though in no great battles the experience of the command was, in many respects, perhaps more trying and it performed faithfully and well the duties assigned to it. It well merits its place in the Military History of North Carolina in the Great War of 1861-'65.
S. V. PICKENS.
HENDERSONVILLE, N. C.,
30 May, 1901.
- EIGHTIETH REGIMENT.
- A. L. Welch, Sergeant, Co. A.
(WALKER'S REGIMENT OF THOMAS' LEGION.)
BY CAPTAIN R. A. AIKEN, COMPANY H.
This command was organized as a battalion on 1 October, 1862, in the city of Knoxville, Tenn., under orders from Major-General E. Kirby Smith, commander of East Tennessee and Western North Carolina, and was a part of Thomas' Legion. The separate companies had been mustered into service a few months prior to this, and had been guarding the bridges between Bristol and Chattanooga, Tenn.
The organization was effected by the election of the following field officers.
W. C. WALKER, Lieutenant-Colonel, Cherokee County, N. C.
JAMES A. MCKAMY, Major, Blount County, Tenn.
THOMAS D. JOHNSON, A. Q. M., Asheville, N. C.
PERRY C. GASTON, Adjutant, Franklin, N. C.
DR. BENJ. MAYFIELD, Surgeon, Murphy, N. C.
DR. CHAS. H. GREEN, Assistant Surgeon, Tennessee.
DR. CHAS. F. WALKER, Sergeant Major, Murphy, N. C.
WM. M. NELSON, Quartermaster Sergeant, Cherokee County, N. C.
ED. P. MCGEHEE, Ordnance Sergeant, Cherokee County, N. C.
For the greater part of its service it was known as Walker's Battalion. When it was raised to ten companies in the spring of 1864, W. C. Walker became Colonel, J. A. McKamy Lieutenant-Colonel, and Captain Stephen Whitaker, of Company E, became Major.
COMPANY A-From Cherokee-C. C. Berry, Captain, 18 July, 1862; J. N. Bryson, First Lieutenant, 18 July, 1862;
Elisha Burgin, Second Lieutenant, 18 July, 1862; Andrew C. Berry, Junior Second Lieutenant, 18 July, 1862. Officers and men, 125.
COMPANY B-From Cherokee-W. C. Walker, Captain, 19 July, 1862; W. B. Nelson, Captain, 1 October, 1862; W. J. McGehee, First Lieutenant; G. N. Loudermilk, M. C. Fowler, D. C. F. Walker, Wm. H. Phillips and Jno. H. Kirkland, Second Lieutenants. Officers and men, 113.
COMPANY C-J. A. McKamy, Captain, 10 September, 1862, promoted Major 1 October, 1862, and Lieutenant-Colonel 4 January, 1864, Blount County, Tenn.; James M. Singleton, First Lieutenant, 10 September; Captain 4 January, 1864, Blount County, Tenn.; Wm. Ashley, First Lieutenant, 10 September; James A. Paul, Second Lieutenant, 10 September; John W. McKamy, Second Lieutenant., September, 1862; Lenoir R. Young, Junior Second Lieutenant, September, 1862. Officers and men, 105.
COMPANY D-Cavalry-W. C. Wallace, Captain, 1 September, 1862, Knoxville, Tenn.; James Carnes, First Lieutenant, 28 September, 1862, Blount County, Tenn.; F. M. Lauter, Second Lieutenant, 28 September, 1862, Blount County, Tenn.; Jos. Harden, 28 September, 1862, Blount County, Tenn. Officers and men, 83.
COMPANY E-Cherokee County-Stephen Whitaker, Captain, 8 September, 1862, promoted Major 4 January, 1864; John A. Robinson, First Lieutenant and Captain; W. C. Tatum, First Lieutenant; W. A. Wiggins, Second Lieutenant. Officers and men, 129.
COMPANY F-Graham County, Cavalry-D. C. Ghormley, Captain, 24 September, 1862; John Grant, First Lieutenant; E. R. Nelson and D. S. Kurkholder, Second Lieutenants. Officers and men, 75.
COMPANY G-Cavalry-David Neff, Captain, 24 September, 1862; Jas. F. Cawsey, First Lieutenant, 24 September, 1862; Benj. F. Ward, Second Lieutenant, 24 September, 1862; W. W. Cowan, Junior Second Lieutenant, 24 September, 1862. Officers and men, 111.
COMPANY H-Cherokee County-G. N. Loudermilk. Captain, 19 July, 1862; Robert A. Aiken, First Lieutenant and
Captain; Hiram Ledford, First Lieutenant; John Habbitt, Second Lieutenant. Officers and men, 90.
COMPANY I-Indian Company from Cherokee County-James Welch, Captain; Cam. H. Taylor, First Lieutenant; Indian Second Lieutenant; Indian Junior Second Lieutenant. Officers and men, 90.
COMPANY K-Indian Company from Jackson County-"Black Fox," Captain; Indian First Lieutenant; Second Lieutenant. Officers and men, 90.
COMPANY L-Artillery Battery, Four Guns-J. T. Levi, Captain, `"Louisiana Tigers;" Jno. W. Barr, First Lieutenant, Abingdon, Va.; J. M. Shipp, Second Lieutenant, Abingdon, Va.; R. P. Searcy, Junior Second Lieutenant, Tennessee. Officers and men-Louisiana, Tennessee, Virginia and North Carolina 104.
Total officers and men in above companies, eleven hundred and fifteen. About 200 of these were Tennesseeans and 50 from Virginia and Louisiana, in battery. For the roster while a battalion see Moore, Vol. IV, pp. 196-216.
Immediately after its organization, these companies composing the battalion, were scattered along the Bristol and Chattanooga Railroad, guarding bridges, towns, block houses, etc., also arresting conscripts, deserters, and doing other provost duties. In April, 1863, the battalion, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel W. C. Walker, was in A. E. Jackson's Brigade at Jonesboro, Tenn., 35 (Serial Vol.) Off. Rec. Union and Con f ed. Armies, 792. On 31 July it was at Zollicoffer, Tenn, same volume. page 946.
After the occupation of East Tennessee by General Burnside, 5 September, 1863, Companies C, E and H were in upper East Tennessee, with Colonels Love and Stringfield and most of the Sixty-ninth Regiment of Thomas' Legion, and were then cut off from the battalion under Colonel Walker.
There were also three or four companies of "sappers and miners," masons, carpenters, blacksmiths, gunsmiths, salt and salt petre and alum makers. Captain R. C. McCalla, a Scotchman, and a most excellent gentleman, is the only officer whose name I can recall.
Nearly half of these were from North Carolina, and in their line did faithful service. They were detached from us and taken to Bragg's and Johnston's army, at and below Chattanooga.
Having no names or data, or reports of any kind, I can say nothing about them, only that in a general way they were good men. Captain MeCalla was made Major later on.
In Lindsey's History of the Civil War in East Tennessee, there is an account of the court-martial and shooting of twenty North Carolina, soldiers as deserters. I have been unable to trace those men to any regiment unless perchance they belonged to these companies of sappers and miners, and were the East Tennessee recruits to those companies, and I really fear they were, and though Tennesseeans, belonged to "Thomas' Legion." I fear they were unjustly and cruelly treated-for, to my personal knowledge, many of them joined with the promise that they were not to be taken out of the State except in the North Carolina mountain line of defense. The records show that General Bragg had a dislike for Tennessee and North Carolina troops, yet without them he and his army would have been crushed as an empty egg shell by General Sherman.
The history of all Countries and of all States in Civil War shows that when the army of its defense falls back and leaves them to a merciless foe, many good soldiers under other circumstances, will leave for their homes. If any of these men joined the enemy, of course they forfeited their lives, otherwise they were cruelly treated.
As elsewhere stated, all these were mountain people from North Carolina and Tennessee who are as a rule, high strung and independent. They will brook no insult in or out of an army.
They were not as ignorant, nor were their forefathers, as newspaper scribblers and sensation loving writers like "Charles Egbert Craddock," et id omne genus, would make them.
These slanders have been ably refuted by Professor Eben Alexander, of our own University, by Rev. D. Atkins, D. D., and by Hon. Wm. Rule, of the Knoxville Journal Tribune.
Mr. Rule says: "Such writers are either fools or liars. There is more ignorance, vice, loathsome men and women, under the shadow of Trinity Spire, New York, than in all the mountains of North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama and Georgia combined."
Colonel Wm H. Thomas, commanding Legion, mentioned quite fully in the sketch of the Sixty-ninth Regiment heretofore, is really entitled to a larger notice than can be given to any individual officer, although quite a number of officers and men will have to be more fully noticed herein than in ordinary regimental histories, for the reason that. the work or service done was largely by individuals, squads and companies.
During the latter part of 1862 and first eight months of 1863, most of the duty performed by these men was tiresome, thankless, disagreeable, galling and verging on the unmanly. Enforcing conscription was always a disagreeable duty to a soldier and gentleman. Colonel Thomas took the Indian companies and fell hack across the Smoky Mountains towards Waynesville and Webster, and practically remained in that locality during the balance of the war. Lieutenant-Colonel Walker, with several companies, foot and horse, reported to and obeyed the orders of Generals Bragg and John C. Vaughan.
On 8 September, 1863, Lieutenant-Colonel Walker with his battalion, 300 strong, are reported at the battle of Limestone Bridge, East Tennessee, where they charged gallantly and aided in capturing 350 prisoners, 51 (Serial Vol.) Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, 643. From October to December, 1863, the battalion commanded by Major McKamy, was in A. E. Jackson's Brigade, Robert Ransom's Division. On 6 November it reported 399 total present for duty. In April, 1861, it was still in Jackson's Brigade and at Carter's Depot, but was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel McKamy, 59 Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, 802, having been raised to a regiment. At the same date the three Indian companies are officially recorded as being at the mouth of Tuekaseege, 206 present out of 283 total, same volume, p. 865.
There was much hard and dangerous service done, both in
Tennessee and North Carolina. The four counties of Cherokee, Clay, Graham and Swain were disputed territory all this time. While large bodies of Federals seldom came out, yet small scouts were constantly depredating upon and killing the citizens and taking off many to prison. Colonel Walker was murdered at his home near Murphy on the night of 3 January, 1864, while there on sick leave.
In order to properly realize and appreciate the work done, the reader should bear in mind how these North Carolina counties before named, are situated. Cherokee, in the extreme west, is wedged in between Tennessee and Georgia, its east end between Graham and Clay Counties, the former with a long, rugged and tortuous, but not impassable mountain line, bordering on East Tennessee and reaching from Tennessee river and the great butt end of the "Great Smoky Mountains" out towards "Hanging Dog" westward, while the latter--Clay County-borders on Georgia and crosses the Blue Ridge, or embraces its western limit.
It should be said of Colonel Walker that he was a man of more than ordinary ability and influence. He was a member of the Legislature in 1857-'58, and when the "call to arms" resounded in his State, he raised the first company from Cherokee, was soon made Lieutenant Colonel of the Regiment (Twenty-ninth North Carolina), but failing health compelled him to resign. Recovering somewhat his health, he promptly assisted his old friend, Colonel W. H. Thomas, in forming the "Legion," where he was always regarded as a prompt and faithful officer and loyal soldier of the South. After his death, Lieutenant-Colonel McKamy was entitled to the command of the Eightieth, but he was with Colonel Love in Virginia, doing valiant service till his capture at Winchester, Va., 19 September, 1864, where he lost most of his men by wounds, capture and death.
Let the reader still bear in mind the geography and topography of this region. The eastern boundaries of these three counties practically jut up against the great Nantahala Mountains, connecting the Smoky and Blue Ridge-the culminating points of both-for really, both do disappear from the maps hereabouts.
The Smoky Mountains and Tennessee line "round up" a few miles east of Tennessee river, at an altitude of about 6,700 feet on "Clingman's Dome." This great and grand mountain, terrible to view from a distance, yet beautiful and useful in reality on its great broad top, was most of the time inhabited during the war or occupied by the soldiers of this regiment, especially the Indians.
The cavalry companies of Neff and Wallace did much active service for Generals Bragg and Johnston, and were permanently cut off from the battalion as well as the regiment. After the murder of Colonel Walker and during almost all the year 1864, the remaining companies of this battalion were on duty along the mountain gaps and passes, making and repelling attacks upon and from the enemy similar work to that heretofore delineated in the sketch of the Sixty-ninth Regiment.
The cavalry companies of the regiment, especially Wallace's and Neff's, did no service in North Carolina at all after Burnside's occupancy of East Tennessee, but were attached to General J. C. Vaughn's East Tennessee cavalry brigade under orders of General Bragg. They did good service, and like all soldiers in this East Tennessee and Western North Carolina Department, were always on the move, and as subsequent events have proven, were of invaluable service to the South.
When Longstreet failed to capture Knoxville, and fell back up eastwards towards Virginia, he was soon followed by Burnside, Sherman, and as far as Strawberry Plains by General Grant, with an army of 50,000 men. At this time fend place a "council of war" was held by these three great Union Generals in the house and at the then home of Lieutenant-Colonel Stringfield, of the Sixty-ninth North Carolina, of our Legion, and in a house built by his father for his great grandfather, Colonel James King, a King's Mountain hero.
In this council of war the idea was advanced and pressed almost to a certainty to cut the army into four divisions and send 10,000 each up Little Tennessee toward Macon County; 10,000 to Waynesville, and 10,000 up French Broad, towards Asheville and Burnsville, N. C., and 20,000 towards Bristol
and Lynchburg. This matter was held in abeyance till General Grant could personally inspect the line, or base of operations. So he mounted his horse and rode 175 miles through Tennessee and Kentucky and finding the roads so terrible, he abandoned the idea. But the project was not a bad one, with Chattanooga and Knoxville as bases for operations.
Colonel Thomas often contended that that would be done. Such being possible it will be seen that upper Georgia and South Carolina would have been threatened and also Southwest Virginia with the salt works and all that fine region exposed.
It is no secret that General Lee seeing he could not hold Richmond much longer began to look towards the mountains of Tennessee, Kentucky and North Carolina to fall back to. Lieutenant-Colonel Stringfield was consulted by General Breckinridge about East Tennessee and North Carolina while we were together in the Valley Campaign. Colonel Thomas doubtless had been consulted also, hence his tenacity to hold every mountain pass towards Tennessee. The men were often detailed to build roads across Smoky Mountains and to acquaint themselves with all the mountain trails, etc.
At that time the Cherokee Indians, 400 of whom were in the two regiments of Thomas' Legion (Sixty-ninth and Eightieth North Carolina), occupied almost the center of this vast mountain country along the Tennessee line, and there is no doubt that their presence here was a great protection to the people. They were loyal to us to an intense degree. Colonel Thomas, as has been stated in the sketch of the Sixty-ninth, had been their friend, patron, chief and agent for twenty-five years prior to the war.
But of the whites we must say that these mountain people were rather unique in their individuality. Their stern independence of speech and action sometimes cast a doubt upon strangers as to what they would do next, as sometimes they would talk strangely to a loyal Southron, but when fighting was needed history shows that they "fought as never man fought before."
Judge O. P. Temple, of Knoxville, Tenn., in his history of "Civil War in East Tennessee," has much to say in defence
of all of them, especially the Union element. President Lincoln early in 1862 began to inaugurate measures to relieve the "loyal" East Tennessee people, and in his December message to Congress, 1861, he strongly recommended their relief, and in January, 1862, a strong army started thither, which met, defeated and killed General Zollicoffer at Fishing Creek. This defeat thrilled the entire populace, Southern and Union. This failure of General Thomas to follow up his advantage soon disheartened his people, and all the Southern people flew to arms.
The conscript law was now passed and the bitterness and the "uncivil" war began in earnest.
Counties were arrayed against counties, townships, communities and families were divided-split up, estranged, embittered and finally out in open arms against each other. Under such surroundings our men lived, camped, marched, drilled and some few deserted us. It was a very unsatisfactory state of affairs, and the sterling manhood of our men was often brought to the test. It was painful and humiliating to have to arrest any one, but after living among and associating with people for weeks and months it was a very disagreeable duty to arrest them or impress or confiscate anything of theirs.
After East Tennessee was overrun by Burnside's army, the Eightieth as before stated, guarded the mountain paths from Tennessee. Quite a number of our people refused to go in the army as conscripts, but went over to Knoxville, Burnside in meanwhile telling them it was his intention to go up through North Carolina and over into Georgia and South Carolina.
Cherokee County was sorely infested with a lot of "bummers" from both armies daily almost, stealing horses, cattle, provisions, clothing, etc., and some small negroes. Colonel Walker tried to suppress this, but was murdered early in January, 1864. For some time prior to this Colonel Walker was kept constantly on the alert with his men, on Nantahala, Little Tennessee, Valley, Notley and Hiwassee rivers. Spies, scouts, recruiting officers, etc., being always on the move.
Sergeant Steve Porter, of Company F (Andrews), can tell
of many hair-breadth escapes and blood-curdling stories of his cavalry company in East Tennessee in Sevier, Blount, McMinn and Polk Counties
Sergeant A. Lon. Welch, of Company A (Anderson, S. C.) can also relate many thrilling adventures of those dark days. Mr. Welch is now a prosperous man in his South Carolina home.
Captain Cam. Taylor, of Company I, is a leading lawyer among the Cherokee Indians in the West at Tah-le-quah (capital of the nation), where quite a number of his Indian brethren followed him (he is part Cherokee). Captain Sou-ate-Owle, of Company A, now of Cherokee, N. C., and commander of "Saw-noo-kee" Camp No. 1268, is still living at his Swain County home near Cherokee P. O. He was a brave warrior. He and twenty of his command attended the Louisville reunion and attracted a good deal of notice. He is a Baptist. preacher.
In the midst of these stormy days Colonel Walker finally went home, near Murphy, sick. He was called to the door and shot down like a dog. Following this tragedy there was much apprehension among officers and men. Burnside's army having all lower East Tennessee in its iron grasp, there was little that this regiment, divided up as it was, could do but stand sentinel and defend their homes and the homes of their comrades of the Twenty-ninth, Thirty-ninth, Twenty-fifth and Sixty-ninth Regiments, and they did their duty well and faithfully under great danger and privation. The winter of 1863-'64 was unusually severe, the snows were deep and numerous, but wood was plenty.
Another great service performed by these men was the recapture of 250 Federal prisoners who escaped from down South in squads of five to fifteen. This was largely done by the Cherokee Indians, who were familiar with every footpath in the mountains and could follow the trial of a man or party when all signs had failed to others.
Many Yankee soldiers, after escaping from Columbia, etc., were picked up and sent back. These Indians were never cruel to prisoners or any one else, but were faithful "sentinels" on the "watch tower." One faithful fellow on an
outpost low down on the Tennessee river towards Tennessee, was placed on guard and well cautioned and admonished, he stood at his post all night, or near fourteen hours, in one of the fiercest and most terrific snow storms in the history of the country.
When his absence was noted next morning and relief guard sent out he was found bravely walking his post. The Indians were splendid for such service, but they could not face cannons-"big guns on wheels."
In the Fall of 1864 some effort was made by some Union men to reestablish the old government and reinstate the "old flag" in Cherokee. The writer is not in possession of sufficient facts bearing on the ease to give an intelligent statement of it. As a further evidence of the bad elements, dangerous and perilous incidents of the times the life of Major Whitaker, an old and valued citizen of the county and a fearless officer, was frequently threatened.
Lieutenant-Colonel Stringfield, of the Sixty-ninth, commanding the six companies west of the Balsam Mountains, often had to travel from Asheville and Waynesville to Murphy entirely unattended, fording and swimming the creeks and rivers, at the imminent peril of his life. He narrowly escaped assassination several times. On one occasion, at the house of Mrs. Walker, on Valley river, now Andrews, a would-be assassin approached within ten feet of him while sitting near an open window, a plank broke, the dog barked, and at the alarm the window and curtain were shut down and his life was saved, thanks to an overruling Providence.
On 10 March, 1865, General Martin reports the Sixty-ninth and Eightieth, including their Indian companies, as having 1,055 present for duty. 103 Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, 1048.
The writer deeply regrets that he is unable to give the names of numerous officers and men who died in battle in Virginia, Tennessee, Georgia, Kentucky and North Carolina, and of many heroic deeds of all in lower East Tennessee and North Carolina.
Major Whitaker died in December, 1900, giving no de-tails. Lieutenant-Colonel McKamy, in 1898. Captain Neff
was captured at Somerset, Ky., in 1864. The fate or subsequent career of many others is unknown.
Captain Ghormley is also living in North Georgia. After the capture of Lieutenant-Colonel McKamy, Winchester, Va., 19 September, 1864, Major Stephen Whitaker, of Cherokee County, assumed command of the regiment and was ever faithful to his trust. He was the last field officer of the "Legion" to lay down his arms, and in this he had a rather unique and remarkable experience. When Lieutenant-Colonel W. W. Stringfield was sent with a flag of truce to Knoxville to General Stoneman, the notorious Colonel Kirk violated a truce made at Asheville and moved rapidly west, to Franklin, Macon County, there he actually treated the people kindly and gave most of them their horses.
Major Whitaker, hearing of the surrender of Lee and Johnston in April, and of Colonels Thomas and James R. Love at Waynesville on 9 and 10 May, went to Franklin and surrendered himself and son on the 14th. His men-like those of Colonel Thomas-were allowed to keep their guns, in self defense. Thus closed the service of some as good men as ever fought for the South. Much more should be said concerning numbers of officers and private soldiers, but the information cannot be gotten. Captain T. D. Johnston, Quartermaster, is an invalid now living at Asheville. He has twice represented us in Congress. P. C. Gaston, Adjutant, lived and died in Macon County-a highly respected citizen. Dr. B. Mayfield recently died at Murphy, N. C., a loved and respected physician. Dr. Walker, Sergeant-Major, is a highly respected citizen of Cherokee County.
In the preparation of this sketch I am greatly indebted to Lieutenant-Colonel W. W. Stringfield, of the Sixty-ninth North Carolina, a most gallant and efficient officer of our Legion, whose memory will always be dear to them as long as a member of the command survives.
R. A. AIKEN.
MURPHY, N. C.,
30 MAY, 1901.
(FIRST REGIMENT OF DETAILED MEN.)
By THE EDITOR.
At this late date it is difficult to get data as to this regiment. Its history is substantially that related of the Eighty-second Regiment.
In November, 1864, the Confederate authorities directed that the detailed men in this State should be at once organized into regiments and battalions. General Holmes reported their number in this State to be 3,117.
On 12 January, 1865, he directs that the First Regiment Detailed men under Colonel (or Lieutenant-Colonel) L. M. McCorkle, the Second under Colonel A. G. Brenizer, and the Third under Colonel Bouchell, should constitute a brigade under the command of Colonel W. J. Hoke, and they were all ordered to Salisbury. There was also a battalion of them under Major Rencher, which was ordered to Raleigh.
On 21 February, 1865, General Holmes telegraphed General Bragg that he had organized two regiments of detailed men and could turn them over to him. They were probably utilized to guard prisoners and public property. It can not be certainly known-until we can get copies of the rolls from Washington-even who the field officers were. It seems probable that the Colonel was W. J. Hoke, formerly Colonel of the Thirty-eighth North Carolina and just then commanding at Charlotte, and that Lock McCorkle was Lieutenant-Colonel.
The artisans in the Navy Department works at Charlotte were in September, 1 864, organized into two companies and were doubtless placed in this regiment.
(SECOND REGIMENT OF DETAILED MEN.)
BY A. G. BRENIZER, COLONEL.
In the latter part of 1864 the Confederate Congress ordered the organizing of all detailed men into companies and regiments, which in North Carolina was done under the supervision of Lieutenant-General T. H. Holmes. These men were artisans, mechanics, laborers, clerks, etc., employed in the various departmennts of the Confederacy, and in the employ of contractors with the government to supply iron, coal, equipments, rifles, saltpetre, etc., etc., detailed from the army to perform these duties. Some of these men were "light duty men," unable to do full duty in the field, but capable of engaging in some work at home, to carry on the war.
Three regiments of detailed men of ten companies each and a battalion were organized in this State. At that time I was in command of the arsenal at Salisbury, being Major of Artillery, C. S. A., on ordnance duty.
The second regiment was organized by electing:
A. G. BRENIZER, Colonel.
JASPER STOWE, of Gaston, Lieutenant-Colonel.
McNeely, of Salisbury, was appointed Adjutant.
In this regiment were the following companies:
COMPANY A-Captain, Philip S. Whisnant, of Anson; First Lieutenant, B. F. Glenn; Second Lieutenants, J. M. W. Flow, S. C. Hunter.
COMPANY B-Captain, W. P. Brown, of Mecklenburg; First Lieutenant, James Earnhardt; Second Lieutenants, A. McCoy and J. E. Caldwell.
COMPANY C-Captain, W. H. Houston, of Union.
COMPANY D-Captain, William Paisley; First Lieutenant, J. R. Fisher; Second Lieutenant, B. R. Mayer.
COMPANY E-Captain, P. H. Montague, of Rowan. There were five other companies whose captains I do not recall, to-wit: one from Gaston, one from Stanly, one from David-son, one from Cabarrus and one from Randolph.
The only field service rendered by this regiment was when Sherman was making his famous (or infamous) march through South Carolina and threatening Western North Carolina. It was expected that his route would be through Charlotte and Salisbury.
These three regiments of detailed men were ordered out and encamped at Salisbury where we did picket duty until Sherman turned to the right, towards Fayetteville, and all danger of invasion towards Charlotte was over. We were then ordered home.
When Stoneman came on his raid in April, 1865, and took possession of Salisbury, destroying all government buildings, and railroad property and all government stores that had not been removed, his appearance was so sudden that there was no time to get these regiments together. One company, that from Rowan, commanded by Captain P. H. Montague, was at Salisbury, the men being engaged all night long in loading ordnance stores on the train under orders from the general in command. At daybreak Stoneman attacked the town, which was easily captured, there being only a few convalescents and a battery of artillery, which was passing through, and the above company of my regiment.
At the last moment an order came for that company to report at headquarters and they were sent out of town to join the small force which stood before Stoneman, endeavoring to check his advance. They reached there just in time to be surrendered and were carried to Camp Chase, Ohio, where they remained about three months after the close of the war.
A. G. BRENIZER.
CHARLOTTE, N. C.,
26 April, 1901.
(THIRD REGIMENT OF DETAILED MEN.)
By THE EDITOR.
This regiment was commanded by Colonel Bouchell and was in the brigade composed of the three regiments of detailed men which by order of Lieutenant-General T. H. Holmes 12 January, 1863, were brigaded and placed under command of Colonel W. J. Hoke.
We have no information as to its services nor as to its officers. The muster rolls of these three regiments are doubtless among those captured at Charlotte, to which point they were removed after the fall of Richmond, and which are now in the Record and Pension Bureau at Washington. Some day, Congress will doubtless order all these rolls printed. But until that is done the names of the officers and men of this regiment will be lost save the name of its Colonel, which alone has been preserved.
SUPPLEMENTAL SKETCH SIX-
BY GEORGE H. MILLS, FIRST LIEUTENANT, COMPANY G.
The Sixteenth Regiment of North Carolina Troops (Sixth Volunteers) was composed originally of twelve companies, as follows:
COMPANY A-Jackson-Captain, A. W. Coleman.
COMPANY B-Madison-Captain, John Peake.
COMPANY C-Yancey-Captain, J. S. McElroy.
COMPANY D-Rutherford-Captain, H. D. Lee.
COMPANY E-Burke-Captain, E. J. Kirksey.
COMPANY F-Buncombe-Captain, P. H. Thrash.
COMPANY G-Rutherford-Captain, C. T. N. Davis.
COMPANY H-Macon-Captain, Thomas M. Angel.
COMPANY I-Henderson-Captain, Wm. M. Shipp.
COMPANY K-Polk-Captain, J. C. Camp.
COMPANY L-Haywood-Captain, R. G. A. Love.
COMPANY M-Gaston-Captain, B. F. Briggs.
In April, 1862, Company N, Captain J. W. Kilpatrick, from Rutherford, was added, making thirteen companies, but after the battle of Seven Pines, it was transferred and be-came Company I, Fifty-sixth North Carolina. After Sharpsburg Company A was transferred to the Thirty-ninth, and Company L to the Sixty-ninth North Carolina, both these last in the Army of the West.
The regiment was organized at Raleigh on 16 June, 1861, electing
STEPHEN D. LEE, of Buncombe, Colonel.
CAPTAIN R. G. A. LOVE, of Haywood, Lieutenant-Colonel.
CAPTAIN B. F. BRIGGS, of Gaston, Major.
WOODBURY WHEELER, Adjutant.
NOTE-A sketch of this Regiment will be found in Vol. 1 of this work, pp. 751-773. The writer of this very interesting additional sketch died 10 January, 1901. He was a gallant soldier.-ED.
COLUMBUS MILLS, of Polk, Surgeon.
W. D. WHITTED, of Henderson, Assistant Surgeon.
D. F. SUMMEY, of Buncombe, A. Q. M.
J. M. ISRAEL, of Buncombe, A. C. S.
The regiment remained in Raleigh under command of Major Henry K. Burgwyn, commandant of the camp, until Colonel Lee and staff arrived about 1 July. On 3 July the first six companies under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Love left for Richmond, followed the next day by Colonel Lee, with the balance of the command, arriving about mid-night in Petersburg, where we spent a most uncomfortable night sleeping on the bare brick floors of the market house. At daylight we were aroused, crossed the Appomattox and had breakfast, then taking the train for Richmond, arriving about 12 M. Sunday, 5 July, joining the regiment in the old fair grounds.
Remaining two days in Richmond, we were ordered to Staunton, Va., and taking the Virginia Central, we passed Gordonville, Charlottesville, and crossed the mountains to Waynesboro, where the citizens turned out en masse and gave us a most royal feast. And it will never be forgotten-the first rebel yell ever given by the Sixteenth. When we came suddenly in full view of the Blue Ridge, the counterpart of the homes of twelve hundred patriotic men who had scarce ever been out of sight of the mountains, there rose an impromptu shout and yell that (often after repeated on bloody fields) seemed to rend the very heavens.
Reaching Staunton at a late hour, we spent the night in the depot yard, and next morning moved into very pleasant quarters in the valley near the headwaters of the Shenandoah, where we remained two days. Teams were purchased-one for each company and more for the regiment besides, making about thirty teams, the largest and finest horses we had ever seen, and wagons sufficient to transport baggage and supplies for an army, all of which we then had in abundance.
We were ordered to the relief of General Garnett, at Cheat Mountain. Marching out from Staunton on the Parkersburg
pike, with brass band in front, the streets lined with citizens, soldiers, and ladies, and our colors gaily floating in the breeze, we began to think we were soldiers. We made ten miles, camping at Buffalo Gap, and that night Colonel Lee received orders to take 500 men with arms and ammunition and with-out baggage, and make a forced march to reach General Garnett, but in the morning, for some reason, he decided to take the whole regiment and push on without delay. So at dinner we passed the place where we expected to camp that night, eleven miles, where we found the citizens had turned out with wagon loads of provisions, off which we made a hearty dinner, then promptly falling into ranks we marched ten miles farther toward the top of the mountain, making twenty-one miles in the day. The men were all pretty much worn out with the hard march, and as soon as supper was over, dropped into their blankets, hoping to have a good night's sleep and rest. The Adjutant came to the Orderly of Company G and told him if anything should happen during the night to form the company as quickly as possible and march down to the road, which gave the men quite a scare, feeling like they were getting on dangerous ground, as we had already met several wounded men and wagons with dead officers, but as no cartridges had been issued, the men, of course, could not see the point, and nothing occurring during the night except that Captain Davis alarmed the camp with an attack of nightmare. Early in the morning we were on the march crossing the mountain and Calf Pasture river. Reaching McDowell we met Governor Letcher with a big demijohn of buttermilk in his buggy. He told Colonel Lee that General Garnett had been killed and his command routed was falling back, advising Colonel Lee to push forward to Monterey and there to stop all troops and got things into better shape. We reached Monterey, a small village in a narrow valley between two mountains, and went, into camp, and soon the stragglers came flocking in, in squads from one to twenty, the most forlorn looking set of men ever seen, ragged, barefoot and hungry, having lost everything. Our men having an extra supply of clothing, divided with them and made them as comfortable as possible.
We remained at Monterey for ten days, and a few days after we reached there we were aroused in the night by the long roll being sounded, and Colonel Lee tearing through camp yelling at the top of his voice, "Rouse up, men, fall in, the enemy is upon you!" Everything was in confusion for a time, but order soon prevailed, the men were up, dressed with all their accoutrements on, the companies formed and marched to the parade ground. After waiting and listening for the enemy a short time, it being very dark so we could see nothing, we heard Colonel Lee's voice in front: "Well, men, I am glad to say if there is no other enemy present, we have at least conquered one enemy-that is the enemy sleep," and complimenting us for promptness, he said it was just five minutes from the time the alarm was sounded till the regiment was formed. "Captains, have your rolls called and report all men not in line."
You can imagine what a relief it was when we found it was a false alarm, and we then understood what was meant at the camp on the mountain when the Orderly was told to form company and march down to the road. You can guess that we would have made a poor fight, as the men did not have a round of ammunition in their boxes. All that was left of Garnett's men had been gathered in, and reshod and clothed as well as could he done, General H. R. Jackson, of Georgia, taking command.
After ten days' stay at Monterey, the Sixteenth Regiment was ordered forward, taking a westerly direction, and after three days' march arrived at Huntersville, Pocahontas County. One of our camps will long be remembered by our survivors as one of the most eligible camping places they had ever met. A sugar maple orchard on a clear stream of cold water, whose banks were fringed with spear mint, induced our company commander to suggest that here was the water, here is the mint; if anyone can furnish the sugar ("here it is" said the writer) and some one the spirits, we'll have the best mint julep you ever tasted. At this juncture our best forager, W. T. Wilkins, made his appearance, and had secured the brandy, and then and there, in the fence corner by the stream, and out of sight of our strict disciplinarian, Colonel Lee, there was a
jolly time over the jolly, jolly grog such as makes the mouth of an old soldier water to think of.
Leaving Huntersville. next day, we crossed Greenbrier river on a fine bridge, camping three miles beyond at Edray, where we spent ten days picketing ten miles distant in the direction of Cheat Mountain, at Clover Lick. The first detachment going without rations, the Lieutenant in command sent to the proprietor, Mr. Warrick, who was then looking after his stock, to know if he could get supplies of food for the command. He replied that he did not stay there himself, only had an old man there to look after and take care of the stock, but if the men could milk, there were fifty cows in the meadow, 500 sheep in the pasture, and we could supply ourselves with milk and lamb, while the old man furnished us a quantity of buckwheat flour, from all which we had a most royal feast, sweetened with maple sugar which we found in abundance.
While camped at Edray we were aroused by a terrible commotion; the sentinels on post commenced hollowing and kept it. up all night-that Generals Beauregard and Johnston had fought the Yankees at Manassas-killing 20,000 and capturing twice as many more. Washington would he taken in another day and the war would end! Alas, how badly were we mistaken.
Remaining at Edray ten days, we broke camp on 30 July, going west, crossed a high mountain, marched till dark and camped in a cow pasture, and early next day reached Big Spring and went into camp. Thinking to spend some time, wagons were unloaded, tents pitched, and everything made ready for camp, but alas for the hope of rest for a soldier. At 3 p. m., a courier dashed into camp with the report that Captain Camp, Company K (who had been sent to establish a post on Valley Mountain), was then fighting a large body of Yankees, and needed reinforcements at once. We were ordered to fall in, leaving our baggage train, and push forward to his relief. We marched forward over the fine mountain turnpike, reached the top of the mountain at dark, found Captain Camp, but no fight and no Yankees, and perhaps none in twenty miles.
We bivouacked without baggage, tents or rations, which did not arrive until 10 a. m. next day. This was our first experience (often later repeated) in camping without supplies.
On the arrival of our wagon train the boys were soon busy, cooking and putting up shelter, the mountain side soon being covered with our white tents, making a most picturesque scene, where before was a wilderness of lofty sugar maple and lynn, with undergrowth as high as your head, rhododendron and May apple, blackberries in abundance, then perfectly green. (1 August). We found snow birds building nests, hatching and rearing their young-something we had never before seen. At Valley Mountain we were joined by two Tennessee Brigades, Generals Anderson and Donaldson and two Virginia Regiments. The Fourteenth Georgia and our regiment were brigaded with the last under Colonel William Gilham, of Virginia. A squadron of cavalry, under command of W. H. F. Lee, and two batteries of artillery were added to the force, and an Irish battalion under Colonel Mumford, from Lynchburg. There was also a company of Baltimoreans, under command of Captain elate Clark, and General William Loring coming up took immediate command of the force. General Robert E. Lee also came, he being in command of that department.
SICKNESS AND DEATH.
Very soon after reaching Valley Mountain, it commenced raining, and it being a rich loam and limestone soil, the roads became almost impassable, the whole earth seemed full of water with springs bubbling up in our tents. The measles broke out in camp, and transportation being short, the mountain was converted into a sick camp. Typhoid fever made its appearance, and one morning there was more than 500 sick reported in the regiment. The men began to die, and soon Valley Mountain had a large graveyard. Charles Green, Company G, was the first man we lost, dying 26 August. H. C. Green, of same company, in attempting to cross Valley river after a rain when swollen into a torrent, was drowned, his body being washed down into the Yankee lines where it
as found and buried by a citizen whose name was Ford. About this time death began to get in his work, many men dying from the exposure and the hard duty they were compelled to undergo, the rains continuing through August and September, causing a great deal of sickness and many deaths. The bones of many of the brave boys of the Sixteenth still lie buried all along the road from Valley Mountain to Staunton.
Early in September blackberries began to ripen, and the men were sent out on the mountain to gather them, a most acceptable service, and furnishing a splendid diet which was an agreeable change and did us much good. Blackberry pies and pudding with maple sugar or molasses were our favorite bill of fare, lasting until we left the mountain 1 October. Our camp was on top of the mountain, the dividing line between Pocahontas and Randolph, until 20 September, when General Lee ordered a forward movement down the road to-ward the enemy, and our first camp was made just outside our former picket lines. Next morning at an early hour we were again on the advance, and soon struck the Federal picket, and we had our first experience in fighting.
OUR FIRST SKIRMISH.
We were at it all day, and only made five miles march, passing the grave of our comrade, Henry Green, who was drowned a month before. Just after halting, Companies E and G were ordered on picket in the mountains. Misunderstanding the orders, Captain Kirksey, who was leading, was marching us directly into the lines of the enemy, when we met Colonel Gilham, who told him there must be a mistake, and ordered him to stop where we were, as we were nearly on the pickets of the enemy. Galloping to headquarters, Colonel Gilham soon sent a courier ordering our return, another detachment was sent in our stead, and much relieved we returned to camp. On our way out in passing the sharpshooters of the Irish battalion, we saw the first dead Federal soldier. He had given his life in the performance of his duty, and perhaps was then and there forgotten forever.
We hoped to have a good night's rest, but the most fearful
rain storm we had ever witnessed came on us, drenching us to the skin, and being near the river our camp was submerged; we either had to stand up or lie down in the water. At daylight the rain ceased, and soon the sun came out and warmed us up, but we were a most forlorn-looking set, everything being completely soaked. Making our breakfast from boiled beef and soaked bad bread, we were again ordered to advance. Driving in the Federal pickets, whom we found every few hundred yards, our progress was slow, and it was late in the afternoon before, we came in sight of the enemy, in a strong position, at the lower end of a wide valley between two high mountains, strongly fortified with heavy batteries of artillery, infantry, etc.
The 23d September, 1861, was made memorable by an occurrence that cast a gloom over the whole command and saddened the Southern heart all through the Confederacy. Colonel John A. Washington, the last owner of Mt. Vernon, acting as Aid to General R. E. Lee, while on a reconnoissance on a mountain road with Major W. H. F. Lee (later Major-Genera]) was killed by a shot from the enemy's picket, Major Lee, whose horse was killed, making his escape by mounting Colonel Washington's horse.
Up to this time, we had been pushing our way down the aver through a narrow gorge between the mountains, but on the afternoon of the third day the scene opened out into a wide valley, at the lower end of which we could see the enemy's works, a strong position admirably selected, and thoroughly manned with artillery and infantry, the pickets well out across the valley from hill to hill. The river running down at the foot of the mountain on the north side of the valley, changed its course about the middle and cutting directly across to the south side, divided the valley into two farms. Just where the river crossed were posted a lot of sharpshooters, with long range rifles, who were making it lively for Generals Lee, Loring and others at a house where they had established headquarters. The Sixteenth always being in front, Company G was ordered to go down and drive them away. A Major was put in command of the expedition, who marched us across a field of high grass, until we reached the river at
the foot of the mountain, then down under cover of the mountain as far as we could go without being discovered by the Federals. We then climbed a steep mountain, pulling up by the bushes until we reached the top, where we could see all the way down the river to the breastworks covered with batteries of artillery and bristling with muskets. We were ordered to lie. down and keep perfectly quiet., the sharpshooters being just. below us and in easy gunshot of us. Some of the men became impatient, threatening to shoot. The Major arose saying he would kill the man that made any noise. We lay there for half an hour, watching them shoot at our officers. All at once they started back to their works, some of them stopping to knock apples front an apple tree. Then our gallant commander raised up with a long drawn sigh, said: "Well, boys, if we must, we must, so come on," and like the King of France, we marched down the hill again. On getting to the foot, and coming up out of a deep ravine, we found. ourselves directly in front and in full view of the whole force ready to fire. The Major, taking in the situation at once promptly jumped down a bank about ten feet into the river, and ordered everybody to do the same, which order we all promptly obeyed. Retiring then in good order, we kept ourselves well under the bank of the river for about a hundred yards, coming out on a sand bank, protected by a high fence. The Major ordered us to stop where we were, and he would go up and make report of our success and for further orders, taking one man with him. When about the middle of the grass field, a gun was fired from one of the batteries, the shot passing high over our heads. The Major and his bodyguard fell flat in the grass, saying he knew they were firing at him, as with their glasses they knew that he was a field officer by his sword and other decorations. He soon proceeded to headquarters, made his report. and asked to be relieved as he was very sick. Orders were sent to us to remain at our post, and to send a strong picket to the ford and hold it until morning. The night was quietly passed with nothing to do except relieving the pickets every two hours-we were all wet. to the waist, having but one blanket to the man, the night being very cold, the men suffered considerably.
The sun rose beautifully next morning, but was late in reaching us down under the shadow of the mountain. We were lying on a sand bank enjoying a sun bath, drying our blankets and clothing, when a volley of musketry was heard at the ford. Our picket had discovered a squad of about twenty Federals coming up under cover of the woods on the bank of the river and fired on them, they returning the fire, and at once withdrew. Two of our men, John Dowdle and John IF. Logan were wounded. We were then moved back, taking position behind a large raft of logs, and later across the river on the side of the mountain, another Major being put in command and a surgeon sent to stay with us. About noon we saw two men riding down the road toward the enemy's lines with a white flag. They passed out of sight but returned shortly, the flag stopping opposite us while the other man galloped to headquarters, and soon returned with an ambulance, and all then crossed the river going in the direction of the Federals. In less than an hour they returned, driving very slowly, and we afterwards learned that they had the body of Colonel Washington, who was killed the day be-fore. His watch, money, and all his papers were returned with his body.
We remained in our position for two days and nights, and on the morning of the third day, at 4 a. m., Captain Champ Davis came down to the writer and told him he must get the pickets up as soon as possible. It was very dark and cloudy, the sound of the water running over the rocks the only thing to guide us. The first post was found and notified, but the second was by some means passed unnoticed, soon finding myself at the third, which I knew was the last. Knowing the danger in coining back with a party in the dark, the men were instructed to wait for a signal and then to come up. Advancing very slowly and calling the name of one of the men in a low voice, I soon came to the post, but it was all I could do to keep them from killing me-they were so badly frightened. We soon got all right and reached headquarters, where we found the regiment awaiting us.
Daylight having appeared, Colonel Lee came to the front and read a general order from General Lee, that on account
of his plans miscarrying he had determined not to make any further demonstration on that line, but that we were to march back to Valley Mountain for the present. We marched back about one mile, halting in a field where we waited until near dark for some troops to pass from another road, then marched several miles to the camp, where we had stopped the first night coming down. There we rested until morning, and then marched to Talley Mountain, where we remained a few days. Almost half our men were sick at this time from fever and measles, and all the teams that could be used for that purpose were put to work hauling off sick men to the camp established at. Edray on the south side of Middle Mountain, and they were from there transferred to Warm Springs, Hot Springs, and other points in the direction of Staunton and Richmond as fast as transportation could be procured. This was, on account of the rain and bad roads, slow and hurtful to the sick, several dying on the way. Remaining on Valley Mountain a few days, we moved camp to Big Springs, and one the last day of September the writer gathered a bucket full of large, fine blackberries on the side of the mountain.
On 1 October we had one of the heaviest rain storms I ever saw fall-a fire could not be made during the whole day and nearly all our tents were blown down. The dry ford of Elk, perfectly dry when we passed up on 1 August, was now a raging torrent, sweeping down trees and everything else it came in contact with. During the day we were called out and stood in the rain for an hour, the report being circulated that the Federals were following us and were then on Valley Mountain. We were dismissed, but ordered to hold ourselves in readiness to move at a moment's notice.
Just before night a wagon was driven up, having orders to carry off the sick men of Company G. Eleven very sick men with typhoid fever, the writer ordered to accompany them, were put in the wagon and started with two other wagons, and soon we reached the crossing of this dry run of Elk, the road being the bed of the stream. There was an old man who lived on both sides of the run, his house on one, his kitchen on the other side, and he was caught on the kitchen
side and could not get to his house. When we arrived he asked what we were going to do. We told him our orders were not to stop until we crossed Elk Mountain. He begged us "for God's sake not to attempt to cross, as the last team that had attempted to cross, with all the men, had been drowned." As it was very dark and raining hard, we camped for the night. Before morning the rain ceased, and the sun rose bright and clear. Hooking up our teams were soon on the road. Getting into the ford, the front mules became frightened and turned for the bank. The driver got them stopped and called to the writer, who was hanging on to the feed box, for help. I had to give up my hold on the box and wade round holding to the saddle mule until I could get to the lead, and jumping on to his back I took the bridle of the off one and finally got them straightened. Looking across I found the ford filled with logs. I turned them down the stream and got out fifty yards below on a low bank, the mules sometimes on the big rocks, at others swimming. Of course, the water filled the wagon and the sick men were thoroughly soaked. We pushed on, and soon came to a wagon turned over in the water, and the mules drowning. A little lower down we found Captain Kirksey, of the Burke Tigers, on a big rock in the middle of the stream, the men with him having all got out safe.
Crossing Elk river five or six times, often having to swim it, just before night we came to a large farm with lots of hay stacks near the road, and here I determined to camp. We made a shelter of rails, covering it with hay, making good beds on the ground, collected wood for fires and made the men as comfortable as possible. Having had no rations for two days and nothing to cook, we went to bed hungry but warm and comfortable. Early next morning we were on the road with other wagons that had arrived during the night. Crossing Elk Mountain we reached Edray about noon, where the sick were turned over to the Surgeons in charge of the camp, and after a rest of one day they were sent to Hot Springs, where several of them died and others came out cripples for life. The regiment came up in a day or so. Having camped a short time on Elk Mountain, we moved on to Green Brier
bridge, where we remained for some time doing picket duty, drilling and other like work.
Here General Lee divided his forces, taking part and going to the help of Generals Floyd and Wise in the Kanawha Valley, leaving General Donaldson, of Tennessee, in command at Green Brier. After ten days the force returned, and a few days later we took up our march, moving south, leaving the mountains covered with snow. Passing Guntersville, the third day we reached Warm Springs, now called Bath Court House. The fourth, we passed near Hot Springs, where a great many of our sick men were in hospital, then by Bath Alum to Millboro, on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, near Rock Bridge Alum Springs. We took the train at 4 o'clock a. m. for Staunton, which we were to reach by 9 o'clock and where. we were told we would stop for some time, so we made no preparation for breakfast, all our rations being packed up in mess chests and loaded on the cars with the baggage. We did not reach Staunton until 5 p. in., and there orders were waiting us not to disembark but to push on at once for Manassas, as a battle was expected at any moment.
We moved out, crossing the mountain after dark, passing Gordonsville late in the night and Culpepper at sunrise, arriving at. Manassas about 5 p. m., hungry and tired, having been two days and nights on board without food or drink. We were soon unloaded, had fires lighted, the pots on, and in short order a two days' meal was cooked and eaten. We remained at Manassas about two weeks, under command of Colonel George B. Anderson, of the Fourth North Carolina, and on 21 November were ordered to join Colonel Wade Hampton at Bacon Race Church, about twelve miles in the direction of the Potomac, reaching there next day, and a day later Colonel Hampton with his brigade, composed of the Hampton Legion, Fourteenth and Nineteenth Georgia, and Sixteenth North Carolina and an Arkansas Battalion, moved about eight. miles near the mouth of the Occoquan, on the
Potomac, where we were engaged in drilling, picketing and working on breastworks at Colchester, the point at which General Washington crossed on his famous visit to his mother.
We were frequently shelled from the gunboats on the river, which we could see plainly from the hill top.
The officers commanding the Legion were Colonel Griffin, the infantry; Major M. C. Butler, the cavalry; Major Stephen D. Lee, the artillery; Colonel Wade Hampton, Commander-in-Chief; Nineteenth Georgia, Colonel Boyd; Fourteenth Georgia, Colonel's name forgotten; Sixteenth North Carolina, Colonel Stephen Lee.
WINTER OF 1861-2.
We remained here until Christmas day, and moved back to Bacon Race, did picket duty, threw up entrenchments and fortifications at Wolf Run Shoals during the winter, which, with several deep snows, was a very severe one. The river was often frozen over, and on one occasion when Company G had spent the night at the ford, two of our men crossed on the ice to a house beyond, on neutral ground, bought apple brandy, sugar and eggs, and we had an elegant nogg, before the relief company arrived.
On 15 March, 1862, we broke camp, starting for the Rappahannock, reaching Falmouth, a small manufacturing town on the river above Fredericksburg, on the fourth day. We crossed the river here and went into camp on the heights above the city, spending the balance of the month drilling until 15 April, broke camp and again took the line of march, through the city and over the afterwards famous battleground below, and on the third day reached Bowling Green, in Caroline County, the place where John Wilkes Booth was killed three years later and others of his party were captured. Leaving this place after dark, we marched to Milford, a station on the Potomac Railroad, where we embarked for Ashland, arriving there about midnight, where we spent the next day.
The day after, we started for Yorktown, which point we reached after a hard march of five days, passing some noted
places on the way : Hanover Court House, Old Church, Yellow Tavern, New Kent Court House, Williamsburg and others of note, going into camp on the Williamsburg road just above Yorktown. We fared well here, having nothing else to do, and living on the finest fish and oysters. On 26 April the companies of the regiment were reorganized by the election of company officers, and on the following day the newly-elected company officers met and elected Captain Champ Davis, of Company G, Colonel of the regiment; Captain J. S. McElroy, of Company C, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Captain W. A. Stowe, of Company M, Major. I had forgotten to mention earlier, that in consequence of infirmity, caused by exposure, old age, etc., that on 22 February, 1862, Colonel Stephen Lee had resigned, leaving Lieutenant-Colonel R. G. A. Love in command of the regiment.
On 4 May before daylight, we were again in motion and in line of battle, the troops all leaving and everything on the move. Yorktown was being evacuated. All through the night trains of artillery had been passing. Colonel Hampton was to act as rear guard, and after all had passed we marched out in line of battle, taking the road and holding the Federals back, skirmishing with their cavalry until we reached Williamsburg, where we found a large part of Johnston's army entrenched in the forts and fortifications in front of the town. Marching through, we went into camp on the hill above town, in the same spot where we had camped as we went down. Late in the afternoon we were called out and expected to go back into town, where heavy firing was heard below, but after a short time it ceased, and while we were in line the Commissary came round with buckets of mean whiskey and tin cups and gave every man a stiff drink. Orders were issued to cook rations and be ready to march at 3 o'clock next morning. Before that time we were up and ready and soon on the road. The rain falling heavy and the mud deep, we had a hard march, arriving at Barhamsville late in the afternoon, near West Point, wet, cold, muddy and hungry. It cleared up about sunset, and building big fires we cooked supper and spent a comfortable night.
During the night the wagons and artillery trains were passing,
and early in the day the troops from Williamsburg were to pass, after fighting pretty much all day. We were put into line of battle that evening and slept on our arms. At night the Federals had sent boats up York river with troops and were landing them near West Point and White House. About 4 p. m., they advanced, but were handsomely repulsed by General Flood's Texans, General Hampton and others. We were in General G. W. Smith's Division, commanded by General Whiting. That night the Sixteenth was sent out on the battlefield to watch the Federals, and just at 12 o'clock a courier came with orders to return to headquarters. On reaching Barhamsville, everything was in motion, and we fell into line and marched until sunrise, when I found myself and a comrade standing by the identical fence corner that we had left at 12 o'clock.
Continuing our march we reached New Kent about 10 o'clock, finding the main army resting there. After resting a short while and getting breakfast, we were moved back in front of a creek, with the Legion just in our rear, and formed line of battle, Company G being in a garden. We soon found the enemy's cavalry were following us. A battery of the Legion artillery was placed in our rear and opened on them, when in some confusion they retired. At dark we moved forward, crossing the creek and went into camp on the hill in rear of it. Next morning resumed our march, but stopped within less than two miles. There we spent two days still holding the rear until dark of the second day, when we took the line of march, and in the rain and storm passed White House and Savage Station and crossed the Chickahominy at Bottom's Bridge and stopped for the rest of the night.
Next day we moved up near Richmond, went into camp, where we remained doing picket duty before Richmond until 29 May. Then we broke camp about (lark and moved up to Meadow Bridge, where we spent the next day and night. On the 31st about noon, were ordered to fall in and started for Seven Pines, going part of the way at double-quick. Reaching the battlefield about 5 p. m., we were assigned a place on
the left. Advancing through a swamp with all the large trees cut down and all the obstacles that could possibly be placed in our way, we were greeted with a terrible hail of shot and shell, mostly passing over our heads, but occasionally some brave hem would fall, while the rest were pushing forward until we came directly in front of a heavy fortification defended by infantry and artillery, and which it was impossible to carry with our small force. Just then some one gave the order to lie down, which was promptly obeyed, protecting ourselves behind the obstructions, but that did not prevent our men from getting hit. We soon made the discovery that Company G was the only force in sight. Its Captain, L. P. Erwin, ordered the First Sergeant, A. B. Long, to go to the right to see where the right wing was, but he did not return, and the Captain, ordering the company back a short distance under cover, called to the writer to stay with it and he would go and see. Lieutenant Lee Hemphill got up and said he would go with him. Lieutenant McEntire had just been wounded and gone to the rear. After waiting some time and hearing nothing from them, and being under a shower of bullets, the men being often hit, an officer came riding down in rear and called out: "What are you doing in here? Get out! Get out!" Not knowing anything better to do, I ordered the company up and we moved back in good order until we came to the edge of the swamp, where we found a regiment of Federals marching across our front, firing at everything they saw crossing the field. Stopping the company and falling back into cover, and satisfied we had not been seen, we moved very cautiously to the right, until we could take advantage of a piece of woods, and in that way made our escape. We could see a number of Confederate flags across a wheat field and near York River Railroad. On reaching the road we found Colonel Pender with the Sixth North Carolina, and Company G was attached to it for a short time, until the Sixteenth made its appearance. I then learned that our Colonel Davis had been slain.
Everybody knew Uncle Jack Wilkins, our company Commissary, and that he was a strict temperance man, but that Sunday morning after the fight the old man hobbled down
with several canteens of "fire water" and gave each of the men a dram. He knew we needed it, and the good angels only smiled.
There was a great deal of bluster and bragging among the Hampton Legion men, and one company proposed to go back into that swamp and demolish the Yankee army, but I noticed that nobody held them. Dark coming on about this time, we moved back a short distance, cold, wet and hungry, without blankets, overcoats or any kind of covering, having left every-thing back on the road; but what was our surprise on waking up in the morning to find that we were lying in a few yards of a depot of supplies filled with overcoats, blankets, all kinds of clothing, with barrels of crackers, sugar, coffee, meat of all kinds, and army supplies, in addition to the knapsacks, blankets, etc., belonging to a Pennsylvania and a New York Regiment driven out the day before, affording a great treat for our famished, worn out. men. Unfortunately for the writer, just as he was lying down between two men to keep warm, the Adjutant came and said he wanted me to take charge of a party and go back into the swamp. This spoiled all my prospects for a good night's rest. Going back cautiously, we established a picket line as near the entrance as we thought prudent. Everything passed off quietly during the night, except we could hear wounded men calling for help, and about daylight we had the pleasure of helping several of our friends to get back into our own line.
Still keeping careful watch, about 9 a. m., I was notified that the army would retire in the direction of Richmond and we must hold the line for three-fourths of an hour, and then get out and join the command if we could. Remaining the required length of time, the men were withdrawn and marched back to the road, where, looking back across the river, we saw three balloons making observations. Very soon a gun was fired and a shell came whistling along near us. Thinking we were being fired at and in great danger, the men were ordered to leave the road and march in the woods. Following up the road about two miles, we came up with the army and were relieved from further duty for the time, and thus ended our part in the battle of Seven Pipes. We had
lost our Colonel and many brave men, but how many killed and wounded, at this late day, thirty-seven years after, it is impossible to tell.
NEW BRIGADE FORMED.
Remained at this place about ten days doing picket duty, when under general orders Hampton's Brigade was broken up and the troops sent to their several State organizations. The Sixteenth was brigaded with the Twenty-second North Carolina; Thirty-fourth, Colonel R. H. Riddick; Thirty-eighth, Colonel W. J. Hoke; and the Thirteenth, Colonel A. M. Scales, and General W. D. Fender as commander. The Twenty-second was reorganized and Major Conner, of the Legion, was appointed Colonel. The brigade was attached to General A. P. Hill's Light Division.
General J. E. Johnston being wounded at Seven Pines, General R. E. Lee, our old Valley Mountain commander, was put in command of the Army of Northern Virginia.
When General Pender took charge of the brigade, he made a requisition on the 16th for an officer to take charge of the Ordnance Department of the brigade, and the writer was detached for that purpose, was given a horse and permission to go into Richmond at will, a privilege which was used to the fullest extent-
We remained in camp on the Nine Mile road, getting into good shape, until 25 June, when we moved out in the direction of Meadow Bridge, reaching that point at 10 o'clock at night. I have always thought that General lee formed his plan of campaign from General Johnston's, which was not carried out, as circumstances changed all of the latter's operations.
SEVEN DAYS' FIGHT.
At 4 p. m. en the 26th the Light Division was put in motion. Pender's Brigade was the fourth to cross the Chickahominy at this point; General Branch, who was ordered not to cross until he heard from General Jackson, crossing above, and Hill was ordered to move when Branch gave him notice that Jackson was in position, but not hearing from either he became impatient and ordered a forward movement.
General Pender says in his official report: "After crossing I was ordered to cross the fields direct for Mechanicsville. Soon after leaving the Meadow Bridge road, one or two pieces of artillery opened upon us from a road above Mechanicsville. Here. owing to my imperfect knowledge of the roads and partial misleading of the guide, my left regiment went too far to the left, and consequently did not join the brigade until late at night, for while it was coming up after being sent for, it was ordered by some one to support another brigade, and I would here mention it was reported to me as behaving well under a very murderous fire to which it was soon exposed, losing about 200 men." This "left regiment" was the Sixteenth North Carolina Regiment, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel J. S. McElroy.
The men lay on their arms that night, and were in line and ready for action before daylight. During the night I received an order from General Fender to bring up the ordnance train at once. I started immediately, but on reaching Mechanicsville, the streets were so blocked with ambulances, wagons, and litter-bearers bringing off the wounded, that it was impossible to proceed for some time. General Pender becoming impatient, mounted his horse and came to meet and hurry up the train, saying it was important to have the train up before daylight. On seeing the condition of affairs, he ordered me to use all dispatch, and left a courier with me directing me where to go. On reaching the designated point, I left the train and rode forward to look up the brigade. Riding near a thick pine old field on the right and wheat field on the left, I was soon ordered to "halt! advance and give the countersign," but as I could not see the party I was in doubt to which army he belonged, and after some parleving on both sides, he said he belonged to a Georgia regiment. I then advanced and found a mere boy hid in a thicket of plum bushes. On telling him who I was looking for, he said he did not know where they were, but that he was on the outpost and was expecting to be fired on at every moment, but there was a regiment just below him, as he had heard them halt and stack arms there during the night and had not moved since.
Riding through the pines about fifty yards, I found
Colonel Riddick with the Thirty-fourth Regiment, the men just getting up and rolling up their blankets. I told the Colonel to send for ammunition at once. Then firing commenced just where I had left, the balls flying among the men and causing some confusion, one ball striking my horse, slightly wounding him. Telling Colonel Riddick where to find the ordnance train, I galloped back to find my train in great danger from shell and shot flying over and about it. I soon received orders from General Fender to move behind the hill, which was promptly obeyed. In a very short time the firing ceased and a forward movement was ordered.
Taking the road to Cold Harbor, we came on the ground fought over the evening before, and found it covered with Confederate dead. Crossing the creek on a bridge below Ellyson's Mills, we soon came to the works of the enemy and could see how impregnable they were, and but for Jackson's coining in the rear, it would have been impossible to carry them. In rear of the works we found their abandoned camp, strewn with blankets, oil cloths, knapsacks and everything pertaining to camp life.
Reaching Gaines' Mill about 2 o'clock p. In., we crossed the creek on a bridge and moved rapidly to Cold Harbor, where we were soon engaged in one of the hardest fights of the war, losing many men killed and wounded. General Hill says in his report: "The Sixteenth North Carolina, Colonel McElroy, and Twenty-second, Colonel Gray, at one time crossed the crest of the hill and were in the enemy's camp, but were driven back by overwhelming numbers, holding our position. The loss of the regiment was very heavy, the fighting was kept up until 9 o'clock p. m., and we then lay down to rest on our arms."
Saturday morning early the men were up, but found the enemy had crossed the river, leaving the dead and wounded to be cared for by the rebels, with an immense amount of army stores in our hands. We spent the day in burying the dead and caring for the wounded. We had today our first sight of the celebrated Stonewall Jackson, as he and General Lee met near where we were lying and had a long conference. From his appearance no one would have suspected that he was
more than a Corporal in a cavalry company. The writer had a fine opportunity of riding over and viewing the battlefield, and it was a sight not to be desired a second time. The field where the New York Zouaves fought was literally red with them, and a large majority of them were shot through the head; hundreds of horses were lying around, some not dead, some with legs shot off, trying to get up, moaning and crying like children begging for help, or as if begging some one to shoot them and end their pain.
Sunday, the 29th, we crossed the river and followed the enemy in the direction of James river. On Monday there was a serious battle at Frazier's Farm, in which the Sixteenth was engaged and lost many men killed and wounded. Captain Coleman, of Company A, was killed, a shot taking off his head.
Tuesday, 1 July, the great battle of Malvern Hill was fought. A. P. Hill's Division, although under fire all day, did not go into the fight, being kept in reserve.
The next day, 2 July, finding the enemy had gone, we were ordered to follow as fast as possible. We found the roads, fields and woods full of all kinds of army supplies, wagons, ambulances, pontoon trains, and everything pertaining to a well-equipped army, showing that the enemy had retreated in great haste and much confusion. Following down through Charles City County, we found them camped and at bay on James river, near Harrison's landing, under cover of a large fleet of all manner of war vessels, in which position they were safe from the ragged rebels who had for seven days driven them from field to field. After several days we moved back, at night, by the river road towards Richmond and camped for some time on the farm of Secretary of War Randolph, below Richmond.
About 20 July, A. P. Hill's Division was ordered to join General Jackson at Gordonsville, where we remained until 6 August, when we marched in the direction of Orange Court House, camping on the side of a mountain. On the 7th, we marched only a few miles, camping near a big spring near the
town. Next day, the 8th, marched into town, lay around on the streets all day, camping at night at the foot of the hill beyond town. There was some fighting that day about the river and several prisoners were brought in.
Early on the 9th we were on the march in the direction of Culpepper Court House. Owing to the extreme heat many of the men gave out, some with sunstroke. Late in the afternoon we came in hearing of the artillery at Cedar Mountain, and crossing Rapidan river, we were soon in sight of the battle.
Fender's Brigade was put in on the left of the main road, and advancing soon met troops falling back in confusion. We speedily advanced and reaching a wood were greeted with a volley of musketry. We did not stop, but drove the enemy across the Culpepper road and off the field. We were here joined by Archer's Brigade, which lapped over a part of our right. Pegram's Battery then came into action, and for half an hour shelled the woods in our front, and we were then ordered forward on the Culpepper road. Just after reaching the woods some batteries in our front commenced shelling the field, the shot passing through the tops of the trees over our heads. As soon as the guns ceased firing, we faced to the front, marching in line through the woods until we came to a high rail fence, where we were halted and the men ordered to rest on their arms.
Everything being quiet in our front, Major Cole, of the Twenty-second; Lieutenant-Colonel Miller, of the Thirty-fourth, and the writer, were ordered to make a reconnoissance through the woods in front. Being informed that some Virginians were on our right, we crossed the fence and moved forward some distance, but found no one until we had gone about two hundred yards, when we discovered a lot of men sitting under the shade of some trees, and hailed them several times but could get no answer. I then went up to them and demanded who they were, and they said they belonged to a Virginia regiment and were afraid we were Yankees and would shoot them. The Colonel and Major then went back
to report, leaving me to hold the fort. General Pender sent me about thirty men, with orders to form a line on the left of the Virginians and to stay there until morning. Everything was quiet during the night, and about 9 a. in. I was sent orders to hold on about an hour and then withdraw quietly and join him at the side of the mountain. About this time we got up a lively skirmish with the enemy's pickets in front, but held our ground until time to leave, when we drew off gradually, and after a hot and hard march over the, battlefield we reached the mountain almost exhausted with heat and hunger. On going out the night before I found a bag of ground coffee, sugar, cakes and other nice things left by the enemy in their hasty retreat, and sent it back to be taken care of, and on reaching headquarters I called for breakfast, which was soon furnished with coffee, crackers, mutton chops, Irish potatoes, etc.
After an hour or so rest, we again marched back on the battlefield and manoeuvered around on it all day Sunday. General Pope says that General Jackson sent in a flag of truce asking for the privilege of burying his dead, but as we passed over the field after 10 o'clock and saw no dead or wounded except Federals, and as we had possession of the field until Monday night, I think this must be one of General Pope's many mistakes. I know that. he sent one, and General Ewell says that while the armistice was in existence, General Early took a detachment from his brigade and gathered up six wagon loads of arms. All day Monday we manoeuvered on the field and offered him battle, but he refused to accept the gage.
On Monday night. we built up camp fires as if we were going to spend the night, but about midnight we fell into line and marched in the direction of Orange Court House, and passing that place next day went into camp near the Brick Church on the railroad, where we remained until 18 August, when we broke camp and moved forward on the Manassas campaign. We stopped two days on the Crenshaw Farm. On the 20th we moved again, crossing the Rapidan at Sommerville. Ford, and passed Stephensburg, camping near Brandy Station.
On the 21st we moved up the Rappahannock, crossing Hazel river at a mill, and moved in the direction of Warrenton Springs, where we spent Sunday under a heavy shelling, having several men wounded. About 4 p. m. Longstreet's Corps relieved us, and we marched back about one mile to Jefferson and cooked three days' rations, and on Monday morning started on our long march to Manassas, passing through Orleans and stopping that night a short time to rest near Salem. On Tuesday we passed through Thoroughfare Gap; marching all day and all night we reached Bristoe Station at sunrise on Wednesday morning, 27th. Following the railroad, about 9 a. m. we reached Manassas, where we found a brigade of New Jersey troops to oppose our progress. Pender's Brigade was halted for a short time behind a hill on which there were some works, forts that the writer assisted in building in November, 1861. Captain Crenshaw was ordered to put his guns there and open on the enemy as they approached from the direction of the bridge on Bull Run, and soon had them in full retreat. We were then ordered to advance, and passing by a large house that was used as a hospital, the writer was ordered to stop Company G and take charge of the place, while the brigade followed on. We found in the yard and around the hospital a good many wounded and dead Federals and a lot of sick in the hospital in the care of two Philadelphia surgeons, and after having the wounded brought in and put in charge of the surgeons, we had the dead buried. We were very highly complimented and thanked by the doctors for our care and protection of their hospital and property.
DESTRUCTION OF STORES.
We found all the depots and storehouses full of army supplies of all kinds; quartermaster, company and hospital stores of every description that could be desired, and you may be assured that we feasted that day after starving for three. About sunset the brigade returned, after having quite a severe engagement at the bridge across Bull Run. On reporting to General Pender, I was ordered to join my regiment, which I found near by, and going to my "room" I retired as I then
thought for the night, but alas, the soldier who followed Stonewall Jackson had no assurance when down, when he would be called up. About 1 o'clock a. in., we were aroused by a terrible explosion, and getting up we found all the depots and stores at the station on fire and millions of property being destroyed. How we poor rebels felt can better be imagined than described, to stand and see hundreds of bags of coffee with sugar, flour, meat, and all kinds of provisions and delicacies destroyed with all manner of stores that we would have liked to have, but as there was no way of saving them and no wagons to transport them, it was necessary to burn them to prevent them again falling into the hands of Pope's army that was just behind us. It was Jackson's business to cripple him until Lee could come up, so they had to be destroyed. There was 50,000 barrels of bacon, 1,000 barrels of corned beef, 50,000 barrels of pork, 20,000 barrels of flour, two trains loaded with clothing and other stores, four sutlers' stores, 2,000 new tents and various other valuable equipments.
The order then came to fall in, and A. P. Hill's Division moved towards Centreville, which we reached about daylight Thursday morning, 28 August, where we got breakfast and rest until about 10 a. m., when we took the road for Manassas, going by Sudley's Ford, and as we marched could see thousands of Yankees moving around the station and on the road to Centreville. Crossing the run we saw a pile of rocks with a cedar post in the center, marking the spot where Bee fell on 21 July, 1861, and where he gave the old man his immortal name-"Stonewall" Jackson.
Crossing the ford we stopped for a short time near the old stone house, and the men looking for water found an old well in the yard without bucket or rope. They secured a long pole, tied their canteens to it and filled them, and after drinking all they wanted and filling for future use, an old man came from the house, saying: "I don't think that water is very good--when the battle was fought here last summer some dead men were thrown into it, and it has not been cleaned out since." You can imagine that those canteens were soon emptied, and some of the men also. In a short
time we were marched into the woods, and quite a lively action began between Ewell's Division and Hooker.
This engagement between Generals Ewell and Hooker was in the direction of Grovetown, and night coming on put a stop to the firing. Troops were moving all night taking position for the expected affray of the 29th, which came all too soon for many of our wornout men.
About 10 o'clock a. m., Hill's Division was moved into town near the old railroad which has been so much written about, and soon we were assaulted by a large force and had all we could do to hold our ground. Pender's Brigade was in front, and received the assaults of an army corps for a whole day, at one time giving way and falling back on the reserve, but the gallant Fender soon rallied them and with a gallant dash soon routed the enemy and recaptured the lost ground. In this charge Company G, Sixteenth, lost two men killed with the flag and many wounded; one man, A. B. Long, was struck in the left eye, the ball passing through his head and coming out behind his right ear. All thought he would die, but he is still alive and is one of the best citizens of Rutherford County. In all this struggle the Sixteenth held its own until dark, when we lay down on our arms, feeling that the morrow would bring more hard fighting and wounds and death to many.
Early on Saturday, the 30th, the whole command was ready and under arms, but all quiet until about 4 p. m., when we were startled by the roar of artillery, and looking to the front we found the whole Federal army rushing on us, and we were hard pressed until dark, sustaining at least six charges, but we held the line until just before dark a general charge was ordered along the whole line, and with one mad rush the whole of Pope's grand army was driven from the field and across Bull Run, and ends the second battle of Manassas.
On Sunday, 31 August, we were again in motion, and crossing at Sudley's Ford we struck the little river turnpike, and
about dark bivouacked near Chantilly, and continuing down that road we soon came in contact with the rear guard of Pope's army, in charge of General Phil. Kearney, at Ox Hill, and engaging them at once in a severe thunder storm we soon put them to flight, and in this affair the brave Generals Phil. Kearney and Stephens were killed. We also lost many killed and wounded; the Thirty-fourth, of our brigade, lost two gallant field officers, Colonel R. H. Riddick and Lieutenant-Colonel Miller.
Leaving Ox Hill on the 3d, we passed Leesburg on the 4th and camped near the Big Spring, and on the morning of the 5th, General Fender sent for the officers of the brigade to re-port at his headquarters. He made them a speech, telling them that we were now going to cross the Potomac and going into the enemy's country, and that they must act as officers and gentlemen, keeping a firm hand on the men of their commands, and that he would hold them responsible for their conduct.
ACROSS THE POTOMAC.
About 10 a. m., we fell in and reached the ford at 2 p. m., and crossing we at once started on the way to Frederick City; marching until midnight, we stopped near a corn field, where we got some green corn, roasted it and eat supper. We gathered a supply for morning. We were soon on the march and reached Frederick about 12 m., where we spent several days near the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, blowing up iron bridges and doing all the damage we could to public property. The men were not allowed to leave the camps to enter the city or to forage on the country. The writer remembers sending up a pass for a. man to go out to get some milk for a sick man, and it was returned: "Let the sick man eat a little beef." Leaving Frederick 10 September, we passed South Mountain, Boonesboro and Middletown, on the third day crossing the Potomac to Williamsport and spending the night near Falling Waters, next day entering Martinsburg, driving General White in the direction of Harper's Ferry, which place we reached on the 13th. On leaving Ox Hill, for some cause unknown to the writer, General A. P. Hill was put under arrest
by General Jackson, General Branch commanding the division. General Hill marched on foot with the rear guard all the day through Maryland, an old white hat slouched down over his eyes, his coat off and wearing an old flannel shirt, looking as mad as a bull, but just before reaching Harper's Ferry he was released, and donning his coat and sword he mounted his horse and dashed to the front of his troops, and looking like a young eagle in search of his prey, he took command of his division to the delight of all his men.
CAPTURE OF HARPERS FERRY.
It was late in the day of the 14th when Jackson had his arrangements completed for the attack on the enemy. Hill's Division was ordered to storm the position, and moving forward with a rush, Fender's Brigade in front, they gained the crest of the hill, the enemy retreating within their works with little resistance. During the night the crest gained by Pender was crowned with artillery, and all the available points within reach were taken possession of by Colonel Crutchfield. Jackson's chief of artillery.
At dawn on the 15th, Jackson opened his artillery on Harper's Ferry, and after an artillery duel of one hour the firing ceased and Fender, with the Sixteenth in advance, commenced to move on the place, when a white flag was seen to flutter from the Federal works, and Harper's Ferry had fallen. The result of this victory was 11,000 prisoners, 13,000 stand of small arms, 73 pieces of artillery, 200 wagons, with a large amount of commissary and army stores of every description.
A. P. Hill's Division was left to take charge of the property and provisions captured, and Jackson left. at once to join Lee at Sharpsburg. Hill remained until all the captured property, etc., was removed on the 16th, and on the morning of the 17th left to join Jackson and Lee, reaching Sharpsburg at 4 p. m., and was immediately assigned a position on the right, just in time to meet and repulse the grand charge of Burnside's Corps and assist in driving them back across Antietam creek. In this last assault the Sixteenth and Pender's
Brigade lost a large number of men killed and wounded. The whole of the 18th we lay in front of McClellan, expecting every moment to be attacked, the sharpshooters with their long range rifles making it dangerous for a man to show his head from behind the stone wall where we were lying. Well does the writer remember having been sent out before daylight on some slight duty, and on coming back under cover of the stone wall, I found that Branch's Brigade where I was then, was separated from Pender's which I wished to reach, by a deep ravine, and about a dozen sharpshooters in rifle pits were shooting at every man who attempted to cross. The officer then in command told me not to attempt to cross, for I certainly would be killed, and advised me to lie down by him and wait until dark. I found him to be Lieutenant-Colonel Robert F. Hoke, of the Thirty-third, afterward Major-General Hoke, of Plymouth fame. When the time came I crossed in a hurry and was soon with my company, posted behind a heavy rail fence. About 10 p. m., a cavalry charge was made upon us, I suppose to find out whether we had left, but a well directed fire soon sent them back wiser if not better soldiers. It was a rainy day, and about 12 o'clock at night orders came down the line for every man at a certain signal to rise up and without a word or noise march back to the road on top of the hill, which movement was executed perfectly, and after some delay we moved toward the river which we crossed about 8 a. m., and climbing the steep hill below Shepherdstown, went into camp in the woods near by. The Federals followed up with artillery and shelled the town and woods for some time with little damage.
On the 20th, McClellan crossed a large force over the river. A. P. Hill and Early were sent out to drive them hack, which was splendidly done. We formed on top of the high bluff, and the Federals having to charge up over the steep bluff were soon repulsed and driven into the river and slaughtered like hogs, the river being blue with their bodies. After they had retired, the artillery on the Sharpshurg hills and the sharp-shooters posted in the canal commenced shooting at the boys,
and every man had to take care of himself until dark so we could leave. Pender's Brigade lost many men in this affair. We moved back a mile or so and camped for the night. Next morning we marched up near Martinsburg where we remained two weeks, when we again moved up to Bunker Hill, where we remained a month or more resting and getting ready for the next campaign, and where the boys had lots of fun yelling at "Old Jack" and the rabbits.[note]
About 20 October the writer was sent to Winchester on sick list, and after two days was transferred to Staunton and then to Richmond, where after a week in the hospital I was sent home, which I reached just in time to get down with a long spell of typhoid fever, not returning to the regiment until March following, and this gap in our history I filled in from information.
After General Lee's return from the campaign in Maryland, there was two months comparative quiet, the two armies on either side of the Potomac watching, resting and reorganizing after the hard fought battles and arduous service each had undergone.
Around Martinsburg and Winchester General Lee's forces remained quiet, the infantry and artillery drilling, and the cavalry keeping watch on the enemy's movements, ready to strike or receive a blow whenever opportunity offered. The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad received General Jackson's attention, and in one day it was torn up, crossties hummed and rails destroyed for twenty-five miles, but before we had got, ten entirely out of hearing distance, the Federals had rebuilt and equipped it. On this raid our brigade distinguished itself by running down and capturing a red fox. General Pender coming in a close second for the brush, the Sixteenth adding to its former reputation for tackling and capturing every sort of wild animal from a woodchuck to wildcat. The lower Valley was then a most excellent foraging ground, and our chef in his element bringing to the larder chickens, honey,[note]
butter and sometimes whole hogs, sorghum, and a very palatable extract of cane seed or corn juice, adding much to the regulation ration, Chiefs of Divisions and Brigades were very lenient, allowing much latitude to the diversions and amusement of the veterans.
LEAVING THE VALLEY.
With the advance of General McClellan on 26 October, crossing the Potomac at Harper's Ferry and moving east of the Blue Ridge into Virginia, General Lee promptly broke camp and moving in parallel lines confronted him at every point. Jackson was left in the Valley and our forces moved toward the Shenandoah, camping near Berryville, with cavalry picket in the direction of Charleston, Harper's Ferry and Snicker's Gap. Stuart's maim body of cavalry had gone through Snicker's and Ashby's Gap, and as McClellan moved south he hung on his flank, moving towards the Rappahannock, leaving the Gaps open to the Federals. A large body made their appearance, drove in our pickets from the top of the mountain and approached the river, where we hurriedly double-quicked to meet them, the Sixteenth holding the ford. Two Federal regiments soon made their appearance in the open field beyond the river in musket range, but a few rounds of shell from Crenshaw's Battery on the hill behind us completely demoralized them, and they hurriedly sought shelter in the woods, leaving quite a number lying on the field. A field officer raised a white flag, rode directly down in front and asked us not to fire on them while they removed their wounded, and no further demonstration was made.
The Sixteenth Regiment was on an open sward not more than two rods from the river bank, and lying flat on the ground were prepared to give the enemy a hot reception, but did not get a chance to fire a gun. One casualty only, from carelessness or excitement on the part of a member of Company G, which resulted in badly wounding a comrade, J. R. De Priest, in the knee, causing the loss by amputation of his leg. The Federals retired across the mountain, followed by our cavalry, and our troops retired to their camps.
Burnside had moved to Fredericksburg, finding General Lee on the south bank of the Rappahannock, and about the first of December General Jackson quietly moved the main part of his corps up the valley, crossing the Blue Ridge at a gap near New Market, thence to Orange Court House. In crossing the mountain, from the top could be seen the long lines of the infantry with their bristling bayonets gleaming in the sunshine, and on the Alleghany Mountains across the valley a heavy storm of snow was falling. The artillery and wagon trains could be seen for miles, and from the course of the roads the whole army seemed to be manoeuvering as if on parade. Reaching Fredericksburg, or Hamilton's Crossing, about S December, we rested a day or two, had new clothing and shoes sent from North Carolina issued to the men, and were then ready for the fray we knew would soon come.
On the 12th we were marched by the crossing, and here General Jackson, with that famous new suit, passed our brigade without recognition, save to a few who knew him too well to he deceived. Our brigade was assigned a position adjoining General Longstreet's Corps, in the open field opposite the center, commanded by Hooker, camping in the edge of the woods. At sunset a detail was ordered on the picket line, relieving Colonel McDowell. It was a hitter cold night, the lines running across the open field from Hazel Run on our left to Hamilton's Crossing, a hare open field without rock or brush save the cedars which skirted the road leading into our lines from Fredericksburg. A pistol shot by a scared picket caused a rally by fours to the rear just as we were relieving the old picket. Waiting for a few moments for the expected advance, the line was soon reestablished. In a short time Major Cole, with a detachment, came to the line and passed through to set fire to some buildings which had sheltered sharpshooters that evening, and obstructed the fire of our artillery. This was successfully accomplished without accident. At davlight our picket was relieved and went back to camp for breakfast. As the fog raised on Saturday, 13 December, the columns of Franklin and Hooker were seen
advancing across the open field, their sharpshooters and skirmishers in front. General Lee had just ridden along in front of our lines, and discovering a body of horse coming from the left across Hazel Run, waited until he discovered it was General Stuart and staff. General Jackson soon appeared, and after a short consultation all went off to the right. Soon we were ordered into line and sent to the center of the field about two hundred yards in front of the elongation of Longstreet's line on our left, and a battery of artillery was unlimbered to our right and rear, which at once commenced firing and receiving the fire of numerous batteries from both sides of the river. It was most gallantly served and suffered iii men and horses, a caisson being blown up with a terrific explosion by the batteries of the enemy, whose aim was perfect. The battery also suffered from the sharpshooters, and a brave officer of the battery rode down to our regiment and asked Colonel McElroy to drive off the skirmishers and they would take care of the main body. Colonel McElroy immediately ordered Company G to the front, which deployed as skirmishers, but the fire of the Federal sharpshooters concentrated on us, and one-half our men were shot down without accomplishing anything. Jos. C. Mills and one or two others were soon wounded and carried off the field, then another company was sent and with like result and still another, when Colonel McElroy, with some very strong and earnest expressions, ordered the regiment forward, and with a double-quick occupied the ground immediately on the railroad confronting at least three brigades and holding his ground, falling back only a few yards to a small ditch about four feet in depth, from which the regiment poured a murderous fire into and held in check a vastly superior force. General Pender had that morning expressed his full confidence in the gallantry of the Sixteenth and said he looked for a good report from it in the battle. Late in the evening he sent in the Fifty-seventh North Carolina, Colonel A. C. Godwin, a new regiment, to the help of the Sixteenth. This regiment charged across the field fully a mile, with the rebel yell, and cm they came, not seeming to know that there was anybody but Yankees in their front. They discovered our men just in time, and were
directed to distribute their favors among the blue coats just a little way ahead. A charge was made and the Federals driven from the field and into the swamp on our left, where large numbers were captured and sent to the rear, two men of Company G capturing fifty and marching them off the field in one body. The battle raged fearfully on our right, and often the tide of victory seemed to be with the Federals as they swept by our right flank and appeared to be getting to our rear, but soon a rebel yell was heard, and as it advanced swept back the solid columns of the Federal lines. In this battle our regiment lost many brave men, good and true, and quite a number wounded.
The complete repulse and disastrous defeat of Burnside had been accomplished on this first day before one-half of our troops had the opportunity of trying their metal, and back to Falmouth under cover of night the enemy retired.[note]
WINTER OF 1862-'63.
A short time after the battle of Fredericksburg, Jackson's Corps was moved about twelve miles down the river to Camp Gregg, named in honor of General Gregg, who was killed at Fredericksburg, where the winter was spent in picketing at Moss Neck, on the Rappahannock, about three miles above Port Royal. There the writer found them on his return to camp in March, after five months' absence, and soon after reaching camp was ordered to hold myself in readiness for picket, but before night the order was countermanded and the Sixteenth was ordered to go as an escort to the station with the body of Colonel Gray, of the Twenty-second, who had died during the day, and to go on picket the day after. In the meantime it had become very cloudy and during the night commenced snowing, and when we left camp the snow was several inches deep. The river being about two miles from the hills and all cleared lands between, we could get very little wood for fires, and in consequence we had to walk up and down the river all day and night to keep from freezing.[note]
We could occasionally see a Yankee cavalryman across the river through the snow, and the boys were continuously talking to them and joking with them. The snow continued falling and by the time we were relieved next day at 10 o'clock and started back, we found it nearly three feet deep and the hardest walking I ever had. The weather soon turned warm and we had a lot of fun, fishing in the Rappahannock and a mill pond at Moss Neck church.
General Jackson had his headquarters near our camp in an office in the yard of Colonel Corbin, on whose place we were camped, but as he claimed to be one of the F. F. V's., and was inclined to get full sometimes, and then would try to be very loving with the general, he soon moved out in the direction of Hamilton's Crossing and we saw no more of him for some time.
We spent March and April drilling and getting ready for the summer campaign, which we expected would open soon, as we had heard "Fighting Joe" Hooker had been made commander of the Federals, and of course we expected some hard work. About 28 April, a detail of men with two wagons was sent from the Brigade to Port Royal with seines to catch shad for the camp. The Sixteenth was on picket that night, and of course were anticipating a fine time eating fish, but like many others on many other occasions we were again to be disappointed. Just at daybreak we heard the pickets firing at Fredericksburg, and Fighting Joe had commenced his "On to Richmond" to find a strong "Stonewall" in his way. Very soon a courier came with orders to go back to camp at once, which we did, finding all in confusion, wagons loading and everybody preparing for a move. Soon the order came to "fall in," and just as we were marching out of camp the two wagons sent out returned with two full loads of shad. They were thrown out in the middle of the street, and many of the boys as they passed took one in their hands with the hope that they might get a chance to cook them that night for supper, which I know some did.
Passing Fredericksburg Friday morning, 1 May, we came
to Chancellorsville, where we found Hooker already established and ready for the fray, but poor fellow, he was doomed to the same fate as some of Jackson's pets. All day we lay in his front with artillery and musketry firing, hut with little effect on either side that we could see.
On Saturday, 2 May, Jackson's Corps was put in motion and marching a westerly course in the direction of Spottsylvania Court House until we had passed Hooker's right flank, we then turned squarely to the right and crossing the road were completely in Hooker's rear, leaving Lee in his front. Just about sunset the grand move was made by Pender on the right, near the Chancellor house, where we found the Yankees busily preparing supper, and being uninvited and unlooked for guests we caused quite a commotion, but made ourselves at home all the same. There never was such a surprise party anywhere. They knew nothing of our presence until we poured a volley into them and they broke, every man for himself and Jackson for the hindmost. The boys were sorry they could not stop to take supper, at least to take a cup of coffee, as there were large pots of the genuine on the fires, quantities of bread, ham and all kinds of good things to eat and the cooks all gone. But the orders were "forward." It was then getting dark, and with the flash of small arms in every direction, the bursting of flying shells in the air and the old Chancellor house in a blaze, the scene was grand and more than sublime. In the confusion of battle we could scarce tell friend from foe. Just then a halt was ordered to rectify and straighten out the lines, etc., and General Pender was ordered to send a regiment to General Stuart. Calling to Major Gordon, of the Thirty-fourth, he ordered him to go' with General Stuart, but Gordon began to complain that his men were very tired and needed rest. Pender then said, "Well, sir, Colonel McElroy will go-his men are tired, too-Colonel McElroy, take your regiment and go with General Stuart." We started at once and followed Stuart without knowing where we were going, but had not gone far when a courier came up and told General Stuart that General Jackson had been wounded, and he was wanted to take command. He then ordered Colonel McElroy to go on to the United
States Ford, where he would find a regiment of cavalry camped, to deploy his regiment to the left of the road, and at signal to fire three rounds into them and then get back into the road, and join the brigade on the field, and then left us to execute the order. Marching about six miles we came in sight of their camp fires where they were having a busy, merry time, some cooking and eating, others fiddling and dancing, and other lying round the fires resting, not looking for or thinking of danger. Suddenly there was a crash as the three volleys were fired into this careless, happy-go-lucky troop in quick succession, causing another most surprising surprise party, and such a rush and stampede was never witnessed before. We never knew what damage was done, but the Federals thought the whole Confederate army was upon them, and yelled out, "Shackson's is upon us-Donner und blitzzen," as each gathered himself together for a flank movement to the rear, and the whole command hastily got on the safe side of the river, leaving camp equipage, rations and spoils to a few skulkers (or broken down, mayhap) evho failed to keep up with the regiment on its return. It was said by one of these men that a large force of Federals were sent over the river next day, but we don't know about that. In obedience to orders the Sixteenth immediately returned to the battlefield, reaching Chancellorsville about sunrise, and just as the line had been formed for the last grand charge Sunday morning. There being no place for us in the line, the Sixteenth fell in behind the Thirty-fourth and went into the fight, having marched and fought the whole day before and all night again. It was not long until we were in the thickest of the fight again, and with one grand charge the enemy was routed and fell back on his last line. The Sixteenth lost very heavily in officers and men. Colonel McElroy was wounded in the mouth and disabled, Colonel William Stowe in the head, and Major tee having been crippled for life at Fredericksburg, the regiment was without a field officer. Captain A. S. Cloud, Company E. assumed command, and after a few days we were marched back and went into camp near Camp Gregg, where we put in the time drilling on the beautiful fields of
the Rappahannock and waiting for Halleck to put up another General for us to whip.
The death of General Jackson caused several changes in the army. A. P. Hill was promoted to Lieutenant- General; Pender, Major-General, and Colonel A. M. Scales, of the Thirteenth North Carolina, to be Brigade commander.
Sometime after our return to Camp Gregg, Pender issued a complimentary order to the: brigade, in which he said: "I may be exacting and hard to please, but in this instance I am perfectly satisfied. You have pleased me well." We remained at this camp until 4 June, drilling and grazing our teams on the fine clover fields of the Rappahannock. As we were drilling that evening, looking across the river hills we could see large fields of dust rising above the trees across the river, and we knew the Federal army was again in motion. We were at once ordered back to camp and began preparation to move, tents struck, baggage packed and loaded in the wagons and everything got ready, and about dark we bade farewell to our pleasant camp never to see it again. About dawn of day we reached Hamilton's Crossing and found the enemy in possession of the Port Royal road, making a good breastwork. It had been their line of battle in December, 1862. Our sharpshooters were ordered to drive them out, our brigade succeeding, but Lane's men on the left failed to move those opposite their line, and we had to build a barricade between the two brigades, Lane's men being on the high ground and unprotected.
Remaining at this place ten days, the writer had to make several trips from the railroad where our line was, to the Port Royal road occupied by the sharpshooters, and had to pass over the ground fought on in December. The Yankees who had been killed in that fight had been laid up in piles of about a hundred and a few shovels of dirt thrown over them. It was the most repulsive sight I ever beheld; there were heads, hands and feet sticking up through the dirt, and myriads of worms and insects of various kinds working all over
the piles. The stench was dreadful, and we had to hold our noses and run to get away from it.
We remained here until 13 June, with no demonstration of any kind except artillery duels across the river. Every evening the bands on each side would play Yankee Doodle, Star Spangled Banner, Dixie, Bonnie Blue Flag, and both would wind up with Home, Sweet Home, whereat there was on both sides a universal shout, reverberating from one to the other, back and forth, showing there was one tie held in common by these two grand armies.
General Lee had sent Ewell's Corps across the mountains into the Valley, and word has just reached us of his capture of Winchester and Martinsburg with many prisoners and a lot of property, and of his march across the Potomac into Maryland and Pennsylvania. On 14 June, 1863, our pickets in front reported that the enemy had all crossed the river, and on examining the ground we found a very small force iii sight with only a few guns posted on the Stafford Hills. They had removed or destroyed the pontoon bridges on which they had crossed. We were at once moved back of the hills, and ordered to prepare three days' rations and be ready to move early next morning. We spent the day in cleaning up arms, filling up boxes and getting rid of our surplus baggage.
Longstreet's Corps came up during the day from the Blackwater and went into camp just in our rear. The order of march was the Sixteenth North Carolina in front with one howitzer from Pogue's Battalion, then the remaining regiments of Pender's old brigade under command of Colonel W. J. Hoke, of the Thirty-eighth, followed by the Light Division, Major-General Pender, and the balance of A. P. Hill's Corps, then all the remainder of Lee's army. Very early on the morning of 15 June we broke camp near Hamilton's Crossing, striking the main road above Fredericksburg and on by Chancellorsville, passing the old Chancellor house, and on in the direction of the river. All along the line we saw Hooker had thrown up works and fortified on his retreat from Chancellorsville. Late in the afternoon we crossed the river
at the same ford where the boys had fired into the cavalry camp on the night of 2 May, and went into camp on the hill beyond, next night camped at Stevensburg, then to Culpepper Court House, and two more days march brought us to the Blue Ridge, crossing at Chester Gap, and down into the Valley at Front Royal, where we forded the two branches of the Shenandoah and camped at Nineveh. The next day we marched only about three miles, camping at White Post Passing through Charlestown where John Brown was hung, the next day we camped near Shepherdstown, where General Scales came up and took command of the brigade, he having been wounded at Chancellorsville
Next day we passed through the town and crossed the Potomac below Boteler's mills; we are soon on the familiar ground of Sharpsbburg and in the United States, 24 June, and went into camp just beyond the town. Company G was sent on picket. all night. Next day passed through Hagerstown, where we saw a good many Southern sympathizers, but they were afraid to make much of a demonstration, as they were closely watched by their Union neighbors, but we saw many rebel flags displayed inside of the doors and windows of many of the houses. We were advised not to make any noise or fuss, but to pass through quietly lest we should get our friends into trouble. That night we camped near a town in Pennsylvania, name forgotten, where a quantity of whiskey was issued-some of the men got drunk, and some of them were severely punished. The writer got a canteen of whiskey, a knife, fork and spoon which I have yet (not the whiskey). Next night camped near Chambersburg where we spent two days, and the next night, 30 June, camped on top of Cash's Mountain, about five miles from Gettysburg.
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG.
Next morning, 1 July, we passed through Cashtown, and about 2 p. m., came in sight of Gettysburg and were soon moved to the right in a lane with a wheat field in our front. Tearing down the fence, the order came "forward march," and the Sixteenth, with Pender's Division, moved forward at quickstep dressing to the left, and after marching about a
mile in line of battle through the ripe wheat, we came up to the artillery posted on a bluff and firing rapidly. Passing in front of the guns, we lay down and watched the fight going on for half an hour, Heth's Division being on the line in our front. While lying here the guns in our rear kept firing over us and some guns on the opposite side replying, several of our men were hit by fragments of shells. One Captain was struck and his head was cut and scratched in several places. He jumped up and started to the rear hollowing at every jump, "I'm dead, I'm dead." The Colonel of his regiment called two stretcher men and told them to "go and take that dead man off-if you can catch him."
While lying there we saw two regiments fighting on a railroad cut, and saw a United States flag captured and recaptured several times, and just before we moved forward I saw a man take the flag and wrap it around the staff and stick it in a brush pile, and what became of it then I never knew, for the command "attention" came and every man arose to his feet, grasped his arms with a firm grip, and at the order "forward, guide left, march," we moved off at a quick step across a meadow and soon began to receive the attention of the foe, many of our men being struck with minie balls and shells. The men began to fall around me in my own company. Lieutenant John Ford fell on my right, John H. Bradley on the left, just after I had helped him pull the ramrod, which had got fastened, from his gun. Numbers of others were wounded; our surgeon was shot in the head, and ought to have been killed for being there and for not attending to his duty. I did all I could to get him to dismount and attend to John Ford, for I saw he would bleed to death unless attention was given him, but the doughty surgeon rode on, the only mounted man I saw on the line. Our line continued to advance, and passing to the right of Heth's men, came on the enemy's line and began to push them back up the hill, when just as we crossed a ditch I was struck on the right thigh with a piece of shell, knocking me down and tearing and cutting the flesh badly. After a short time I found that I could get up, and picking up a good hickory stick started to the rear as best I could. On my way out I passed
several sink holes among the limestone rocks which I found full of men, some wounded and others hiding. On reaching the place where Ford and Bradley had fallen they were gone, but going further up the hill I found Ford lying face down, and raising him up saw at once that he was dying. I asked him if I could do anything for him; he could not speak, but motioned with his hand to be carried off the field, as the minie balls and shells were falling thick around him. I called a couple of litter bearers that I saw in the woods nearby to come and take him to a safer place, but could not prevail on them to do so, and the poor man died where he was in a few minutes. Going on I soon passed General Lee's headquarters, when I saw Generals Lee, A. P. Hill, Longstreet and others watching the fight with their glasses. I soon reached the ambulance and was carried to the hospital, a large barn about two miles in rear of the line, where I found many wounded men of the Sixteenth, about ten of my own company, Bradley among them. And this is what I saw of the battle of Gettysburg.
Captain J. Y. McIntire, who was in command of the company, tells me that we drove the enemy back beyond Cemetery Hill, where they had a hospital filled with wounded and surgeons. We were afterwards moved back across a branch where we formed line and throwing out pickets in front spent the night.
During the next day, 2 July, we remained in the same position nearly all day, moving a little to the left, both sides keeping a shelling and sharpshooter firing during the day and night.
THE PICKETT-PETTIGREW CHARGE.
On the morning of the 3d all were up and ready, expecting every moment to be into a fight, but strange to say everything was quiet, each side watching and waiting for the other to move. Our men becoming impatient would call out and say, "If we had Jackson we would move and do something." But all at once, about 1 p. m., there was a crash and one hundred and fifty guns on our line belched forth fire and were answered by an equal number from the enemy, keeping it up for
two hours, when the firing ceased and soon the order came, "Forward."
General Pender having been wounded the day before, Scales' and Pettigrew's Brigades were put under Major-General Trimble and sent in on the left of Pickett. We were met by a storm of shot, shell and minie balls which caused Pickett's men to waver and fall back in confusion, leaving the supporting brigades to stand the brunt of the fight.
Finding that Pickett had been repulsed, it was deemed necessary to withdraw if possible, and there was a general break to the rear, under a destructive fire which killed and wounded a great many men. A part of the Sixteenth, under Captains Cloud, McKinney and McEntire, had advanced so far that they found it impossible to withdraw and were forced to surrender. They were at once taken to the rear in a great hurry, where they found everything in confusion and ready to retreat, teams were hitched up and turned to the rear as if ready to run, and if Lee had made another assault then, they would have done so. Being badly crippled himself, and out of ammunition, far away from his base, with a big river behind him and heavy rains coming on, he found it necessary to retire, and did so at his own leisure, lying in their front the whole day, the 4th, without being attacked, which shows how much they feared him. The Sixteenth lost very heavily in men and officers, there not being an officer left in the regiment higher than Lieutenant, several companies without a single officer.
General Pender was wounded and died at Staunton; General Scales wounded. Colonel W. J. Hoke, Thirty-eighth, wounded, leaving the brigade in command of Colonel Lowrance, of the Thirty-fourth.
General Trimble said to General A. P. Hill as he left the field: "If hell can't be taken by the troops I had the honor to command today, it can't be done at all." This was the remark of General Trimble, a Virginian, to General Hill, a Virginian, about North Carolina troops-Pettigrew's and Scales' Brigades. The Sixteenth Regiment was one of them, which fact ought to set aside the oft-told tale that there was no troops in that assault but F. F. V's.
THE RETREAT FROM GETTYSBURG.
About 12 o'clock on Sunday, 4 July, orders came to the hospital for a general move to the rear, and the movement back to the Potomac began. The wagons and ambulances were loaded with all the wounded that could be moved, but we had to leave many of our poor fellows whom we never saw again. The writer managed to secure a seat on the top of a load of hay, where he spent about thirty hours. When we reached the top of the mountain it began to rain and soon got very dark, but there was no halt made, a steady trot being kept up all night, and I could never tell how we got along without some accident. During the night we passed Thad Stephens' Iron.Works, which Ewell's troops had burned as they passed on some days before, and they were still smoking. I heard after the war that the old man said that it saved him from bankruptcy, as he got a big price for them from the government, enabling him to settle up all his affairs.
About daybreak Sunday morning it ceased raining and soon the sun came out, and we poor wounded rebels who had been riding all night in the cold began to feel the influence of his gentle rays, and though hungry, tired and sore, began to crack jokes with the natives, they jeering and telling us that we would never cross the Potomac, that we would soon be gobbled up. About 10 o'clock there was a short stop to feed and rest the teams as they were very tired. After an hour's rest they were hitched up again, and soon we passed through Greencastle, where the Dutch women paid us their compliments by abuse and wishing us in a warmer climate than Pennsylvania. Here we saw the effect of a raid that had been made on the train ahead of us, several wagons cut down, the teams and men captured and gone. General Imboden had been sent with us as an escort to protect us, but he was a complete failure in that part. A few hours after, just as the wagon I was on had passed across the road near Emmettsburg, one of Imboden's cavalrymen dashed by at full speed, ran over a man and horse in front, but made no stop, only looking to his own safety. Hearing considerable commotion in the rear, I looked back and saw that a small squad of cavalry had dashed into the road just as the last of Pender's train
passed, and striking the front of Heth's train, had captured several teams, wagons and ambulances, the first ambulance having Colonel Leventhorpe, of the Eleventh, and I think Colonel J. K. Connally, of the Fifty-fifth North Carolina, with others that I did not know. They were at once hurried off on the cross road for fear of recapture. Major Scales, Division Quartermaster, was the only man I saw that seemed to have a head on him, and he stopped a few of Imboden's men and gathered a few stragglers together and soon drove the raiders off, but they had done considerable damage in cutting down wagons and running off the teams. A member of my own company who was riding with me, swore he would save his own bacon, jumped off, took to the woods, and I did not see him again until we reached the Potomac. We were not molested again, arriving at Williamsport, on the bank of the Potomac, which we found past fording, this compelling us to halt. The whole train was placed at the foot of the hill between the Chesapeake and Ohio canal and the river, so as to be able to cross as soon as the river fell.
On Monday about 4 p. m., we were startled by a shot fired from beyond the town, and the ball dropping down among us struck one of our mules, breaking his neck, then plunging into the river, followed by several others, but none doing any other damage. There was quite a commotion for awhile, but some of our cooler headed ones, seeing the necessity of action, soon had quite a little company organized of stragglers, drivers and some of the wounded, and marching back into the town we gave them the best fight we could under the circumstances, but I fear we would all have been captured had not General Pierce M. B. Young, who had been sent by General Stuart after the raiders, come up just in time, and making a charge drove them off, killing and capturing several of them. We had several men killed and wounded in this affair; the Sixteenth had one man (Bowman, Company I) killed. In the meantime, General Lee had left Gettysburg on the night of the 4th, after lying all day in front of Meade, who did not, for reasons best known to himself and his Generals, feel inclined to push him, had marched at his leisure, and passing Hagerstown on Monday, established himself on a line between
that town and in front of Williamsport, where he remained for about ten days in front of Meade offering him battle, but he refused to accept. Quite an artillery duel was kept up between the two armies all that time, but little damage to our side.
On the afternoon of the 13th orders were received for the trains to cross at the ferry, and everything was sent over during the night, General Lee moving with army after dark, going down on the north side and throwing a pontoon bridge across at Falling Waters, where the river is quite narrow, the banks being steep and high, forcing the water into a channel of 200 feet. Falling Waters is so called from a creek that runs over a precipice about twenty feet high and into the river at that place. The fall is just above the road and is quite picturesque, making a miniature Niagara.
It was at this place that a squadron of Federal cavalry made a dash at Hill's Corps as the men were lying on the ground resting and waiting for the artillery to cross. In this affray General Pettigrew was mortally wounded and a few rebels captured, among them one member of Company G. As soon as our men realized that an assault had been made, they sprang up, opened fire and soon drove them off, killing a number and among them the man that shot Pettigrew.
When all the artillery and wagons were safely crossed, the men followed, and marching up the turnpike a few miles en-camped for the night near Martinsburg.
Passing through Martinsburg the next Monday, 15th, up the valley to Bunker Hill, where we remained in quiet about ten days, the men enjoying themselves living on dewberries, there being a great abundance of them in the clover fields, furnishing good picking for the whole army. Leaving the valley we crossed at Chester Gap and had quite a brisk little skirmish and artillery duel at Gaines' Cross Roads; not much damage done to either side. Going on to Culpepper Court House we camped there until 9 August, when the cavalry got up quite a warm fight near Brandy Station. We were ordered out and started towards Orange Court House, which we reached on the 10th, going into camp on the farm of Colonel
Taylor, near Barnett's Ford, where we picketed and rested until October, having one or two fights with cavalry at the ford.
About 11 October General Lee sent A. P. Hill's Corps across the river, passing Madison Court House, the second day crossing Robertson's Run, where our sharpshooters had a severe battle with the Federal cavalry, driving them off, which developed our movement and put the whole army in motion. Ewell having been left on the Rapidan, at once broke camp and followed by Culpepper Court House. Hill moving by the left flank all the time, crossed the Culpepper road by Amosville and Warrenton, where we camped in the camp the Yankees had vacated that day. Next day Scales' Brigade was stopped at a little town, New Baltimore, and ordered to wait until the army train had passed, then to follow and guard it from raiders. After the wagons had all passed we fell in and followed until late in the afternoon. General Scales ordered Captain McIoud to stay with the train, and he with the other regiments of the Brigade would go to the front, as we could hear heavy cannonading in front. We marched by companies on each side of the road until about midnight, when the train stopped and we lay down by the side of the wagons and slept until daylight, when we were roused up and soon joined the main force at Bristoe Station, where we found that Hill's Corps had had a severe and disastrous fight, being roughly handled, all through a mistake of General A. P. Hill.
Arriving near Bristoe on the afternoon of 14 October, A. P. Hill found the rear guard of Meade's army, under General Warren, moving across his line of march, and immediately made arrangements to attack him with Cooke's and MacRae's Brigades of Heth's Division. Warren had his corps posted behind a railroad embankment and out of sight, but had a strong line of sharpshooters posted about two hundred yards behind his line and in front of a piece of woods, giving the impression that his line of battle was in the woods. Hill ordered Heth to advance his two brigades at once and take
possession of the railroad, but Heth not liking the looks of things, did not move until Hill had sent him three peremptory orders to do so. He then ordered the two North Carolina Brigades forward, but when they were in a few yards of the railroad Warren's whole corps rose and gave them a volley that very nearly cut to pieces the whole command, only a few falling back in good order, many wounded and as many dead lying on the ground. Our artillery opened on them and a heavy fire was kept up during the day, the enemy holding their ground until dark, when they retired in the direction of Manassas.
We remained on the ground until about 2 o'clock p. m., burying our dead and caring for the wounded, cooking, etc., when we again moved back to Catlett's Station, where our brigade commenced tearing up the railroad and burning the ties, working all day in the mud, tired and hungry.
About dark Baxter Long came up and gave me some crackers he had found in an old shed on the way, also some pork and beans left by the Yankees. Being very hungry I did not wait to get into camp, but commenced eating the crackers at once, but when I got a fire so I could see I found my crackers filled with black, hairy worms. I had no idea how many I had eaten, but it did not turn my stomach for I was soon able to make a hearty meal after getting things in shape. Next morning we finished our job of tearing up the track and crossed the Rappahannock on a pontoon bridge, going into camp near an old brick house. The country beyond the Rappahannock looked bare and desolate, nothing in sight but chimneys on all sides. I do not remember seeing but one house standing on our way from New Baltimore to Bristoe and back to the Rappahannock, and that was a large house with a large placard on the front gate marked: "This house is protected by papers from the British Consul at Washington."
While camped here the writer was lying in his tent, covered with all the blankets he could get and shaking with a severe chill. The cry was raised, "Fresh beef, somebody's coming," and we knew at once that a lot of fresh conscripts were coming. Soon some one was heard to say: "There's
France. Hello, France, come here, old fellow," and the answer came back: "How the devil can I come; don't you see I'm under guard?" And I at once recognized our old Valley Mountain comrade, F. D. W., who remained with us until the close of the war, often enlivening the camp with his dry jokes.
The next day we were ordered to move back near Brandy to put up winter quarters. On the way I felt like I would have another chill, and seeing our doctor unpacking a box near where we stopped, I went to him and told him what was the matter. He unstopped a jug and poured out about a gill of whiskey, telling me to drink it. I told him it would make me drunk. He said "drink it," which I did, and did not have any chill, but had something else. The men went to work cutting logs and putting up shanties on the land of the old Congressman, John Minor Botts, who would not let us have any straw.
The second day while camped here we had a grand cavalry review of all the cavalry of the army on the same field where Stuart fought the Federals the summer before. That night about 10 o'clock, just as I was going to lie down, my only brother, who belonged to Pogue's Battalion, came up to the fire and wanted to know if we did not have marching orders. When informed that we did not, he said you will have soon for everything between this and the river is on the move. Just then the Adjutant came along and ordered us to pack up all baggage and be ready to move at 4 o'clock a. m., and all our calculations about winter quarters was knocked in the head for the time. Some of the men had completed nice cabins and expected to move into them the next morning, but such is war. We found afterward that a force of the enemy had crossed the river at a ford above us and were making an effort to get in our rear. We were on the march before the time ordered, and soon found from the whistle of shells passing over that we were followed. About daylight we halted on a high ridge where we spent the day in line of battle. The artillery and sharpshooters kept up a constant fire all day, a shell now
and then passing over our heads. About an hour after dark we moved back to a road where we waited some time for some others to pass and then marched on in the direction of Culpepper Court House, which place we passed about 12 o'clock.
Culpepper was about the darkest town that night I ever saw. I saw only one light in the town as we passed through. Our artillery and wagons being in front and the road very muddy, we made slow progress, and being an extremely cold night I don't think there was a fence rail left between Culpepper and the Rapidan, all being burned. We crossed at Barnett's Ford early in the morning and went into camp near the one we had left, feeling quite at home after an absence of more than a month. We remained at this camp until about 23 November, when Captain L. P. Erwin came on a visit to us, and I made a bet with him of a pound of candy, then worth $25, that we would leave that place before morning, and sure enough at 12 o'clock we had orders for marching at 4 o'clock, and before the citizens of Orange had gotten their eyes open we had passed through the town on our way to the Wilderness. Just after that, the writer was put in command of the provost guard of the brigade. Just before night we crossed a little stream called Mine Run and stopped for the night. Next day we moved back across the Run and formed line of battle on a ridge, and soon found General Meade and his army in front of us. The weather had turned intensely cold and there was great suffering among the men.
My guard was posted in rear of the line in an open field on the high ground where the wind from the mountain had full sweep at us, and the only protection we could get was to put some pine tops into a deep gully on the icicles, where we could lie on our blankets. There was a continual artillery and sharpshooter duel going on all the time but no fighting. On the night of 1 December, 1863, Generals Lee, Stuart, A. P. Hill and others rode up and down in rear of our lines several times, and we made up our minds we would have hot work in the morning. When daylight came we found the Yankees had gone during the night. The order came at once to follow, which we did, passing their works soon after crossing the Run, where we found the sides of the road strewn with
the plunder left by them in their hurry to get off. We followed about eight miles on the Wilderness road, when we met Generals Lee, Stuart, and others. General Lee said: "Well, boys, you may go back to camp."
We gave three cheers for General Lee, and started home again, reaching Orange about 12 M. the next day, and went into camp the next day near the old place. A few days after our return Captain Erwin was retired from the service on account of wounds received at Fredericksburg, and left for home promising that he would call on my friend, Andrew An-tone, as he passed through Richmond and get the pound of candy I had won from him and give it to two young lady friends of mine, but I find it has not been paid yet, and I still demand the $25 worth of candy.
In General Meade's examination before a Congressional Committee on Conduct of the War, he was asked why he did not fight Lee at Mine Run. He replied that the weather was so cold that his sentinels froze to death on post.
WINTER OF 1863-'64.
We reached our old camp near Orange about noon, 3 December. The men marched like cavalry, all so anxious to get back to the old grounds. The weather moderated after we got back, and for two weeks we had fine, pleasant weather, but just before Christmas it began to snow and sleet, and we then had very cold weather for some time. The day before Christmas I had accepted an invitation to visit some friends in Lane's Brigade about four miles up the river near Liberty Mills, to take Christmas dinner, they having possessed themselves of a fine gobbler and other Christmas goods, but just after tattoo the long roll was sounded and orders were issued to pack up and be ready to march at a moment's warning and let no one leave camp until further orders, so all our calculations for Christmas were spoiled. We were kept in suspense for three days, and as nothing further happened, the men began to feel at ease. We found out afterwards that the order was only intended to keep the men in camp during Christmas, fearing that they would go off, get drunk and do mischief-but such is war.
We remained quietly doing picket duty during the next month, having one or two little cavalry dashes, at Barnett's Ford until 1 February, 1864, when the enemy made a feint to cross in the afternoon. Our brigade was marched down to the ford and kept the breastworks until after dark, when they were ordered back to camp and to cook rations and be ready to return at 4 o'clock. Promptly on time we were again in the trenches, and at dawn of day the artillery on both sides opened and kept up a heavy fire for about an hour, the infantry having a little fight across the river with their cavalry-if they had infantry we saw none of it. They soon retired and we were left alone. Troops were coming in all day to our relief, but as there was no further demonstration on the part of the enemy all again became quiet, the troops returned to their camps and the usual routine of duty was taken up.
Just at this time the writer was granted a thirty days' leave of absence, and drawing from the Quartermaster $500 Confederate money, I started for Richmond and home. Some time before I had sent to R. M. Robinson, of Charlotte, three and one-half yards of cloth furnished by North Carolina for $25. On reaching Charlotte I found the clothes ready and paid Robinson $150 for making and trimmings, and on my return to Orange I had $10 left, which I gave for a pound of soda and went to camp without a cent, showing that it cost six months' pay to go home, pay for a suit of clothes and one pound of soda.
During March and April we had only one little affair at the Ford with cavalry and artillery, our cavalry being on the north side of the river. Standing on the hills on the south side we could see the charging and counter charges, first one on the run, then the other. We had a few men wounded at the river by shell. Quite an amusing incident occurred at the Ford with some women who were crossing on foot while the shells were falling and bursting in and around the Ford, but for fear of making some one blush I will not relate this story. The Yankees were soon driven off and all was quiet again for some time.
About 25 April we had quite a snow storm, the ground being covered several inches. In a day or so the sun came
out warm, the snow melting off except on the mountain sides a few miles off over the river. On 4 May I was on picket with strict orders to allow no one to cross unless they had a pass from General Robertson. There was some cavalry grazing their horses on a clover field across the river, and just after 1 had returned front the lower part of the line, I heard their bugles blow "boots and saddles," and saw the men running and bridling their horses in great commotion, and soon after a courier riding at full speed came up the road leading to the Ford where I had placed myself to meet him. Stopping his horse for a moment he drew from his pocket a large official envelope addressed "General R. E. Lee," saying he had a dispatch for General Lee. My orders forbade my allowing any one to pass without General Robertson's permission, but believing that delay might be dangerous, I at once determined to assume responsibility of disobeying orders and handing him the dispatch, told him to go ahead. I immediately walked down to the river and notified my pickets to be ready to move as I was sure we would be sent for, and soon a courier came ordering us to camp. Bidding farewell to Barnett's Ford, where we had spent near ten months rather pleasantly, we started to camp, and on our arrival found all the troops gone and about a hundred negroes plundering and searching for anything and everything left by the men. I found orders for me to follow by Orange Court House, which we soon passed for the last time, not catching up with the army until late, when we found them camped near Mine Run, at the same place we had camped on our return from Mine run in the previous December.
Early on the morning of 5 May, 1864, we were under arms and again on the march, passing Mine Run and about 4 p. m. came near the future battlefield, and leaving the plank road we turned to the left and marched more than a mile, when we were halted in a dense thicket and in the rear of Ewell.
Lying there about an hour, we heard the fight open in the direction of the plank road. Orders came to fall in, and we started at a double-quick, and soon reaching the road where
we had left it we found the road filled with wagons and ambulances and the field on the left of the road full of artillery. Going down until we came to the Brock road, which crosses the plank road and leads to Spottsylvania Court House, we moved to the right and formed line on this road, our left resting on the plank road. We then moved forward, passing over a regiment that would not advance. The Colonel was cursing them and told them to lie down and let somebody that would go, go over them. We soon struck some troops of Hancock's Corps and drove them before us through a swamp, when we were stopped and moved back to the Brock road on the top of the ridge, and it being near dark, we put out sentinels in front and prepared to spend the night, barricading with all the old logs and rails that we could find.
Early on the morning of the 6th, orders came to send a de-tail with all the company canteens for water for the men, and just at sunrise a gun was fired down the road and the shot came whistling up the road, and following it came Hancock's Corps. This was the only battle I ever saw or heard of in modern times fought without artillery, and the one mentioned above was the only one I remember to have heard that morning, and there was only one gun used on the 5th near the plank road, and that only fired grape at very close range.
Thomas' Georgia Brigade was on our left, and Hancock's line was so arranged his forces struck it before he reached our front. Thomas' men gave way at once, almost without firing a gun. Our left, the Thirty-eighth, I think, seeing them-selves flanked began to break, and soon a general break all along our line occurred. Colonel C. M. Avery had his regiment, the Thirty-third North Carolina, lying just in the rear of the Sixteenth, and as we moved back in good order, he ordered his men up and said as I passed him, "We will give them one volley before we go," and he gave the order to fire, and at the same time the fire was returned, killing and wounding many of his men. The Colonel himself was mortally wounded. Several of the Sixteenth were hit, and Color-bearer Carpenter was killed and many others wounded. I soon met a staff officer on horseback, who was making an effort to rally and stop the men, but with little effect. He told
them that "Longstreet was on the ground and would be there in less than five minutes, only hold your ground until he gets in," but everybody seemed to be for himself and the Yankees take the hindmost, which would soon have occurred to us all if just then we had not met General Benning, of Longstreet's Corps, leading his brigade in. He told his men to open ranks and let us pass. After getting in rear of Longstreet's we got our men quiet and into line, and crossing the plank road we formed a new line on a kind of crescent in rear of Ewell. Just after crossing the road I met Tom Hayden with a canteen, and our detail not having returned I asked him for a drink. Handing his canteen he said, "Here is some pond water," and without thought I took a big swallow before I found it was the meanest whiskey I ever tasted, and of course I was worse off than before I took it. In a few minutes we heard Longstreet's men open fire and in a very short time we heard the old rebel yell, and we knew that Hood was moving them; then the yell became general all along the line, and I don't think I ever listened to a sweeter sound. It would start on the left and like a wave roll down the line and back again, and our line took up the refrain, and just like the little dog after being whipped when a big dog comes up and takes his place, they began to jump and yell and cut up shines, as much as to say, "Arn't we horses."
Shortly after Longstreet had routed and was driving them hack, we were moved down upon the line on the left of the plank road, where some command had erected the only breast-work during the night, and then you should have seen what a brave set of fellows we were. Just then we saw a little fellow riding up behind us on a gray horse, dressed in a fine new uniform with two stars on the collar and a big black feather in his hat. We recognized little Captain Cloud, who had been captured at Gettysburg, just on his way from Johnson's Island. During his captivity he had been promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel. We almost had to detail a guard to stop him from charging over the works and capturing Grant and the whole Yankee army. The battle raged pretty much all day in our front, and it is claimed by some that but for the wounding of General Longstreet Grant's army would have
been driven across the Rapidan. I know that by this timely arrival he saved our brigade from capture. We remained in this position until Sunday, the 7th, about 4 p. m., when we were ordered to march by the Brock road to Spottsylvania Court House, which place we reached at 12 M. Monday and found nearly all our artillery on the line and pretty well fortified.
Spottsylvania is located on a long high ridge, and in May, 1864, contained a court house, jail, one brick church and a tavern-these are all the buildings I remember. Our fortified line was near the top of the ridge and north and east from the court house, and was about five miles in length, extending about four miles above to the Tay river, and one mile below the court house. The ground in front of the court house was sloping for about two hundred yards, and there was met by a thick pine woods, and beyond these pines Grant had two fortified lines about one hundred yards apart.
Arriving on the ground about 12 o'clock Monday, 8 May, we were put on the line on the left of the court house near the branch, with a thick pine forest in our front, but did not remain long in this position, but were moved to the right beyond the court house, and for three days were kept moving up and down the line, being in reserve all the time.
On the night of the 11th we were marched about four miles to the left near the Tay river where there was a fort, and just as I had my little shelter tent put up and ready to lie down, orders came to fall in, and we were soon on the way to town in mud and rain, the night so dark we could scarcely see the men ahead of us. It stopped raining and cleared up before we reached the court house, and just as day was breaking we heard Hancock's grand assault on our lines open and were soon made aware that part of our line had been captured-Johnson's Division of Ewell's Corps being taken prisoners. This was the place where it was said General Lee wanted to lead the troops in person, but the men refused to go forward until he went to the rear, assuring him that they would reestablish the lines, which they did most gallantly. When we
reached the field we found ourselves in rear of Lane's Brigade, then desperately struggling to hold its position, and standing some time on the high ground in rear we were in a very uncomfortable position for a short while, but Lane finding that he had support behind him, ordered a charge and went over the works-we at once occupied and spent the day in them, finding it much safer, though we had some men wounded by shells and long range rifles.
After driving the enemy back behind his works, Lane came out and going down the line in front of the court house he went in again and had quite a hard fight, capturing a large number of prisoners and a stand of colors. The next day just before dark, General Lee thinking that Grant was moving round his right, we were sent inside the line to find out what they were doing. We marched in by the right flank, led by Major-General Wilcox, and after reaching the pine woods, the head of the column, soon found the Yankee sharpshooters in strong force, several of our men being wounded by their first fire. General Wilcox soon came back, his old white pony pacing along like he was going to meeting. The General always rode with a long hickory switch. As he passed us he told us to face to the right and move just above the path and lay down. We obeyed the order. As I lay down between the color-bearer and another man we soon found that a Yankee sharpshooter was using us as a mark for his rifle, the balls passing very uncomfortably near and over us, but dark coining on, though the firing still went on, it was not so close and dangerous. I was very tired and soon fell asleep, but was aroused by the men moving off. Jumping up and taking my place in line I thought that we were going to make an assault, but coming to a low fence we had crossed I knew we were going out and was much relieved. We passed out through the lines and lay down to rest near an ice house and were not farther disturbed during the night-a very unusual occurrence, as assaults had been made on our lines every night.
The next day we were again marched to the front to retake a part of the line that had been captured, and did so in a handsome charge, driving the enemy before us and eliciting the praise of General Early, who was in command of the corps
since the Wilderness fight, General A. P. Hill being sick. The whole face of the earth in and around was covered with dead Yankees killed in this affair. During the day we saw the Federal General Sedgwick shot and killed by a sharpshooter while he was superintending the placing of a gun to enfilade our lines. He was more than a half mile away. A friend informs us that a beautiful monument has been erected on the spot.
We were sent next clay to the right to support General Wright, of Georgia, while he was sent in to make a reconnoissance, we holding his lines while he made his move on Grant's works. Finding the enemy's lines well manned he soon retired, suffering some loss, and occupied his old ground, and we were sent back to the left of the court house where we spent the day under heavy shelling, losing several men. We remained in all about ten days at Spottsylvania, on the go all the time. We could not lie down with any assurance that we would be undisturbed for five minutes. The last day we were there, after being under fire of the sharpshooters and artillery all day, we were moved from the left of the court house down to the right and sent into the Yankee lines to see what they were doing. The line was formed just inside of our lines, and we moved forward over the open ground, then through a piece of woods, and crossing over a high rail fence we found ourselves in front of their works and were at once fired on by sharpshooters and their artillery from outside works, about one hundred yards in rear. Without stopping to return the fire, we made a rush for the works and drove them back into the second line. After holding this line for an hour under a very heavy fire of solid shot, we were ordered to march out by the flank, and going back to the road at the court house we found the army in motion and at once took up the line of march toward the North Anna river. After marching several hours we halted to rest in a piece of woods, and there for the first time in more than two weeks we had a few hours of uninterrupted rest and sleep. Next morning we were up early and on the march, and soon after crossing North Anna river we struck the Fredericksburg railroad, and following it down to Anderson
Station we spent near two days in maneuvering between that and the river.
On the afternoon of the second day we were ordered back to the station, and following the railroad back in the direction of the river about a mile we came to a water tank, where we found the Light Division in line of battle. The order to move forward soon came, and the Division moved off through an open woods in excellent order and fine style, General Thomas' Georgia Brigade on the left and resting on the river. There being no place for Scales' Brigade, we marched in rear of Thomas, the Sixteenth leading. General Thomas mounted his horse and rode in rear of his troops, hollowing as if he was in a fox chase; soon reaching a fence in the edge of the woods, with a clover field in front, the fence was thrown down and the field entered, when his line was fired on from the cedar hedge just on the brow of the hill by a line of sharpshooters. The whole of Georgia broke loose and ran for dear life. The Sixteenth standing end foremost at the head of the brigade, Colonel W. A. Stowe ordered them into line, and we moved to the front, the Yankees running down the hill as fast as their legs could carry them. We followed up to the cedars, and by the time we reached the hedge they had got down the hill and across a branch, and going up a hill in front of us our men had a fair chance to pick them off. One poor fellow was lame and got behind, but he did some of the hardest running I ever saw. I don't think he was hit, though I saw a good many balls strike near him.
As soon as the pickets got out of danger, the guns on the high ground beyond began to pay their respects to us, giving us a fusillade of grape and canister. The Sixteenth was standing there alone, unsupported, no other being in sight. The writer, who was standing about twenty feet in front, called to the Colonel that it would not do to stand there, we must move forward, and he gave the order to do so at once. We moved down the hill, crossing the branch and then up to near the brow of the hill and lay down, the shot passing over us, a few of our men being hit. We soon discovered that a
movement was starting in our front to cut us off and capture us, and reporting the fact to the Colonel he ordered us to fall back to the branch in line; he then led us down the branch by the left flank until we reached the river, then keeping well under the bank of the river we kept up the river until we came to the railroad, and following that we soon found the other regiments of our brigade. I never could tell how it was that we were allowed to go into such a place alone or how the others got away. I was informed by a man at Division Headquarters that General Wilcox cursed out Thomas and the others who failed to come up. This place was called Jericho Ford. We spent the night on the railroad near the water tank where we went in and next morning moved down to the station.
When we got back to the station we found that General Smith, chief engineer of the Army of Northern Virginia, had already located a line and done a lot of work. The line ran through a beautiful garden, which was soon torn up with trenches and embankments for artillery-everything in the way of vegetables, pot plants and herbs destroyed and the gar-den ruined. The Yankees soon found us out and followed up. The second day we found them established in our front with artillery and small arms. During a rain storm I had crawled under a high piazza for protection, but had hardly gotten in a comfortable position when the first shot fired came crashing through the house above me, and I soon walked out into the rain but did not find much comfort then, for a gun fired from the opposite side of the river, enfilading our line, killed two men in the company on the left of Company G and all was confusion for a short time. The rain soon stopped, and dark coming on the men were put to work by the engineer in charge of the line so as not to he enfiladed. We remained at this place about a week; had no general engagement, but kept up a sharp picket fight very near all the time we remained.
General Lee finding that General Grant was again on the move to flank him, we again started to head him off, and crossing the South Anna river and passing between Hanover Junction and Ashland, we stopped for the night in the swamp near the latter place. Early next morning we were again on the
march, and about 12 M. halted near Green Pole church, throwing up strong works and remaining three days with heavy picket and artillery firing all the time. I think the Sixteenth had but one man killed, Sergeant Westall, a gallant young fellow of Company H, Macon County, killed on the picket line. We left this place early next morning and passed down by Beaver Dam Station to Atlee's Station and spent two days as reserve corps. Just four weeks from the time we left Orange, we were told that the officers' baggage wagon was just in rear near the branch and we could go back for a short time and clean up, which we gladly accepted. I had changed my clothes on the morning we had gone on picket at Orange, but don't think I had had my shoes off since. We had just gotten through our toilets when the long roll was beat and "fall in, men," was the order, and off we go through heat and dust for Cold Harbor. Passing down in rear of Mechanicsville, we met Breckinridge's and Hoke's Divisions on their way to join Lee, then on, crossing the bridge at Gaines' Mill, which had been burned since we were there in June, 1862, we were soon in front of part of Grant's army drawn up in line on the same field where we had killed so many Zouaves 2T June, 1862.
SECOND COLD HARBOR.
There are three ridges which all come together, the Yankees having possession of the last or outside one, and extending their lines up to the junction, then on the left for several miles. They also had a line of dismounted cavalry on the middle ridge. We turned to the right going down the third or inside ridge, and formed in rear of Breckinridge's artillery; Lane on our left joining Hoke and Breckinridge, McGowan on our right and resting on the Chickahominy. In passing down to the right I walked over the place where I saw a number of Rutherford boys buried in 1862-Sloan, Stafford, Correll and others of Company G; Moore of Company D, and George Foster of Polk.
Soon after our line was formed General Breckinridge galloped down our front and ordered his artillery to open fire on the middle ridge, which was soon cleared and our whole line
moved forward. On reaching the top of the ridge we saw the cavalry dashing out across the bottom in front and into the swamp beyond. Lane had quite a fight on his left, also Hoke and Breckinridge, but all succeeded in clearing the ridge. General Lane was severely wounded and some of his men killed. About dark it began to rain very hard. The writer was ordered to go to the front and relieve the Captain of the sharpshooters, as he had been on continuous duty for three days and nights. I was directed to go to a light that could be seen in front as the place to find the Captain, and feeling my way down the hill into the bottom, soon found myself in a ditch; badly scratched by the briars on the banks, I scrambled out and started ahead, finding another, then a third ditch, but finally reached the place and relieved the Captain and took command of the line, extinguishing the light which had been made for my guidance. The next morning, 3 June, it had cleared off, and just as day began to appear in the east the enemy made a general assault on our left. A part of Lane's Brigade and all of Scales', with McGowan's on our right, being covered by a dense swamp, were not disturbed and had nothing to do but listen and look on for more than two hours, the battle raging with great fury, the enemy making about thirteen assaults with a loss of over 8,000 men killed (5,000 by their own count). Our loss was very slight, being well protected by works put up during the night. I had my position on the road where it entered the swamp and expected to be attacked at any moment, but was undisturbed by any force. One Federal Captain came out who said he had deserted, and one or two wounded men who had missed their way. They were disarmed and sent to the rear. While standing there I heard a gun fire in the swamp on the right, and pretty soon a man came up to me shot through the arm, and said a Yankee sharpshooter had shot him. Taking two men I went down to the place where he had been and cautioned them to watch close and keep themselves well covered or they would get shot if there was any one there, and went back to my post at the road. Some time afterward one of the men came up, bringing a blanket full of holes which he said he found behind a log, showing that the man had shot
himself. He lost his arm by amputation. About 12 o'clock I was relieved, the fight having ceased except the firing of artillery, and I went back to the line. I found the meadow covered with fine strawberries, and I stopped and enjoyed a fine feast with the shells flying over my head. On getting p to the lines and going p a little way to the left I could see the ground in front of the works covered with dead Yankees.[note] Next day they sent a flag of truce asking leave to remove their dead and wounded, and for more than two hours they were busy with litters and ambulances getting them off.
After the repulse of Grant's troops on the 3d, we remained in our position undisturbed except by shells and solid shot from beyond the swamp. The men would lie down on the bank to sleep, but regularly at 12 o'clock a big gun would be fired and the shot would come tearing over us, some times striking the bank and going through the house just in our rear. It was not necessary to give orders to fall in, for the boys had already rolled in and there they lay for two hours while the firing continued.
On the morning of 13 June, just eleven days after coming to Cold Harbor, orders were received to be ready to march at once, and we were soon on the way crossing the Chickahominy and passing Seven Pines, we crossed the Nine Mile road and took the road to White Oak Swamp and Frazier's farm. About 1 p. m., we found the cavalry stopped by the roadside in an old field, and we knew that we were close to the enemy. Passing the cavalry a short distance we turned to the left of the road through the pines and were halted and faced to the front, and soon General Wilcox's voice was heard ringing out, "Forward march, guide right," and off we moved in line of battle. Soon the Federal sharpshooters began to fire at us through the pines, the balls whistling by and now and then striking down a brave rebel. We drove them through the woods and into an old field, and were making a dash to capture a rifle gun which had been shelling us, when General[note]
Wilcox galloped up and ordered us to fall back into the pines about one hundred yards, where we formed line. The gun mentioned we would have captured in another moment for the men had left it, opened on us again and got our range so accurately that the shells struck our lines at every fire. Our men lay flat on the ground but this did not save them, for they were being killed and wounded by the dozen, Company G losing six in less than that many minutes. I was standing with, a group of officers watching the movement of the enemy, when I was struck by a piece of shell, making a slight wound on my right hand, cutting the guard of my sword in two and striking me in the stomach, of course knocking me speechless. I remember Colonel Stowe taking me by the collar and pulling me back against a big tree; the Adjutant got a canteen of water and he and the Lieutenant-Colonel worked with and rubbed me until I could speak, and a man from my own company ran out, picked me up and started to carry me off when General Scales, who was lying behind a tree fifty yards in the rear, called to Stowe and inquired who was wounded, telling him to send the man back to his place; that he had a man with him who would attend to me. I was then taken up and carried about a mile up the road, where we found a doctor and the ambulances, and getting into one I was taken back to the field hospital and the next day sent to Richmond, where I spent the most miserable six weeks of my life at Winder Hospital, leaving there on Sunday morning, 31 July, the day after the great mine at Petersburg was blown p, and if they had succeeded in cutting the southern road as they expected, I would now be resting in Hollywood Cemetery, for I know I could not have lasted many more days at Winder Hospital.
I wish here to pay tribute to the memory of a brave man, the man who picked me up at Riddle's Shop and who I never saw again. Before going into the battle of the Wilderness there were twelve men detailed to act as color guard, with strict orders not to leave the flag for a moment. My position as commander of the sixth company in line would naturally be next to the colors. After the opening of the fight at the Wilderness I never saw but one of their men, and that was
Adolphus B. Carson, of Company G, of Rutherford County. I could lay my hand on him at any hour, day or night, during the six weeks. The poor fellow died soon after at Petersburg. He joined Company G in March, 1862, at Fredericksburg, and was never absent from the regiment for one hour except from sickness, and had never asked for a pass to go outside. In February, 1864, I had the privilege of giving a furlough of eighteen days, and I gave it to him.
On Sunday morning, 31 July, I left Richmond for home, reaching there late on Monday, where I remained until Tuesday afternoon. Just after being put out of the hack from Cherryville and while lying on the hotel porch, Dr. Miller passed, and seeing me stopped and invited me home with him, but not feeling able to walk I had to decline his kind invitation. He then said after feeling my hands: "You need a stimulant; you must have some brandy," whereupon a now very prominent man of Shelby stepped p and said: "I will bring him some." He soon returned with a bottle and small glass, and poured about two spoonfuls into the glass and I drank it. He then informed me that I owed him a dollar, which I paid him, and have taken particular pains never to speak to him again.
Leaving Shelby about 2 p. m. Tuesday, we reached Webb's Ford about dark to find the bridge undergoing repairs; the floor being off, the driver set me afoot and went home. Rev. G. M. Webb very kindly gave me a glass of buttermilk and loaned me a horse to ride home on, which W. L. Davis promised to take care of and return next day. On reaching the bridge we found that it could not be crossed by horses, but Davis hired a man to ford the river with them and we crossed on the sleepers. We reached home about 1 p. m., to find the town full of people waiting to hear the news from friends in the army.
I remained at home until 1 November, 1864, reporting once at Columbia, S. C., and once at Asheville. I would here crave the pardon of the reader for giving so much of my own experience, but will say as one of old said of Solomon, "The half has not been told."
On 1 November, 1864, I found the Sixteenth at Battery
45, on the Boydton Plank road near Petersburg. The regiment was moved next day nearer the city, just where the Weldon Railroad crossed our lines, and at once went to work erecting cabins for winter quarters.
The day after I left the Sixteenth at Riddle's Shop, the regiment was marched to Richmond, embarked on the cars and rushed to Petersburg, where it arrived just in time to meet the advance of Grant's army in their attempt to capture the place. The Sixteenth was in a number of engagements during the summer, including the repulse at the celebrated mine sprung by Burnside 30 July, and in which he admits that his loss in killed was over 6,500. The Sixteenth was engaged in all the movements of the army round Petersburg during the summer on both sides of the Appomattox, but as I was absent I am not prepared at this late day to give the details.
WINTER OF 1864-'65.
Very early in November we commenced building winter quarters, going in between the lines and cutting the pine poles which grew plentifully in our front. General Lee issued a general order that no timber should be cut in rear of the line, so all our firewood and cabin material had to be carried across a field near a half mile; the distance between the opposing lines at this point was more than a mile. An amusing incident, showing General Lee's attention to small things, occurred here in which a member of Company G figured as a party of the second part. The medical department of our brigade was located a half mile in rear of our line. John Steadman, of Company G, was detailed as ambulance driver, being disabled by wounds in knee from marching. General Lee was riding along in the rear one day and found Steadman cutting a pine tree and asked: "What are you cutting that tree for?" Steadman answered: "To burn, of course." "Don't you know," said the General, "that it is against orders? What is your name and command?" ordering him to report to his command under arrest. Steadman grinned and thought "that's all right, I'll never hear of it again," but to
his utter surprise the next day an order came from headquarters to put John Steadman under arrest for cutting trees in rear of the line.
We got our cabins fixed p pretty soon, and then regular details were made each day for work and picket. No camp guard was kept p. General Lee had an immense dam constructed across a creek that run between Battery 45 and Fort Gregg on the opposite hill, there being nothing between the two forts. Our men were called on to work on the dam and in a mine near our camp. About Christmas this dam was completed and the waters stopped, but the dam did not fill for two weeks, but when it did fill it was the largest body of fresh water I ever saw and completely filled p the line between the two forts. Then came a long and hard rain during the latter part of the winter which broke the dam and tore up everything below, smashed the railroad bridge and the stone viaducts of the canal and almost stopped the Appomattox so that all our hard work went for nothing.
CHRISTMAS DINNER, 1864.
About 1 December the Yankee papers gave an account of a Christmas dinner that the people of the United States were going to furnish their soldiers. Our papers also had a great deal to say about it, and it was soon suggested that our army have a Christmas dinner, and the people of the South were requested to furnish it. A paper was sent to the company officers asking their opinions on the matter. I signed in opposition to the dinner, as I had spent the summer in North and South Carolina and thought I understood the condition of things there, and the other States were even in a worse condition. We were losing territory every day and communication from the South was being constantly cut off, and I could not see how anything could be accomplished to the satisfaction of the army. I suggested that if the people had anything to spare that they send it to their immediate friends and let them enjoy it. I was outvoted and the dinner was ordered to be sent. About two weeks after Christmas we had orders to send to the commissary for our Christmas dinner, and when it came we got for Company G one drumstick of a turkey, one rib of
mutton, one slice of roast beef, two biscuits, and a slice of lightbread.
So our Christmas dinner was a failure, as I feared it would be.
Early in December, 1864, General Grant made a move to the left, known by the men as the "Belfield Raid." The Sixteenth was ordered out and marched just before dark, going down the Weldon Railroad and as far as Belfield, in rain, sleet and snow, but before we got there the Yankees under Sheridan had been defeated and driven off, and after an absence of five days, hard marching but no fighting, the Sixteenth was again back at Petersburg in their old quarters, where we spent the remainder of the winter.
The first thing that greeted our sight each morning when we opened our doors and looked to the front was the Federal flag floating high above the timber in our front, and an observatory with a lookout on the top overlooking our lines and Petersburg. During the winter there were several beautiful displays of fireworks on the lines below us, which we enjoyed very much, being at a safe distance. We would stand sometimes half the night watching the mortar shells flying through the air, sometimes bursting in their passage and often appearing to meet each other in the air.
FORT STEDMAN, 25 MARCH, 1865.
On the night of 24 March, General Lee massed a number of troops on the left of him and in front of Fort Stedman for the purpose of capturing the fort. The lines at this point were about 150 yards apart, the picket lines within fifty yards of each other. The pickets were generally captured before they suspected anything was wrong, and then a grand dash was made at the fort and works around, which were soon captured. By this time the Federals were waked up all along the line and were moving to recapture the lost ground. There was a great stir and commotion among them in our front, and we expected them to make a dash at us, but we were not disturbed-only badly scared. Very soon it was found that such a strong force was brought against the place, and that all the works captured could be enfiladed from other batteries,
so the position could not be held, and orders were given to fall back, and we lost more men in falling back than in making the assault. A great many lay down and were captured-and a great many were killed-and not many got back safely into our lines.
On the 26th Grant made a reconnoissance in our front with a strong force, by making an attempt to cross over the ground that had been covered by the big dam that had been washed away a few weeks before. I suppose they were satisfied, as they withdrew their troops after a sharp skirmish with Scales' Brigade and other troops on the ground. The next day he commenced moving troops to his left, and we were ordered to march in the same direction. Just as I was packing my traps for the move, I was notified that I was to be left with a small party from the brigade to keep p a show of fight and take care of the property of the brigade. My orders were to keep these men in the works all through the day and make as big a show and as much noise as we could with the small force (about forty) left with me, and not to leave until the Yankees were on the works; but I knew that if we stayed there that long we would be like the Irishman at Bully Run. When teased for running at that fight he replied: "Faith, and thim that didn't run is there yet." The brigade marched out after dark, and I was left alone with 20,000 Yankees in front with nothing to do but walk over and take us home with them, but they didn't come. The pickets who had been put on duty that morning were left and were not relieved for three days. The Sixteenth was engaged in all the fights and skirmishes from Petersburg to Five Forks on the 31st, where more than half the regiment was cut off and captured, the remaining portion making their way with the brigade toward Burkeville. On Friday night as I was lying in my cabin asleep some one came and knocked, and on my enquiring what was wanted answered that they wanted quarters for General Cox and his brigade; that he had been sent there to reinforce me. Of course I was glad help was at hand and that the responsibility was to he removed from my shoulders to that of higher authority. The next morning I found General W. R. Cox, of North Carolina, and his brigade on the
ground. On reporting to him and looking over the ground with him, and having our pickets relieved, he insisted that I should take my men out of the works in front of our camp and take them down on the left of the Weldon Railroad. To this move I objected, as I was acting under orders from General Wilcox and did not think I had any right to leave. I told him that of course I would yield to him and would put my men in the works between his, as his were posted at least twenty feet apart, but he thought that would cause some confusion with his men. I told him then that I had a special duty to perform and that I would take my own men out of the works and retire to the cabins, which I did. I have met the General several time since, and he always jokes me about not wanting to yield the command to him. Everything remained quiet in our front during the day, but there was fighting going on all day on our left about Fort Stedman with artillery. About 12 o'clock that night, 1 April, reading the Lamp Lighter, I heard a gun fired in front and a shot came screaming over our works, and from that time on until daylight it was kept up making it very uncomfortable for us, but doing no damage.
LINES BROKEN AT LAST.
At daylight Sunday, 2 April, a general advance was made all along the line. The ground in front of us was open for more than a mile, and we could see thousands of troops marching across our front in the same direction taken by them in their sortie a few (lays before, showing that they had mapped out their course on the former occasion. There was nothing to stop them after driving in our pickets, and crossing the creek that had been dammed they struck Lane's Brigade, breaking their line and passing on to attack Fort Gregg in rear of his line and on the hill opposite Battery 45. I stood on 45 all day long and watched the operations. A part of Lane's brigade had fallen back into it, with some Mississippi troops and probably some others. I do not know who was in command of the party, but I do know that they made the most gallant fight that I ever looked at. Five times I saw the assaulting column form on the hill and charge, and four times
they were repulsed, but the fifth and last time they got the fort, but nothing else as the artillery had been withdrawn, and the fort had been gallantly defended by less than one hundred infantry. I could not help thinking how foolish they were to sacrifice so many men as I saw fall for the capture of a fort that was already cut off, surrounded and would have been soon abandoned. I have always thought that the reason they did not attack us was on account of a mine that had been run from the works of our brigade some two hundred yards to the front near a large house. I was sure that they had got the location of it from deserters from our lines, and I want to say that the only man of the original Company G who ever deserted, had worked all the winter in this mine. The fighting and skirmishing was kept p all day, the shells flying around and over us, but doing no harm that I saw. Our sharpshooters were being driven in, and before dark they had reached the house in front near the mine. All the afternoon Colonel Lane, who was in command of the artillery that was posted on our line, had been withdrawing his artillery and everything looked like a break p.
The last time I remember seeing Colonel Lane he was galloping p Halifax street on a little poor sorrel colt with a rope bridle, and using a shingle for a whip. In the meantime Longstreet had crossed over the James and had thrown his forces between Petersburg and the Appomattox, and was holding the only bridge open to us.
As I stood on No. 45 pretty much all day Sunday, 2 April, and saw the Yankees march across our front, crossing over the creek where the big dam had been, and sweep Lane's Brigade out of their way and then assault and capture Fort Gregg-I felt that everything was lost, on that line at least.
Everything was in confusion on our lines all day, and we expected nothing but that we would be assaulted every moment, but were not disturbed except by their artillery which kept up a fire all day on our lines, I think for the purpose of seeing if our forces had not been moved out. Late in the afternoon a wagoner drove up to camp and called to me that he had been sent to take the baggage of the officers of the Sixteenth. I had just before gone over my kit and
made a small bundle of my papers and a few things that I wanted to save and thought I would carry with me, but to relieve myself of a burden I put it all back and loaded everything in the wagon, which drove off across the railroad, and I heard nothing more of it until I reached Farmville. There on reaching the Quartermaster's camp on the opposite side of the river, he found Colonel Ashford, of the Thirty-eighth, who had been wounded in the arm, and who made the driver throw out our baggage and put in his. I was very much disappointed and worried, as I had lost all my private and public papers and some very valuable articles, including all my clothing except what I had on.
Colonel Lane, who was in command of the artillery, was a son of General Joe Lane, of Oregon, who was a candidate for Vice-President on the Breckinridge ticket in 1860. He was a good, kind-hearted man. There were some little boys who came every day to our camp to beg for something to eat, and though rations were scarce, we sometimes had a little we could give them. On one occasion a little fellow about four years old came along with a sack, and when asked what he had it for, said: "I'm going to General Lane's tent; he gives me a pint of meal every day. I didn't go yesterday, and he'll give me a quart today."
THE HISTORIC RETREAT BEGUN.
About 10 o'clock that night, or Monday morning, we had orders to evacuate the place, which was quietly done. On reaching the city we found everything in confusion, hundreds of negroes surrounded the commissary department, some rolling off barrels of flour, others carrying off hams and everything they could lay their hands on and get away with. A barrel of whiskey had been emptied into the gutter, and as we passed we saw an old negro man dipping it up with a tin cup and drinking it, jumping p cracking his feet together as happy as a lord. We soon left the city and crossed the river on the pontoon bridge, and marched on the main road through Chesterfield County, between the James and Appomattox. After daylight I found that I had lost one of my men, James Hoyle, of Company G, and have never heard of him since.
He was wounded in the knee and I suppose must have given out in the night and was probably picked p next day by the cavalry, and quite likely died in prison. After some time I saw an old man marching ahead of me with a shawl on his shoulder, and soon recognized old Dr. Armstrong, who had spent the fall and winter in and around our camp, and preached to us often. He was an old Presbyterian D. D., and had been imprisoned by General Butler when in command of Norfolk, and had been made to sweep the streets with a ball and chain on his leg and under a negro guard. When I caught p with him and asked him why he was leaving he replied; "I never expect to fall into the hands of General Butler again if I can help it." He kept p with us till we reached Appomattox, and I beard some time ago that he was still alive at his home in Norfolk. We marched all day Monday and Monday night, and Tuesday morning, 4 April, just at day-light recrossed the Appomattox, having to wade some distance before reaching the bridge, and there we found the remnant of the Sixteenth under Colonel Stowe. After resting an hour we again took the road and reached Amelia Court House, where we spent the night, getting a very small quantity of rations, the first since leaving Petersburg. Just as we were ready to march the next morning, Wednesday, a courier dashed up with the news that the Yankee cavalry was raiding our wagon train on another road, and the Sixteenth was started at once to drive them away. We found several wagons with their wheels cut down and others on fire, the teams all gone, the ground strewn with officers' trunks all broken open and rifled of their contents. While there a gentleman came up with a small piece of silverware that he had found. He said they had robbed his house of everything they could carry off, but had dropped that one piece on the road. We followed for some distance, but the only Yankee we saw was a cavalry-man who was so drunk that he didn't know anything. Some one had taken all his outer clothing off, and we left him lying in the road as we found him. We found the brigade resting about 11 o'clock that night, and early next morning were again on the march in the direction of Farmville, which we
reached on the morning of the 7th, where we found our wagon train and I learned of my loss.
On 7 May, at Farmville, we were attacked by a whole corps of infantry and one division of cavalry, and after a sharp fight the enemy was repulsed with heavy loss, including one General. Here, so far as I know, the last Federal soldier was shot by the Sixteenth. Israel Higgins, of Company G, being on the skirmish line, shot an officer off his horse and then crawled out to him and got the horse and brought it in, but in doing so he was seriously wounded and had to be left in the hospital there. After the surrender at Appomattox 1 was sent to from division headquarters for his name which I gave. Before the enemy could bring up their reinforcements we were again met on the march in the direction of Appomattox Court House, but in the afternoon we made a stand. formed line of battle and got ready to give the enemy a warm welcome. They came in sight, formed line and we expected every moment that they would advance on us, but with the exception of shelling us a little they did not trouble us. After dark we again moved off and marched all night and day of the 8th, with a short stop or so for rest, and went into camp about two miles from the court house. The last time I left home a little niece of mine put half a dozen ears of popcorn in my haversack; I still had one left, and that was my only supper. We each got a pint of meal that night, but too late to be baked, so carried it over.
Early on Sunday morning, 9 April, we were aroused and soon on the way, but for some reason unknown to us, our progress was very slow. We would march a little way, then stop and stand for some time, then move on to be halted again, and it being still dark we could not see what was going on ahead. We had about 1,500 prisoners, including one General of cavalry, and we thought may be they were delaying the march. Just as daylight began to appear we heard picket firing in front, and as we came nearer the firing became more rapid until about sunrise it sounded very much like a general engagement. About this time we came in sight of Appomattox
Court House and could see troops engaged on the high grounds beyond. Appomattox is just such a town as Rutherfordton, the main street running east and west instead of north and south, with a large branch at the foot of the hill, with the much talked of apple tree in the bottom to the right of the road. There is no branch on the south side, but the ground rises gradually into a long, high ridge, resembling the ridge from Captain Bell's school building to New Hope Church and on to the right.
General Lee had divided his army into two wings after the death of A. P. Hill, who was killed on 2 April, near Fort Gregg, the Third Corps (Hill's) being attached to Longstreet's and the Second was under General Ewell; but he, with a number of other officers, had been captured the day be-fore. That wing of the army was under command of General Gordon, who was then doing the fighting on the heights south of the town. As we marched down the hill toward the town we met two Confederate and one Federal officer coming in a gallop, the Federal carrying a white flag, and from his dress and long yellow ringlets, I recognized him as General Custer. They were then on their way to General Longstreet to have him stop the march. A very short time after they passed and just as the Sixteenth had reached the branch and near the old apple tree, an order came to right about march. We immediately turned and marched by the left flank a short distance and then left the road, going p on just such a place as where T. B. Justice's residence stands, were halted and ordered to stack arms and rest. A few minutes after we had stopped, as I was lying down by a tree in rear of the line, a Confederate officer rode down from the woods behind us, and approaching me asked why the firing had ceased in front. I told him I did not know, but there was a rumor and a suspicion that the army was going to surrender. He asked: "What makes you think so?" I told him what I had seen, and pointing to the hill on the opposite side of the road directed his attention to the artillery coming off the field. He then asked where the Colonel of the regiment was, and on Colonel Stowe being
pointed out he rode down to where he was, and leaning down said something to him that I could not hear, but I heard the Colonel say: "No! No!" He then put spurs to his horse and dashed back through the woods and was soon out of sight. We soon heard a number of carbines crack and followed by the last rebel yell I ever heard-then all was quiet. I learned afterwards that it was General Rosser of the cavalry, and he with General Mart Gary, of South Carolina, with a number of others, cut their way out and did not surrender. A brother of the writer, who was on the hill with the artillery, said he never saw a more gallant charge during the war. After getting through they struck Sheridan's wagon train and burnt about five miles of it, and that was stated as one reason why they did not give us any rations but kept us there four days without a mouthful to eat and sent us away without anything.
A few hours after we had gone, back to the hill General Lee rode back from the front, and as he passed the men all ran down to the road and surrounded him, everyone trying to shake hands with him, many of them in tears. He took off his hat and made a little speech in which he said: "Boys, I have done the best I could for you. Go home now and if you make as good citizens as you have soldiers, you will do well, and I shall always be proud of you. Goodbye, and God bless you all." He seemed so full that he could say no more, but with tears in his eyes he gave Traveler the rein and rode off in the direction of his headquarters, and that was the last we ever saw of him.
The same day the officers of the different commands were ordered to sign the following parole, viz.:
"We, the undersigned prisoners of war, belonging to the Army of Northern Virginia, having this day been surrendered by General R. E. Lee, commanding said army, to Lieutenant-General Grant, commanding the Armies of the United States, do hereby give our solemn parole of honor that we will not hereafter serve in the armies of the Confederate States, or in any military capacity whatever against the United States of America, or render aid to the enemies of
the latter until properly exchanged in such manner as shall be mutually approved by the respective authorities.
"Done at Appomattox Court House, Va., this the 9th day of April, 1865."
The above officers will not be disturbed by the United States authorities as long as they observe their parole and the laws in force where they may reside.
Geo. H. SHARPE,
General Assistant Provost Marshal.
Regimental and company officers were ordered to sign the following obligation for the men:
"I, the undersigned commanding officer of, do, for the within named prisoners of war belonging to the Army of Northern Virginia, who have been this day surrendered by General Robert E. Lee, Confederate Army, commanding said army, to Lieutenant-General Grant, commanding Armies of the United States, hereby give my solemn parole of honor, that the within named shall not serve in the Armies of the Confederate States, or in military or other capacity whatever, against the United States of America, or render aid to the enemies of the latter until properly exchanged in such manner as shall be mutually approved by the respective authorities.
"Done at Appomattox Court House, this 9th day of April, 1865."
On the next day, the 10th, the following farewell address was issued to the army by General Lee:
General Order No. 9. Headquarters Army Northern Virginia, 10 April, 1865.-After four years of arduous service, marked by unsurpassed courage and fortitude, the Army of Northern Virginia has been compelled to yield to overwhelming numbers and resources. I need not tell the survivors of so many hard fought battles, who have remained steadfast to the last, that I have consented to this result from no distrust of them, but knowing that valor and devotion could accomplish nothing that would compensate for the loss that would attend a continuation of the contest, I have determined to avoid the useless sacrifice of those whose past valor has
endeared them to their countrymen. By the terms of the agreement officers and men can return to their homes and remain there until exchanged. You will take with you the satisfaction that proceeds from the consciousness of duty faithfully performed, and I earnestly pray that a merciful God will extend you his blessing and protection. With an increasing admiration of your constancy and devotion to your country, and a grateful remembrance of your kind devotion and generous consideration of myself, I bid you an affectionate farewell.
R. E. LEE, General.
It was arranged that each regimental or battalion commander should sign paroles for the officers and men under them, and accordingly, after waiting four days, on Wednesday, the 12th, Wilcox's Light Division was reached and the company commanders were furnished a parole for each man surrendered like the following:
Appomattox C. H., Virginia, April 10, 1865.-(Paroled Prisoner's Pass.)-The bearer, Private F. D. Wood, of Company G, Sixteenth North Carolina Troops, a paroled prisoner of the Army of Northern Virginia, has permission to go to his home and there remain undisturbed.
W. A. STOWE,
Colonel Commanding Regiment.
About 3 o'clock on Wednesday afternoon, the 12th, we marched into the main street of the town and marched in between two lines of Yankees faced inward, who at order of their commander presented arms, which was followed by our men. The men then stacked arms and were marched back to the place where we came from, and gathering up what few belongings we had left the Light Division formed line for the last time and marched out, passing again over the ground where we had lately surrendered and out of the town on the road to Campbell Court House. There was no demonstration of joy or rejoicing when we surrendered or marched through the Federal lines, but everything passed off quietly. We saw
very few of their officers or men while we were there. Major-General Gibbon came to our camp to see his brother, Dr. Gibbon, one of our surgeons. He enquired what troops it was defended Fort Gregg on Sunday before, and said he had never seen such a gallant defence by so small a party.
General Sheridan also rode through our camp, but did not speak to any one so far as I heard. While we were stacking our arms in the street I saw a young lady standing on a veranda in front of us crying. I wanted to go to her, take her in my arms and kiss her, but could not break ranks just then -too many Yankees between us.
INCIDENTS ON THE TRIP HOME.
Gathering up the company we marched about five miles that evening and then stopped in a piece of woods for the night, without anything to eat or any prospect for breakfast. It rained hard during the night and we had to take it, there being no chance for shelter. Next morning was fair and bright when we got up. I called up all the members of Company G and gave each one his parole, telling them I thought they had better get away from that crowd as soon as possible, as I had fears that they would suffer for food if they kept with it, that I expected to take the first road I saw leading to the right. There were paroled with me F. D. Wood, R. S. Callahan, C. C. Hawkins, Joseph Jay and John P. Eaves, of the original company; Jo and Josh Steadman, J. A. Justice and W. H. Jay, recruits from Rutherford County; J. C. Camp, of Polk, and Isham S. Upchurch, Joseph and Elisha Cole of Chatham, and Daniel Boon Dallas of Robeson County. We soon came to a road that seemed to lead into a mountain on the right. I told the men that I was going to take that road, they could go with me or on the main road as they chose. Bidding the Chatham men goodbye I turned to the right and found that all the Rutherford men followed me but three. We soon began to pass farm houses and made application for something to eat, but received the same answer from all: "Nothing for ourselves; both armies have been in the country for a week and have taken everything we had." Finally about 12 o'clock, when I was almost
ready to give up, we came to a large house, and on entering the yard we found no white person at home except a young lady, and on making our wants known we received the same answer. I then asked her if she would allow us to rest a short while on the grass near a beautiful spring in the yard. Looking through the hall I saw a large map hanging on the wall and asked permission to look at it a moment, and while examining it she stood near while I pointed out the route we wanted to travel. She then said she had some cow peas that she would give us if we could use them, and I told her anything that would sustain life and give us strength to travel until we could reach a part of the country that had not been overrun by soldiers, would be thankfully received. She then went up stairs and brought down a half gallon, which I gave to one of the men to cook. One of the party had a little salt, the only seasoning we had, and I don't think I ever enjoyed a dish of peas more in my life, and again thanking the young lady for her kindness, we started on the tramp feeling much refreshed.
After leaving the kind young lady who gave us the peas, we passed a number of fine merchant mills on the way, but could get nothing from any of them, all claiming that their grain and flour had been pressed for the army. Every one we approached said "if you go to Henry Alexander's you can get something." Finding that he lived on the road we were traveling, we made for his house, and as we walked up into the yard an old gentleman came out and said: "Well, how many of you is there along," and being told there was fourteen in all, he gave us a shoulder of meat and near a half bushel of meal, and one of his daughters went in and carne back with a lap full of eggs, another with some Irish potatoes and other eatables, all most acceptable to a lot of hungry men. It being still sometime until night, we took the good things given us with many thanks and moved on several miles, stopping at a house just before night and getting our provisions cooked we ate a hearty supper and then went to a school house, built a fire and went to bed on the floor. The next morning after travelling a few miles we stopped on the road and ate the remains of Alexander's rations, and then agreed to
travel in smaller parties, as we found it hard to get food for such a large crowd. Captain Joe Mills of Brindletown, Dr. R. R. Murphy and John Corn of Polk, with Bill Carson, a servant of Joe Mills, took the first left hand road we came to, the others keeping the right. After that we had no trouble in getting places to stay and food to eat. On Monday, the 17th, Tom McEntire and W. T. Wilkins caught up with us at G. W. Napiers, the old tobacco trader, who used to travel through this country before the war. After Tom came with his fiddle we had a fine time, but I don't suppose the readers will be interested in our trip. We passed through Campbell, Bedford, Henry and Patrick Counties, Virginia, and Stokes, Surry, Yadkin, Wilkes, Caldwell, Burke and McDowell, then home, where we arrived on 27 April.
Just at the mile post on the Asheville road I met Colonel Wash Hardy driving an ambulance, with Mrs. General Polk and daughters, on their way to Asheville. Telling them that I had heard at Morganton that the Yankees had left Asheville and gone down into Tennessee, they drove on and in a few miles met the Federal General Palmer and 1,500 of his bummers. Learning who the ladies were, they allowed Colonel Hardy to go on with them, but made him promise to turn over the team and ambulance to a Quartermaster they had left at Asheville.
HOME AT LAST.
A few hours after reaching home, while sitting on the street talking to some friends, a party of about a dozen Yanks rode down the street carrying a white flag. Some of the boys who had not had enough of war stopped them and talked about capturing the party. The Lieutenant in command said they were going to carry a message to some troops below to stop taking property, as the war was over, and on the strength of that they were allowed to go. The officer in charge smiled very blandly as they rode off. They then proceeded to cross the branch on the Shelby road, and true to habit established themselves as a picket post and caught every one who attempted to leave town by that road. One man from the country who had come in horseback, saw them pass,
ran and jumped on his horse without waiting to put on the saddle, and went out of town at full speed, calling to some one as he passed to get his saddle. Every one laughed at him for being scared, but he was the only one who saved his horse. In a very few minutes after this there was at least fifteen hundred Yankees in town. A number of citizens who had hid out their horses and other valuables, thinking the coast was clear had brought them in, only to have everything that a Yankee could steal taken from them. While standing on the street looking on, a party of officers rode up to the front gate of one of our citizens, dismounted and entered the house, the family coming down to the gate. I thought I would walk up and speak to them. One who, four years later, became very near and dear to me, came running down the walk wringing her hands and crying, and without any welcome to me, said: "Do go and tell Settle, Hawes and the others to get away with their horses-please go." Not knowing who they were, I asked who and where they were. "Oh, McCormack's men-Wheeler's Cavalry," was the answer. I afterward learned they were a lot of Kentucky cavalry who had straggled off from the army, and thinking they had found a safe place had stopped here and were feeding their horses on the public corn and were being feasted and feted by the citizens, and soon as the Yankees came took refuge in Mrs. McDowell's attic and there remained until General Palmer left next day, taking the Blue Grass horses with them but leaving the men as not being of any value.
I have tried in this long and rambling story to do nothing but justice to all, and to tell nothing but the truth, though I am fully conscious that I have not told the half, so I think I had better close without any apology to anyone; the only thing I am sorry for is that it has not been better told.
G. H. Mills
RUTHERFORDTON, N. C.,
9 April, 1901.
- TENTH (1 Art.) REGIMENT.
- 1. W. R. Capehart, Surgeon, C. S. A.
- 2. Robert H. Brooks, Sergt., Co A, Manly's Battery, 10th Regt. (1 Art.)
- 3. John Springs Davidson, Private, Co. C, Brem's Battery, 10th Regt. (1 Art.)
- 4. Robt. E. Gibson, Private, Co. D., Ramsay's Battery, 10th Regt. (1 Art.)
- 5. Jas. N. Thompson, Private, Co. A, Manly's Battery, 10th Regt. (1 Art.)
SUPPLEMENTAL SKETCH TENTH
FIRST ARTILLERY-COMPANY I.
BY T. C. MOORE, FIRST LIEUTENANT COMPANY I.
I desire to add the following to the brief sketch of Company I, Fourth North Carolina, which is to be found in Vol. 1 of this work, at page 582. I have lost my notebook of the movements of the battery and must write mostly from memory.
Company I, Tenth Regiment State Troops, Light Artillery, was organized in May, 1861, at Wilmington, with Samuel R. Bunting as Captain; L. Ii. Bowden, First Lieutenant; D. E. Bunting, Second Lieutenant, and James F. Post, Junior Second Lieutenant, and myself as First Sergeant. We were ordered into camp at the Marine Hospital for field drill; then to the old Costin House. From there we were ordered to Wrightsville and Masonboro Sound as coast guard. We remained there until ordered to New Bern 13 March, 1862, to take part in the fight there. Arrived at Kinston and met the troops falling back from New Bern. After that, were put on detached service between Kinston and New Bern, Washington, Greenville and Trenton. We were engaged in the fight at Hobb's Mill. Also in the fight at Gum Swamp, near Kinston, under General Robert Ransom. Then in the fight at Deep Gully under General D. H. Hill; then at the siege and retaking of Washington, N. C. On 13 December, 1863, our battery was engaged in the fight at Kinston. It lasted to 19th at Goldsboro bridge. 26 Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, 113, 807. We had one man killed and four wounded, and lost two of our guns in these series of fights.
We were then ordered to Fort Fisher, where we remained (or at Masonboro Sound) till the capture of Fisher 15 January,
1865. Captain Southerland was wounded at Sugar Loaf. Our battery's conduct in the assaults on Fort Fisher is mentioned in 87 Off. Rec. Union and Confed. Armies, 1021, 1024 and 88 ditto 1226. After the fall of Fisher and evacuation of Wilmington we retreated to Northeast river. On the morning of 23 February, 1865, we had two hours fight at Northeast railroad bridge. We then made forced marches thence to Kinston. After arriving at Kinston, under command of General Hoke, we were engaged in his movement 8 March, 1865, when he got in the rear of General Schofield, about 10 or 11 o'clock at night, routing that part of his army and capturing about sixteen hundred prisoners. We fell back to Kinston 10 March. From Kinston we joined General Joseph E. Johnston and were in the three days' battle at Bentonville 19-21 March. After that fight our battery was in the historic retreat to Greensboro. There the battery was surrendered with the army. It was commanded at that time by Captain T. J. Southerland; T. C. Moore, First Lieutenant; T. J. Ivey, Junior First Lieu-tenant; W. W. Freeman, Second Lieutenant; C. C. Redd, Junior Second Lieutenant; Stephen A. Currie, First Sergeant, and reported 'TO present for duty.
T. C. MOORE.
Hem, N. C.,
26 April, 1901.
By THE EDITOR.
The following Battalions, twenty-five in number, conti