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History of the Fifth regiment of Rhode Island heavy artillery, during three years and a half of service in North Carolina

Date: 1892 | Identifier: E528.7 5TH
History of the Fifth regiment of Rhode Island heavy artillery, during three years and a half of service in North Carolina. January 1862-June 1865. Comp. under the supervision of John K. Burlingame. Providence : Snow & Farnham, 1892. 382 p. illus., maps (partly fold.) plan. 24 cm. more...
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[Illustration:

Henry T. Sisson. Col- Comdig 5th. Reg't R.I.A-
Henry T. Sisson, Colonel Commanding 5th Regiment Rhode Island Artillery]





HISTORY
OF THE
FIFTH REGIMENT
OF
Rhode Island Heavy Artillery,
DURING
THREE YEARS AND A HALF OF SERVICE IN
NORTH CAROLINA.



January 1862-June 1865.

COMPILED UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF
John K. Burlingame.

PROVIDENCE:
SNOW & FARNHAM.
Printers and Publishers,
1892.








To Our Dead.

Whether filling unknown graves where their only requiem is the solemn dirge of Southern pines, or permitted to lie where living comrades may make memorial offerings to their merit and valor, this work is most affectionately inscribed.






[Illustration:


Federal eagle, union shield, arrows and olive branch]





PREFACE.

SOON after the close of the war, an association of the survivors of the Fifth Regiment was formed for the purpose of maintaining, by reunions and other social means, that feeling of comradeship and friendship, which naturally arose in the regiment during three years and a half of service in the field. Not long after this association was formed, the suggestion was made that the history of the regiment should be written. The proposition met with such general favor, that a historian was appointed. The difficulty of collecting the requisite data from such sources of information as were accessible, and the exigencies of an active business life, caused successive delays.

It soon became apparent, that as time passed, the difficulties attending the preparation of such a history multiplied in a rapidly increasing ratio. Finally a Historical Committee was proposed and appointed, and the members of the Regimental Association were appealed to for aid in collecting accounts of notable incidents and operations connected with the regiment, and also for substantial aid to have this information suitably compiled and published. From one cause or another this enterprise languished. A portion of a history





was prepared and submitted to the Committee, but the necessities of business soon compelled the writer to change his residence to a distant city, and he returned to the Committee the records and manuscripts in his possession. The committee thereupon dissolved by mutual consent, and thus this plan came to an untimely end. Feeling that there would never be any more available sources of information than existed now, the custodian of the records, comrade John K. Burlingame, at considerable personal expense determined to assume the responsibility and make the best possible use of them that was in his power to do. To this end he secured suitable assistance and commenced work.

From day to day as the compilation progressed it was criticized and corrected. Comrades who were available, and even some living quite remote, were called in from time to time and their opinions asked, criticisms heeded and suggestions made use of. In this manner this work has been prepared. A strong feeling that it was best to preserve such records as were now in existence; a sincere desire to see this much of our history placed at an early period and in accessible form before our comrades, whose number will never be greater than now; and an honest purpose in every instance, to impartially tell the story that was to be told, has actuated all who have been interested in this labor.

One of the greatest misfortunes attending the preparation of this work has been the fact that so many of the members of the regiment have been so engrossed with other cares that they could not spare the time to write out sketches of the incidents that occurred within their personal knowledge, for use in this narrative. In this connection it is but simple justice





to state here, that the history now offered could not have been written but for the unselfish and gratuitous labor and continued assistance of our comrade, James Moran. We are also under great obligation to our comrades, Sylvester B. Hiscox, John Wright, Albert Potter, Christopher W. Howland, William H. Chenery, Dutee Johnson, Jr., William W. Douglas, James M. Wheaton, Benjamin L. Hall and others.

Realizing its many shortcomings, and claiming only the merit of good intentions, this work is cheerfully submitted with the most fraternal feeling to the surviving members and friends of the Fifth Regiment of Rhode Island Heavy Artillery.

J. K. B.

At the twentieth Annual Reunion of the Fifth Rhode Island and Battery F Veteran Association, held at Silver Spring, on Friday, July 25, 1890, a Committee consisting of Comrades Colonel James Moran, Dr. Albert Potter, Joshua C. Drown, Jr., William H. Chenery, and Christopher W. Howland, was appointed to petition the General Assembly for an appropriation to assist the Committee to publish a history of the Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery.

The resolution appointing them was unanimously adopted by the Association. In compliance with the vote of the Association, the Committee presented their petition to the General Assembly. Accompanying this petition was a resolution requesting that the sum of $600 be appropriated to purchase 200 copies of the history for the use of the State.





The Committee desire that the publication of this history shall stand as a monument to the memory of Comrade Burlingame, whose perseverance under all difficulties in its preparation alone made it a success, and if living he would rejoice with us in the full fruition of his arduous labors.

The Committee.





CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.
Organization.—To Annapolis, Md.

General Burnside's Coast Division to be formed—Organization of the First Battalion, Fifth Regiment, Rhode Island Volunteers—Camp Greene—Major John Wright assumes command — From Camp Greene to the Dexter Training Ground—Mustered into service — Roster of officers—Parade in Providence — Marching orders—Incidents in Jersey City—March through Baltimore—Arrival at Annapolis, Md., . . . . . 1-7

CHAPTER II.
From Annapolis, Md., to Hatteras Inlet.

Camp Harris—Scenes at Annapolis—The first pay day—Embark on the “Kitty Simpson”—Fortress Monroe—Under sealed orders—Exciting encounter with a Union gunboat off Cape Hatteras in the night—Hatteras Inlet—Nature of the North Carolina coast—The North Carolina Sounds—Nature of the Inlet—Glance at the situation—The “Kitty Simpson” hard aground—Danger threatens the battalion—Exciting scenes—Over the Bar—Captain Hepburn refuses assistance and sails his ship into the Sound—Safe at anchor, . . . . . 9-17

CHAPTER III.
Capture and Occupation of Roanoke Island.

General plan of operations—Off for Roanoke Island—Waiting to land — The slave boy “Tom,” and his information — “Tom” guides a reconnoitering party of the Fifth to Ashby's Landing — The party fired upon by the rebels — Corporal Viall wounded — The army lands—Battle of Roanoke Island — The rebel forces compelled to surrender—The Fifth guards the hospital—Incidents—Expedition up Currituck Sound—Adventures of the Rhode Island boys on the mainland—Roanoke Island made secure—Kindness of General Burnside, . . . . 19-29





CHAPTER IV.
The Battle and Capture of New Berne.

Up Pamlico Sound—Signal fires—The defences of New Berne—Plan of attack—Foster and Reno fought to a standstill—Charge of the Fourth and Fifth Rhode Island — Guns captured — Lieutenant Pierce killed—The army advances and the rebels run—The Fifth occupy a rebel camp—Rebel report of their defeat—Our losses—Camp Pierce—Results of the battle—Governor Sprague thanks the battalion—The Fifth to have a banner, . . . . 30-49

CHAPTER V.
From New Berne to Fort Macon.—Siege and Capture of that Fort.

General Parke's brigade sent to reduce Fort Macon—Repairing the abandoned grist-mill—What makes a North Carolina city—How the Fifth rebuilt the railway bridge—On the march to Fort Macon—The Fifth on “The Banks”—The batteries open fire—White flag hung out—The surrender—“Joe” Greene and his bugle—Camp life at Fort Macon, . . . . . 50-68

CHAPTER VI.
From Fort Macon to New Berne.

Resting at Fort Macon—Changes in General Burnside's army—Promotions—General Burnside ordered to halt his victorious troops—Rhode Island presents a sword to General Burnside—The Fifth at the ceremony and review—General Burnside leaves the Department—The Fifth at Beaufort and Morehead City—Fourth of July at Beaufort—The Fifth ordered to New Berne—Resignation of Major Wright and others—Promotions recommended by General Foster—Captain George W. Tew appointed major — The Battalion to be a Regiment, and Colonel H. T. Sisson to command it, . . . . . 69-84

CHAPTER VII.
The Tarboro Expedition.

Recruiting for the regiment—Marching orders—The Fifth at Washington, N. C. — The Second Brigade — The march to Rawle's Mill — Battle of Rawle's Mill — Incidents — March through Williamston to Hamilton — Hamilton Burned—“Applejack”—The halt near Tarboro—Sufferings of the shelterless men in a snow-storm—Moccasins made from raw hide—From Plymouth to New Berne—Rebels had attacked the outposts at New Berne—The Fifth ordered out to assist the picket reserves—Death of Quartermaster Gladding—Recruits arrive — The Fifth sent to quell a rumored mutiny on Roanoke Island, . . . . 85-98





CHAPTER VIII.
The Goldsboro Campaign.

The army assembles at New Berne—How the sick men of the Fifth evaded the surgeon—The march to Kinston—Battle of Kinston—Saving the burning bridge—Scenes at the bridge and in Kinston—The rebel general violates his own flag of truce—Results of the battle—March to Whitehall—Battle of Whitehall—Incidents—March to Goldsboro—Battle of Goldsboro—Rebel attack on the rear guard—The Fifth guards the flank—The return march—Exciting scenes of a bivouac at night—At New Berne again—General Foster's congratulatory order, . . . . . 99-116

CHAPTER IX.
Regimental Changes and First Rebel Attack on New Berne.

Major Tew in command—His recommendations for promotions—Colonel Sisson arrives with recruits—The battalion becomes a regiment—His recommendations for promotions—Captain Arnold promoted Lieutenant-Colonel—Chaplain White reports for duty—Sunday in Camp Anthony—Promotions—Rebels preparing to recapture New Berne—Rebel attack on Fort Anderson — Courageous action of a negro boat's crew—The gunboats on the scene—Retreat of the rebels—The Fifth again sent out to help the pickets—Colonel Arnold's ruse to deceive the enemy—Scouting to the front—Back Again in New Berne—Lieutenant-Colonel Arnold leaves the Fifth — Colonel Tew presents a sword to Captain Belger, . . . . . 117-143

CHAPTER X.
The Fifth Runs the Rebel Batteries and Carries Relief to General Foster and the Garrison of Washington, N. C.

The rebels attack Washington, N. C.—General Foster and the small garrison blockaded and besieged—Fruitless attempts to relieve Washington—Marching orders for the Fifth—Off the mouth of Pamlico River—Colonel Sisson offers to relieve Washington—Delays and incidents—Reconnoisance by Captain Douglas and a detachment of the Fifth—Ammunition and stores taken aboard—The Fifth at last permitted to make the attempt—Every man in the regiment volunteers to go—The brave pilot—The batteries brilliantly and successfully run—The Fifth in Washington—Joy of the garrison—Skirmish at Rodman's Point—The rebels raise the siege — Incidents—Congratulations for the Fifth from all sides—“The most brilliant feat of the war”—“How it appeared from the inside,” . . . . . 144-167





CHAPTER XI.
The Fifth becomes a Regiment of Heavy Artillery.—A Summer and Autumn in New Berne.

End of active operations in North Carolina—The Fifth garrisons the forts—Colonel Sisson in Boston—The Fifth becomes a regiment of heavy artillery—How the change was regarded in the regiment—Effects of the change—Chaplain White returns with a cargo of good things for the regiment—Reception of the elegant flag presented by the Forty-fourth Massachusetts—The “bounty jumper” appears in the Fifth—Assignments of the companies in the forts—Camp life in New Berne—Fort Totten—General Butler inspects the defences of New Berne—Surgeon Warren resigns—Assistant Surgeon Potter promoted to be surgeon—Thanksgiving at the Regimental Hospital—Death of Quartermaster Prouty—Letter to Colonel Sisson from one of the men, . . . . . 168-186

CHAPTER XII.
The Second Attack of the Rebels on New Berne.

The rebels again attack New Berne—Heavy losses at the outposts—But few men to defend the forts and breastworks—Fire companies and all able-bodied civilians armed—Where the Fifth was stationed—Fears for the safety of Company A—It marches in all right — A day of suspense — The rebels capture the gunboat “Underwriter”—Captain Landers shells them out—Rebel report of this enterprise—Incidents of the third day—How the rebel band played for us—The rebels retire from in front of New Berne—Major Jameson to raise a regiment of colored troops—Commissions in colored regiments—Marriage of Colonel Sisson—The rebels capture Plymouth, N. C. — Alarm throughout the department—Companies D and I sent to garrison the forts at Hatteras Inlet—Companies C and E at Washington, . . . . . 187-204

CHAPTER XIII.
Capture of Company A at Croatan. — Andersonville and Florence.

Colonel Sisson's official report of the capture of Company A—Chaplain White's narrative of the fight at Croatan, the surrender of the company, and the march to Kinston—Private Sylvester B. Hiscox's narrative of life in Andersonville, Ga., Florence, S. C., and Captain Aigan's escape — Captain John Aigan's official report, showing the death list in Southern prison pens, . . . . . 205-229





CHAPTER XIV.
Yellow Fever in New Berne. — Companies D and I at Roanoke Island.

Condition of the Fifth in the Summer of 1864—Colonel Sisson goes home—Changes of stations for the companies—Shot for desertion—The veterans off for home—The Yellow Fever—Heroism of Lieutenant Turner—His death—How the yellow fever originated—Mortality among surgeons—Companies D and I at Roanoke Island—Thanksgiving celebrated in New England style—Company D at Plymouth, N. C., . . . . . 230-242

CHAPTER XV.
Closing Operations of the War Around New Berne.

The outlook—Return of the veterans—Backing across the “Swash”—The Fifth makes its hardest march—Muster out of the three-year men—Kinston and Goldsboro occupied—Guarding supply trains—Promotions, . . . . . 243-254

CHAPTER XVI.
The End.

The regiment assembles at Fort Spinola—How time was passed—Roster of officers—Promotions—En route for Providence—Reception in Providence — General Burnside greets the returning veterans—Mustered out, . . . . . 255-259

ROSTER,261-338
APPENDIX A,341-343
APPENDIX B,344-345
APPENDIX C,346-351
APPENDIX D,351-364
APPENDIX E,365-377
INDEX,379-382





MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE.
Col. Henry T. Sisson,Frontispiece.
Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside,opposite page 1
Major John Wright,3
Surgeon Albert Potter,5
In the Gale off Hatteras,8
Gen. Jesse L. Reno,10
Gen. John G. Parke,11
Capt. Jonathan M. Wheeler,15
Attack on the Confederate Forts by the Union Fleet at Roanoke Island,18
Map of Roanoke Island,opposite page 20
Lieut.-Col. Job Arnold,23
Capt. George H. Grant,27
Map of New Berne and vicinity,opposite page 30
Capt. William W. Douglas,33
Capt. James Moran,40
Capt. Charles H. Chapman,53
Fort Macon, N. C.,58
Lieut. James M. Wheaton,61
Capt. Charles Taft,65
Capt. James Gregg,71
General Burnside's Headquarters, New Berne,73
Gen. John G. Foster,opposite page 76
Camp Anthony, New Berne, N. C.,78
Lieut. Edward F. Angell,87
Lieut. Henry P. Williams,91
Lieut. Charles E. Douglass,101
The Drown Group:
Joshua C. Drown, Sr.,108
Joshua C. Drown, Jr.,108
Benjamin F. Drown,108





MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE.
Col. George W. Tew,119
Lieut. Charles E. Beers,124
Hospital Steward John K. Burlingame,137
Lieut. Christopher W. Howland,145
The Steamer “Escort,”155
Plan of Washington, N. C.,opposite page 158
Lieut. Herbert D. Leavitt,169
Lieut. William H. Chenery,177
First Sergt. Daniel Dove,185
Map of the Department of North Carolina,opposite page 186
Musician George W. Hoxie,191
Commissary Sergt. Joseph P. Sisson,197
Col. Isaac M. Potter,206
Major John Aigan,211
Chaplain Rev. Henry S. White,215
Sylvester B. Hiscox,221
Lieut. John B. Landers,233
Lieut. George F. Turner,237
Sergt. James B. Horton,245
Lieut. Charles E. Lawton,251
Corporal Francis Eaton,257






[Illustration:


Flag of the United States of America]










[Illustration:

A.E. Burnsides
]





CHAPTER I. ORGANIZATION—TO ANNAPOLIS, MD.

THE first great battle of the War of the Rebellion in 1861 had ended in disaster to the army of the Union. The lesson was needed, for we had been over confident, and had entered the struggle without that practical knowledge which is absolutely essential in successfully moving and using large masses of men in the field and in great battles. The lesson was needed, in that a call for 500,000 more men from the loyal north was made. With what noble patriotism this call was responded to is a matter of common history and need not be dwelt upon here. Rhode Island had nearly filled her quota at the time this narrative commences. In the early autumn of this year it was urged upon the National executive that a strong sentiment of loyalty still existed in the State of North Carolina, and that it only needed the presence of a powerful Union force within her borders to cause a large portion of her people to return to their allegiance.

In pursuance of this opinion Brig.-Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside was empowered to raise a division of troops in the northern coast states. This force was to operate in North Carolina for the purpose of developing this supposed latent, loyal feeling. Rhode Island was called upon to furnish her proportion of this force. After a number of tentative efforts the State executive decided to raise a battalion in the manner prescribed in the following order:

State of Rhode Island, Adjutant-General's Office, Providence, Oct. 5, 1861.

General Order, No. 73.

General Order No. 65 is hereby countermanded and the following substituted:

Gen. A. E. Burnside having received authority from the Secretary of War to raise a division for Coast Service, to be commanded by him, and





denominated the Coast Division, attached to the Army of the Potomac, under command of General McClellan, it is the wish of the Commander-in-Chief to have one or more battalions of three or more companies raised from this State to be attached to the said division.

Captains who have served in the First Regiment and commanders of all military organizations in this State who are desirous of having companies in said battalions, may at once open their armories and places of rendezvous for the enlistment of men to serve for three years unless sooner discharged.

The organization of the companies will be as follows: One captain, one first lieutenant, one second lieutenant, one first sergeant, four sergeants, eight corporals, two musicians, one wagoner, and sixty-four privates.

As soon as the number enlisted amounts to eighty-three men, they will report to this department, when officers will be appointed and commissioned by the Commander-in-Chief.

A bounty of fifteen dollars will be paid by the State to every non-commissioned officer, musician and private enlisting under this order.

Maj. Joseph P. Balch is detailed to superintend the organization, and will arrange all matters connected with the recruiting of the same.

It is the hope of the Commander-in-Chief that said battalions will be raised with that spirit and promptness which will redound to the credit and reputation of our gallant State.

By order of the Commander-in-Chief, Edward C. Mauran, Adjutant-General.

This is the official beginning of what was known as the First Battalion, Fifth Regiment Rhode Island Volunteers, and later in the war, as the Fifth Regiment Rhode Island Heavy Artillery. It is the history of this organization which will be related in the following pages as fully and as impartially as imperfect records and the lapse of more than a score of years will permit.

With the publication of this order began the labor attending the recruiting of so large a number of men by voluntary enlistment. The tide of wild enthusiasm which had swept over the whole north in the early spring of this year was now near its ebb. A war, the magnitude and duration of which no man could forecast confronted the loyal people of the Union, and thoughtful men everywhere began to realize the vast sacrifices of life and treasure that must be made





to insure final success. At this time the efforts of the State executive were largely directed to the filling up of the ranks of the Fourth Regiment, in order that it might march to the front at the earliest possible moment. It was natural, therefore, that for a time recruiting for the proposed new battalion should seem to languish.


[Illustration:

Major John Wright. (From a recent picture.)
]

Camp Greene, a few miles out from Providence, on the Stonington Railroad, was designated as the State rendezvous, and as fast as men were enlisted they were sent there. On the 28th of October, Major Balch, at his own request, was relieved from his duties with the battalion and Col. Christopher Blanding assigned to the supervision





of the rendezvous. Here the first day of November found four companies in camp. Officers, themselves largely self-taught, were striving to teach tactics and enforce military discipline, often with but indifferent results, as none of them had yet been commissioned by the State. On the 7th of November, however, the new battalion was given a commander in the person of Maj. John Wright. He had been a captain in the Second Regiment, and came on from the Army of the Potomac to assume the duties of his new command. On the same day Rev. McWalter B. Noyes was appointed chaplain. Under the zealous efforts of Major Wright the former doubt and uncertainty was soon succeeded by more thorough military order and discipline. About this time a full company from Woonsocket joined the battalion and its successful organization was assured.

The battalion was transferred from Camp Greene to the Dexter Training Ground, in Providence, on the 22d of November, and here, through the kindness and munificence of the citizens of that city, Thanksgiving Day was observed in real New England fashion. “All had a right merry time,” and enjoyed themselves on that day as only soldiers could who had so long been subject to the discipline of a camp of instruction. Up to this time the uncertainty attending the absence of commissions for the officers of the several companies, and which had been a source of great vexation to both officers and men, was removed by the appointment of officers for all the companies then organized. The general order making these appointments bore the date of Nov. 30, 1861. December 3d, Albert Potter was commissioned assistant-surgeon, with rank and pay to date from October 10th. The change of quarters and the official appointment of the officers inspired new zeal in all connected with the battalion. The ranks filled up rapidly, and men and officers began to present that soldierly appearance which only time and good discipline can give.

As the companies now contained the required number of men, on the 16th of December, 1861, they were formally mustered into the service of the United States by Captain Cutts, of the regular army. The roster was as follows:

John Wright, major, commanding; Charles H. Chapman, adjutant; Munro H. Gladding, quartermaster; Albert Potter, assistant-surgeon; McWalter B. Noyes, chaplain; Joseph J. Hatlinger, sergeant-major;





William M. Prouty, quartermaster-sergeant; Charles E. Beers, commissary sergeant; C. Frank Gladding, hospital steward.

Company A—Captain, Jonathan M. Wheeler; first lieutenant, Daniel S. Remington; second lieutenant, Levi P. Goodwin.


[Illustration:

Surgeon Albert Potter.
]

Company B—Captain, Allen G. Wright; first lieutenant, William W. Hall; second lieutenant, William W. Douglas.

Company C—Captain, James M. Eddy; first lieutenant, John E. Snow; second lieutenant, George G. Hopkins.

Company D—Captain, George H. Grant; first lieutenant, Henry R. Pierce; second lieutenant, James Moran.





Company E—Captain, Job Arnold; first lieutenant, ————; second lieutenant, James M. Wheaton.

A few days after the formal muster the battalion made a parade through the city, and received warm commendation from both citizens and the press, for the soldierly appearance and fine marching of the several companies. The days of their life at the rendezvous of organization now rapidly drew to an end, for every available man was needed at the front. Events followed each other rapidly. December 26th, Major Wright received marching orders. “The men received the order joyfully, having become weary of their camp life and the monotonous routine of daily duty. They appeared remarkably well on drill and at dress-parade, and were in the best condition for active service.” On the 27th, they were reviewed by the governor as commander-in-chief of the State forces, who was accompanied by his full staff. Tents had been struck and baggage packed. After the review the line wheeled into column and marched to the depot where a train was waiting to carry them over the first stage in their route to Annapolis, Md., where they were to join the assembled forces of General Burnside, who had received orders to move on his expedition south.

The battalion arrived in Jersey City, opposite New York, on the morning of the 28th. Here a delay of some hours occurred. The major, commanding, found that the railroad officials had provided a train composed of cattle cars which had not been cleaned out since their last freight of stock had been unloaded. They were informed by Major Wright that he had men, not cattle to transport. He told them they would have to provide better accommodations. They insisted that they had nothing better. “Very well,” was the reply of the energetic major, “we will stay here, at your expense, until you find something better; and in the meantime I will report the affair to the proper military authorities.” That settled it. The major was informed that other and better cars would be supplied as soon as possible. The vigor and promptness shown by Major Wright in thus caring for the comfort of the men of his command was so gratifying that the officers determined to show their appreciation by presenting him with some token of it. While waiting for the promised train to be made up they sent out and purchased a fine field glass which they





presented to him in due form and with fitting language. Very soon after, the train was announced, and in a few hours more they were enjoying the welcome hospitalities of the “Cooper Shop,” in Philadelphia, a place well and most favorably known to all soldiers passing through that city,—the fame of which is a lasting monument to the large hearted and practical patriotism of its citizens, which really earned for it the title of the “City of Brotherly Love.” Resuming their route at midnight they soon reached the Maryland line. From this point to Baltimore the bridges had been burned in the preceding spring by rebel sympathizers, and they now had block-houses at either end, garrisoned by Union soldiers. It looked warlike enough to the inexperienced men who now saw garrisoned block-houses for the first time. Upon reaching Baltimore the battalion had to take the usual march of about two miles through that city, from one station to the other, where cars were to be taken for Annapolis Junction. Orders were given that the command should keep closed up, and in no case reply to any threats or threatening demonstrations from any roughs or street crowds, if such should be made. No one was molested, however, during the line of march.

The loyal citizens of Baltimore were endeavoring to establish a refreshment place for soldiers on the plan of the one in Philadelphia. The Fifth were invited to partake of their hospitality, and did so, the men receiving a piece of bread and boiled pork and a cup of coffee each. “You are our first guests,” said the entertainers. Before the battalion left, however, Major Wright was asked to give a receipt for the rations issued to his men. Up to that time all in the battalion supposed it was what it purported to be, the free hospitality of the citizens. At noon, on the 29th, the battalion left for Annapolis Junction, where they met General Burnside. He was greeted with rousing and enthusiastic cheers. At this point cars were taken for Annapolis, which was reached in the evening, and the battalion went into camp on the grounds of the Naval Academy, where, when the men had time to look around, the presence of so large a force of men, and the vast preparations both on land and water, made each one realize that for them all preparatory steps were over and that he was in very deed one of the army in the field.






[Illustration:

In the Gale off Hatteras.
]





CHAPTER II. FROM ANNAPOLIS, MD., TO HATTERAS INLET.

THE first of the new year, 1862, found the battalion still in camp on the grounds it had first occupied on arrival at Annapolis. It was known as Camp Harris. On the 4th of January the Fourth Regiment Rhode Island Volunteers and Battery F, First Rhode Island Light Artillery, Captain Belger, commanding, arrived in camp. There had been an especial transfer of these organizations from the army of the Potomac to this expedition. In the case of Battery F, it was the beginning of that strong mutual comradeship and warm friendship between its officers and men and those of the Fifth Rhode Island Regiment known only to soldiers who have cemented these feelings by sharing the same toils and the same dangers, who have experienced the same joys and the same sorrows, during the successive campaigns of a long and bloody war, and whatever is said of approval or commendation of the members of the Fifth Regiment Rhode Island Volunteers applies with equal force to the officers and men of the gallant Battery F.

The quiet city of Annapolis now presented a most stirring scene, one that will never pass from the memory of those who then witnessed it, and probably one that never again will occur in that somnolent old town. A fleet of forty-six transports for the troops and their material, eleven of which were steamers, and nine armed propellers and five large armed barges fitted to serve as floating batteries, were anchored in the harbor. On land there were fifteen regiments and one battalion of infantry, and one battery of light artillery waiting the order to embark. Dispatch boats were darting in and out among the fleet, while anxious aides-de-camp and hurrying mounted orderlies were to be seen everywhere on land. The scene presented a great and most animating change from the quiet of the camp the Fifth Battalion had so recently left.






[Illustration:

Gen. Jesse L. Reno.
]

As soon as the last regiments arrived the land forces were divided into three brigades composed as follows: The first comprised the Twenty - third, Twenty - fourth, Twenty-fifth and Twenty-seventh Massachusetts and the Tenth Connecticut infantry, under the command of Brig.-Gen. John G. Foster. The second was composed of the Sixth New Hampshire, Ninth New Jersey, Twenty-first Massachusetts, Fifty-first New York and Fifty-first Pennsylvania regiments of infantry, and was under the command of Brig.-Gen. Jesse L. Reno. The third was formed from the Eighth and Eleventh Connecticut, Fifty-third and Eighty-ninth New York, the Fourth Rhode Island and the First Battalion of the Fifth Regiment of Rhode Island Infantry, and was commanded by Brig.-Gen. John G. Parke. There was also a naval brigade recruited in New York by the name of the Volunteer Marine Artillery, commanded by Colonel Howard, which was especially organized for this expedition. The bustle and the excitement was almost bewildering. But, war on so large a scale is a great educator, and in a few days these comparatively inexperienced men looked upon greater and far more exciting scenes with all the coolness of the oldest veterans.

January 5th, “Paid off to-day.” What soldier ever forgets the first pay day in camp? The sharp “Fall in!” of the orderly sergeant; the march of the entire company to the pay table; the formal identification of each man as his name is called and he steps forward to take the crisp notes, and, on this, and the only occasion, some shining gold. Does any like amount of money ever again give the same feeling of satisfaction? On this day the embarkation of the troops commenced, but it was not until the 8th that the Fifth





Battalion went on board the good ship, Kitty Simpson, Captain Hepburn, master. On the 9th she was taken in tow for Fortress Monroe. When outside, in Chesapeake Bay, the fog became so dense that she was obliged to anchor until the next day. Already the men began to show the soldier's indifference to the future. An officer writing of that trip says: “There was plenty of singing and dancing, of chatting and laughing, of smoking and card-playing. All seemed to enjoy themselves and did not appear to find the time pass wearily.” At last the fog lifted and the vessel again started for her destination, arriving at Fortress Monroe about three o'clock on the afternoon of the 11th. Here the men obtained the first view of a portion of the armed confederacy. The guns of the rebel batteries on Sewall's Point could be seen from their anchorage with the naked eye.


[Illustration:

Gen. John G. Parke.
]

About noon, on the 12th, the Kitty Simpson, this time under sealed orders, was again taken in tow. When off Cape Henry the pilot, taking with him the letters written to loved ones at home, boarded the tug, the line was cast off, sails were set, and the ship stood out to sea. When well out the orders were opened, and it was soon known that the destination of the expedition was Hatteras Inlet, and the ship bore away for that point. There was at this time much talk about rebel privateers, and a sharp look out was kept for all strange craft. In the middle of the night the ship's watch was startled by the sharp hail of “What ship is that? Where bound?” coming from what seemed to be a gunboat that had come unpleasantly near in the darkness. Captain Hepburn was on deck at





the time and he answered, “The ship Kitty Simpson—bound South!” With an oath the commander of the gunboat replied, “I want a better answer than that!” and he called his crew to quarters and lighted his battle-lanterns. “If you have any right to ask that question you know my destination as well as I do!” was the reply of the sturdy master of the Kitty Simpson. Then he shouted to his own crew, “clear away that gun forward!” adding to those standing near, “If they fire, I will!” He had a four-pounder iron gun forward to fire signals with. By this time the gunboat had come so near that it was seen that she was one of the armed ferry-boats that belonged to the expedition, and the officer in charge of her apparently became satisfied that the Kitty Simpson was not the looked for rebel privateer, and bestowing some unsolicited advice on Captain Hepburn about answering hails more promptly in the future he soon drew out of sight in the gloom of the night. Our course that night lay directly out to sea to clear Hatteras shoals, and a bucket of water was drawn every half hour and tested with the thermometer. Bye and bye a rise of ten degrees showed we had reached the gulf stream and consequently were clear of the shoals, and the course was changed to the southwest, direct for Hatteras Inlet. No other incident of note occurred until anchor was cast in Hatteras Cove, on the afternoon of the 13th, where a large portion of the fleet had arrived, and some of the vessels of light draft had already safely crossed the bar of Hatteras Inlet.

As the Fifth Rhode Island is now about to enter upon the theatre of its whole life as a military organization, an attempt will be made to give the briefest possible description of this portion of the coast of North Carolina, and some of the military reasons why it was selected at this time as the scene of active operations. The northeastern coast of North Carolina presents a peculiar formation. Between Cape Henry, in Virginia, and Cape Fear, in North Carolina, bordering upon the ocean is a narrow strip of sandy beach of ever varying width through the action of storm and tide, and rising nowhere more than a few feet above high water. From Cape Henry to Cape Hatteras its general direction is slightly east of south. From Cape Hatteras to Cape Lookout it trends to the southwest. Cape Hatteras is its easternmost point, and the whole of this portion





of the Atlantic coast is known as one of the stormiest and most dangerous in the world. Between this narrow strip of almost barren sand and the mainland are three sounds, known as the Currituck, Albemarle and Pamlico. Commencing at the north Currituck begins near Cape Henry and extends nearly half way to Cape Hatteras, and is narrow, shallow, and of little importance. Albemarle is next, and its greatest length is from east to west. It penetrates deeply into the mainland, and the Chowan and Roanoke rivers are its principal tributaries. Pamlico sound follows in order toward the south, and its longer axis is from the northeast to the southwest, conforming to the coast line. This sound has various local subdivisions, as Roanoke, Croatan and others, and its principal rivers are the Pamlico and Neuse. The Albemarle and Pamlico sounds afford safe navigation for vessels drawing a considerable depth of water, but near the shores they are very shallow, and owing to the sandy nature of the bottom this depth is always varying.

A number of inlets through the narrow strip of sandy beach afford an entrance from the ocean to these sounds. Some of them are places where, during some great storm, the sea has broken through, and the subsequent flow of the tide has deepened the channel thus formed. At the ocean entrance to these inlets there is always a sand bar, or in local dialect, “a bulkhead,” and another is found at the entrance to the sound, and it is known as “the swash.” The channel between “the bulkhead” and “the swash” is often quite deep. Hatteras Inlet, just south of Cape Hatteras was formed by an inroad of the ocean, and it is the northernmost as well as the principal inlet to Pamlico and Albemarle sounds.

A glance at the military situation at this time shows a strong Confederate force at Norfolk, and fronting the Union forces around Fortress Monroe. South of the Virginia capes, the next harbor of importance was Wilmington, on Cape Fear River. It was so strongly fortified that it was impracticable to attempt its reduction with any force then available for such a movement. At that time and during nearly the whole war it was the principal seaport in the possession of the Confederates. It will be seen that a strong force established in the Pamlico and Albemarle sounds, would have first, a safe and secure base of supplies arriving by way of the ocean;





second, toward the north it would threaten the flank and rear of the Confederate forces at Norfolk, Virginia; third, toward the south it could operate in the rear of the forces defending Wilmington, and fourth, if in possession of New Berne it threatened Goldsboro and the principal line of communication between Richmond and Wilmington; and, if firmly established at Goldsboro, it severed that line and opened up the way to Raleigh and the interior of the state. Early in the autumn of 1861, as soon as the authorities at Washington had determined to send General Burnside to North Carolina, General Butler, then in command at Fortress Monroe, had been directed to take and fortify the points on either side of Hatteras Inlet. Accordingly a considerable force had been sent down there at once, and strong forts had been erected. The presence of this force was a menace to the security of the rebel forces around Norfolk Virginia, and to protect their flank from any attack coming from this direction they had fortified and strongly garrisoned Roanoke Island, at the entrance to Albemarle Sound. At this time the garrisons at Hatteras Inlet were under the command of Brigadier-General Williams. Considering the relative strength and positions of the Union and Confederate forces and the supposed existence of a loyal feeling among a large portion of the people of North Carolina, there were sound military, if not strong political reasons for this expedition. Its first enterprise, after passing Hatteras Inlet, was the reduction of Roanoke Island.

If there is any one place where even the best regiment is absolutely helpless it is on a crowded transport in a dangerous gale at sea. The men are in the way of the ship's officers and crew, and in each other's way, and utterly powerless to avert any threatening danger. Impending death cannot be met here by the exciting rush of a charge straight in its face with rifle in hand. In this case it was even worse than on the open sea, for the ship was anchored to a treacherous bottom on one of the most dangerous coasts in the world. There was at high tide only twelve to thirteen feet of water on the Inlet bar, and the Kitty Simpson drew fourteen feet. It was decided to remain at anchor for the night and then lighten ship. During the night a heavy gale sprang up from the northeast and veered to northwest on the 15th and continued until the 16th.





Nothing could be done but to hold on and wait. Officers and men alike were sea-sick, and the ship pitched heavily at her anchors. The gale abated somewhat, and on the 16th and 17th about seventy tons of ballast was thrown over. As the weather was very threatening it was decided to make the attempt to enter the sound the
[Illustration:

Capt. Jonathan M. Wheeler. (From a recent picture.)
]

following day. A quiet and reticent non-combatant connected with the battalion gave at the time this graphic picture of the scene: “At ten A. M. of the 18th the propeller, Virginia, came out to take us over the bar—but we struck, the hawser parted, and away the steamer went and left us there, pounding away at every sea enough to smash anything but the staunchest of ships to pieces. We got up





sail and tried every means to get off. At one time the battalion was formed and the men were rapidly moved first forward then aft, hoping by this manœuvre to ease her off, but the tide was ebbing and we stuck faster at every blow. Several tugs came out to us, and one of them took a hawser, but it parted immediately and soon we were fast and immovable. About four P. M. the tide rose enough to let the pounding begin again. The situation began to look ‘solemn’ for us, as the wreck of the steamer New York, which was lost a few days before, while trying to go in, was lying but a hundred yards from us. ‘It seemed,’ as one of the boys said, ‘like being deathly sick with a grave-yard right under the window.’ ”

About five P. M. another steamer came as near as the waves would permit, with orders to take off the men. Two or three managed to jump aboard her as she rose on the crest of a wave, but this method of transfer was fraught with danger to both life and limb. Major Wright, whose dogged firmness was as equal to this emergency as the one in Jersey City, emphatically refused to obey the order. “Then, for some time the air was full of words between the major and aide-de-camp Pell, and the captain of the steamer with the master of the ship. The ‘swearing in Flanders’ was child's play in comparison.” Seeing the delay General Burnside ran down in his dispatch boat, and finding that Major Wright was correct in asserting that the ship was afloat, he ordered the steamer to pass a hawser aboard and try to tow her in. But Captain Hepburn, with language more vigorous than respectful, said, “You wouldn't help me when I needed it, and — you, I won't have you now,” and refused to give them his hawser. But better counsels soon prevailed, we took the proffered help and soon were over the “bulkhead,” into the channel, amid the cheers of our men and the troops on the other vessels inside, who had seen her pounding away there all day, and supposed that she would meet the fate which had befallen other vessels in her situation, which was to go to pieces.

The men experienced all the discomforts of a crowded transport. On the 22d a southeast gale, accompanied with rain, sprang up, and steadily increased during the day. By night it was blowing a gale, and the anxiety of officers and men was increased by the doleful sound of signal guns of distress. In the morning it was found that





the hospital bark had broken from her moorings and had gone smashing around among the other vessels, and she was now seen flying signals of distress, but no assistance could be rendered to her so great was the force of the gale. It is impossible to recount the various incidents that occurred or note the damage inflicted on the fleet by this gale, which the Fifth just escaped in so timely a manner.

The condition of the men on this vessel is thus described by a member of the battalion:

“Our quarters on board the Kitty Simpson were extremely disagreeable. Most of the transports were provided with bunks for the men, but on our vessel the different companies of the battalion were assigned to positions between decks, and so limited were our sleeping accommodations that we were packed together like sardines in a box. We were compelled to lie down spoon fashion, with no room to flop over. The place was dark and stifling, and a few ship lanterns were all the lights we had. It was as much as a man's neck was worth to get up during the night and endeavor to go on deck to obtain a breath of fresh air, for it was impossible to step without placing one's foot on a comrade's head or some portion of the body. Some nights when the weather was fair, a comrade and myself would take our blankets and get under a small boat on deck, preferring to sleep in the open air, although it was mid-winter, rather than camp down in the close and stifling atmosphere below.”

Time was passed on the Kitty Simpson with occasionally an incident to break the monotony. During the stay of the battalion measles broke out among the men, and on February 1st Surgeon Potter sent five of the worst cases to the hospital ship. One of this squad, private Peck, died soon after. It was the second death in the battalion, private Ryan having died in a fit at Annapolis, Md., the night before the embarkation.






[Illustration:

Attack on the Confederate Forts by the Union Fleet at Roanoke Island. [The steamer S.R. Spaulding in the foreground was occupied by General Burnside and Staff, and also had on board the Fifth Rhode Island Battalion.]
]





CHAPTER III. CAPTURE AND OCCUPATION OF ROANOKE ISLAND.

THE last day of the month saw all of the troops safe in the sound, and immediate steps were taken to commence the initial operations of the campaign on land. The general plan of operations, briefly stated, was first to reduce the forts and capture the Confederate troops on Roanoke Island at the junction of the Pamlico and Albemarle sounds, and about forty miles north of Hatteras Inlet. At this time it might be regarded as the southern outpost to Norfolk, Virginia. Immediately following this operation a descent was to be made on New Berne. This city was situated on the right, or south bank of the Neuse River, at the junction of the Trent, a short distance above its entrance into Pamlico Sound at the extreme southwestern corner. It may be well to state here that a direct line of railway runs nearly due south from Richmond to Wilmington, and was one of the principal lines of supply for the rebel armies operating in Virginia. At Goldsboro this line was crossed by the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad running southeast from Raleigh down along the Neuse River through New Berne to Beaufort, just south of Cape Lookout on the ocean. The entrance to Beaufort harbor was guarded by Fort Macon. Having taken New Berne and securely established himself there, General Burnside was to turn to his left and capture Beaufort and Fort Macon. Retracing his steps he was to seize the railroad as far as Goldsboro, and, if possible, hold that place, thus severing the communications between Richmond and Wilmington, and then operate towards Raleigh, the capital of the State.

Feb. 3, 1862, the battalion was transferred to the steamer S. R. Spaulding, on which General Burnside had established his





headquarters, and two days afterward the fleet moved toward Roanoke Island, the gunboats leading in single file, and the transports following in three divisions. “Pamlico Sound was covered with vessels in all directions as far as the eye could reach, all moving majestically along with flags flying, presenting a glorious sight in comparison with its storm-tossed appearance of a few days before.” Taking up a position between the island and mainland anchors were cast for the night, and that mysterious something, it might be called “a feeling” known only to soldiers and sailors on the eve of an engagement, told all on the fleet that the next few days were to bring stirring scenes to these hitherto inexperienced men.

The island was strongly fortified and all of the known landings were guarded by a strong force of the enemy which was to aid in the defence, while a fleet of small gunboats were hovering near, ready to aid the land forces at the first opportune moment. “Where was the best point to attempt a landing?” had been for sometime an anxious query at headquarters. In this case, as in many others, good fortune came from the humblest and most unexpected source. A bright mulatto boy, a slave, of sixteen or seventeen years of age, who said his name was “Tom,” had escaped from his master—on the island—and sought refuge among our men. It was soon ascertained that he had something to tell, and he was sent to General Burnside, who had a long interview with him. “Tom” knew all about the island and the forts and forces there. There was a strong battery about the centre of the island. There were two or three others at different points. There were infantry and artillery there also. “There were,” he said, “the ‘Overland Grays,’ ‘Yankee Killers,’ ‘Sons of Liberty,’ ‘Jackson Avengers’ and the ‘O. K. Boys,’ from North Carolina,” as well as others with less high sounding titles from Virginia. He was asked if he knew of a good landing place. “Oh, yes; at Ashby's Harbor. I have been there many times,” was his reply, and gladly consented to become the needed guide. It was learned that up from this harbor there was a pretty good road to the place where the principal rebel fort was situated. The information he gave was of the greatest service and most materially aided in rendering the movement a success. “He was a quick-witted lad, and he was observed long afterwards at General Burnside's headquarters,






[Illustration:

Map of Roanoke Island N.C.
]









at Falmouth, Va., intently conning a spelling-book he had possessed himself of, and steadily engaged at every leisure moment in learning to read.”

There were in reality, no less than five earthworks on the island, armed for the most part with heavy ordnance. Just north of the centre of the island a row of piles and other obstructions had been placed across the channel to the mainland. It was also protected by a strong land battery, and behind it lay the rebel fleet ready to prevent its removal. There were also five regiments and two battalions of infantry on the island. Such was the situation of affairs on the night of the 5th of February. On the morning of the 6th the fleet began to work toward shore, but before the movement was completed rain began to fall, and a gale sprang up in the afternoon, which caused a suspension of operations for that day. The weather having cleared on the morning of the 7th, at half-past ten o'clock a division of the gunboats opened fire on the forts on the island, engaging the rebel fleet at the same time. They failed to completely silence the fire of the forts, but the rebel fleet was easily driven away each time it ventured from behind the line of obstructions across the channel.

On the part of the army the first thing to be done was to get ashore. The transports were still at anchor but ready to move at a moment's notice. The initial enterprise fell to the lot of our battalion, the historical account of which is as follows:

About ten o'clock A. M. a boat load of volunteers from the Fifth Rhode Island Battalion, guided by “Tom,” and under the command of Lieutenant Andrews, detailed from the Ninth New York to act as engineer on General Burnside's staff, was sent up to the harbor to take soundings and reconnoitre the landing place. The duty was performed with great coolness and intrepidity by the party. The following forcible and detailed account of this undertaking is by a well-known officer of the battalion: “Shortly after the action commenced between the fleet and the forts, the general sent Lieutenant Andrews of the Ninth New York (Hawkins’ Zouaves), who had for a short time been acting on his staff, with an armed boat's crew from the Fifth, under the command of Sergt. Charles Taft of Company E, to make soundings of the depth of the water along the shore, around what was known as Ashby's Harbor. They went on their





errand, skirted along the shore for quite a distance, when Lieutenant Andrews, contrary to the orders received, directed them to pull to the shore and land. No sooner had they reached the shore and one or two of them got out of the boat, than a company of rebels who had been watching them, concealed by the grass and sedge that lined the shore, rose up and delivered a volley in their faces at short range. Corp. Charles Viall, of Company E, was struck by a bullet right in the centre of the chin, knocking out the teeth, and carrying away the left lower jaw. Some of the others had their clothing perforated. What is surprising is, that considering the circumstances, they were not all killed or wounded. As it was, the honor of being the first in the expedition to shed his blood for the Union, belonged to one of the Fifth. Sergeant Taft returned the fire of the rebels, and the enemy dropped out of sight into their cover of reeds and did not fire another shot. The boat returned to the Spaulding where Surgeon Potter extracted the ball from the wounded man's jaw. The first words uttered by the young man, after he was relieved by the operation, was an emphatic, ‘D—n the rebels!’ and when his face was properly bandaged and he saw the teeth and pieces of bone, he said, ‘Doctor, my jaw is spoilt for hard tack, isn't it?’ ”

Tugs, barges, in fact any kind of boat that could be utilized had been filled with men, and each steamer of light draft had two of them in tow. At four P. M. the signal to move for the landing pointed out by the boy “Tom,” was given. The scene was animated and striking beyond description, the boats dashing up to the shore, each vieing with the other; the men jumped overboard as the boats grounded, waded to land, and with cheers of exultation planted the stars and stripes on Roanoke Island. General Foster's brigade had the advance, and in an hour four thousand men were put ashore. The Fifth Battalion landed in two detachments between eight and nine o'clock, and by eleven o'clock all of the troops were put ashore. As fast as the men landed they pushed through the tangled swamp bordering the shore, adding, as they foundered along in the darkness, a coating of black muck to their already drenched clothing. To increase their discomforts rain began to fall. The leading regiments of General Foster's brigade advanced until they were on the causeway running through the centre of the island, on which in a strong and commanding position about a mile and a half to the





north were the fort and other works which were to be assaulted. The gloomy night was succeeded by a cheerless morning. The advance was led by the first brigade, and the rebel works were found to be too strong to attempt an attack until the second brigade under General Reno could come up. The third brigade was held in reserve. Very early in the morning General Parke had directed
[Illustration:

Lieut.-Col. Job Arnold.
]

Major Wright to march the battalion to Ashby's House on the westerly side of the island, where the rebels had erected a small earthwork to prevent the Union forces from landing at that place which was a much better harbor than that at Hammond's where we did go ashore.

The enemy, though inferior in point of numbers, were strongly posted in a fortified position, well defended with artillery. At last Reno's men had struggled through a deep and tangled swamp, which the enemy had supposed impassable, to the position assigned





to them, which enabled them to turn the enemy's works and attack their flank, while Foster's assaulted in front. At last the signal was given and the whole line swept forward to the charge, the parapets were mounted with a rush, the enemy were scattered, and the men of Reno and Foster met in the centre of the captured battery. While this was being accomplished the Fifth Battalion was struggling along on its march to the Ashby House. Owing to the almost impassable nature of the ground and the dense fog its direction was lost for a time. Major Wright was ordered to remain at this point and act as a guard to the hospital which was to be established here.

In a short time the wounded began to come in, and, toward evening, all were cheered by the news that all of the Confederate forces on the island had surrendered. The battalion bivouacked in the open air, and the night, if possible, was more cold, dismal and uncomfortable than the preceding one. Besides, it was not a pleasant situation to be in such close proximity to the poor fellows, lying wounded or dead in the house and on the piazza, who, in the morning were as full of life and spirits as strength and high hopes could make them.

At this time the hospital arrangements were of the very crudest kind, nor had the sanitary commission yet reached us with its supplies of food and comfort for the wounded, so that there was no nourishment except what rations the men brought ashore in their haversacks, which was very improper food for wounded men even had they not, as was generally the case, lost their haversacks when they were brought to the hospital. At this point “Doctor” Diggs, Surgeon Potter's colored servant, showed his ability as caterer and cook. He found some corn meal of which he made gruel and johnny cakes; he got a detail of a soldier to shoot a steer which he dressed and made beef tea, soup and roasts. He followed a track into the swamp and found two barrels of flour and visited a rebel camp and procured some bacon and cooking utensils, and so he fed forty wounded men and their attendants until they were removed three and four days after. Five boxes of hard bread and two barrels of steeped coffee were sent from the ships in the evening of the second day. Diggs supplied everything else.

Five forts, mounting thirty-two guns, two thousand six hundred and seventy-seven prisoners, three thousand stand of small arms and





a large amount of material of war were the field trophies of this victory, and the rebel flag never again floated on Roanoke Island. Our loss in the land and naval engagements were: forty-one killed and one hundred and eighty one wounded in the land attack, while the naval loss was three killed and eleven wounded. The next day, Sunday, February 9th, was devoted to gathering the material fruits of the victory, and to that other always sad duty of giving a field burial to the dead. In the afternoon the battalion marched to Fort Bartow, where General Burnside had established his headquarters. Here the men pitched camp for the first time since leaving Annapolis, a month before, and at once entered upon their duties as garrison of the post and guard at general headquarters. A detachment under Lieut. James Moran was placed in charge of the hospital containing the rebel sick and wounded, with orders to make out the rolls for all the prisoners in it. It was a detail from this detachment which exhumed the body of O. Jennings Wise, late an editor of the Richmond Whig, and an officer in O. Jennings Wise's Legion. Young Wise had been shot and fatally wounded while attempting to escape in a small boat, after the battle. He was the favorite son of Ex-Governor Wise, of Virginia, of “John Brown” fame, and who was at this time a brigadier-general in the rebel army, and in command of the forces at Roanoke Island. The general was sick at Nag's Head, on the day of the battle, and so escaped capture. The body of young Wise was sent to his friends in the rebel lines.

On the 9th, General Burnside caused the following order to be published:

Hdqrs. Dept. of North Carolina, Roanoke Island, N. C., Feb. 9, 1862.

General Orders, No. 7.

The general commanding congratulates his troops on their brilliant and successful occupation of Roanoke Island. The courage and steadiness they have shown under fire is what he expected from them, and he accepts it as a token of future victory. Each regiment on the island will inscribe on its banner, “Roanoke Island, February 8, 1862.”

The highest praise is due to Brigadier-Generals Foster, Reno, and Parke, who so bravely and energetically carried out the movement that has resulted in the complete success of the Union arms.

By command of Brig.-Gen. A. E. BURNSIDE, Lewis Richmond, Assistant Adjutant-General.





A few days after the battle a detachment of our battalion under the command of Lieut. William W. Douglas was sent with aide-de-camp Pell to Nag's Head, where they made a thorough search of General Wise's quarters, which resulted in securing considerable correspondence, which was of great service to General Burnside. For some days after the battle the battalion remained on duty at the fort. With what rejoicings and firing of salutes the news of this victory was received at the North, how everybody and almost everything connected with the expedition was congratulated and how the commanding general was thanked by officers of all grades, how the Rhode Island legislature then in session, passed resolutions of commendation and voted him a magnificent sword, must be themes for other histories than this..

On the 19th of February, an expedition composed of our battalion and a detachment from the fleet, under the joint command of Major Wright and Captain Jeffers of the navy, was sent up Currituck Sound to destroy some salt works about sixty miles from Roanoke Island. The combined force embarked on the stern wheeler, Union, which was always known to the men as the Wheelbarrow, and two launches, each armed with a boat's howitzer, were taken in tow. Everything went smoothly until the “Narrows,” some ten miles from the works, were reached. Here, owing to the shallowness of the water, and the very narrow and crooked channel, if such a term could be used where no channel existed as we understand the meaning of the term, we were entirely unsuccessful. “We thought our boat could steam over any part of the state in a heavy dew or on a wet day, but this crooked ditch of mud and sand held a better hand than the Wheelbarrow, and had trumps to spare.” Every expedient that Yankee ingenuity and sailor skill could devise was made use of. Cables and anchors were carried out on shore and we tried to warp around the bends. We moved backward and then we moved forward. The steamer's bow was jammed into one bank while the wheel, at the stern, threw up the thick black mud at the other. We got in so far that we had quite as much labor and trouble in getting out; and then we tried to go through with the launches, only to find that they drew more water than the steamer, so we finally concluded that we would not destroy those salt works





on this trip. Darkness coming on we managed to get back into the sound, when we cast anchor for the night.

On the way back to the island a landing was made on the mainland to secure a small schooner that had been used by the rebel troops to escape from Nag's Head, on the day of the battle. Here
[Illustration:

Capt. George H. Grant.
]

some of the officers and men received permission to go inland. During their scouting they met with a number of amusing incidents in their efforts to get acquainted with some of the people, and at the same time make additions to their army rations. “No man wanted a thing he was not willing to pay for.” It was the garden of Eden era of the war. Two of these incidents will show the temper of





the people at that time. An officer writes: “At one house the party visited, we had a funny experience. When we entered the yard no one was to be seen, not even a dog. We went up to the house, the doors were open and no one in sight. Pretty soon a man, we should judge he was about fifty years of age, came in out of a clump of bushes near the house. We met him on the porch and asked if any one was in. He replied, “No, they are all away;” whereat some one said he need not be afraid, no one would do him any harm. At once he put on what was meant to be a very bold front, at the same time shaking all over, and said he had never yet seen the man he was afraid of. We assured him we were not there to interfere with peaceable citizens; that all we wanted was to see if we could not buy eggs, chickens, or something of that kind. We did not talk long before we noticed a commotion under a bed in a room, the door of which was open, giving us a plain view. We soon saw the cause of it in the person of an old woman who had taken refuge there. When she same out the hearty laugh that greeted her, and the good natured rallying she received for hiding under the bed put her in great good humor. She went immediately to another room, and the result was that a daughter came out from under another bed. She then went to the back door of the house and, raising her voice to its highest pitch, called to another, who soon responded by coming in from the woods, which, as usual, are conveniently near all the houses. The daughters proved to be two comely looking young women, and they came in, sat down, and joined in the conversation which now reverted to the subject of what could be bought. We got several things, and, on leaving, the whole family were quite cordial in their adieus.”

A private letter of that date gives this experience of another party: “We landed at the place where General Wise landed in his retreat, and we sunk a large scow which he had used to carry troops over on. We took dinner with a Baptist minister who had a Union flag flying in his door-yard. He had a large plantation, and owned about fifty slaves. They were tumbling and crawling all about the place, and he seemed like a patriarch surrounded by his family, with men servants, and maid servants, and little children. He gave us chicken and ham, sausage and corn bread, hominy and pudding.”





Upon its return to camp the battalion resumed drilling and guard duty at the fort now known as Fort Foster, varied by fatigue duty in building a large floating dock from the landing out into the sound. This life was very monotonous. A private letter of the date of March 2d, says: “General Burnside came into our tent to-day and sat and talked a long time. He complimented our battalion very highly on their proficiency in the rifle drill, and spoke of the neatness of our camp.” The day following we learn that “General Burnside very kindly and thoughtfully sent two copies of the New York Herald of the date of February 22d, to our company for their use. He is continually endearing himself to the men by some such act of thoughtfulness for their comfort. No man could be more beloved and more respected than he is by us all.”

Tales of death by accident are common enough at all times, and far too common in the history of most military organizations. Just by way of variety we must tell how one of the “boys” of the Fifth did not get killed by accident. Private George W. Ford was on guard at headquarters one day. With a comrade he started to go down to camp. Filling his pipe as he walked along, he stopped by an unexploded nine-inch shell, lying near the path, and, scratching a match on the shell, he lighted his pipe. He then called to his comrade, who had passed on. The soldier turned in time to see Ford stoop down put the lighted match in the fuse hole of the shell; then he was deafened by the noise of the explosion and thoroughly frightened by the flying fragments of iron. The explosion which followed made a hole in the sand deep enough and big enough to bury a horse. But Ford was not hurt. Pieces of the shell fell in the camp of the Eighth Connecticut, a quarter of a mile away. They picked up the fragments of “old iron,” “and came down,” as one of the men said at the time, to our camp, madder than any Connecticut regiment we had ever before seen, and wanted to know, what “in the name of the Great Jehovah, we were doing.”

But the characteristic kindness of General Burnside to his Rhode Island boys, and their toyings with charged shell were soon ended by the preparations for another important movement.





CHAPTER IV. THE BATTLE AND CAPTURE OF New Berne.

THE regiments which were to take part in the new movement received orders to be ready on the 26th of February, but it was as late as the 6th of March before all the preparations were completed and the embarkation of the troops really commenced, and it was not until the 9th that all were finally on board of the transports. The Fifth did not embark until the 9th, and it was divided into two detachments, one composed of Companies B and C, with Major Wright and the battalion staff going aboard the steam ferry-boat Curlew, and Companies A, D, and E, finding quarters on the ferry-boat Eagle.

“At ten o'clock on the morning of the 11th, the fleet assembled off the mouth of Hatteras Inlet, in Pamlico Sound, and, on the morning of the 12th, the commanding general issued a general order, notifying his troops that they were on the eve of an important movement, which would greatly demoralize the enemy and materially assist the Army of the Potomac in its operations against the city of Richmond.” On the morning of the 12th the fleet was again put under way, this time escorted by fourteen gunboats under the command of Commander S. C. Rowan. No pen or tongue can give a full description of the beauty of this morning in the early spring of this climate. It was one that will never be forgotten by those who looked upon it then, and all unite in their glowing narrations of it. “The whole body of the sound was as smooth as a mirror; not a ripple ruffled its surface, which appeared in the rosy light of the morning like burnished gold. Every vessel in the fleet was decked with flags and the gayest of bunting in one way or another, though the light winds blowing from the north could barely flutter ensign and pennant.” As the fleet steamed slowly to the southwest the low lying mainland










[Illustration:

Map of New Berne & Vicinity.
Prepared for the Twenty Third History

]













on the right was the nearest shore, and, as it passed along on its way it was steadily preceded by successive columns of black smoke rising from the signal fires lighted to give warning of the progress of the expedition along the coast. Soon after noon the scene changed, for the sky clouded and by the time the fleet had reached the Neuse and ascended as far as Slocum's Creek, about fifteen miles below New Berne, and the proposed point for the debarkation of the troops, the heavens were dark with portents of rain and storm. Not long after anchors were cast “word was passed from vessel to vessel that General Burnside had been promoted by the President to the rank of Major-General.” “On receiving this news the air was rent by cheer upon cheer, which were repeated again and again, clearly showing the love and respect of the soldiers for their commander.” Scarcely had the fleet assembled near the mouth of the creek when rain began to fall, and the next morning was rainy and cheerless enough to dispirit men of more than ordinary courage. About eight o'clock, however, the clouds broke, the sun shone out once more, and in an hour the men were in the small boats ready to land. Here, as at Roanoke Island, the water along shore was very shallow, and many of the men were compelled to leave the boats and wade to the firm land; and, here as there, no sooner had the debarkation fairly commenced than rain began to fall again. Wet as the men were no time was lost at the landing, but as fast as they came ashore the line of march was at once taken up, with a skirmish line from the Twenty-fourth Massachusetts well in advance. Under the effect of the marching men in front, the roads soon became almost impassable for those who followed, the sticky mud adhering to their feet and lower clothing at every step until they often became so heavy that the tired men could scarcely lift them. The time spent in landing and a march of about twelve miles over such terrible roads used up the whole day, and a half-rain, half-drizzle of the most aggravating character fell nearly all of the time.

During the afternoon the first of two abandoned lines of rebel fortifications was passed. A private letter thus describes it: “We pursued them past their barracks and past a splendid battery, from which they had removed the guns. This battery extended from the river to the railroad, and was protected by a ditch eight or nine feet





deep. There were platforms in place for the guns, but the guns were not there. We could have held it with 5,000 men against all the soldiers in North Carolina. It looked absolutely impregnable, except against siege guns, which we did not have. Yet the rebels left it without firing a shot.” It was at this point that quite a number of men from the different regiments indulged in considerable foraging in a populous farm-yard, and Sergt. Charles Perrigo, of Company A, was fatally wounded by an accidental shot, which was intended for some pig or turkey.

As soon as one of the detachments of the battalion landed at Slocum's Creek it commenced its march to the front without waiting for the coming of the other. The halt for the night was made as near as possible to the rebel line of fortifications, which was about four miles southeast of New Berne. At dark the leading detachment of the battalion “filed left” off the road and bivouacked for the night. Says an officer: “A tireder set of men than we were can seldom be seen, and as soon as possible we tried to get some rest so as to be as fresh as might be for the work which all knew was to be done the next day. It was almost impossible to find a place to lie down or spread a blanket on, as the level surface of the ground afforded no drainage for the water to run off, and it was so thoroughly saturated that it could hold no more. The consequence was that it was covered with a sheet of water a few inches deep all over it, except at the foot of the pine trees, whose roots raised the surrounding surface a little, and with which the whole region round about was heavily timbered.”

Here, amid these inclement surroundings this detachment passed the night, and never was a morning more welcome than the one that followed it. While these men were enduring such discomfort the members of the other detachment were more fortunate. A letter says:

“At last, completely exhausted by our march, the men dropped down around some fires in a farm-yard which had been left by the troops that had preceded us, and they were soon asleep. I had the good fortune to get into an out-building, a negro hut, where some stragglers from the Fourth Rhode Island were cooking a savory smelling mess in the broad fire-place. I accepted their cordial invitation





to sit at their table, and was soon absorbing moderate doses of a very good chicken soup. I had the satisfaction of calling in Captain Wright and Lieutenant Hall, and inducing them to partake of some of the same timely and nourishing diet. This was about nine P. M., and we had tasted nothing since morning. At about half-past
[Illustration:

Capt. William W. Douglas.
]

one o'clock the men were roused up and we resumed our march, through water and more clayey mud. We came, about half-past three o'clock, to the other companies of our battalion.

“The enemy had made elaborate preparations to defend New Berne, which is situated on the Neuse River at the point formed by the junction of the Trent, which flows in from the west. A line had been selected some three miles south of the Trent, which may





be briefly described. Commencing at the Neuse, a strong earthwork had been constructed which completely commanded the channel of the river, and also the landside as far as the railroad, which is here about three-fourths of a mile from the river. It was mounted with thirteen guns, four of which bore upon the approach by land. Extending west to the railroad was a breastwork defended by an abatis of trees felled in its front to give a proper field of fire as well as make a formidable obstruction, and also by a deep ditch along its whole front. At the railroad it ended in a strong bastion commanding the approach from that direction. This much had been learned by General Burnside's scouts sometime previous to the expedition. But what he probably did not know was that the enemy had erected, west of the railway, a line composed of thirteen small redans on a group of six low hills that extended from the railway to an impassable swamp, a mile further to the left. The low hills on the left of the railway present a tangle of low ridges interspersed with open, swampy places between. There were, on the whole of this line, forty-six guns, of which some were field artillery. To oppose this formidable array of ordnance we could bring into the field six small, brass, boat howitzers, each dragged along and manned by twelve men from the ‘Marine Brigade.’ The enemy, under the command of General Branch, were reported to be 8,000 strong.

“There was nothing to do but to make a direct attack in front and trust to the dash and courage of the men to carry them through. And the order of battle was as simple as the plan of attack. As usual, General Foster's brigade had the lead, and was to go into line in front of the strong work on the river, known as Fort Thompson. General Reno was to connect with General Foster's left, and continue the line to the railroad. General Parke's brigade, in which was our battalion, was to form on the right centre, and go—as reserves always have to go in such cases—where the battle is the hottest and men are most needed. On this occasion the brigade comprised the Fourth and First Battalion of the Fifth Rhode Island, and the Eighth and Eleventh Connecticut Infantry. And it was still further weakened by the Eleventh Connecticut having already been sent to aid General Foster, whose brigade was in position early in the morning (the 14th), and became so heavily engaged





that extensive changes in the line had to be made; the works of the enemy at this point proving too strong to be carried by direct attack. In the meantime General Reno was struggling along the railroad to the place assigned to his brigade in the plan of the battle, and he soon became aware, from the deadly fire of the enemy on the hills west of the railroad, that instead of overlapping the rebel right he himself was exposed to an attack on his flank in case he should penetrate their line. By this time General Foster's brigade had been fought to a stand-still, and his howitzers as well as some of his regiments had nearly exhausted their ammunition. General Reno could do nothing but to attempt to carry the works in his front by direct assault, and he could only spare a portion of one regiment for that purpose. Four companies of the Twenty-first Massachusetts, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Clark were selected for this almost forlorn hope. The advance was made under a galling fire by this small band of brave men, who carried their flag over the breast-works and there rallied around it. Meeting with the fire of a field battery which opened upon them, they charged and captured these guns. By this time the enemy saw that it was a comparatively mere handful of men who had penetrated their line, and they advanced an overwhelming force against it. General Reno's position was so critical that he could not spare a man to aid Lieutenant-Colonel Clark, and the latter made a reluctant but skillful retreat to our lines, leaving the captured guns behind. This crisis was the opportunity for what there was of the Third brigade that could be made available. When the battle opened on the right it had been ordered into a position where it could support either Foster or Reno. General Parke found the ground he was to occupy very broken, composed of alternate low ridges with swampy swails between. By lying down behind these ridges the men could find some cover from the shot and shell sweeping the field in front. As may be readily seen the first and second brigades here, as at Roanoke Island, were given the position of honor, in case the enemy were easily routed from their works, and here the weak Third brigade was made still weaker by having one of its strongest regiments, the Eleventh Connecticut, detached to aid General Foster almost as soon as his brigade came under fire. But the time had come when General Parke's men





could no longer be denied. The Fourth Rhode Island, in going into position, had been followed by the Eighth Connecticut, but that regiment, with true, soldierly chivalry allowed the Fifth Battalion to follow the Fourth Regiment, and hence it came, though it was not so understood at the time at headquarters, that all through this fiercely contested battle these two Rhode Island organizations shared the same dangers and gained the same honors in charging and fighting during the rest of the day. The position these regiments occupied was so much exposed that Colonel Rodman, of the Fourth, moved them forward to the railroad cut, which afforded better shelter. From this point he witnessed the gallant charge made by the men of the Twenty-first Massachusetts, and their sullen retreat from the position they had so courageously won. Ordering his men to be on the alert, he met Lieutenant-Colonel Clark, as he came from the enemy's works and from him learned enough to determine his future course in the action. He gave the command, and away sprang the Rhode Island men, and soon they were seen swarming over the enemy's works, closely followed by the Eighth Connecticut, Colonel Rodman, in the meantime, having sent word to his immediate superior telling, not of what he proposed to do, but of what he had done.

“Once within the enemy's lines the little force was directed to the right, and it fought its way from gun to gun until it had captured nine of them. General Foster observing the commotion among the rebels in his front, caused by the progress of Colonel Rodman's men, ordered his line to advance, and it was soon inside the breastworks. But the enemy on the left of the railroad were still unbroken and undaunted, and stubbornly continued the battle. The successful Rhode Island men now turned their attention to them, again winning honors, if there be special honor on a field of battle where all are alike equally brave, and all alike do their very best.”

It will, however, be left to two officers who were participants in this battle to give accounts of the part borne by our battalion, in more graphic and fuller detail. In a private letter one of them says:

“At last we came to a deep ravine, or rather a series of low hills and gullies thrown together in an inextricable confusion, and were there told that the great battery of the enemy had been taken by the





Massachusetts Twenty-first, but that they could not hold it, owing to their small numbers, and it had been retaken by the enemy. We were ordered to fall in behind the Fourth Rhode Island and the Eighth Connecticut, but the Eighth halted and allowed us to take our position next to the Fourth. Then, ‘charge, Rhode Island!’ was the cry, and away we ran over stumps and fences, up a steep bank, across an open space, the bullets all the while whistling close in our ears, and we halted only when inside the breastworks, the Fourth having gone into the main battery—the enemy in retreat. The fire from the left of our new position still continued, and, after forming line under it to repel an expected charge, we were ordered to turn to the left, take up a position under the brow of a small sand ridge, covered as was the whole battlefield, with tall trees and thick underbrush. Here, after having twice crossed the hot fire from the rebel rifle-pits and battery, beyond the railroad, we fired our first real volley, advancing to the brow of the hill to do so, and retiring a few steps to load. Prisoners afterwards told us that that first volley killed fifteen of their men. The fog, and smoke, and the dense woods prevented us from seeing anything for awhile, but as a puff of wind cleared our view for a moment in front of us, we saw with joy the gray coats and caps of the enemy. Now, the Fourth which had been doing good service somewhere about the centre of the enemy's line, were ordered into position near us, and to advance with their flag as we had none. They filed past us on our left, and advancing through the woods to the front, rushed down over the railroad, across rifle-pits and gullies, and with one shout carried the battery beyond and decided the victory. Our advance was now undisputed and triumphant. The railroad and the turnpike led us straight into New Berne. We took two camps in which the fires were still burning, and the bread left in the mixing troughs. The Fourth was stationed in one and the Fifth in the other. Just as our tired limbs were warning us that they could not carry us much further, the news was brought us that ‘our gunboats are at the wharf in New Berne.’ We arrived at our camp in time to eat warm bread baked by the enemy.”

The battalion had marched along the road to a point within about three-fourths of a mile of the enemy's works when the following





narrative commences: “At this point General Burnside had stationed himself, with some members of his staff. Here, just as we came up, a shot from a rebel battery came along and cut off a large limb of one of a clump of trees, under which they were sitting on their horses. The animals danced around considerably for a time, and here the excitement of the approaching battle began to tell on the men. A cheer was started, but it was suppressed by the officers on account of the close proximity of the rebels, it being thought that it might give them an idea of our movements. Here the head of the column was turned to the left, and, after going on the double-quick for some time, we came ‘on the right by file into line’ in front of the rebel abatis. This they had made along their whole front, by cutting down the forest trees, leaving their bodies, branches, and the underbrush tangled in every direction for a depth of over a quarter of a mile. It seemed impenetrable even to a line of skirmishers. When the line was formed we were ordered to ‘lie down,’ and there we waited for developments, and here the enemy's fire of musketry and artillery became somewhat annoying. We waited patiently for some time, and began to wonder what next? when the firing became hotter, and we noticed a commotion in the abatis in front of us, and immediately we saw some men breaking through it, who proved to be of the Twenty-first Massachusetts. They told us that they had been inside the rebel breastworks with four companies of their regiment, that they were not in force enough to hold their position and they had been driven out, and some of their men had been captured. Just at this moment an aide came along with orders for us to move. Counter-marching to the right and rear we moved on the double-quick still further to our left. It did not take us long to get over considerable ground, and the first thing we knew we were at the railroad, whose embankment at this point was about ten feet above the surrounding level. We were then moved along the line of the road, plunging over logs, and through gullies, over ditches, and through mud and water, till at last we found ourselves inside the rebel works.

“The point where we entered was the brick-yards, and here there were several buildings in which a large number of rebel sharp-shooters were posted. As we entered the works those in the houses





just—skeddadled! The Eighth Connecticut, which was on our right, turned to the right, while our battalon kept straight ahead for some distance, when both formed in line, ours at the crest of a ridge which gave us an excellent position to bring our fire to bear on the flank of the rifle-pits across the railroad, while the Fourth Rhode Island charged them in front. We were to engage their attention by keeping up as brisk and steady a fire as possible, until we heard the Fourth cheer when they charged. The rebels replied to our fire with a vim, and here we sustained our severest loss. We had not been under fire three minutes when Lieut. Henry R. Pierce, of Company D, was killed, while cheering and encouraging his men. I passed to the right of his company and told Captain Grant that the lieutenant was shot. Ordering me to take command in his place the captain went down where the lieutenant was lying and had him removed to the rear. The captain soon returned and seemed deeply agitated at the loss of his friend and vowed revenge. Taking a musket from one of the men he commenced firing away. Soon the order to cease firing was given, but the captain and a man by the name of Ryan went some twenty paces to the front and fired a few shots on their own account across the railroad. The captain returned with two muskets instead of one, and informed me that Ryan had been shot through the head. I went up to where the man lay and found that he had a bullet hole in his right temple.

“Not long after we received the order to cease firing we heard cheering, not the rebel Yi! Yi! Yi! but a genuine Yankee cheer—the cheer we were expecting, and almost immediately we received news that the rebels were in retreat at all points and that we were to join in the pursuit. The announcement was received with cheer upon cheer, and on coming to the road we there found the rest of the brigade. When we reached the banks of the Trent river we found the country road and railroad bridges burning, which rendered further immediate pursuit on our part impossible. The town, on the opposite bank, was in flames in many places, and soon the gunboats were busy carrying across some of General Foster's brigade. Their first duty was to save as much private property as possible, and prevent a destruction which the enemy insanely supposed would injure





us. Our battalion went into quarters in an abandoned artillery camp, and once more enjoyed a little rest.”

As an instance of how soldiers in time of war can accommodate themselves to circumstances, it may be stated that one of the shortest men in the battalion ensconced himself in a manger, which was just large enough to admit his whole body. He lay down that night in
[Illustration:

Capt. James Moran.
]

comfort compared to his experience of the night before, and slept the sleep of the just.

At this camp a soldier in one of the companies of the battalion found the following letter which was sent home and published in a Providence paper under the following heading:

A Billetdoux from a Secesh Damsel.—We copy for the amusement of our readers, the following frank epistle found in the rebel camp at New Berne, by Mr.——, of the Rhode Island Fifth. The war does





not appear to work altogether satisfactorily to the Secesh fair one, and the writer does not conceal her discontent. We may presume that the rebel (as we suppose him to be) who received the effusion was not a little interested in it. It bears the appearance of repeated perusal. We give it verbatim:

N C Chatham county

January th 6 1862

Dear Sir Accordin to promice I seat my self to anscer your kind letter witch came safe to hand witch found me well and this leave me the same and cincerly hope these few lines may find you in Joying the same.

I have nothing very interresting to wright only we have had the dulist times that I ever saw since you left old Chatham you don't know how thing has aulered sence you left here for tha isent a young man fit to look at but big Alfred and the girls hav looked at him so much they have became ugly we have had a verry sorrow Christmas tha hasent binn but very few Wedding nor quilting and not much prospect of any more soon. I think if you all could come home and stay we would have some fun as we used to have in days thats past by and gone for I never expect to forget when last I saw you at Fall Creek so when this you see remember me tho many a mile a apart we be so I will close by remaining your cincer well wisher until death.

From —— —— to

Mr —— ——

The following official report of Major Wright of the part taken by the Fifth Battalion in the action is appended here:

Report of Major John Wright, Fifth Rhode Island Infantry.

Hdqrs. Fifth Regt., R. I. Vols.,

Camp Pierce, New Berne, N. C.,

March 18, 1862.

Sir: I have the honor to submit to you the following report of the operations of the First Battalion of the Fifth Regiment Rhode Island Volunteers in the battle of the 14th instant.

At the signal given from the brigade flag-ship, on the morning of the 13th of March, 1862, the boats of the steam transports, Curlew and Eagle, in which the battalion was quartered, were cleared away, filled with men, and dispatched to the steamer Eastern Queen, at about 8 o'clock. That forenoon I landed with three companies and a half, and with these took my position in line, according to orders, on the left of the Eighth Connecticut. I continued the march until I received orders to halt and bivouac for the night. About two the next morning the adjutant brought the two remaining companies into camp. At daybreak, the 14th, I formed the battalion in line, awaiting orders, which soon came, and were to continue to follow on the left of the Eighth Connecticut. The column moved about 6.30 o'clock, A. M., and passed slowly along the





route followed the day before. Not long after the firing commenced in front, and the orders came to keep well closed up. Soon after Captain D'Wolf came down the line and ordered us to close up, and we commenced the double-quick.

After following the main road a short distance farther we turned off to the left and entered the woods. Just after we turned a cannon ball passed over our heads, which showed that we were approaching the battery, and caused us to press forward more eagerly to support the attack. After passing through a swampy place we came to a halt on the brow of a bluff, where we awaited further orders and the further movements of the Eighth Connecticut. As the bullets flew very thick over our heads we were ordered to lie down. When the Twenty-first Massachusetts was driven from the battery and the enemy made a sally the orders came to fix bayonets and prepare to receive a charge. We formed in line of battle, left in front, but as they were driven back before we saw them, we continued as we were before that. Our orders were still to continue on the left of the Eighth Connecticut. At last the orders came to turn the right flank of the enemy. We passed down into the hollow, filed off still farther to the left, and passed over another elevation, when we came to the railroad just below the brick-yard. Then, with General Parke at our head, we pushed on, passed in rear of the breastworks of the enemy, and as we came upon the high open ground behind it we came under a raking fire from the rifle-pits across the railroad and the brick-yard, where the enemy lay in large force.

We pushed on at the double-quick until we came under cover of the trees, where we formed in line of battle and prepared to charge on the enemy in the battery. As they had retired, I was ordered first to send one company and afterwards the whole battalion, and to proceed cautiously and find out what the firing was on our left. I sent the adjutant ahead to find out the direction we should take. As it was pointed out by the general's aide, Lieutenant Lydig, we passed down into a hollow, and ascended the left-hand side cautiously until we reached the brow of the elevation, when we came in view of the enemy and immediately opened upon them a brisk fire, which immediately had an effect, for their fire slackened and stopped when we ceased firing. We opened upon them two or three times afterward until we were afraid of firing upon the Fourth Rhode Island, who were advancing upon them on our right. When the Fourth charged upon them we ceased firing and awaited orders.

It was on this hill that we met with the greater part of our loss. As we had no colors, I was ordered to fall in the rear of the Eighth Connecticut, and, leaving a few to take care of the killed and wounded, we passed down to the railroad, and at 11 o'clock took up our line of march for the city of New Berne. When we reached the main road, which crossed the railroad, we turned to the left, and continued our march





until we received orders to halt, and take possession of a rebel camp off to the right from the road, which had been occupied by rebel artillery.

I am very respectfully, Your obedient servant, John Wright, Major Comg. First Bat. Fifth R. I. Vols.

Charles T. Gardner, Asst. Adjt. Gen.

Col. Ed. Graham Haywood, commanding the Seventh Regiment of North Carolina Infantry, made an official report of this action. It was embodied almost word for word in the official report of Gen. S. O'B. Branch, commanding all of the rebel troops in this battle. That portion of it relating to the assault made by the four companies of the Twenty-first Massachusetts under Lieutenant Colonel Clark, and the subsequent assault made by the Fourth Rhode Island, the First Battalion of the Fifth Rhode Island, and the Eighth Connecticut, is of such a character that it is interesting reading, to say the least. It is as follows:

“They (his regiment) held their positions until flanked on the right by the enemy. They were then ordered to leave the trenches and charge bayonets upon the enemy, which they did, driving him beyond the breastworks with great slaughter, and retaking a section of Brem's battery which had fallen into their hands. I then held the breastworks until flanked again by the same direction, with a greatly increased force, some six or eight regiments, when I fell back into the woods in rear of Colonel Vance's camp and there formed. Seeing no hope of defeating the enemy, I then, with the command, retired from the field.”

The total loss in this battle was eight officers and eighty-two enlisted men killed, and twenty-eight officers and three hundred and fifty-two enlisted men wounded. In the battalion it was one officer, Lieutenant Henry R. Pierce, and one man, private Ryan, killed, and eight enlisted men wounded.

The death of Lieutenant Pierce was regarded as almost an irreparable loss in the battalion, so great was the love and esteem of both officers and men for him. Nor was this regard confined to his





immediate comrades, but it was shared by all who knew him at home or in the field. The following deserved tribute to his worth is quoted from that standard history, Burnside and the Ninth Army Corps: “Lieutenant Henry R. Pierce was killed in the second charge upon the enemy's lines. He was a teacher, by profession, had applied for and received his commission in the finest spirit of duty. He was a man of very estimable and worthy character, of scholarly attainments, and of manly principles. He stood in the very front rank of his profession in the State of Rhode Island, and his death was felt as a public calamity by many who were beyond the circle of his personal friendship.”

We quote from Bartlett's Memoirs of Rhode Island Officers:

“Lieut. Henry Reuben Pierce, son of Warren Pierce, was born in Coventry, Vt., Jan. 20, 1828. From early life he was passionately fond of books, and spent a great part of his time in reading. He purchased the last three years of his minority, in order to concentrate his efforts and secure a good education. He found employment in Northampton, Mass., devoting his leisure hours to study; and entered Williston Seminary, at East Hampton, N. H., in 1846. In 1849, he left that institution, and immediately entered Amherst College, where he graduated in 1853. He soon commenced teaching school, but after two years entered the law office of Hon. Charles R. Train, of Framingham, Mass. But he seemed to have been fitted by nature for the office of the teacher, and he soon took charge of a high school in Uxbridge. While fulfilling his engagement there he was married August, 1856, to Miss Ann Frances Tillinghast, of Hopkinton. Mass. Two children were the fruit of this marriage, one passing away in infancy, the other still surviving. In 1857, a more lucrative situation was offered him and he became principal of the high school at Woonsocket, R. I. Here he was winning golden opinions in his profession, and by his genial spirit in social life. But when the war cloud burst upon the country, his heart was stirred to its utmost depths, and he soon began to feel that he must offer his life upon its altar. He said he could not bear to think that, in his old age, his son should ask what his father did when the liberty of his country was imperilled, and that he must be obliged to confess he shunned the path of danger.” . . . .

A private soldier gives his account of the battle:

“While crossing the brick-yard several of our men were hit. I had a blanket strapped across my shoulders which I valued quite





highly as I had captured it on Roanoke Island. We were going at the double-quick, and in some way it became unfastened and fell off. I did not stop to pick it up just then, as the rebel sharpshooters were peppering us quite lively. We came to a piece of woods where we formed line of battle. We subsequently moved to a position on a hill, where we caught sight of the enemy in our front, and were then ordered to commence firing.

“We were armed with the Enfield rifle and sabre bayonet, in my opinion one of the most unserviceable weapons ever put into a soldier's hands. We were compelled to stack arms with the rammers, and unless great care was exercised the stack would fall down. Besides, while on the double-quick the ungainly sabre bayonet would get tangled up with our legs and trip us oftentimes. They looked very fine on dress parade, but were not of much account anywhere else, unless to stick a pig or chicken. We were glad to exchange them a few months later for the Enfield rifle musket with the ordinary bayonet.

“When we began firing we found our rifles covered with rust, in consequence of the hard rains of the previous day and night, and in some instances it was impossible to draw the rammers from the pipes.

“One of our sergeants thought he was wounded, and he quickly placed his hand where he supposed he was hit, but he soon discovered that the bullet had simply gone through the crackers in his haversack.

“The youngest soldier in my company was a mere lad of fifteen, whom it was thought might not be able to endure the test of battle, but it was observed that he stood up and fired his piece with the steadiness of a veteran.

“But the saddest incident to me in this fight, was the death of my first lieutenant, Henry R. Pierce. Only a few moments before his death, he had been encouraging the men near him, and said to them, ‘Boys, if you love your country, now is your time to show it!’ Hardly had these words been uttered, when the fatal bullet struck him, and he fell to the ground saying, ‘Oh! dear!’ and immediately expired.”





An incident which occurred during the battle is thus related by a non-commissioned officer in Company A:

“At one time it happened that Sergeant Brownell and myself went up on the hill together, I fired, and am not sure whether he had done so or not, when, as I turned to step back to the hollow, I saw him suddenly fall to the ground. For a moment I did not think of his being wounded, supposing he had tripped over the vines, which were somewhat thick on the ground, but he groaned and said, ‘They've hit me,’ and I then saw that the blood was commencing to stain the leg of his blue trousers. Dropping my rifle, I knelt down and with my pocket knife cut open his trousers and saw that the blood was flowing freely from a wound in the fleshy part of the thigh. I knew that the thing most needed was to stop the copious flow of blood as soon as possible, so tying my handkerchief loosely around the wounded limb, I picked up a small stick of sufficient strength, and, passing it under the handkerchief, proceeded to ‘take a twist’ in it, as we used to do at home, on a larger scale, upon a binding rope of our hay wagons. Continuing to twist, I found that the bleeding was checked, so I made fast one end of the stick, and by this time two of the drum corps appeared, and by them he was carried to the surgeon, who had established himself some distance in the rear.”

The following order was issued to the army on the day following the battle:

Hdqrs. Dept. of North Carolina, New Berne, March 15, 1862.

General Orders, No. 17.

The general commanding congratulates his troops on their brilliant and hard-won victory of the 14th. Their courage, their patience, their endurance of fatigue, exposure, and toil, cannot be too highly praised. After a tedious march, dragging their howitzers by hand through swamps and thickets; after a sleepless night, passed in a drenching rain, they met the enemy in his chosen position, found him protected by strong earthworks, mounting many and heavy guns, and although in an open field themselves, they conquered. With such soldiers advance is victory.

The general commanding directs with peculiar pride that, as a well deserved tribute to valor in this second victory of the expedition, each





regiment engaged shall inscribe on its banner the memorable name “New Berne.”

By command of Brig.-Gen. A. E. BURNSIDE, Lewis Richmond, Assistant Adjutant-General.

In his report to the Secretary of War, General Burnside pays this tribute to the dead:

“Among these names are some of our most valuable officers and men. They are sad losses to us and to their relatives and friends. They nobly gave up their lives in defence of their country, and a debt of gratitude is due from every American citizen to the wives, mothers and fathers who have laid such sacrifices on the altar of their country. The memories of these brave dead will ever be green in the hearts of their countrymen, and the scars of the wounded will be honorable passports to them through life.”

The battalion camp was named Camp Pierce in his honor. Of the wounded men Surgeon Potter, under the date of March 18th, writes: “Two have since died, and two more probably will die of their wounds.” All of the medical reports speak of the unusually severe nature of the wounds received in this battle.

In his official report General Burnside says: “Some of the results of this battle may be enumerated as follows: “The capture of nine forts, with forty-one heavy guns; two miles of intrenchments, with nineteen field pieces; six thirty-two pounders not in position; over 300 prisoners; over 1,000 stand of small arms; tents and barracks for 10,000 troops; a large amount of ammunition and army supplies; an immense amount of naval stores; the second commercial city in North Carolina, and the entire command of the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds.” And to show that there was no vaunting in thus noticing the great results of this victory, and as an evidence of the widespread alarm General Burnside's progress caused all grades of Confederates in authority, we give the following dispatch, sent by the rebel secretary of war to the governor of North Carolina:





Richmond, Va., March 15, 1862.

Governor Henry T. Clark, Raleigh:

Large reinforcements are immediately requisite for the defense of your State. Call on your people to arm in the defense of their homes. Send all the men you can to Weldon as rapidly as possible. I will find means to arm them all. I pray you to allow no time to be lost.

J. P. Benjamin, Secretary of War.

We also quote from General Parke's official report:

“During the hard and fatiguing march of the 13th and the trying bivouac of that night, not a murmur was heard. On the morning of the 14th all seemed as fresh and as ready as if they had just left the most comfortable encampment. All were under fire, and the officers seemed proud of the men they were leading, and the men showed they had full confidence in their officers.”

Such was the battle of New Berne, and such is a brief narrative of the share borne by our battalion in achieving it. It must be borne in mind all the time, that a regiment is the real unit in the military organization of any force as large or larger than a brigade, and therefore a battalion composed of a few companies has not even the right to carry the national colors into action; that it is always “hitched on” to some other regiment in all movements of the regiment, brigade or division to which it is attached; that in a military sense it has no being. Hence, in the general course of events, it marches and fights almost unnoticed, unless by some fortunate circumstance, some chance independent action, it gains the special mention and commendation of the general officers in command. By this time every member of the battalion was aware of the heavy handicap it carried in this race where thousands of the most ambitious and courageous men were entered. In this connection an autograph letter of a little later date, written by Governor Sprague to Major Wright must be its own excuse for quoting it here:





Camp before Yorktown, Va., April 28th, 1862.

Major:

Yours of the 7th inst. is just at hand. I have just written a letter to Lieutenant Chapman in reply to a request in your behalf to increase your battalion to a regiment.

I read with much interest your account of the part taken by your command in the battle of New Berne. In behalf of the State permit me to express to you and to your officers and men my thanks for the courage and activity displayed by them in that battle. Rhode Island appreciates the sacrifices made by her soldiers in battling for the institutions of our fathers. A grateful and admiring people will do ample justice to every act of courage displayed by you and your command.

Respectfully yours, William Sprague.

To Major John Wright, Fifth R. I. V. Burnside Corps.

The day after the battle was spent in rest and quiet, excepting that a detail from the battalion visited the battlefield and buried our dead with suitable services. The usual parting volleys were fired over their graves, and we sadly returned to camp, reflecting on the loss of brave comrades, who, but a short time before, were among us full of health and vigor.

The body of Lieutenant Pierce was afterwards sent home to Woonsocket, Rhode Island, where it was buried with military honors on the 29th of April, 1862.

It may be well to state here that the bravery, excellent drill and good discipline shown by the battalion on all occasions had attracted deserved attention at home. The ladies of Doctor Hall's church, the First Congregational, decided that the Fifth should have a full stand of colors. Major Joseph Balch, always one of the best and firmest of friends to the battalion whose infancy he had watched over, gave efficient aid to the project, and in a short time a beautiful and costly set of colors was forwarded to the battalion. They arrived in North Carolina while we were actively engaged in the events which will be narrated in the following chapter.





CHAPTER V. FROM New Berne TO FORT MACON. Siege and Capture of that Fort.

GENERAL FOSTER was appointed Military Governor of New Berne on the 15th of March, and at once entered upon the duty of restoring order and insuring safety in that city. The same order further directed him to see that “the churches be opened at a suitable hour to-morrow (Sunday) in order that the chaplains of the different regiments may hold Divine service in them. The bells will be rung as usual.” A later order assigned to Generals Foster and Reno the duty of guarding all the land approaches to the town, and at once the necessary steps were taken to construct a line of defensive works that subsequently made the town impregnable to any attack within the power of the Confederates to make. As soon as the proper steps had been taken to secure the safety of New Berne, the commanding general set about obeying the general order directing the successive steps of his campaign. The first thing now to be done was the occupation of Morehead City and Beaufort, and the reduction of Fort Macon, which guarded the entrance to the latter port. The reduction of Fort Macon would open a safe harbor to vessels of greater tonnage than could enter the sound by Hatteras Inlet. From New Berne to Beaufort by rail and by county road was about forty miles, and no opposition was expected except from the garrison of Fort Macon, as the capture of New Berne had cut off the rebel forces at these places from their base of supplies, and compelled their instant retreat by country roads to the southwest, in order to avoid destruction or capture.

The Third brigade, General Parke, was selected to occupy these places and invest and capture the fort.

The following sketch of our brigade commander, General Parke, is taken from Woodbury's Burnside and the Ninth Army Corps:





“John G. Parke was born in Pennsylvania, in 1827, and graduated, second in his class of forty-three members, at the Military Academy at West Point, in 1849. He was appointed brevet second-lieutenant, July 1, 1849, in the corps of topographical engineers. As a member of this corps, he had performed, previous to the rebellion, distinguished services in different parts of the country, particularly in the west and southwest. He had acted as secretary of the light house board and of the river and harbor improvement board. He had also been active in the operations upon the plains of the west, in New Mexico, in the Boundary Commission, and the surveys of the routes of the Pacific Railroad. In 1851, he prepared a map of New Mexico, which is declared to have been “a careful compilation of all the available and reliable information in relation to New Mexico which could be obtained at that date from trappers and hunters, as well as from actual survey. It was prepared by Lieutenant Parke, while in that country, by order of brevet Colonel John Munroe, United States Army, commanding Ninth Military Department. During the same year he accompanied Captain Sitgreaves on an exploring expedition from Santa Fe to San Diego. In 1853, he assisted Lieutenant R. S. Williamson in a survey through the passes of the Sierra Nevada and Coast Range. The expedition occupied three months’ time, and in the course of it, Lieutenant Parke conducted an independent expedition to Los Angeles, the San Gabriel and Santa Anna valleys.

“In 1854, Lieutenant Parke made a successful reconnoissance for a railroad route between Punas village and El Paso. He left San Diego on the 24th of January, with a party of twenty-three men and an escort of twenty-eight dragoons, under Lieutenant Stoneman, and made a careful examination of the country, from the Gila River to the Rio Grande, traveling by way of Tucson, San Xavier, Rio San Pedro, Chiricahui Mountains, and Fort Fillmore. The report of the expedition is published in the second volume of the Pacific Railroad Reports, and is a very valuable statement respecting the characteristics of the country through which the journey was made, and its facilities for the construction of the proposed road. Advanced to his next grade July 1, 1856, Lieutenant Parke became, in 1857, the astronomer of the Northwest Boundary Commission for establishing the line between the United States and British America. In all these positions, he was distinguished for the patient fidelity, modest, yet manly bearing and firmness in the discharge of duty which have characterized him in later years. In his early professional life he laid the foundations of a solid, substantial reputation, which has never been weakened, but has continually strengthened in his subsequent career.

“Lieutenant Parke's maps, contained in the eleventh volume of the Pacific Railroad reports, are models of accuracy and clearness of delineation. He had richly deserved his promotion to a captaincy in his corps, which he received on his arrival at Washington, his commission dating September 9, 1861.”





General Parke was promoted to brigadier-general of volunteers Nov. 23, 1861; major-general, July 8, 1862; brevet major-general, United States Army, March 13, 1865; lieutenant-colonel of engineers, March 4, 1879; colonel, March 17, 1884. He has also been superintendent of the United States Military Academy at West Point. He was placed on the retired list, July 2, 1889.

Our brigade was to move by water to Slocum's Creek landing and march thence by land. This movement commenced on the 19th and comprised all of the brigade, except that the Fifth Rhode Island Battalion was ordered to march along the railroad, which it did, reaching Havelock Station, some twelve miles out, one and a half miles from Slocum's landing, and there bivouacking for the night. The march proved excessively fatiguing to the men, as they had to step from tie to tie on the road bed, and also run the hand-cars containing their supplies. The rest of the brigade resumed its march on the morning of the 21st.

While at Havelock James McIntyre, a musician of Company B, met with a singular accident. It happened in this wise: Comrade McIntyre was lying under a tree, when a neighboring tree which was being felled by one of our soldiers, suddenly came to the ground, and in some unaccountable manner a ragged limb of the tree struck Comrade McIntyre in the arm near the shoulder, completely pinning him to the ground, and the limb had to be sawed off before he could be extricated from his perilous position. Surgeon Potter attended to him and alleviated his sufferings, but he eventually obtained his discharge from the army in consequence of this injury.

On the 22d, three companies of the battalion, A, B, and C, proceeded to Newport City, leaving Companies D and E at Havelock as a guard. Company D remained at this place several days, and then marched to Newport City and joined the battalion.

Captain Arnold's company (E) was stationed at Havelock, near an abandoned grist-mill, the machinery of which the rebels had attempted to destroy when they left that neighborhood. The mechanics of the Fifth, under the direction of Captain Arnold, soon put it in running order again, and it was found very serviceable to the comfort and subsistence of the men.





During the halt of the battalion at Havelock Station the advance of the brigade had occupied Morehead City and Beaufort, and had already commenced preparations for investing Fort Macon, General Parke
[Illustration:

Capt. Charles H. Chapman. Formerly Adjutant Fifth Rhode Island Volunteers. (from a recent picture.)
]

having established his headquarters at Carolina City. On the night of the 23d the brigade had closed up, and the three companies of the Fifth Battalion were established in an abandoned camp at Newport City. The railroad bridge over the Newport River at this place had been completely burned by a detachment sent up from





Fort Macon, on the 18th, and the Fifth Battalion had received orders to remain there and rebuild it. Every locality in that country which contained as much as a blacksmith shop and a store, the principal staple in trade of which was always chain-lightning whiskey, was dubbed a city and looked upon as a future metropolis. Such is Morehead City, Carolina City, and Newport City, all within a distance of scarcely a dozen miles.

The barracks at Newport City, which the Fifth Battalion had inherited from the enemy, were the most comfortable the men had ever seen. The first day of their stay was devoted to policing their new quarters, and the next day, March 24th, the work of rebuilding the bridge commenced in earnest. And here began one of those operations which deserves more than a passing mention. Later in the war they were common enough, because regiments and battalions of selected mechanics had been organized and thoroughly equipped for this kind of work, and practice soon made these “engineers and mechanics” adepts in using every device to accomplish their purpose; and in no instance is there any record of a failure of the structure to do the work designed. But in this case the circumstances were far different. Everything to work with had to be secured where it could be found. With that faith in the ability of any regiment of New England men to do anything they were set to do, the general in command ordered Major Wright to march his battalion to Newport City and rebuild a railway bridge 180 feet long over a deep tidal river. Up to this time it was a feat without a parallel in the history of the war. Until it was completed neither rations, guns, ammuninition, nor material could be supplied to the troops or used in the reduction of Fort Macon, for General Burnside had not yet been supplied with land transportation of any kind. And this “building of the bridge,” matter of fact subject though it was, when one thinks most of sieges and battles, is worthy of notice at some length. One officer tells of it briefly enough: “On the 24th the tools were collected, the men set energetically to work, and they had the bridge completed so that the first loaded car passed over it on the 29th.” “It was a very commendable job,” he modestly adds, “considering the difficulties we had to encounter, and the lack of suitable appliances. While doing this we also engaged in regular guard and





picket duty. Once or twice the long roll was beaten in camp at night, and once we had to fight a forest fire that seriously threatened the destruction of our barracks. It came very close on two sides, and the sight of the tall pines, with turpentine covering their scraped sides, forming a column of fire as tall as themselves, was very impressive when seen in the stillness of a gloomy night on the low coast of North Carolina by those who had never seen anything of the kind before.” Evidently that camp afforded enough to keep the mind busy, if nothing else. “General Burnside gladdened us all by his presence the other day, and expressed his pleasure at the progress we had made.”

Work of this kind does not receive the mention it deserves, and yet it is just as essential to the success of a campaign as a charge on the enemy, and the fact that a battalion, organized with no thought of its performing work of this special nature, had the men with the brain and skill to do it speedily and successfully, as well as march, and fight, and charge with the sturdiest and boldest in the army, is even a greater honor than to lead a forlorn hope. To show how this feat of mechanical skill was regarded outside of the battalion and brigade, and also to give a picture of camp life in North Carolina, another account is here given, written from New Berne, April 2d:

“The Fifth Rhode Island Battalion, Major Wright commanding, is at Newport City, engaged in building an important railroad bridge at that place, which was burned by the enemy four days after the battle and one day before our troops reached it. The bridge was 180 feet long, and was completely destroyed. The Major set to work upon it with his accustomed energy, as it was essential to the investment of Fort Macon that siege artillery and supplies should be transported over the road. The officers and men worked night and day to accomplish this, and their labors are appreciated by their superior officers.

“As I am a Rhode Islander myself, of course I feel considerable interest in the Rhode Island boys. During the last week it has been my good fortune to spend two nights with the battalion at their post, Camp Graham, and it was almost like getting home to find myself surrounded by old friends, and greeted with a Rhode Island welcome. The battalion is in a very good condition, and they are comfortably located in log huts, a large number of which were kindly left by the rebels, who had erected and previously occupied them.

“Major Wright, Captains Eddy and Wheeler, Dr. Potter, the able surgeon of the battalion, and other officers whom I have not time to mention





particularly, have laid me under lasting obligations by their kindness. They found me a stranger in a strange land, and they made me at home amongst them.

“One of the most popular attachés of this battalion is Dr. Frank Diggs, cook and caterer for Dr. Potter's mess, and whose fame is well established in Providence. He certainly can get up a repast in an enemy's country which would do credit to a culinary artist in the most civilized locality. To him I am indebted, and I here return my thanks for the most excellent repasts I have yet found in this benighted land of secession. ‘Long may he wave!’ and may he return safely to his home to again tickle the palates of his Rhode Island friends.

“Night before last I spent with the battalion, and, during the night there was an alarm from the pickets, the long roll was beaten, and in five minutes’ time every soldier was in his place and ready for the attack. But there was none, and after an hour or two the men were dismissed to their quarters, with orders to sleep on their arms, reports having been brought in of the presence of rebel cavalry within a few miles of camp. The promptitude with which they turned out reflects credit upon their officers for the thoroughness of their drill and preparation.”

We will let a comrade relate his experience on picket in these lonely woods of North Carolina: “My first tour of picket duty occurred here. I was detailed with one of my comrades as an advance picket about one mile from camp. Our post was situated in a dense pine forest, and it rained nearly all that day and the following night. When the darkness came on it was peculiarly unpleasant and dreary to us. The soldier at such times can draw pretty largely on his imagination, especially if the enemy have been accustomed to visit the locality. Everything appeared to assume a weird and strange appearance. Our imaginations would see in every stump a rebel, and the hogs that run at large through the forests of North Carolina, appeared in the darkness like men coming towards us. These hogs were not like our well fed porkers at the north, confined in pens, but were lean and lank, with their owners’ marks branded upon them. They were turned out to gather what food they could obtain in the woods.”

Another visitor at the headquarters of the Fifth at Newport City, was no less a personage than Henry M. Stanley, the distinguished African explorer, but at that time a representative of one of the leading New York dailies.





At this time the Third brigade consisted of but three and one-half regiments, and the task assigned it was to invest Fort Macon and guard the railroad as far north as Havelock Station against the small bands of Confederate cavalry that infested the country to the west. General Parke therefore asked for an additional regiment, and the Ninth New Jersey Infantry was ordered to join him at Carolina City. It reached the camp of the Fifth Battalion at Newport City on the evening of March 30th. A promise had been made to Major Wright that as soon as the bridge was completed the battalion should be relieved and join the brigade. Here was the opportunity of getting the desired relief, and, taking a hand-car, the major was soon in Carolina City explaining the situation. He quickly returned with an order that the Ninth New Jersey should relieve the battalion of the duty of guarding the bridge and road, and that the latter should join the brigade without delay. The fourth day of April saw the battalion on the march, and that night it encamped at Carolina City, where the men had a view of Fort Macon, over which floated the rebel ensign.

Immediately south of Cape Lookout the coast trends still more to the southwest for a long distance. Here the strip of sand beach along the ocean is narrower and more broken by inlets, and the sounds are narrower than those further north. Bogue Island, just south of Cape Lookout, is one of these sandy beaches, in local vernacular “Banks,” about twenty-five miles long. “On these banks there is quite a population for such a forsaken locality. They live by fishing, piloting, and wrecking; raising a few ponies, hogs, sweet potatoes, and a little corn. The soil—if it can be called such,—is sand. There is a growth of stunted trees of several varieties, all presenting the peculiarity of having large branches on the landward side, and very diminutive ones on the side toward the sea, caused by the prevailing winds, which seem to blow back into the tree every bud that attempts to struggle into life on the exposed side. To add to the general attractiveness of the “Banks” the sand is blown into dunes and hills, which shift as the direction and force of the winds change. Brackish water can be found on the levels at the depth of a few inches by merely scooping out a hole with a tin dipper or pan.”

On the northeastern extremity of Bogue “Bank” was Fort Macon.





It was a regular work, mounting sixty-seven guns in all, casemated with stone on the water front, while on the land side the walls were constructed of brick. On this side the guns were mounted en barbette, and defended by the usual ditch, with a glacis which afforded a field for fire against an assaulting column. The garrison had undermined and thrown down the light-house, leveled a number of adjacent buildings, and made every possible preparation
[Illustration:

Fort Macon, N. C.
]

to give an attacking force the warmest reception in their power to bestow. The fort commanded the entrance to Beaufort and Morehead City harbors. These places were on the mainland. The channel would admit vessels drawing seventeen feet of water. Morehead City was the eastern terminus of the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad, which, as has been stated, crossed the Richmond and Wilmington line at Goldsboro. The possession of these harbors secured a second and very safe base, by way of the railroad, for New Berne.

The garrison of Fort Macon consisted of about five hundred men, under the command of Colonel White, a brave and resolute officer.





He had reported to General Branch that he had supplies for sixty days, and that he could and would hold the fort for an indefinite time longer than that. General Parke was then, as he is now, one of the best and most accomplished engineers in our army. To him was assigned the task of reducing the fort by siege, while the navy blockaded it by water. It had been hoped that the Confederate commander, when he saw the force brought against him, by land and water, would capitulate. As soon as General Parke reached Carolina City, he summoned Colonel White to surrender. The rebel commander declined, and at one time he seriously thought of firing on Beaufort when it was first occupied by our forces. The people there seemed to be about equally divided on the question of loyalty, and welcomed our troops, in many instances with seeming cordiality. It was remarked at the time, as an encouraging fact, that on the Sunday following the occupation of Beaufort, prayers for the President of the United States were read in the Episcopal church of the town, and responded to with marked emphasis.

It was the work done by the Fifth Rhode Island in rebuilding the railroad bridge at Newport City which made the siege of Fort Macon possible. At once the guns, ammunition, and other material necessary in the investment were brought down from New Berne and Slocum's Landing. While the work on the bridge was still going on the preparatory steps of the siege were taken.

The Fifth Battalion crossed on the 6th of April. The investing force on the island then consisted of eight companies of the Fourth Rhode Island; seven companies of the Eighth Connecticut; the Fifth Rhode Island Battalion; Company C, First United States Artillery, and Company I, Third New York Artillery.

General Parke found here what General Gilmore afterwards found on Morris and James Islands, near Charleston, long, low ridges of sand, behind which the troops could work almost unmolested by the enemy's fire.

Having established camps for the men, the next thing was to fix sites for the siege batteries, and to do this it was first necessary to drive in the enemy's pickets. This was done on the 11th of April. A press correspondent thus described the operation at the time:





“Major Wright, in command of the Fifth Rhode Island, with Company G of the Fourth Rhode Island, under the command of Lieutenant Bowen, advanced from their camp early in the morning, and drove in the pickets of the enemy, which have until to-day maintained their position two miles from the fort, on ‘Bogue Beach.’ I crossed over from Beaufort in time to witness the little skirmish which accompanied the movement. The rebel pickets fell back as our line advanced, stopping three times to return our fire. The gunboat State of Georgia fired three or four shells in the direction of the retreating pickets, which materially quickened their movements. The fort replied to these shots, but our gunboat was out of reach, and therefore was not struck. When our forces were within about one mile, a thirty-pounder shell was fired at them, which passed harmlessly over their heads and exploded, doing no harm. The enemy's pickets took shelter within the fort.”

Under the date of the 12th, the same writer adds:

“The regular siege operations for the reduction of Fort Macon may date from yesterday morning. The guns in the fort were all manned, the troops were formed in order of battle, and everything made ready for the expected assault. West of the fort, beginning at the distance of about one thousand yards, is a series of sandy ridges, which generally lie north and south, and afford a line of natural breastworks, behind which our advancing forces can find shelter. The gunboats withdrew out of range towards evening, and operations ceased for the night. During the night, however, the commander of the fort again threw out his pickets, in order to be sure of what Major Wright might be doing.”

The sites for the siege batteries were selected, the work of building them went steadily on, and every preparation was thoroughly made. When completed they were composed as follows: One of four ten-inch mortars; one of four eight-inch mortars; one of three thirty-pounder Parrots, and one containing a twelve-pound rifled Dalghren naval howitzer. In these operations the battalion found itself again placed at a vexatious disadvantage, for it had to take its turn every third day in the work of constructing the batteries and guarding the trenches just the same as one of the full regiments; and each regiment, when it became its turn for duty, had to march from its camp along the beach some four miles to relieve the regiment which had completed its twenty-fours hours of labor.

A soldier thus speaks of the situation in the trenches at this time: “When our turn came to take our tour of duty in the trenches, we would proceed along the beach, and when we had approached within





range of the guns of the fort, the rebels would send us their compliments in the shape of shot and shell. After taking the places assigned us in the trenches, one man was stationed on lookout duty near the top of the rifle-pit, while the others would remain below. When the lookout saw the flash of the rebel guns he would sing out
[Illustration:

Lieut. J. M. Wheaton.
]

‘Down!’ the men taking to the rifle-pit like a woodchuck to its hole, and would remain there until the shot had passed over.

“What a queer sensation comes over one when he hears the noise of a shell just let loose from a gun, the whizzing through the air, and its final explosion and separation into many pieces. It is mighty unpleasant to say the least, as many an old soldier can testify, as you never can tell where the plaguy thing will drop, or what damage it may do to you before it has completed its mission.”





The supplies for the whole force were landed from a schooner, anchored off the camps, in the ocean. They were usually brought off by Lieut. J. M. Wheaton in a whale-boat, manned by a crew from his company, E. They soon became very expert in their exciting and dangerous labor of running their deep-laden boat through the surf and high up the beach, without wetting their cargo of bread, coffee, and sugar. And this valuable service was soon rewarded by the promotion of Lieutenant Wheaton.

In order to give timely notice of any sortie from the fort, which an energetic garrison might now be expected to make to retard the construction of the siege batteries, an advance post was established within about five hundred yards of the fort, on the night of the 20th. The men dug a small rifle-pit, a few yards long, in the sand, and took shelter behind it. The garrison, so long as they regarded it as a mere post, did not pay much attention to it. On the morning of the 22d, a detail from the Fifth Rhode Island of sixteen men, commanded by Lieut. James Moran, were ordered to relieve the men on duty at this post. At the same time the rebel officers in the fort seemed to have become suspicious of the friendly intention of the squad of men who daily sunned themselves behind their little breastwork of sand. Lieutenant Moran moved up under cover of the sand ridges to within about 200 yards of the post. From that point there was nothing but a stretch of level beach to be passed over before he reached the cover of the little rifle-pit. With the men at “trail arms” and on the “double-quick,” they filed out on the beach to make the rush, when they were greeted with a storm of shell, the enemy opening upon them with every gun bearing on that line of approach to the fort. That “double-quick” became a dead run, and luckily Lieutenant Moran and his men reached their cover before the guns could be fired again. The fire from the fort was now steady and persistent, and the men who had been relieved could only get away by running, one or two at a time, between shots, to the cover of the sand ridges. At the end of an hour the last man had gone, and not a single casualty had occurred. Gradually the rebel gunners obtained a better range, and at one time two shells struck immediately in front of the little breastwork at the same moment, and, exploding, they fairly buried the little Rhode Island squad under





an avalanche of sand. The only damage was a ruined shoe on one of the men from a piece of shell. One of the gunners in the fort afterwards said that he watched these shells, and, thinking they had fallen short, he caused the guns to be elevated again. It was an act of thoughtfulness for which Lieutenant Moran heartily thanked him. So severe was this fire that the men could not be relieved until the night of the 24th. During these trying hours these brave men had the pangs of thirst added to the cravings of hunger.

A soldier of this company says: “When we received the order to move forward to occupy this advanced post, I watched my opportunity to run along the beach when the fire from the fort had apparently slackened. I started on the double-quick, and when about half way to the post, I saw a solid shot roll by me on the beach. Its force was almost spent, and it seemed like a foot-ball as it passed me. It is needless to say I did not put my foot out to stop it. When I reached the place where Lieutenant Moran was stationed, he directed me to take three men and go several yards in front of our position as an advanced picket. We moved to the place designated, and remained there in an almost prone position for forty-eight hours, until relieved. You can imagine that this extended tour of duty somewhat detracted from the romance of war.”

An incident occurred during the siege which it may not be inappropriate to mention. A soldier named James Ballou in Company D, had been detailed as company cook, and it was his privilege to remain in camp attending to his duties while the battalion was in the trenches. For some reason he was relieved from his position as cook, and the next time the company went to the front, he accompanied it. He had been in the trenches but a short time when a shell from the enemy came over, and exploded in unpleasant proximity to us. A portion of the shell struck the shoe of Comrade Ballou, penetrating through and severing the big toe from the foot, and resulted in his discharge from the service a few months later.

On the 23d General Parke reported everything ready to open fire, and General Burnside came down from New Berne to superintend the final operations. Up to this time not a shot had been fired from our batteries. Again General Burnside demanded the surrender of the fort, and again the rebel commander refused in the briefest language.





On the 24th the gunboats drew in and opened fire on the fort, and were replied to with the greatest vigor. After this contest had continued about an hour, a gale sprang up, the fleet withdrew out of range, and operations were suspended for that day. The next morning General Parke's land batteries opened on the fort. With the aid of the signal officers, stationed across the channel on the mainland, and who watched the flight and fall of the shells with their glasses, the mortars soon obtained a range so accurate that every one of their shells fell inside of the fort, while the thirty-pounder Parrots swept the ramparts, where the guns were en barbette, with a storm of shot and shell that nothing could withstand. General Foster had once been stationed at Fort Macon as an engineer officer, superintending repairs, and he was therefore thoroughly acquainted with all of the construction of it. It had been planned solely with the view of defending the entrance to Beaufort harbor. The walls on the landward side were made of brick, and the magazine had been placed in this rear wall. The general made a plan of the fort, and it was given to Captain Morris of the regular army, commanding the siege batteries. Soon after the firing commenced he trained his Parrot guns so as to have his solid shot just graze the crest of the counter-scarp and strike the scarp wall just back of the magazine. At first the enemy replied with great spirit, but it was not long before their zeal abated, and their return fire on the land side grew weaker and weaker. Still Captain Morris kept boring away at the magazine, occasionally sending in a shell to see if he had reached it. Before sundown seventeen of their guns had been dismounted or otherwise disabled. Great breaches had been made in the scarp walls, a crack twelve feet long showed on the inside wall of the magazine, and a shell might pierce it any moment and explode the five tons of powder in it, while the ramparts had been swept clean of men. To longer hold out when there was no possibility of any human succor, was simply a useless waste of human life, and, at the close of the day, a white flag was placed on the walls of Fort Macon.

Very early on the morning of the 26th the Fifth Rhode Island relieved the Eighth Connecticut in the trenches, and thus being on duty, as well as nearer to the fort, the honor of being the first troops to enter it and participate in the formal surrender of the rebel garrison





was accorded to our battalion. This was also the most fitting opportunity to present the colors, the right to bear which the battalion had so well and bravely won. Lieut. William W. Douglas volunteered to bring them, and, mounting a horse, he galloped away to camp, and speedily returned to the waiting officers and men. An eye witness thus describes the stirring scenes of that morning:


[Illustration:

Capt. Charles Taft.
]

“From our advanced position with the pickets of the Fifth Rhode Island, we were observant spectators of the negotiations going on between General Burnside and Colonel White. At length the general, accompanied by General Parke and Captains Biggs and King, was descried coming from the fort. They walked leisurely down the beach and gave us the glorious news of the final surrender. General Burnside ordered the Fifth to form in line, and at the command of Major Wright the various companies defiled from their positions and formed upon the





beach, where, after a short review, the general unfurled the new colors of the battalion, just sent from the State of Rhode Island, and bearing the words ‘Roanoke,’ and ‘New Berne,’ and handed them to the color sergeants (Sergt. Charles Taft, and Sergt. Amos B. Sherman), who took their places at the head of the column, which was formed in the following order:

General Burnside, General Parke, Captain Biggs, and Captain King. Major Wright. The Colors. Battalion Fifth Rhode Island Volunteers. Staff. Members of the Press.

“The column, as it moved along the edge of the shore, with the bright, new banners flapping their folds as if in defiance of the rebel flag, which was still floating over the fort, presented a very pleasing sight. Coming to the southerly slope of the fort, the column filed left, and rounding the edge of the greensward, entered the sallyport. Ascending to the ramparts, the battalion marched once around the fort, with their banners still before them. The companies were then assigned to their respective places, and the ceremony of taking possession had ended, with the exception of hauling down the rebel flag. This was soon performed. The halyards were loosed, and the bunting came to the ground. It had been made out of the old United States garrison flag of the fort, with the stars withdrawn to suit the number of the revolted States.”

Where to get a national flag to raise in place of the rebel flag which had just been lowered, was now a question of some importance, how it was obtained an officer who was present must tell:

“When Major Wright, with some other officers assembled at the flag-staff, he asked the Confederate officer who was present if he knew the whereabouts of the usual large United States garrison flag, that should be somewhere in the fort. The officer did not know, but said he would inquire. He did so, with the result of finding a comparatively new flag, which was forthwith bent to the halyards. By this time ‘Joe Greene,’ a character well known throughout Rhode Island, and even more widely known as a bugler of unsurpassed skill, had entered the fort. He was the leader of the band of the Fourth Rhode Island, and had been on the sick list for some days. He now stood near the group surrounding General Burnside, with his hat pulled over his eyes and his shoulders shrugged, a picture of mingled ague and despondency. Just as they began to raise the flag, General Burnside turned to him and said, ‘Joe, can't you give us some music?’ ‘No,’ said Joe, ‘I'm sick; too sick to play, and my bugle isn't here.’ One of General Burnside's aides had seen





‘Joe’ going toward the fort without his bugle, from which he seemed inseparable, and he had the forethought to get and bring it with him to the fort. Taking it out from under his coat, he stepped forward and handed it to Joe. He looked at it, took it, shook it, as all buglers do, blew through it, and just then his eye caught sight of the flag slowly rising to the mast-head. Placing his instrument to his lips, and watching the ascending flag with kindling eyes, he forgot his illness as he threw his head back, while from his loved bugle there came the stirring strains of the ‘Star Spangled Banner,’ played as only ‘Joe Greene’ could play it, and as if his very soul was in each martial note. The sweet notes lingered among the arched casemates and within the walls as if loth to die away in space, and they touched the heart of every soldier present.”

When the rebel flag came down Major Wright placed it under guard, and soon after he saw General Burnside and asked him if the Fifth could retain it. The general assented. Immediately after General Parke came up, and said to Major Wright, in a careless manner, “Oh, by the way, major, you may send that rebel flag up to my quarters.” “No, I can't do that,” replied Major Wright, “I cannot deliver it to any one without General Burnside's order.” The next time Major Wright saw General Burnside he proposed to send it home to the General Assembly in General Burnside's name. The general would not permit this to be done, but directed that it should be sent in the name of the Fifth Rhode Island. This was done, and the flag was received by the General Assembly not long after, while it was in session in Newport. Quite a ceremony took place at the time, and in the evening there was a small celebration, during which the flag was brought and attracted much attention. Soon after it disappeared, and despite the most careful search its subsequent fate is unknown. It was the only flag of a surrendered fort ever sent to any legislature during the war.

The casualties on both sides were slight, considering the great amount of very accurate firing. The loss of the Union forces was one killed and five wounded while that of the rebels was eight killed and twenty wounded. The only casualty in the Fifth was one man wounded in the foot by a shell.

We quote here an extract from the official report of General Parke:

“From the time of our first occupying the ground immediately in front of the fort, very severe and onerous duty was performed by the officers





and men of the Fourth Rhode Island, Eighth Connecticut, and Fifth Rhode Island Battalion. Owing to companies being detached from the first two regiments and their otherwise weak condition, the tour of duty in the trenches and on advance picket guard returned every third day. This, in connection with a march of three and one-half miles through heavy sand to and from camp and occasional fatigue duty, was beginning to tell fearfully on both officers and men; still they bore it all without complaint, and it gives me pleasure to commend them as soldiers of true grit.”

On the 30th day of April the battalion moved camp up to the fort. The fort itself was garrisoned by Company C of the Seeond United States Artillery. The other regiments of the brigade were sent to different points near by. The capture of the fort not only afforded the anticipated change of base for the better, but it also relieved the navy of the labor of blockading the port of Beaufort. On this day the following general order was read to all the regiments in General Parke's brigade:

Headquarters Department of North Carolina.

Beaufort Harbor, April 26, 1862.

General Orders, No. 10.

The general commanding takes particular pleasure in thanking General Parke and his brave command for the patient labor, fortitude and courage displayed in the investment and reduction of Fort Macon.

Every patriotic heart will be filled with gratitude to God for having given to our beloved country such soldiers.

The regiments and artillery companies engaged have earned the right to wear upon their colors and guidons “Fort Macon, April 26, 1862.”

By command of Maj.-Gen. A. E. Burnside.

Lewis Richmond, Asst. Adjt.-Gen.

And with this congratulatory order, the operations attending the capture of Fort Macon came to an end.





CHAPTER VI. FROM FORT MACON TO NEW BERNE.

HERE at Fort Macon, the battalion remained some time. The camp was nicely fixed up, and it was the most homelike arrangement the men had seen since leaving Providence. “We are having a good time,” writes Surgeon Potter, “resting and recruiting the health of the men, of which there was need, for we have had considerable typhoid fever, but we are now getting all right again.” And, under the date of May 5th, another correspondent gives a picture wherein the daily incidents and the home-longings of the men will all be lived over again by those whom the fortunes of war and the vicissitudes of over a quarter of a century of peaceful life permit to read the following:

“We are now encamped in a pleasant position, just under the walls of the fort. The ruins of a granary and several other buildings, which the rebels destroyed, furnish us with lumber, and now the tents all have substantial floors, which will keep us off the damp ground, and will probably prevent much sickness. The weather has been quite hot, and would be oppressive but for the pleasant breeze from the sea. Our location is in many respects the best we have ever occupied. Everything except the water, which is almost nauseous, contributes to make us desire to remain here until we are again called to active operations. A small mail, which reached us yesterday by the way of Hatteras and New Berne, brought us a welcome and long-expected freight of good wishes and cheering words from loved ones at home. If those who have friends among us could know how much pleasure their messages diffuse in camp, nothing but the most pressing duties would prevent them from writing. An official dispatch to the commander of one of the gunboats in the harbor announced the taking of New Orleans, and completed





our happiness for the day. General Burnside returned to New Berne immediately after the surrender of the fort, and you will soon hear of another blow in the department of North Carolina, if greater victories in other quarters do not withdraw your attention from our movements.”

How inexorable the other side of this pleasant picture, “Died in hospital.” There is a compensation in the excitement and rush attending the drawings of a lottery with death in battle that robs it of half its terror. But the slow wasting away day by day—silent with endurance—when this king of terrors was met in the cheerless hospital ward in the early period of the war, tested to the uttermost all the manly qualities of manly men. And year by year how the long, sad list grew, of which the following is a brief example:

Deaths in Burnside's Division.

Fifth Rhode Island.

Private Samuel Barnes, Company E, typhoid fever.

Private George B. Dean, Company C, typhoid fever.

Sergt. Lorenzo Ludwig, Company B, typhoid fever.

Corp. Samuel Grimwood, Company E.

Slain as truly were they in defence of the cause of the nation as any that fell in the forefront of the fiercest charge ever made between the Potomac and the Rio Grande.

The period of rest that ensued immediately after the surrender of Fort Macon was also one of transition in the future fortunes of the forces in North Carolina. And this transition arose from two causes. The continued successes of the troops operating here, the only notable ones gained in the east up to this time, had attracted the attention of the whole country to both officers and men, and earned for them the warmest encomiums of praise from the authorities in Washington, as well as from both press and people. The Burnside division of the Army of the Potomac became an army corps, operating in the department of North Carolina, with Major-General Burnside in command. The three generals of brigade, Foster, Reno, and Parke, were made major-generals of divisions, and their several commands augmented accordingly. Colonels, whose ability had commanded attention, became generals of brigades. Notably among





these last promotions was that of Colonel Rodman, who so gallantly led the decisive charge of the Fourth and Fifth Rhode Island at New Berne, on the 14th of March. These promotions necessitated many changes among regimental officers, and caused alterations in the formations of the new brigades. Reinforcements of some much
[Illustration:

Capt. James Gregg.
]

needed cavalry and light batteries, together with some new regiments of infantry, also arrived. Such was the gratifying nature of the first cause of transition.

The other cause need only be mentioned in the briefest possible manner and with fewest words of comment. General Burnside had fulfilled to the letter all of the instructions governing his operations up to this time, and with a success as gratifying to the nation as it





was unexpected in certain high official circles. Very early in the campaign Jefferson Davis had alluded to the affairs in North Carolina as “deeply humiliating.” Already the people of that State were complaining in tones both loud and deep that the Confederate authorities were abandoning their coasts to the enemy for the purpose of defending Virginia. With his wider sphere of action and enlarged command, the eyes of the commanding general were now turned toward the very important port of Wilmington, when he received from the general in command of the Army of the Potomac orders to the effect “that no offensive movement was to be made in the department of North Carolina until the results of his operations on the lower peninsula of Virginia should be determined.”

When at last dire disaster threatened the Union arms in Virginia, General McClellan directed Burnside to reinforce him with all the troops he could spare. The latter general collected two divisions from his department, and, leaving General Foster in command in North Carolina, he went to the assistance of the army under his junior in rank, General Pope, and, waiving all questions of rank, he did all that was in his power to do in that fateful campaign.

Twice was he offered, even urged, to accept the command of the Army of the Potomac, and each time he refused; the last time supplementing his refusal by strongly advising the reinstatement of General McClellan. When General McClellan, in command of the armies in defence of Washington, marched north after the Confederate army, which had by this time crossed into Maryland, it was General Burnside's command, with his two North Carolina divisions in the lead, that pushed the hitherto triumphant Confederates to battle in the passes of South Mountain. That battle was won by General Brunside and these troops, with but little assistance from other corps, which had not yet come up, at the expense of hundreds of lives, among which was that of the able and gallant Reno.

To return to the department of North Carolina at the period immediately succeeding the capture of Fort Macon. It may be briefly stated that the new commands were organized from the old regiments and the reinforcements, as fast as the latter arrived. New Berne was made secure against any possible attack; various small expeditions were sent out along the coast, and up the bays and rivers,





for the double purpose of harrassing the enemy and keeping the troops inured to the fatigues of the march and dangers of battle. In the meantime the Fifth Battalion was attached to Colonel Rodman's brigade, and still remained in camp at Fort Macon, finding employment in a steady application to company and battalion drill. During this period of rest some changes occurred in the roster of officers. Adjutant Charles H. Chapman resigned May 10th. June 7th, Second Lieutenant George G. Hopkins, of Company C, was made first lieutenant of Company E. First Sergeant Benjamin L. Hall, of Company
[Illustration:

General Burnside's Headquarters, New Berne
]

E, was promoted second lieutenant of Company B, and James Gregg, first sergeant of Company B, was made second lieutenant of Company C. May 9th, second lieutenant James M. Wheaton, of Company E, was promoted to first lieutenant and adjutant of the battalion, and Henry B. Landers, first sergeant of Company C, was made second lieutenant of Company E.

The first break in the routine of camp life at Fort Macon came in the following pleasant manner: Adjutant-General Mauran, of Rhode Island, having come to North Carolina to make the formal presentation of the sword voted to General Burnside by the legislature of that State, came to Fort Macon to see the Fifth.Captain Morris, of the





regular artillery in the fort, received him with a salute of seven guns. The presentation was to take place in New Berne, on the afternoon of the 20th of June, so we started the day before, at two P. M., on the “Wheelbarrow” Union. While passing through Core Sound, she broke her rudder, and it took until night to repair it, which compelled us to lay by until morning. Going by the way of Core and Pamlico sounds, and the Neuse River, we arrived at New Berne about two P. M. on the 20th. By the time we landed it was raining so hard that the ceremony was postponed until the next day. Friday morning the Fourth and Fifth Rhode Island had a fine dress parade in front of General Burnside's headquarters, and in the afternoon we marched across the Trent River to a large field, near our old Camp Pierce, and the presentation took place in the presence of all the troops not on guard, picket, or other duty, some 8,000 in all. The Rhode Island troops acted as an escort to General Burnside. The presentation speech of Adjutant-General Mauran was most eloquent, and General Burnside replied in modest and fitting terms. When the ceremony was completed the whole command was formed in column, and passed in review. Saturday morning we started on our return trip, again passing a night in Core Sound, and arriving in camp Sunday morning.

Behind this concentration of troops there was quite another purpose than that of mere parade and display. Weary of his enforced inaction, General Burnside had determined upon an important offensive movement against Goldsboro, and all the preparations for it had been carefully made. Up to this time nothing but good report had been received of the progress of the Army of the Potomac, and it was hoped that this movement, severing the principal communications of the rebel army in Virginia, would materially assist the operations on the peninsula. Orders for the march to commence on the 30th of June had been prepared, but the very next morning an order was received to reinforce General McClellan without delay. This order practically, though not nominally, severed General Burnside's connection with the department of North Carolina.

Shortly after the battalion returned from New Berne rumors of disasters in front of Richmond reached camp. They were soon confirmed by a call for troops from this department to reinforce the





Army of the Potomac. The Fifth Battalion was ordered to relieve the Fourth Rhode Island at Beaufort and Morehead City. Four companies went to the former of these places, while Company D, Captain Grant, went to the latter. Major Wright was appointed military governor of Beaufort, and Lieut. William W. Douglas, of Company D, was made provost marshal. This change was made June 30th. At this time an officer expressed the general feeling of officers and men when he said, “When we found that our battalion was selected to remain behind, which seemed to be on account of our small numbers, it was a source of regret to us all, as we had become attached to the different organizations we had served with, and we did not like the idea of being separated from them, as well as losing the prospect of being introduced to other scenes and new service.” On this day Lieut. Benjamin L. Hall arrived from Providence with a number of recruits, which were to form the nucleus of the new company, F.

Though the battalion was sent to Beaufort to relieve the Fourth Rhode Island, which was ordered to take transport at once for some, at the time unknown destination, that regiment did not finally sail until July 6th. In the meantime the two organizations were packed into the quarters of one, to the great discomfort of both, but these trials were good humoredly borne. On the 4th of July, both organizations united in formally observing that day, pursuant to a general order from department headquarters. The men were paraded and formed a square, when the general order directing this observance of the day, was read. The band of the Fourth Rhode Island furnished some appropriate music. Prayer was then offered, and the Declaration of Independence read. At this point in the ceremony one good secessionist woman among the spectators jeeringly said, “Jeff Davis’ flag will float here in a fortnight!” Evidently she had had rebel news from Richmond. After more music, some manœuvres by the two regiments took place, followed by a lively drill in the various modes of firing. A parade through the streets, followed by a collation for the officers at our battalion headquarters, and a “ham and soft bread supper” for the men, ended their first 4th of July in North Carolina.





Again the battalion fell into the old routine of drill, guard and fatigue duty, which was dull enough in these sleepy coast towns of this revolted State. But they heard the echoes of the mighty strife waged in the West and along the rivers of Virginia. Their beloved general left them, taking with him most of those companions-in-arms who had become endeared to them through their common toils and dangers. Major-General Foster was left in command of the department, with barely force enough to hold what had been gained. This officer, with a patriotism and forgetfulness of self that has but few parallels in the history of the succeeding three years, devoted the best of his great ability and dauntless courage to the task assigned him. His meagre force, scattered among many posts, passed the summer in a state of waiting expectancy.

The following sketch of General Foster is from Woodbury's Burnside and the Ninth Army Corps:

“Major-General John G. Foster, who succeeded General Burnside in the command of the Department of North Carolina, had already won for himself a brilliant reputation. He had been for a considerable time in the service of the country, and had always been found to be a faithful and skillful officer. He was born in New Hampshire, in the year 1824, and was appointed from that State to the United States Military Academy at West Point. He graduated from the Academy in 1846, the fourth in rank in a class of fifty-nine. Among his classmates were McClellan, Reno, Seymour, Sturgis, and Stoneman of the loyal service, and ‘Stonewall’ Jackson, Wilcox and Pickett, of the rebel army. He was commissioned as brevet Second Lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers, July 1, 1846. He bore a very active and distinguished part in the Mexican war, and his record of promotion is a sufficient testimony to his bravery and merit. ‘Brevet First Lieutenant, August 20, 1847, for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battles of Contreras and Churubusco; severely wounded in the battle of Molino del Rey, September 8, 1847; Brevet Captain from that date, for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battle of Molino del Rey; Second Lieutenant, May 24, 1848.’ Such is the honorable record of his first two years of service.

“His gallant conduct and his proficiency in military knowledge attracted the attention of the authorities, and, in 1854, promoted to First Lieutenant on the 1st of April of that year, we find him Assistant Professor of Engineering in the Military Academy at West Point. He was appointed in charge of the fortifications in North and South Carolina, April 28, 1858, and there acquired a knowledge that became serviceable for subsequent operations. He was commissioned as Captain in the Engineers,






[Illustration:

Gen. John G. Foster.
]









July 1, 1860, and was brevetted Major on the 26th of December of the same year. During the eventful winter of 1860-’61, and the following spring, he was stationed at Charleston, South Carolina, and was one of the officers under Major Anderson in the defence of Fort Sumter. His loyal and fearless bearing on the occasion of the bombardment of Sumter, is fresh in the recollection of all. Returning North after the surrender, he was employed on the fortifications of New York. On the 23d of October, 1861, he was commissioned as Brigadier-General of Volunteers, and was in command of the rendezvous at Annapolis previous to the arrival of General Burnside. After he assumed command of the Department of North Carolina, he was engaged in conspicuous services in his own Department and in the neighborhood of Charleston. Subsequently, he commanded the Department of the Ohio. After the surrender of General Lee, he was for a time in command at Tallahassee.”

In 1867 he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of engineers in the United States army. He was, for some time, stationed at Boston, where his services were invaluable in removing obstructions and securing from further injury the channels of the harbor. His health failing, he sought to improve it by accepting duty in the West. He did not recover his health, however, and on the 2d of September, 1874, he died at Nashua, N. H.

When hearing or reading of the deeds in other fields of those who were so recently their companions-in-arms, both officers and men of the Fifth united in bewailing that fate of war which compelled them to inaction during this critical period of our history.

The first days of August brought a change of scene to the battalion. Marching orders were received, with New Berne as the destination. Again the men embarked on their old and now very familiar friend, the “Wheelbarrow” Union, and went over the well-known route through Core and Pamlico sounds and up the Neuse River to New Berne, arriving in that city August 8th. Camp was pitched outside of the city limits and near the “Fair Grounds,” and named Camp Anthony, in honor of our United States senator. The battalion was now assigned to the brigade commanded by Col. Thomas G. Stevenson, of the Twenty-fourth Massachusetts, who, by the way, was always known, loved and respected as Col. “Tom” Stevenson long after he became general.






[Illustration:

The Home of the Fifth Rhode Island Volunteers. Sketched by Lieut. George F. Turner. (The original sketch was presented to Lieut.-Col. Job Arnold when retiring from the regiment on his transfer to the Seventh Rhode Island Infantry.)
]





The following sketch is also taken from Burnside and the Ninth Army Corps:

“Born in Boston, on the 3d of February, 1836, Thomas Greely Stevenson was especially fortunate in his family, his education and his social position. He was the son of Hon. J. Thomas Stevenson, well known as an able lawyer and a sagacious man of affairs. He was educated in the best schools in Boston, and at an early age he entered the counting-room of one of the most active merchants of that city. There, by his faithfulness in duty, his promptness, and his generosity of disposition, he secured the entire confidence and love of his principal and the high esteem of the business community, and a brilliant commercial career opened before him. But when his country called him, he could not neglect her summons. The parting words of his father to himself and his younger brother, when they left home for the field, well express the appreciation in which his domestic virtues were held: ‘Be as good soldiers as you have been sons. Your country can ask no more than that of you, and God will bless you.’

“In the spring of 1861 he was orderly sergeant of the New England Guards, and upon the organization of the Fourth battalion of Massachusetts infantry he was chosen captain of one of its companies. On the 25th of April the battalion was sent to garrison Fort Independence, in Boston harbor, and on the 4th of May, Captain Stevenson was promoted to the rank of major. In this position he was distinguished for an excellent faculty for discipline and organization, which were subsequently of great benefit to him. On the 1st of August he received authority to raise and organize a regiment of infantry for a term of three years, and on the 7th of September he went into camp at Readville with twenty men. On the 9th of December he left the State of Massachusetts with the Twenty-fourth Regiment—one of the finest and best drilled, organized, equipped, and disciplined body of troops that Massachusetts had yet sent to the war. His regiment was assigned to General Foster's brigade in the North Carolina expedition, and he soon gained the respect and friendship of his superior officers.

“The conduct of the Twenty-fourth Regiment and its commander in North Carolina has already been made a matter of record. When Colonel Stevenson was assigned to the command of a brigade in April, 1862, the choice was unanimously approved by his companions-in-arms. General Burnside regarded him as one of his best officers. ‘He has shown great courage and skill in action,’ once wrote the General; ‘and in organization and discipline he has no superior.’ General Foster was enthusiastic in his commendation. ‘He stands as high as any officer or soldier in the army of the United States,’ said he, ‘on the list of noble, loyal and devoted men.’ On the 27th of December he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General, and on the 14th of March, 1863, he was





confirmed and commissioned to that grade. In February, 1863, he accompanied General Foster to South Carolina, where his brigade was attached to the Tenth corps, and where he served with great fidelity and zeal throughout the year under Generals Foster, Hunter and Gillmore. In April, 1864, he reported to General Burnside at Annapolis, and was assigned to the command of the First division.”

General Stevenson was killed at the Battle of the Wilderness. Mr. Woodbury further says of him:

“But the Ninth Corps suffered a severe loss in the death of General Stevenson, the commander of the first division. He was killed early in the day, by one of the enemy's riflemen, while near his headquarters.”

During the month of August a radical change occurred in the roster of the battalion, which may be briefly mentioned. First Lieut. William W. Hall, of Company B, resigned August 2d; Capt. Jonathan M. Wheeler and Second Lieut. Levi F. Goodwin, of Company A, on the 4th; Capt. George H. Grant, of Company D, Capt. James M. Eddy, of Company C, and First Lieut. Daniel S. Remington, of Company A, on the 6th; Chaplain McWalter B. Noyes on the 15th, and Maj. John Wright on the 25th. As some compensation for the loss of so many officers, twenty-six recruits arrived in camp on the 18th of August, and were assigned to Company F.

The justice of the cause which compelled some of these officers to tender their resignations in defence, as they esteemed it, of their own honor, after they had so far borne the heat and burden of the day, is a mooted question which it is not the province of these pages to discuss. Camp life very frequently has the same effect on the morale of officers as of men, and in the leisure of such rest petty differences between them are too apt to grow and ripen into serious misunderstandings. That such personal troubles did exist is not stated here as a fact, but this greater and more important truth is urged upon every survivor of the late war who may chance to read these lines: If it has been esteemed both patriotic and wise to bury in the oblivion of passing time all of the differences which caused the late terrible struggle, how much more generous and manly is it to forget every personal misunderstanding which arose from the annoyances or jealousies of camp life, and remember, not the errors of erring mortals, but only the good qualities of brave men, who once shared the same dangers in the same cause.





In this connection the two following letters explain themselves:

Hdqrs. Dept. of North Carolina, New Berne, N. C., Aug. 7, 1862.

His Excellency Wm. Sprague, Governor of the State of Rhode Island:

The battalion I have now brought to this place and put them under a most excellent officer, Colonel Stevenson, commanding Second Brigade of my division, who will give them his strict personal attention by establishing officers’ drills, etc.; and by appointing the best sergeants lance lieutenants he will be able accurately to discover the capabilities of each. I would beg leave to suggest the filling up of this battalion to a regiment now. There are many excellent officers left, and the men are very good, and, under the care of Colonel Stevenson, to whose brigade they are attached, I feel sure they will rapidly perfect themselves in drill and discipline, and become the equals of the other fine regiments your State has sent forth, which is as high praise as a regiment can desire.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obd't serv't, J. G. Foster, Major-Gen. Comd'g.

The other letter simply encloses the list of promotions recommended by the brigade commander, and it is needless to say that it is a roll of honor:

Hdqrs. Dept. of North Carolina, New Berne, N. C., Aug. 15, 1862.

General E. C. Mauran, Adjutant-General State of Rhode Island:

General: Referring to my letter of the 7th inst. to His Excellency Governor Sprague, I beg leave to hand you, enclosed, a list of proposed promotions in the Fifth Regiment Rhode Island Volunteers, recommended by Col. T. G. Stevenson, to whose brigade they are attached, after a careful personal examination on his part.

I have the honor to remain, sir, very respectfully your ob't serv't., J. G. Foster, Major-General Comd'g.

Enclosure to the above:

New Berne, Aug. 13, 1862.

After a careful examination of the abilities of the following officers of the Fifth Rhode Island Regiment, I would respectfully recommend that they be appointed to fill the positions set against their respective names.

Captain Job Arnold, . . . . to be Major.

1st Lieut. W. W. Douglas, . . . to be Captain.

1st Lieut. John E. Snow, . . . to be Captain.





1st Lieut. James M. Wheaton, . . to be Captain.

1st Lieut. George G. Hopkins, . . to be Captain.

2d Lieut. Henry B. Landers, . . . to be Captain.

2d Lieut. James Moran, . . . . to be 1st Lieut.

2d Lieut. Benj. L. Hall, . . . . to be 1st Lieut.

2d Lieut. James Gregg, . . . . to be 1st Lieut.

1st Sergt. Charles Taft, . . . . to be 1st Lieut.

1st Sergt. John E. Robinson, . . . to be 1st Lieut.

After a further examination I feel confident that I shall find several other warrant officers having qualities to make good commissioned officers.

Very respectfully your obedient servant, Thos. G. Stevenson, Col. Comd'g 2d Brig., 1st Div.

To General J. G. Foster, Major-Gen. Comd'g.

The recommendations of Colonel Stevenson were not at once acted upon by the governor on account of the earnest efforts which were being made at that time to recruit the battalion up to a full regiment. Immediately upon the resignation of Major Wright, Capt. Job Arnold, of Company E, was placed in charge of the battalion, and for some time the list of the commandants of companies, with the exception of a few minor changes, was as follows:

Second Lieutenant James Moran, commanding Co. A.

Second Lieutenant Benjamin L. Hall, commanding Co. B.

First Lieutenant John E. Snow, commanding Co. C.

First Lieutenant William W. Douglas, commanding Co. D.

First Lieutenant George G. Hopkins, commanding Co. E.

“Every day our camp is being improved and beautified,” writes an officer. “Evergreen trees were taken from the neighboring forests and set out for shade; trenches were dug to afford needed drainage; company streets were graded, and our tents were floored, both for the sake of comfort and health. By this time we considered ourselves as fully entitled to rank among the best organizations in the department, so far as proficiency in drill, good discipline, and a knowledge of the duties of the soldier were concerned.” From this it will be seen that the changes in the administration of battalion affairs, as well as the emulation which was aroused by daily contact with other regiments in high state of drill and discipline had borne good fruit.





About September 1st, a few of the recruits who had failed to pass the department medical examination, were returned to Rhode Island. On the 20th a number of men were discharged from the battalion on account of disability. On the 24th George W. Tew was appointed captain by Governor Sprague. A memorandum with this appointment said: “Governor Sprague will appoint Captain Tew to-day, to enlist a company for the Fifth Regiment, to serve for three years, and when it is completed he will assign him to the position of major in that regiment.” Captain Tew was accordingly appointed major, October 1st, and directed to report to the adjutant-general of the State as soon as possible with the Newport company, in order that he might join the regiment at New Berne.

October 11th, Major Tew received the following:

State of Rhode Island, Adjutant General's Office, Oct. 11, 1862.

Special Order No. 180.

I. Major George W. Tew, having been appointed in the Fifth Regiment Rhode Island Volunteers, vice John Wright, resigned, he is directed to take charge of the seventh company, and move with the same on Monday next to join the regiment at New Berne, reporting upon his arrival to Major-General Foster, commanding the department of North Carolina, providing him with a copy of this order.

At as early a date as possible he is directed to forward to this department a complete muster roll of the command as it now is, designating those officers holding commissions, and those acting by appointment of the military authorities there. The rolls must show the discharges, deaths, desertions, those in hospital, and those on furlough, together with those that have joined the regiment since its organization.

II. Capt. J. M. Wheeler will report to Major Tew, accompanying him to New Berne, and he will be assigned to the command of the seventh company, or to any other in his discretion. He will unite with him in procuring the above information, and in recommending to this department the names of persons deserving commissions.

By order of the Commander-in-Chief, Edward C. Mauran, Adjutant-General.





In camp quiet still reigned, and the first incident to break the monotony is recorded in the following letter:

Headquarters Department of North Carolina. New Berne, N. C., Oct. 27, 1862.

His Excellency William Sprague, Governor of Rhode Island:

Governor: Major Tew has arrived and assumed command of the Fifth Rhode Island battalion. I have determined to send him to Rhode Island by this steamer for the purpose of filling the battalion up to a regiment, in which purpose I trust he will receive your aid and support.

I shall hope to have the battalion speedily filled, and should be very much pleased to have another Rhode Island regiment added to my command.

I am, Governor, with great respect your obedient servant, J. G. Foster, Major-General Commanding.

At this time Governor Sprague was doing all in his power to comply with these repeated requests of General Foster. Recruiting offices were opened at various places in the State, and Henry T. Sisson, a veteran officer from the Third Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, was appointed colonel of the Fifth, and placed in charge of the recruiting service for it. He went to work at once with characteristic activity. On his recommendation many new officers were appointed, and it now began to look as if a still more active and important future would dawn upon the battalion.





CHAPTER VII. THE TARBORO EXPEDITION.

DURING the last two months many recruits had arrived. The battalion now contained six companies, Company F having been added. At Providence every effort was being made to make the battalion a full regiment. The condition of the recruiting service at this time is best told in the following order:

State of Rhode Island, Adjutant General's Office, Providence, Nov. 5, 1862.

General Orders No. 54.

In pursuance of orders from the War Department giving General Burnside authority to raise a division for coast service, and one battalion having been raised in Rhode Island as a part of said division, it is hereby ordered that said battalion be raised to a full regiment (to be armed with rifles) three additional companies being required to complete the same.

The regiment will be under the command of Colonel Henry T. Sisson, who is directed to establish his headquarters and recruit the three companies.

The officers in Rhode Island recruiting for said regiment are requested to report to Colonel Sisson for instructions.

Each company when organized will be forwarded to the regiment.

By order of the Commander-in-Chief, Edward C. Mauran, Adjutant-General.

In the camp of the battalion at New Berne preparations were being made for quite another kind of service, and, in consequence, every eye shone brighter and every step seemed lighter as officers and men moved about their respective duties. Considerable reinforcements had arrived in the department, and everything seemed to





promise an eventful and exciting campaign. Marching orders were at last received, and the troops that were to take part in the expedition embarked on transports at New Berne. The battalion went on board a large schooner, The Skirmisher, which was to be towed to its destination.

On the morning of the 1st of November we found ourselves in Pamlico River, in sight of the town of Washington, and among a large fleet of transports lying at anchor in the vicinity. It was a sight that brought to mind other scenes and experiences in this, to us, very eventful year. During the day all of the troops were landed, and our battalion, after marching some little distance out of the town, found itself with the rest of the brigade, which at this time was composed as follows: The Fifth Rhode Island, Twenty-fourth and Forty-fourth Massachusetts, and Tenth Connecticut regiments of infantry, and Belger's Battery F, First Rhode Island Light Artillery. It was known as the Second brigade, Col. T. G. Stevenson commanding. Here we bivouacked for the night, and the following day, awaiting the arrival of the First brigade, which with the artillery, cavalry, and the wagon train of the division were to march by land from New Berne. It had been planned to have this column marching by land reach this point at the same time that the troops arrived by water. But it did not reach Washington until the night of November 2d, to the great disappointment of the commanding general.

A correspondent gives this account of the movements of the troops up to the occupation of Rawle's Mill:

“Early Sunday morning the advance moved out on the Williamston road. It was a beautiful Sabbath morning, the sun was very warm, while there was scarcely a breath of air, and the sweat rolled in large drops from the men as they ‘went marching along.’ We had advanced about six miles when a slight skirmish took place with the rear of a rebel regiment that was ‘on the skedaddle,’ they having received intelligence of the advance of our forces and profited thereby.

“Still later in the day, when we had gone about eighteen miles, a prisoner was captured, who stated that the rebel force had left for Williamston, though the Twenty-sixth North Carolina regiment, with Moore's battery, were behind a breastwork about half a mile further





on, just over a stream of water about one hundred feet wide and three feet deep, with a crooked road running through it, and on either side a thick swamp, while just beyond the stream was a high bank; making altogether a place easy of defence, and correspondingly hard to attack.
[Illustration:

Lieut. Edward F. Angell.
]

He also stated that if we had been a few hours earlier we would have bagged their whole force, and that the regiment in front was only a rear-guard to check us until their wagon train escaped.

“As he had said, our skirmishers were fired on when they had got half way through the water. Immediately two companies of the Forty-fourth Massachusetts were ordered forward to ascertain their





force, and they advanced like veterans to the centre of the stream, when a sharp volley from the enemy was fired into them. They quickly returned it, and at the same time Belger with his Rhode Island battery opened the ball.

“The Twenty-fourth Massachusetts was deployed as skirmishers at the time, and the Tenth Connecticut supported the battery on one side of the road, while the Fifth Rhode Island was formed on the other. The firing was sharp for some time, but finding our shells rather too much for them, they retired about a mile to a line of rifle-pits, where they intended to give us a warm reception. It was some two hours before our advance reached these pits; but Belger cleared the way with his shells, so that when our infantry got there they only received a few shots from the enemy, which were fired as they retreated. They burned the bridge at Rawle's Mill, so that it was impossible to follow them.”

In point of fact this advance of Colonel Stevenson's brigade deserves more than this passing notice. The night was intensely dark, the ground, position, and force of the enemy were totally unknown. General Foster in his official report says: “On the evening of the same day we encountered the enemy posted in a strong position at a small stream called Little Creek. I immediately ordered Colonel Stevenson, commanding the Second brigade, who was then in advance, to make all haste in driving them from the opposite side of the creek, and to push on at once.”

It was two companies of the Forty-fourth Massachusetts, a regiment just from the recruiting camp at home and never before under fire, that bravely and steadily pushed through water so deep as to spoil the cartridges in their pouches, and received the enemy's fire when almost within reach of the flashes of their rifles. And it was this regiment that suffered nearly all of the loss in this engagement. No sooner had this Forty-fourth regiment effected a lodgement on the opposite bank than Belger's battery was crossed, the rest of the brigade followed, and again the men had to literally feel their way through this dark and unknown land, removing the trees felled across the road by the enemy so that the guns could advance. It was not until nearly one o'clock A. M. that our skirmishers had developed the enemy's line of rifle-pits defending the bridge at Rawle's Mill. Belger's





battery and two batteries of the Third New York Artillery were put in position so quietly that even our own men were not aware of the movement, and at the word there flashed out in the gloom of the early morning the lightning of eighteen guns. This storm of shell was a complete surprise, coming at the time it did, and, after making but a feeble reply, the enemy escaped in the darkness, burning the bridge behind them. Nothing could now be done except to wait until the pioneers could rebuild the bridge so that the batteries and wagon train could cross with the troops.

It was about three A. M. when the tired men, wet to the middle from fording the creek and floundering through the swamp, received orders to bivouac for the night. The Fifth battalion were ordered to remain in the captured breastworks. It was clear but very cold, and a chill and penetrating wind swept the open fields. Many of the men were destitute of blankets even, and they suffered keenly. In some instances water froze in their canteens.

At the time the advance of the Forty-fourth Massachusetts received the enemy's fire while in the creek, one of those incidents of battle occurred which served for a long time afterward to give zest to the talk around many a camp-fire. The Massachusetts regiment had preceded our Fifth battalion in the march during the day. At the time the two companies of that regiment were moving toward the creek, an honest member of our battalion, who had probably fallen out of line for some purpose, came along, and, in the darkness did not notice particularly the men halted along the road-side, but seeing some of the Forty-fourth moving toward the creek, he followed on, thinking that his own regiment was just behind. While the Forty-fourth men were deploying to enter the water, he somehow got ahead, and wading through he pushed on up the bank. Not seeing any one in front, and hearing a noise on one side of the road, he instinctively halted. At that moment the deadly volley fired at the advancing line flashed out in the darkness, almost behind him. For once this much of Rhode Island was seized with a panic, and he bolted over the opposite bank into the bushes and down into the swamp. There, if he may be believed, he plunged and leaped, and waded, and swam, until his fright began to subside, when, to his horror, he was sharply challenged by some one in his front. For a





moment he could not answer, and the challenge was repeated. He knew the voice. It was a picket from his own regiment that he had stumbled upon. But just what route he pursued to get around in front of his own regiment, he would never tell.

How the conduct of the Second brigade in this night attack was regarded at headquarters, is indicated in this extract from General Foster's official report: “I recommend that Colonel Stevenson, for his efficient services on this march, and in the affair at Little Creek and Rawle's Mill, as well as his previous services at Roanoke and New Berne, be promoted to the rank of brigadier-general, to date from Nov. 3, 1862.”

Captain Job Arnold's official report is appended herewith:

Report of Capt. Job Arnold, Fifth Rhode Island Infantry, of skirmishes at Little Creek and Rawle's Mill, N. C.

Hdqrs. Fifth Regt. Rhode Island Volunteers, Camp Anthony, New Berne, N. C., Nov. 13, 1862.

Sir: I beg leave to submit to you the following report of the part taken by the Fifth Rhode Island in skirmishes of Sunday, November 2, 1862:

At the commencement of the action we received orders to support Belger's Rhode Island battery. We formed in line to the right and rear of the battery, in the cornfield to the right of the road. When the battery moved to take its position, we filed down the road and formed a line about twenty paces in the rear of the battery in the field to the left of the road, our right resting toward the road, and there remained till ordered to follow the battery across the ford. We had nearly reached the road when we were ordered to remain to support a section of Belger's battery, left in its former position.

We then formed in line in rear of a rail fence to the left and rear of the pieces, our left resting on the woods. As soon as the battery was ordered forward we joined the main column, and, crossing the ford, proceeded with it up the road to the rifle-pits this side of Rawle's Mill, and remained within supporting distance of the battery while it was engaged in shelling the enemy. At about one o'clock we entered the rifle-pits, and there remained until daylight. At one time the regiment was under quite heavy fire, and it gives me much pleasure to state that both officers and men, without exception, behaved with the most perfect coolness.

JOB ARNOLD, Captain Commanding.

Col. Thomas G. Stevenson, Comdg. Second Brig., First Div., Dept. of North Carolina.





A non-commissioned officer of the battalion gives his account of the skirmish at Rawle's Mill: “We were ordered to support Belger's Rhode Island battery, who were hotly engaged with the enemy. Captain Arnold, commanding our battalion, ordered us to lie down, which order we obeyed with alacrity. How rapidly this battery did
[Illustration:

Lieut. Henry P. Williams.
]

fire, and, as it was very dark, the lines of the poet came to my mind,

  • ‘And louder than the bolts of heaven
  • Far flashed the red artillery.’

“At last the order came to go forward and we proceeded to cross the ford, and waded through the creek to the opposite side. We halted for a while after crossing, and as I was completely tired out,





I laid down by the roadside and soon fell asleep, and did not awaken till I heard a thundering noise in close proximity, and found that it was a section of artillery rushing past me, on the run. But where was my battalion? I was so overcome with sleep, that I had not heard the order ‘Forward!’ when it was given, and on my awaking I found that the battalion had gone on without me. I took in the situation, however, and, after waking, I started on and soon joined my comrades. We shortly afterwards bivouacked for the night.”

While the wearied men were sleeping unsheltered in the freezing air, the pioneers were busy replacing the destroyed bridge, and not long after day had dawned it was ready for the troops to pass over. “Soon after daybreak,” writes Surgeon Potter, “we resumed our march for Williamston, distant about four miles, and located on the Roanoke River, and there we met our gunboats. We then started for Hamilton, also on the Roanoke, passing on the way a battery on Rainbow Bluffs, which had long been a scarecrow to our fleet, but which we found abandoned. The gunboats accompanied us as far as Hamilton, which was partly burned, perhaps by ‘apple-jack,’ with which some of the boys had become primed.”

One of the comrades says of Williamston: “We entered the town about noon, and found many of the houses deserted of their inhabitants. Some of these houses we visited and made ourselves at home. I recollect that one of our men arrayed himself in a hoop skirt, and with a parasol in hand created quite a sensation. In company with several comrades I entered the house of a physician as I should judge by the bottles and surgical appliances lying around. We helped ourselves, not to his medicines, but to his wife's preserves. One man brought away a stove-pipe hat that belonged to the doctor, I presume. I borrowed a book from his library, and forgot to return it. I imagined that I should like to send it home as a souvenir, but after carrying it for awhile, it became burdensome in addition to the weight of my accoutrements, and I afterwards deposited it by the roadside.”

The fire in Hamilton destroyed a large portion of the buildings in the town, and was the subject of much comment afterwards. It was probably caused by the carelesness of some soldier or sailor. We marched out of the town that evening by the light of the burning buildings, and bivouacked in a cornfield.





The next morning the march was continued from Hamilton toward Tarboro. The cavalry advance was pushed to within about four miles of that town, but the column of infantry was halted at a point some ten miles distant. This town was an important point at the head of navigation on the Tar River, and the terminus of a short branch of the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad. As an expression of a prevalent feeling among the men in the battalion at that time, we quote from a non-commissioned officer. It may be well to state here that he was one of the many who were doing officers’ duties in the battalion, and who were finally commissioned. He said:

“About noon our brigade halted at a pleasant farm-house, and the men had plenty of time to prepare and eat their dinner. Here we learned in some way that the town was about four miles distant; that the road we were on led direct to the place; that the enemy had strongly fortified this approach, but that just back a little way was another road leading around back of the town, where the enemy were not so well prepared to receive us. After a couple of hours’ rest, we took the back track as far as the forks, where we filed off and again headed for the town, to enter it this time where they were not expecting us. We marched very slowly and halted often. There was evidently something going wrong at headquarters. About dusk we entered some cornfields, and then we bivouacked for the night. The detail for picket duty was much larger than that of the night before. Every precaution was taken against a night attack. The men were not allowed to stack arms, but told to keep their rifles with them, and to look well to their condition. We were also directed to make as many fires as possible. It was a dark and cold night, and the prospect for the morrow was not very cheering. As the night advanced trains were distinctly heard in the town; not one train, but for hours we heard the noise of cars rumbling along.

“We all believed that the enemy were receiving reinforcements. Just before daylight we were surprised by the command to ‘Fall in!’ No drums were beaten. No noise was made that could be avoided. All commands were given in a subdued tone; and soon we were on the move, away from the town, at a rapid march.”

We quote from General Foster's official report:

“It was my intention to pursue the enemy to Tarboro, but the exhausted condition of the men, most of whom had been sick during the





last two months, and had not yet recovered their strength, and the fact that the provisions had become nearly exhausted, so that I had to subsist the command by foraging, as well as the fact that the enemy were being largely reinforced by rail, changed my plans, and on the following day I countermarched the column, reaching Hamilton the same night.”

The march was made through one of the most fertile and well cultivated sections of Eastern North Carolina, and the autumn harvest had been abundant. The men fairly reveled in “soldiers’ luxuries,” such as chickens, sweet potatoes, and home-cured bacon. Every man in the expedition, will tell of the immense quantity of honey that was found during this march towards Tarboro. A man would hand his musket to a comrade, go to a hive, the bees being stiff with the cold, break off the side, and taking the great slabs of well-filled golden comb under each arm, push on and overtake the column, and distribute his prize among the “boys.” As the day grew warmer and the bees became lively, he would pick up a hive under one arm with the bottom to the rear, and run thumping the top to drive out the bees which would fly back to the stand from which they came, and, instead of attacking the marauder who was robbing them of their home and winter's stores, would make it hot for the last man who tried to get a hive.

An incident occurred while on the march to this point. The surgeon, who always looked for stragglers, found one man intoxicated beside the fence, who only responded with a grunt when shaken, and who fell like a dead man when set upon his feet, whereupon the doctor set him up in a fence corner, holding him up with his knee against his breast, and slapped his head, first one side and then the other, with his flat hands. A few cuffs sobered him enough to resent the treatment, and he exclaimed, with an oath, “Doctor Potter, I won't be abused that way; I'll report you for striking an enlisted man.” The doctor, busily loading him with his blanket, haversack, canteen, and gun, told him he couldn't report until he got into his place in his company, and the man went on, swearing vengeance. After marching three or four miles, the line was halted, and the man came back to the rear to apologize, saying he didn't want to be left behind for the “Johnnies,” and was thankful for the treatment he got, and if he had said anything out of the way in his drunkenness, he begged





the doctor's pardon. Poor “Country!” he lies among many other brave men in the national cemetery at New Berne.

It must be borne in mind that this was the first campaign of many of the men, and that even the veterans of Roanoke Island, New Berne and Fort Macon had been doing only camp and guard duty during the summer and early autumn, and hence were illy prepared to endure continued forced marches over bad roads in inclement weather. The weather had become threatening during the afternoon of the 6th, and in the night a heavy rain began to fall. Not long after our return march began, on the 7th, the cold increased, and in the afternood the rain became snow and sleet, and marching became painful in the extreme. The men's shoes were filled with snow and mud; the leather grew soft and spongy, losing all shape, and “running over” so that heels and soles were often on the side of the feet instead of on the bottoms; so many threw them away. The mud and sand caused such painful blisters that every step was agony. An officer, Lieutenant Bateman, was seen limping along quite barefoot, and finally he had to be carried to the hospital-boat, and he was disabled for a long time. The men had no tents of any kind, and many had no other protection from the storm than their rubber blankets; and from this cause alone the sufferings of these brave fellows were intense. Private Edwin H. Gould became completely exhausted, was sent to the hospital-boat, and finally died from the results of the exposure of this march, and there were other cases of a similar nature.

The spirit which animated this patriotic soldier is thus described by a member of the battalion: “I found Comrade Gould sitting on a log by the roadside tired out and sick. I offered to remain with him. To this arrangement he would not consent, but with pure unselfishness insisted that I should go on and leave him, saying, ‘Never mind me, you go ahead,’ although he knew that he stood a chance of being captured by the enemy, yet he did not wish that another should be compelled to share his fate. I was used up myself, being sick with the North Carolina ‘shakes,’ but I plodded on for awhile, till I, too, was obliged to give up, and should have remained by the roadside had not two of my comrades, seeing my condition, took pity on me. While one took my musket, the other grasped me





by the arm and assisted me on the march till we arrived at Hamilton, where we encamped for the night. I slept that night in what I judged had formerly been a millinery store, and where by the warmth of a blazing fire I recovered somewhat from the effects of the ‘shakes.’ ”

It was under these circumstances that Hamilton was reached in a severe snow storm. “Oh, how tired I was,” said one of the battalion, “it did seem as if I could not drag one foot after the other in the miry snow and mud. When we reached Hamilton it was still snowing, and the wind was cold and cutting. At last I found an old tobacco-house, and I went in and laid down. I might have been there half an hour when some soldiers, who had been detailed as guard to this wretched building, came, and throwing some dirt in on the floor, they made a fire there. The smoke became so thick that it drove me out. So I wandered around in the storm for some time. At length I found an old sugar box, and carrying it to a fire near by, I sat it on end with the bottom of it toward the wind, and half sitting, half crouching in it, I slept, it might have been half an hour, and it might have been two or three hours, the sweetest sleep I ever had in my life.”

About noon of the following day the march was resumed, and in the early evening the command reached Williamston, where it rested two days, Saturday and Sunday. Here Surgeon Potter taught some of the men to make serviceable moccasins from raw hide. Soon other shoeless men followed the example thus happily set, and many men in other commands wore them during the rest of the campaign. Monday brought us to Plymouth, where the battalion was embarked on one of the steamers of the half naval, half military organization known as the “Marine Artillery,” which has been mentioned before. This steamer was commanded by Capt. William B. Avery, who did all in his power to make our trip as pleasant as the crowded condition of his boat would permit. It was late in the afternoon of the 11th when we landed on the wharf at New Berne to find that all were in a state of great excitement, as a force of the enemy had attacked our picket stations at Bachelder's Creek and Deep Gully. These two stations were some nine miles west of the city. The former was on the railroad, and the latter on what was known as the Trent road,





and they were some six miles apart. Upon reaching our camp we had orders to sleep on our arms, and be ready to fall into line at the first alarm.* Tattoo and taps were dispensed with, and the company cooks were set to work to prepare rations for our march to the assistance of the imperiled stations early the next morning.

It had been feared that the enemy had intended to make a dash on the city during the absence of the troops, and as our battalion was among the first to return it fell to our lot to reinforce the troops at these threatened posts. At daylight on the morning of the 12th we were in line and on our march to Bachelder's Creek. The march along the railroad track was very trying to the already footsore men, and added to this was a want of water, the men having been unable to supply themselves in New Berne for want of time before they fell in line. When we arrived at the creek, in conjunction with the Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, Colonel Jones, stationed there, we scouted some miles to the front and on our flanks, but the enemy had disappeared. We returned leisurely to camp, and resumed the daily routine of our life at that post.

And so ended the Tarboro Expedition, which was originally planned for the purpose of capturing three rebel regiments which were collecting supplies in the vicinity of Washington, and which only failed because of the delay of the column that marched by land to reach its destination in time, while the condition of the roads and the inclement weather prevented further movements than those first designed. As it was, the retreating rebels were only six hours ahead of our advance all the way from near Washington to the vicinity of Tarboro.

While the battalion was absent First Lieutenant and Quartermaster Munro H. Gladding died in the general hospital at Beaufort, November 2d, after an illness lasting about four weeks.

November 12th. “We have just received news of Colonel Sisson's appointment.”

[note]



Between the time of the return of the battalion to New Berne, on the 11th of November and the first days of December, a large number of recruits arrived in camp. The first of these men were assigned to Company F, and others which arrived later formed Company G, of which Captain Wheeler was placed in command. Save the incidents attending the routine of camp life, nothing occurred until the first week in December, when rumors of serious trouble in the garrison of Roanoke Island became current. The following narrative is as good as any that can be written:

“We had an ‘expedition’ to Roanoke Island this week. There came a report Tuesday that the Marine Artillery there had mutinied, killed one of their officers who had tried to make them do their duty, taken possession of the batteries and the gunboat stationed there, and defied anybody to interfere with them. Tuesday night our battalion, with the Tenth Connecticut and Morrison's (New York) battery embarked on steamers and started early the next morning to ‘subdue’ them. Thursday morning we arrived there to find that two men had refused to do duty, but after a little punishment went on again. It seems that the men of this organization had been promised the same rank and pay as men in the navy, but were only recognized as infantry; so there was dissatisfaction. That was all. So we steamed back to New Berne, right glad not to have to fight our own men.”





CHAPTER VIII. THE GOLDSBORO CAMPAIGN.

GENERAL FOSTER had been urgent in asking for reinforcements during the latter part of the summer, saying among other things that the enemy showed increasing activity, not only in preventing any advance on his part, but a disposition to regain what they had lost, while on the other hand, the debilitating influences of the past malarious season had so weakened the older regiments that there was then scarcely available more than one-half of their nominal strength. It was in response to these pressing requests that some “nine months” regiments had been sent to him in October, to be used when active operations should begin after cool weather had set in.

The Tarboro Expedition, while not fruitless in results, was not entirely satisfactory, and General Foster's ambition to achieve real successes was but stimulated by it. The situation in front of Washington, in Virginia, was such as to make a strong movement in this department especially desirable. Therefore, while the Army of the Potomac was making preparations to cross the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg, and the rebel authorities were straining every nerve to reinforce their army at that point, it was deemed a fitting opportunity to make a movement from New Berne against the great southern and coast line communications at Goldsboro. If successful such an operation would not only divert men from the rebel army in Virginia, but by severing the line of railway at Goldsboro it would also severely cripple their means of supplying subsistence to that army. A movement on Wilmington was planned to follow the Goldsboro Expedition. Accordingly, after the return of the Tarboro Expedition steps were at once taken to make a more vigorous





campaign than had yet been undertaken since the one that had resulted in the capture of New Berne and the fall of Fort Macon in the early spring.

The troops for this expedition were assembled at New Berne early in December, and the force finally designated for the campaign consisted of twenty regiments of infantry, numbering in all about 10,000 men, seven batteries of artillery, and sections of two independent New York batteries, or a total of forty guns, and one regiment of cavalry, the Third New York, at that time numbering about six hundred and fifty men.

To oppose this force the enemy had in the immediate vicinity of Goldsboro about eight thousand men, with headquarters at that point, and ample railway facilities to add half as many more at short notice, from Wilmington on the one hand and Weldon on the other.

The infantry of the expedition was divided into four brigades. The second brigade, under the command of Colonel—now Brigadier-General—Stevenson, was composed of the Fifth Rhode Island, Captain Job Arnold commanding; the Tenth Connecticut, and the Twenty-fourth and Forty-fourth Massachusetts infantry, and Belger's Battery F, of the First Rhode Island Light Artillery.

The march from New Berne commenced on the morning of December 11th, yet the state of the roads was such that the moving of the wagon train made the progress of the column very slow. When the battalion bivouacked for the night it was but little beyond the outer picket line of New Berne. An incident showing the spirit that animated the men of the Fifth at this time is worth relating. When the orders to fall in for the march were given, Surgeon Potter sent some fifteen or twenty men out of the ranks. They were convalescents whom he knew were unable to stand the fatigues of the coming march. These men left the camp without leave before the regiment commenced its march and waited some five or six miles out for it to come up, when they fell into their places. Nearly all of them “fagged out” before night, and had to be sent back; but the kind-hearted doctor could not even scold them, on account of the spirit that actuated them.

It was as late as the evening of the 13th before the advance came in contact with the enemy, posted at the crossing of Southwest Creek,





some five miles this side of Kinston. The official report says: “The enemy were strongly posted there, but by a heavy artillery fire in front and a vigorous infantry attack on either flank, a passage was forced without much loss.” One gun was taken in this engagement.


[Illustration:

Lieut. Charles E. Douglass.
]

On the morning of the 14th the advance on Kinston was resumed. The march was a most fatiguing one, the roads being either clay and water or sand and water; and the advance was kept constantly busy removing the trees which the enemy had felled across the road to obstruct our march. It was soon rumored that we were nearing Kinston, and, following the troops in front, we did not notice at the time that we had turned off of the main road and were in a by-road





known as the Vine Swamp road, of which more hereafter. The first boom of the guns had put every man on the alert, and our brigade was advanced rapidly, accompanied by Belger's battery. At length we came to a cleared field on the left of the road, within about half a mile of the bridge. Here the brigade was formed in line of battalions in mass, two regiments on the right and two on the left of the road, with the battery unlimbered in the centre. We had no more than completed the formation when an aide came with an order for the Tenth Connecticut to move forward.* The Tenth seemed to be no more than out of sight beyond a piece of woods some hundred yards in advance, when another aide came with orders for our battalion to move forward. When in the road our march was quickened to a run, amid the cheers of the men, and, after going some two hundred yards, we met General Foster, who directed the head of the column off of the road to the right, where we formed line in a corn-field. We were no sooner in line than an aide came with orders for us to advance, and moving but a few yards to the front, we came out into an open space, only to see the last of the rebels running over the bridge, and men from one of our regiments rushing on to it, scattering into the water the flaming material with which the enemy had endeavored to burn it. Here, also, we found the rest of the brigade, and here a section of Belger's battery was unlimbered, and sent shell upon shell after the rebels, some of whom could still be seen running up the rising ground opposite the bridge and back of the town.

We quickly crossed the bridge, and our battalion entered the town and halted near the centre of it on one of the principal streets, which was strewn with guns and knapsacks, blankets,—which were often old quilts—and haversacks, and the many things a soldier carries, and throws away in his flight from a lost battlefield. A correspondent writing at the time gives this incident in the battle at this point, which is quoted here in order to keep up the connection with the one relating to our battalion and Belger's battery which follows it:

[note]



“While the artillery was playing upon the enemy who were flying through Kinston, preparatory to our crossing the bridge, General Evans sent by a flag of truce his compliments, etc., to General Foster and requested time to place the women and children in safety, as he intended to return the fire with his artillery. Our guns ceased firing, and the women and children that could be found were conducted to a place of safety, when we found, on again preparing for action, that the bird had flown; that during the flag of truce General Evans had succeeded in conducting safely away what remained of his entire command.”

While we were at a halt in the town, as stated before, and some of the men were picking up and examining the contents of haversacks abandoned by the rebels, and these haversacks were simply small canvas bags, often containing nothing but a little corn meal, General Foster rode up to Captain Arnold and said, his face expressing great anger and his horse foaming with sweat: “The rebels have deceived me. They wanted time to remove their women and children, and I granted it, but instead of removing their women and children, they have removed themselves by running away. They are just over that hill yonder, and I have ordered Belger's battery forward, and I want the Fifth Rhode Island to go with them as quick as possible and give them —!” We started at once on the double-quick and joined the battery on a road leading from the town. Here the guns were unlimbered and a rapid fire was opened on the retreating enemy, but they were in too great a hurry to make any reply. Then some squadrons of cavalry came thundering over the bridge, and soon passed by us in pursuit. The brigade was then assembled and bivouacked for the night in the open fields outside of the town. Considerable impromptu foraging was done after the battle. In one case some non-combatant members of the battalion went to a large house and found two wagons at the door, with the mules hitched to them. These wagons were partially loaded with household goods, but had been abandoned when the rebels ran away. Their contents were soon tumbled out, and a quantity of bacon and other necessaries of a soldier's life were loaded in, and the wagons and teams taken to the battalion, which had already stacked arms on the ground it was to occupy for the night. Here the prospect was cheerless





enough, for most of the officers and men had fasted since early morning. The wagon trains were not up, and it seemed that the hungry ones must go supperless to such beds as they could make on the frozen ground. Finally, permission was given to slaughter some cattle that were in an adjoining field, and the men thus managed to get something to eat.

The rebels had made elaborate preparations to burn the bridge by soaking piles of cotton with turpentine and placing charged shells among it, to be exploded by the flames, and thus prevent any one from approaching to extinguish it. It is stated that some of these shells exploded sooner than intended, and several of the rebels were killed while firing this inflammable material. One poor fellow, who was shot by our men while he was setting fire to the bridge, fell into the flames he himself had kindled, and his clothing was burned off him. The body was thrown off the bridge with the burning cotton and other materials, and lay where it fell, with the limbs drawn up and horribly contorted. They also set fire to a large quantity of cotton in the town, but our men extinguished the flames and saved nearly all of it.

No better summing up of the results of this well fought and spirited battle can be given than that of the official report, which says:

“We advanced on this town and found the enemy strongly posted at a defile through a marsh bordering on a creek. The position was so well chosen that very little of our artillery could be brought into play. The main attack, therefore, was made by infantry, assisted by a few guns pushed forward on the road. After five hours’ hard fighting we succeeded in driving the enemy from their position. We followed them rapidly to the river. The bridge over the Neuse at this point was prepared for firing, and was fired in six places, but we were so close behind them that we saved the bridge. The enemy retreated by the Goldsboro and Pikeville roads. Their force was about six thousand men and twenty pieces of artillery. The result is that we have taken Kinston, captured eleven pieces of artillery, taken four hundred to five hundred prisoners, and found a large supply of quartermaster and commissary stores.”

The night in Kinston passed without incident, and soon after daylight we were again on the move. Near the bridge road in town we saw a smouldering heap of small arms, which had been abandoned by the enemy. They had been gathered, the stocks broken by striking





them on the ground, thrown into a heap and then set on fire. We did not want them for our own troops, and had no means to carry them away, so they were destroyed in this manner. Recrossing the bridge to the south bank of the Neuse, we saw but little evidence of yesterday's struggle for it. The dead had been buried and other indications removed from sight. The line of march was along the principal county road, which generally ran parallel to the river. The whole column was strung out along this one road, and most of the artillery was near the head of the line. The advance had not only to feel its way, but to remove the felled trees and other obstructions placed in it by the enemy. The low places were mud, and in passing them the advance would gain on the men struggling through the defile behind, while the rear would close up and often come to a halt till the men in front had got through. Once through one of these places, the steps of the tired men would have to be quickened, sometimes to a run, to close up with those ahead, only to go through the same operation again. And, after a hard day's march, we bivouacked for the night only some fifteen miles from Kinston. As night drew near, and it became reasonably certain that we would halt in a short time, some of the men seized rails from the roadside fences and shouldered them. The example became contagious, and soon the whole line, as far as the eye could reach to the front and rear, presented the singular and striking spectacle of a column of marching men apparently armed with fence rails. That night the men had an ample supply of fuel.

A non-commissioned officer gives this description of the march:

“Again we are on the way, and only those who have traversed the dense pine forests of North Carolina can form any idea how monotonous the journey was. We discovered only a few scattered farm-houses at intervals on our way. The trail of our line of march could be traced for miles by the smoke of burning rail fences and pine trees set on fire by our men, and although unlike the Israelites of old we had not the pillar of cloud by day, we certainly had the pillar of fire by night. In the evening when the time drew near for the army to bivouac, the order would be given: ‘Each man take a rail.’ We would then sling our muskets, and, each man taking a rail from the fence by the roadside, would shoulder it and





march along. What a picturesque sight would present itself in the dark forests of that unfrequented region. As the long lines of rails loomed up in the darkness it required no great stretch of the imagination to make them seem more ‘terrible than an army with banners.’ ”

Early the next morning, December 16th, the march was resumed, and about the middle of the forenoon we heard the dull booming of guns in front. Aides soon came dashing down the line to hurry up the troops in the rear. Our brigade being on this day one of the leading ones, we were soon closed up and going into position. We were now at a scattered hamlet on the Neuse River, called Whitehall. The road we were following turns off to cross the river by a bridge, much in the same manner as at Kinston. At the first attack the enemy, without attempting a serious defence, retreated across the bridge and burned it before our troops could prevent them. They then took up a strong position on the north bank where they could command the road by which we were advancing. In order to proceed it was first necessary to dislodge them.

When our battalion first arrived on the ground batteries were stationed on the right of the road leading to the bridge, and were already engaged. In taking the first position assigned to us we moved to the left of the road, in what had been a cultivated field, and then up to the top of a ridge overlooking the town, near a road leading to the bridge across the river, and were followed by Belger's battery. During our march to this point we were in full view of the enemy and subjected to a very severe fire. By one of the strange fortunes that occur in battle, we suffered no loss, though many narrow escapes were experienced. A piece of shell struck Thomas McMahon, of Company D, on the rolled blanket which he carried slung over his shoulder, and knocked him some distance out of the ranks. Picking up the piece of “old iron,” he put it in his haversack as a trophy, and again took his place. In this case, as in many others of a like nature, the man tired of his souvenir, which must have weighed two or three pounds, and soon threw it away. We formed line on this bluff, and Captain Belger placed his guns in battery and opened fire. But we scarcely had time to look around us and take in our situation before we were ordered to a new position. Moving down to the river road again, we turned down the road leading to the bridge, and soon filed





left off this road and went into position close to the bank of the river. When we came into line we were received by a shower of bullets from the other bank, to which we replied with the best we had to give. The enemy's fire soon slackened, but as soon as we ceased firing they opened again, and we then renewed our fire with greater vigor than ever, and soon silenced them in our front, except a few scattering shots here and there.

At this place, as well as the one we had so recently left, considering the weight of the fire we were subjected to, the comparatively slight loss we incurred was a source of wonder and thankfulness. Private Thomas Shippey, Company G, was mortally wounded. Color Corporal Benjamin F. Drown, Company C, was severely wounded in the right shoulder. Private Cornelius Sullivan, Company F, was wounded in the cheek. Private Peter McCabe, Company G, was wounded in the hand. Private James Brady, Company A, was also wounded in the hand. Surgeon Potter and Acting Hospital Steward Burlingame had been down to see the wounded men, and were walking toward the Goldsboro road on their return, when a rebel sharpshooter below the bridge fired at them. The bullet passed diagonally between them, just missing the back of the surgeon's head and the nose on the face of his assistant. “Why, he means us,” said the surgeon as he ducked his head forward. “He does,” replied the assistant as he threw his head back.

While the battalion was in position near the river, there occurred one of those incidents that give a touch of humor to the pathos of death in battle. During the firing a member of the battalion fell as if dead. He looked as if he was dead. His comrades carried him out of their way to the rear, thinking he was beyond help. But the next day he was in his place, without a mark or scar to show for his supposed fatal wound, and only looking a little more “sheepish” than usual when rallied by his comrades about it. Another and a very different scene took place in another part of the line, which shows how the excitement of battle often makes one totally insensible to the very presence of death. As the Forty-third Massachusetts was marching toward the front on the river a mere lad of another regiment was being borne to the rear on a stretcher. Both legs had been carried away and an arm shattered by a shell. Looking up at the passing






[Illustration:

The Drown Group. Joshua C. Drown, Sr.,* Company A. Joshua C. Drown, Jr., Sergeant-Major. Benjamin F. Drown, Corporal Company C.
]

[note]




men with an eye that was as yet undimmed, he cried out, “Go in, boys, we're giving ’em —— down there!” Poor brave boy, he had as yet no thought for what the enemy had given him.

When the rebel artillery had been silenced and their infantry fire had nearly ceased, leaving Company E to act as sharpshooters, the battalion moved from its position and regained the Goldsboro road. There we learned that Belger's battery had been stationed nearer the river, where it was within easy range of the rebel sharpshooters, and that the battery had lost several men and a large number of horses. The enemy were building a small iron-clad gunboat at this place, and the unfinished hull had been moored to the north bank of the river below the site of the bridge. During the battle a lieutenant from a New York regiment swam across the river, carrying a petard of Greek fire, which he attached to the boat, and, firing the fuse, swam away. He escaped unhurt, and the boat was burned.

The rebels at Whitehall had only delayed the march on Goldsboro, and the troops that had been in action there soon resumed their route. When nearing their halting-place for the night, the cry went up, “Take a rail!” and that night the wearied men again had fuel for all, which was of itself no inconsiderable comfort on the coldest night they had yet experienced during the whole march. Our bivouac this night was within about eight miles of Goldsboro. For the last two days the supply of rations had been scanty, and foraging parties had been sent out to secure anything and everything that could be of service in that line. Our acting-quartermaster, Lieutenant Prouty, had become such an adept in that business that no one had as yet actually suffered for food. During the night Company E rejoined us.

The morning of the 17th soon saw us in line and on the march. Not more than two hours after we started the sound of the guns that were with the advance gave us warning that we were nearing the objective point of the expedition. As we approached Goldsboro the country became more open, and when our brigade finally reached the vicinity of the bridges we had come to destroy, the scene that met our view was very inspiriting. Our brigade was assigned a position on high ground, overlooking the valley and approaches to the bridges, and we could distinguish the various regiments moving to the right and front in the direction of the river; and even when we could not





see the men themselves, the bright colors of their waving banners marked their several locations. We were informed that a strong force of the enemy was posted south of the river—that is, on our side of it—along the high embankment of the railroad, to protect the bridge, and that behind this force was another equally strong, to cover the county road bridge and at the same time support the force guarding the railroad bridge, the framework of which we could see from our position. It seemed to us as we watched the movements taking place, that the object of the general was, by skilfully manœuvering the infantry and cavalry, and the heavy fire of the artillery, to force the enemy to the north bank of the river, and thus permit us to reach and destroy the bridge, and our brigade remained on this high ground, overlooking the plain below, where this game of war was being played on a mighty scale. The rapid thud and beat of the guns, felt as well as heard, and the crackling fire of the advancing skirmish line, the movements of the regiments sent to force the rebels from their place behind the railroad embankment, and the smoke, at one time settling over and veiling men and guns, and again lifting so as to reveal the men at work with fiendish zeal in the batteries, the puffs of white smoke, sometimes high in mid air, and anon low on the ground, marking the places of exploding rebel shells, with the bright sunshine over all, combined to form a battle scene seldom witnessed in a soldier's lifetime. Exciting as it was at the time to some, the men generally lounged in groups on the sunny spots behind the stacks of arms, chatted, smoked, even yawned, and wondered when we would get orders to “go in.” It was not for us to “go in” that day, for, as the sun began to decline, a rising column of black smoke told us that our work at Goldsboro was done. At length marching orders came to us, and we moved back to the river road and started towards New Berne, or, as the men phrased it, “towards home.”

We had not gone more than a mile when a heavy artillery fire suddenly opened in our rear, and the column halted. General Foster happened to be riding along the flank of our battalion at the time, accompanied by two aides. He was heard to ask, “What firing is that?” The reply from an aide was that he thought the batteries were shelling an old house near the river. He ordered one of the





aides to return and ascertain the cause of the firing, and the other one to ride ahead and halt the troops now on the march. A few minutes after they had gone he seemed to grow very restless, and he finally galloped away toward the sound of the guns. Very soon afterward we were moved back to a point where a narrow by-road entered the main road from the left as we faced towards Goldsboro. Here we were formed in line across this by-road, which at this point ran through a wood filled with a dense underbrush, where we were ordered to lie down. A section of thirty-two pound field howitzers from a New York battery was placed so as to command this road to our front. The officer in command of the guns sent one of his men down the road about one hundred and fifty yards, and had him strike matches and hold them breast high, while they sighted their guns on him in the darkness.

We learned afterwards that as soon as it was evident that our troops had commenced their homeward march, the rebels crossed a strong force over the county road bridge above the burning railroad bridge, for the purpose of attacking and destroying our rear guard, which consisted of a small force of infantry, some cavalry, and Morrison's (New York) Battery. As soon as the movement was apparent, Belger's Battery F, and Riggs's (New York) Battery were sent for, and came up in time to form on Morrison's left just as the enemy's line came within range. Under Captain Belger's directions, the guns did not fire until the enemy, approaching in the most compact order, were within point blank range. Riggs's guns were trained so as to cross fire with the other two batteries. “It's too bad!” said our grim artillerist Belger, as he watched the splendid marching of the advancing rebels. At the word the guns loosed their storm of shrapnel and canister. The rebel regiments simply disappeared. Those uninjured could be seen scampering away in great haste. Not another shot was needed, though some were fired. The battle of Goldsboro was over.

The batteries remained in position until all the troops left the field except the cavalry, when they moved away in the darkness. The Fifth remained in its position a long time to guard against any flank attack the rebels might now attempt on the retiring column, and it was nearly eleven o'clock when we reached the place of bivouac.





All the troops had arrived on the ground and formed in column of regiments on each side of the road, facing towards Goldsboro, the direction from which the enemy must approach if they followed us. The scene that met the eyes of the men of our battalion was a very beautiful one. By the lines of the innumerable fires we could trace the locations of the various regiments. The cheers of the men and confusion of sounds, the greetings of congratulation by individuals, and the commands of officers, together with the feeling among all that victory had been achieved, combined to produce a most exhilarating effect on the men as they wearily trudged toward their resting-place. By the time we had halted it had grown very cold, and we underwent an alternate process of going to sleep and awaking with our teeth chattering, then toasting ourselves before the fire and then sleeping again, to be awakened in the same manner as before, a greater or less number of times, as the case might be, until morning.

The next day, December 18th, we passed Whitehall bridge and camped not far from Kinston. The following day we marched nearly to Kinston, and taking the main road to New Berne, we saw what we had not before known about, the rebel work which had been constructed to defend the approach by the direct river road. They were not only in a naturally strong position, but they were well made; and it would have cost us a terrible loss of life to have attacked them in front. But General Foster had skilfully flanked them by the way of the Vine Swamp road, and which we followed when we crossed the swamp on the morning of the battle. By this movement we were able to take all of the guns in the works above mentioned, and make a large portion of the force defending them our prisoners. When we halted at night it was understood that the next day's march would bring us to New Berne, and the men rejoiced accordingly. For the last two days the rations had been practically exhausted, and most of the men had nothing but hard tack to eat. Our foraging parties had cleared the country along the road of all food during our outward march, and now not even our quartermaster, Prouty, keen as he was, could scent out a single hidden store of bacon.

Surgeon Potter, in a private letter written immediately after the return of the expedition gives so vivid a picture of the impression the march made on him, that it will not bear a single elision or alteration:





“The weather during the expedition was fair, except that the nights were pretty cold for ‘bivouacking.’ Some mornings the ice would be half an inch thick, and for several days the ground did not thaw except in the sun during the middle of the day.

“It was the most splendid sight I ever saw to approach a bivouac from the rear of the column. The place selected for the night was always some extensive field, in which there would be hundreds of camp-fires made of the dry pitch-pine rails from the surrounding fences, the light from which shining on the clouds of smoke would make them clouds of glory. Besides the camp-fires, the country would frequently be on fire for miles on all sides, set in some cases by the carelessness of the soldiers, and in others by the cavalry in order to deceive the enemy and mask our camp, to prevent them from throwing long range shells among us at night.

“It was a sorry-looking old country when we left it; fires running all through the woods; fences burned; houses, from which the inhabitants had fled, all ‘cleaned out’; cattle, hogs, poultry all taken, for we marched with only three days’ rations of meat and depended on foraging for the rest; sweet potatoes, too, and corn and corn fodder for the horses, everything was taken, and how the poor devils are to live this winter is more than I know. They have felt the presence of war, and it will take years of hard labor to restore what we swept away in a few days, and yet we only did what an army must do that subsists on the country it travels through, or rather fights through. People that remained at home and minded their own business were not molested, but had guards detailed to see that no one even stopped there. Well, those who dance must pay the fiddler. They have brought this war upon themselves and must expect to suffer from it.”

A comrade in the battalion gives this account of the retrograde march from Goldsboro:

“One night we bivouacked on a hill where we could see the camp-fires of the army spread out like a panorama before us. It was a grand sight. No pen or pencil could fully portray this scene. How cold it was that night. I laid down by a rail-fire and endeavored to snatch a few hours’ sleep. In the morning when I awoke I found the water in a puddle near my head frozen over quite thick.





“And now we were on the home stretch towards New Berne, and mighty glad we were to be so near our Canaan. We had marched so rapidly that we had no opportunity to perform the simplest ablutions, and with our smoke-begrimed features and ragged clothing, it is a question whether our own mothers would have recognized their offsprings. My shoes were giving out, and my clothing was in a demoralized condition generally, and I should not have made a very presentable appearance in polite society.”

The following day we marched steadily, with the usual halts for rest, until in the middle of the afternoon, when General Stevenson sent word to the regimental commanders that they could either march to New Berne that night or camp where they were, and move in at their leisure the next day. The word was passed along the lines and the decision left to the men. They generally decided to march in that night and have done with it. But the choice of marching or not at their pleasure, together with their fatigue, soon caused many to drop out, and it was but a meagre skeleton of the Fifth Battalion that entered camp that night at about nine o'clock, having covered some thirty miles in all that day. It was a pretty good march considering the fatigues the men had undergone during the past week. And so ended the expedition of which General Foster telegraphed to the general-in-chief of the armies that:

“My expedition was a perfect success. We burned the railroad bridges at Goldsboro and Mount Olive, and tore up several miles of the track of the Wilmington and Weldon railroad. We fought four engagements, namely: ‘Southwest Creek,’ ‘Kinston,’ Whitehall,’ and ‘Goldsboro,’ and whipped the enemy handsomely each time.”

The following succinct report of Col. Thomas G. Stevenson, commanding our brigade in the expedition, is worthy of insertion here. We give it in full:

Report of Col. Thomas G. Stevenson, commanding Second Brigade, of Engagements at Kinston, Whitehall and Goldsboro Bridge, December 14, 16 and 17.

Hdqrs. Second Brigade, First Div., Dept. of N. C., New Berne, N. C., Dec. 21, 1862.

Sir: I have the honor to report the following as the result of the part taken by the Second Brigade in the late expedition:





Agreeably to orders from headquarters this brigade joined the column the morning of December 11th, on the Trent road, being third in position. Nothing of importance occurred until the morning of Sunday, December 14th, when within a few miles of Kinston the advance was attacked by the enemy in force. The Tenth Connecticut and Forty-fourth Massachusetts were ordered into position on right of road in support of battery; the Fifth Rhode Island and Twenty-fourth Massachusetts on left of road to support Belger's battery. The Tenth Connecticut, Fifth Rhode Island, and Forty-fourth Massachusetts were then ordered forward to the advance.

The Tenth Connecticut made a gallant charge, under a very galling fire, on the enemy, who were rapidly retreating over the bridge which had been set on fire. The Tenth Connecticut poured in a very destructive fire, capturing a rebel stand of colors and a number of prisoners. By the exertions and gallant conduct of this regiment the bridge was saved, they being the first to cross. As soon as the fire on the bridge was put out, our forces crossed, the enemy retreating in all directions. No more resistance being offered, my brigade bivouacked on the outskirts of the town.

Next morning we recrossed the river, continuing the line of march towards Goldsboro.

On the morning of December 16th, the enemy made another stand at Whitehall, occupying a strong position on the other side of the river, having burned the bridge. The Forty-fourth Massachusetts and Tenth Connecticut were ordered into position on the banks of the river, on the left of the road, leading to the bridge. Belger's battery was then ordered to shell the woods, the enemy's sharpshooters being so completely concealed that the fire of our infantry had but little effect. The line of march was then taken up toward Goldsboro, the Fifth Rhode Island and a few sharpshooters of the Twenty-fourth Massachusetts being left behind to engage the rebel sharpshooters till the rear of the column had passed.

At noon on the 17th, arrived at railroad bridge over the Neuse River. Captain Belger's battery was ordered to the front, and did signal service in repelling the charges of the enemy. I formed my brigade in line of battle on the left of the road. The enemy having been defeated, I was ordered to take up the line of march toward New Berne; had got but a few miles when I received orders to countermarch and support a piece of artillery on the Everettsville road, where I remained about an hour. I received orders to march on once more toward New Berne, arriving here last evening (December 20).

I cannot close this report without referring as I do with gratitude to the manner in which Col. F. L. Lee, commanding the Forty-fourth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia; Lieut.-Col. R. Leggett, commanding the Tenth Connecticut Volunteers; Maj. R. H. Stevenson,





commanding the Twenty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteers; Captain Arnold, commanding the Fifth Rhode Island Volunteers, and Captain Belger, commanding the Rhode Island battery (which was attached to my brigade for the occasion), have seconded all my efforts throughout the whole expedition. Their prompt and efficient action has facilitated every movement which has been undertaken.

The valuable services of the Tenth Connecticut Volunteers at Kinston, as of Captain Belger's Battery at Whitehall and at Everettsville, were not rendered, I regret to say, without heavy loss, as indicated by the list of killed and wounded, which I transmit.

Thos. G. Stevenson, Colonel Commanding Second Brigade, First Division.

Maj. Southard Hoffman, Assistant Adjutant-General.

The Goldsboro Expedition had become matter for history and the men had almost ceased talking over the many incidents connected with it, when the following pleasant reminder that their deeds had not been forgotten at department headquarters was duly published:

Headquarters Eighteenth Army Corps, New Berne, Jan. 15, 1863.

General Orders, No. 18.

In consideration of and as a reward for their brave deeds at Kinston, Whitehall and Goldsboro, the commanding general directs that the regiments and batteries which accompanied the expedition to Goldsboro inscribe on their banners these three victories:

Kinston, Dec. 14, 1862.

Whitehall, Dec. 16, 1862.

Goldsboro, Dec. 17, 1862.

The commanding general hopes that all fields in future will be so fought that the record of them may be kept by inscription on the banners of the regiments engaged.

By command of Maj.-Gen. J. G. Foster. Southard Hoffman, Asst. Adjt.-Gen.

The official reports state that the aggregate losses of the various organizations engaged in this expedition were as follows: Officers killed, 4; wounded, 19; enlisted men killed, 88; wounded, 468; missing, 12; total, 591.





CHAPTER IX. REGIMENTAL CHANGES AND FIRST REBEL ATTACK ON NEW BERNE.

THE routine of camp life was at once resumed. Major Tew had arrived during the absence of the battalion on the Goldsboro Expedition, and had assumed command.

The following sketch of Major Tew is from Bartlett's Memoirs of Rhode Island Officers:

“George W. Tew was born in Newport, R. I., on the 13th of November, 1829. He had from his youth manifested an inclination for military exercises. In 1846, at the age of seventeen, he joined the Rhode Island Horse Guards, a cavalry company composed of volunteers from Newport, Middletown and Portsmouth. The following year Mr. Tew joined the Newport Artillery Company, and soon became its commander, a position which he held in 1861.

“On the 15th of April, 1861, a telegram from Governor Sprague inquiring how many men could be raised, reached Captain Tew while he was quietly at work at his trade. Laying his trowel on the wall, he returned an answer to the governor that he would raise a hundred men. Two days after he reported in Providence with one hundred and eight men, rank and file. The company was mustered into the First Regiment Detached Militia, and was assigned the honorable position of color company of the regiment. . . . Captain Tew returned with his company to Newport, on Sunday, the 28th of July, where they were welcomed by the entire city.

“Captain Tew was promoted to major in the Fourth Rhode Island Infantry, Oct. 11, 1861. On the 20th of the same month he was further promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. Colonel Tew participated with his regiment in the battles of Roanoke Island and New Berne.

“At the commencement of the siege of Fort Macon, Lieutenant-Colonel Tew was ordered by General Parke to take possession of a certain position near the fort. With four companies from his own regiment and four from the Eighth Connecticut, detailed to his command for that purpose,





he took the coveted position and drove in the enemy's pickets. On the 20th of April, 1862, Colonel Rodman received his commission as brigadier-general, and the command of the Fourth fell upon Lieutenant-Colonel Tew.

“On the 5th of July, he received orders to embark his regiment, and open his dispatches at sea. On opening his dispatches the destination of the regiment was found to be Fortress Monroe, where it had been ordered with a view of joining the Ninth Army corps for the campaign on the Peninsula. On reaching that place the regiment debarked at Newport News, where the command was taken by Col. W. H. P. Steere, promoted from the lieutenant-colonelcy of the Second Regiment. The Fourth was now ordered to Fredericksburg, Virginia, where thirteen of its officers, feeling the unjust manner in which Lieutenant-Colonel Tew had been slighted, resigned their commissions; and he, seeing how the other officers were affected, felt it his duty, also, to resign, which he accordingly did on the 12th of August, 1862, and returned to Newport, where he remained until again called into the service.

“He was not long at home, for, on the first of October following, he was commissioned as major in the Fifth regiment, then at New Berne, N. C., at which place he reported promptly for duty. Major Tew assumed the command of the Fifth until January, 1863, when Colonel Sisson, who had been promoted from major of the Third Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, arrived and took command of the regiment.”

Major Tew was afterwards promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy, and again to the position of colonel of the Fifth, as will be seen by the subsequent pages of this history.

It will be remembered that by special orders number 180, of the date of Oct. 11, 1862, Adjutant-General's office, State of Rhode Island, that Major Tew and Capt. J. M. Wheeler had been directed, among other duties, to unite in recommending to that department the names of persons in the battalion deserving commissions. Immediately upon the return of the battalion to camp these officers set about the preparation of the several-reports called for in that order, and also to comply with that section relating to the recommendations for promotions. One of these officers had been assigned to the Fifth from another Rhode Island regiment; both had already won well-earned reputations as good soldiers; and both were known to be free from any personal jealousies and entanglements with camp misunderstandings. Of course all who deserved promotion could not be mentioned in their report, which naturally would not name more than





enough to fill existing vacancies. It is to the great credit of the older companies that from their ranks had come so many men well qualifield to hold commissions, while it was just as certain that many yet remained who only wanted the opportunity to “show the stuff that was in them.” And, one of the real sorrows experienced by those who have spent many weary hours in compiling these pages is, that
[Illustration:

Col. George W. Tew.
]

not only hundreds of incidents deserving of mention, but the names of the brave men whose coolness and valor should have honorable mention here, are lost to us. In this light, then, the report of Major Tew and Captain Wheeler, made at the time it was, is of interest, in so far as it shows that devotion to duty, fitness for command and bravery in battle did not always dictate the final selection of those who received commissions from the authorities at home. This report is of interest enough to present in full:





Headquarters Fifth Rhode Island Regiment, New Berne, Dec. 26, 1862.

Dear Sir: We have at present but thirteen commissioned officers for duty with the regiment. The remainder of those filling the places of captains and lieutenants are worthy sergeants, who have served their country faithfully since the first organization of the regiment, and are an honor to their State and country. Their appointment at this time would greatly increase the efficiency of our regiment, and do justice to those who have proved themselves brave and true in more than one hard-fought battle.

These sergeants have been filling the places and doing the duties of commissioned officers since the 15th of August last, without pay, except the seventeen dollars per month they receive as sergeants. Some of them are getting discouraged, but I have assured them that your Excellency would not allow their services to go unrewarded.

The regiment is now in a state of good discipline and drill, and all feel determined that, being the only Rhode Island regiment in this department, it shall be second to none.

Should you think proper to appoint these officers at once, it would greatly increase our strength, and add much to our effectiveness in the field.

Doctor Potter, who has filled the position of assistant-surgeon since the regiment left Rhode Island, has ably and faithfully discharged the duties of his office. Besides attending to our regiment, he visits Battery F daily, and has performed other duties in this department. According to our present organization, we are entitled to a surgeon and two assistant-surgeons. Doctor Potter is well qualified to fill the office of surgeon, and I hereby recommend him to your notice for promotion.

Quartermaster-sergeant William W. Prouty has been acting as quartermaster since the death of Lieutenant Gladding, and has performed the duties of the office in an able and satisfactory manner, evincing his ability to fill well the position he has acted in. I would therefore recommend him to your notice for promotion to the position of quartermaster.

I would not fail to mention also the name of Capt. Job Arnold, by whose indefatigable efforts this regiment has been brought up to its present high standing of discipline and drill. Should a vacancy occur, his promotion would be an act of justice and a benefit to the service.

We are much pleased with the chaplain you have selected for us, and we hope to see him with us soon, as we have no one here whose duty it is to visit the sick and wounded and give them Christian consolation in their dying hours.





Should you think proper to order him to join the regiment, you will receive the thanks of every officer and soldier in the command.

I have the honor to be, governor, With much respect, your ob't. serv't., George W. Tew, Major Comd'g Fifth Reg't. R. I. Vols.

J. M. Wheeler, Capt. Co. G., Fifth Reg't R. I. Vols.

To His Excellency William Sprague, Governor of the State of Rhode Island.

By order of the commander-in-chief, dated Providence, Dec. 30, 1862, Colonel Sisson was “directed to embark at once with Company H and a detachment of recruits, and proceed with the same to join his regiment.” The schooner A. E. Perry was chartered, and Colonel Sisson and the detachment designated by the order embarked on the 31st and sailed for New Berne January 7th. The Rev. Henry S. White, pastor of the Broadway Methodist Episcopal Church, having been appointed chaplain of the Fifth Regiment, the quartermaster-general of the State was directed to provide him transportation to his regiment. At length the governor of Rhode Island did honor to himself and the State he represented by appointing Capt. Job Arnold lieutenant-colonel of our regiment This appointment was first published in Providence Jan. 8, 1863, and on that day the last obsequies of our late quartermaster, Munro H. Gladding were solemnized by a public funeral, the remains having been brought from Beaufort for final interment at home.

The next notable event that occurred in the regiment was the arrival of Colonel Sisson in New Berne, January 9th, with one hundred and three men for the regiment. The next day he was escorted from the Gaston House to Camp Anthony. Capt. Job Arnold commanded the escort. Colonel Sisson had been major of the Third Rhode Island, serving in the department of South Carolina, and he came to us with a good record. On the same day he reported his arrival and assumption of command as follows to Governor Sprague:

Headquarters Fifth Reg't. R. I. Volunteers, New Berne, Jan. 10, 1863.

To His Excellency William Sprague.

My Dear Sir: I have the honor to report my arrival here last evening with recruits. I brought one hundred and three enlisted men. As I anticipated,





I put on board every man who received his State bounty. Captain Silvey mustered one company of eighty-three men, and sent the balance in as a detachment. I was to have had them formed into two companies, in order to hasten our regimental organization. I called on General Stevenson, who is now in command during the temporary absence of General Foster, and succeeded in getting them mustered in as I desired. As we lacked one company to complete our organization, I feared I could not be mustered in as colonel, General Stevenson, however, thought proper to do so.

I am examining into the condition of the regiment, and shall as speedily as possible report thereon, and also in regard to appointments of officers from among the old companies.

When I left home Captain Potter had at the armory some fifteen men. With the arrangements that were made for getting in recruits, I trust he will have added considerably to that number ere the receipt of this.

Allow me to suggest in order to guard against desertion the propriety of having recruits formed in squads of about twenty men each. I have made arrangements in such an event to have them held here until a sufficient number is forwarded to entitle a company formation.

I am, sir, with respect, Henry T. Sisson, Colonel Comd'g Fifth Reg't R. I. Vols.

We append the following sketch of Colonel Sisson:

Henry T. Sisson was born Aug. 20, 1831. He received his education at the Gorham Academy, Maine, and at the University Grammar School, Providence. Prior to the Rebellion he had been prominently identified with the militia of Rhode Island. Bartlett in his Memoirs of Rhode Island Officers says:

“He commenced his military career in the late war by joining the First Rhode Island Detached Militia, and was commissioned as paymaster with the rank of lieutenant. He was subsequently appointed captain of the First Rhode Island Artillery, Dec. 20, 1861, and major of the Third Heavy Artillery, Feb. 5, 1862, which position he resigned on the 6th of August following. On the 5th of November he was appointed colonel of the Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, This regiment was originally enlisted as a battalion, under authority received by General Burnside from the War Department, as a part of his ‘coast division,’ with the understanding that it should be enlarged to a full regiment. In about seven weeks five companies were filled, and, on the 27th of December, 1861, they left Annapolis, Md., to join the North Carolina expedition. Others followed, and, on the 9th of January, Colonel Sisson arrived at New Berne and took command of the regiment. Among the military adventures of the Fifth, the raising of the siege of Little Washington,





North Carolina, must ever occupy the most prominent place as a hazardous and brilliant achievement.”

The conspicuous part taken by Colonel Sisson in relation to this affair is so well related in the following pages of this work that it is not deemed expedient to dwell on it here.

Busy times followed the arrival of Colonel Sisson with the recruits for the regiment. The older men, in point of service, justly regarded themselves as veterans. With them good discipline and good, soldierly conduct had become a habit. With the recruits came an element before unknown in the history of the regiment. It is with a hearty concurrence in his views on this subject, temperately expressed withal, that we quote from one of the oldest and best officers of the regiment:

“Experience has proved at all times that it is impossible to associate a large number of men together, especially as a military organization, without including more or less of a vicious element. We could not expect to be exempt from that general rule. A firm discipline worked its sure results in time, and when any of this element exhibited its characteristics in too marked a manner, it was soon suppressed. The introduction of this undesirable element was entirely owing to the system of recruiting adopted at home — the worst system that ever could have been devised. It was the system that produced and developed the ‘bounty jumper,’ a something never before known or heard of in a civilized country. It is to be hoped that if the time should ever come to again form an army or recruit for one, no such system will again be tried. If men are to be drafted, make those serve who are drawn. If men volunteer, instead of giving a bounty, make the monthly pay larger. By such means the longer a man serves the larger will be his reward. There will be no mercenary motive for a man to desert his colors and get away with a large bounty, with the chance of getting two or three more besides.”

The demerits of the professional “bounty jumper” was long a sore subject of discussion in the camp of our regiment. With the arrival of the new recruits began a series of changes in positions affecting commissioned and non-commissioned officers all the way from the rank of lieutenant-colonel down to the grade of corporal. The





first promotions to be mentioned will be those that were, with one or two exceptions, made upon other than regimental recommendations:

Capt. Job Arnold, to be lieutenant-colonel, with rank to date from Jan. 7, 1863.


[Illustration:

Lieut. Charles E. Beers.
]

Ephraim L. Warren, surgeon, with the rank of major, Dec. 10, 1862.

J. B. Greene, assistant surgeon, Jan. 17, 1863. Doctor Greene had served previously.

Henry S. White, chaplain, Jan. 7, 1863.

Lieut. Benjamin L. Hall, captain, Dec. 13, 1862.





Isaac M. Potter, captain, Nov. 20, 1862. He came to us from the Third Rhode Island, having been wounded at James Island. While at home on sick leave he was appointed to our regiment.

Emelius DeMeulen, first lieutenant, Nov. 28, 1862. He had seen service as an officer under General Garibaldi, in Italy.

George H. Pierce, of Providence, second lieutenant, Nov. 22, 1862.

William Sisson, Jr., second lieutenant, Dec. 25, 1862.

During the period covered by these appointments, the following resignations occurred in the regiment:

Capt. Allen G. Wright, Company B, Jan. 14, 1863.

First Lieut. John E. Snow, Company C, Jan. 14, 1863.

Capt. Jonathan M. Wheeler, for the second time, Jan. 26, 1863.

At the time when the thoughts of both officers and men were dwelling on the daily changes going on among them, we received on the afternoon of January 13th orders to hold ourselves in readiness to move at twelve hours’ notice. “We are to go to Beaufort by cars and there embark, leaving our camp and garrison equipage at that place; so it really looks as if we should not come back.” At this time our brigade remained the same as on the Goldsboro march, but was now known as the Second brigade, Fourth division, Eighteenth army corps. General Wessels commanded our division, and General Foster the corps. We were now hourly expecting orders to move, and rumors of coming movements, campaigns and battles were on every tongue. Day after day passed and still we remained in New Berne. On the 24th General Foster left his headquarters for some destination unknown, and again talk of a coming great campaign revived. A private letter of the date of January 27th says:

“The expedition has gone, and, alas! the Fifth and Belger's don't go. Night before last we got word to start for Beaufort at midnight. We packed everything, and then came an order to remain behind. Our rations, etc., had been on the transport for some ten days, so we felt pretty sure of going, as also did Belger, whose battery and horses had been on board for a fortnight and had gone around to Beaufort. He received orders to remain at the same time we did, and also to turn over his horses to the Third New York Artillery, and get his guns ashore and bring them back here. The Twenty-fourth Massachusetts and the Tenth Connecticut





were all that went from our brigade or from our division. We do not know how many troops have gone, or how many remain. There is no doubt but that the enemy are in strong force at Kinston and Goldsboro, and if this place was left insufficiently guarded, they might come down and take it, but with the force we have here now they would have ‘a gay old time’ if they attempted it.”

Two days later Colonel Sisson wrote a letter to Governor Sprague so full of detail that it is of itself a part of the history of the regiment at this time. With the exception of an immaterial paragraph, it is presented in full:

Headquarters Fifth Regt. R. I. Volunteers, New Berne, Jan. 29, 1863.

To His Excellency Gov. William Sprague:

The regiment, as I advised you in my former communication, I found in excellent condition, showing great proficiency in drill, particularly in battalion movements, while the discipline and efficiency of the men reflect much credit upon Major Tew and Captain Arnold, who, by their constant and earnest devotedness to the interests of the regiment, have brought it to a position which will vie with that of any other which you have sent into the field.

Together with the list of those I have recommended for appointment, I hand you a report upon each individual named, and all the information I can gain in regard to them. You will notice that my recommendations are made very nearly in accordance with the position which the parties are assuming at the present time.

I will say that I have taken every means to arrive at the real merits and qualifications of those whose names I submit for your consideration, both by personal observations and by making inquiries of those who have been placed in positions to judge of their capabilities. I feel assured that the best interests of the regiment will be subserved by the appointment of those I have named. In my reports I have not made mention of the newly appointed officers now at home, as they have never reported here. There are vacancies enough, however, in the companies here and the last company which is being recruited, to accommodate them all.

I regret to inform you that my regiment was ordered to stop back, with others, for the protection of New Berne. I had been furnished with ammunition, had sent along my horses, had a vessel assigned me with orders to leave for Beaufort last Thursday night at twelve o'clock. At ten o'clock the order was countermanded, and we were ordered to remain here. Belger's battery was all shipped, and he received orders to disembark and return. Rifle-pits have been traced and fortifications constructed





in anticipation of an attack. We consider ourselves well prepared, and are in readiness to receive callers.

I am looking anxiously for the arrival of Captain Potter with Company K. We consider ourselves about a mateh for any of the regiments here now, and if we had that other company, should consider that we had a little the advantage.

I am, sir, with respect, Henry T. Sisson, Colonel Comd'g Fifth Reg't R. I. Vols.

The enclosure, forwarded with this letter, containing the remarks regarding the capabilities of some of those recommended for promotion, was as follows:

James Gregg, for captain Company A; was in Carbineers First Rhode Island Detached Militia; came out as first sergeant Company B; was promoted to second lieutenant in June, and is an efficient officer.

Dutee Johnson, for first lieutenant; one of the best officers in the regiment.

Charles E. Beers, for second lieutenant Company A; was one of the first to join the regiment at Camp Greene; was out with the First Regiment; has acted as commissary sergeant; has performed his duties faithfully and satisfactorily in every respect.

Thomas Allen, for first lieutenant Company B; came out with the regiment as corporal Company E; was promoted to sergeant; is now acting as first lieutenant, and is very intelligent and well drilled.

Christopher T. Pierce, for second lieutenant Company B; is now a private in this regiment on recruiting service in Rhode Island, and has done as much for the regiment in way of recruiting as any other man; he is well educated, a young man of fine abilities and good habits; should like for you to see him before appointing.

William W. Douglas, for captain Company C, now in Rhode Island on recruiting service; came out as second lieutenant Company B, and was promoted in June to first lieutenant. He is well posted, and has shown excellent fighting qualities. The writer thinks the governor is opposed to putting this officer forward, but being favorably impressed by what he has seen, and hearing a good report of him, he recommends him accordingly without any disposition to crowd him upon his excellency.

James Moran, for captain Company D; was transferred from Third Regiment, and acted as captain of the company during the sickness of Captain Grant, and also during the absence of Lieutenant Douglas. Is a fine officer, of good judgment, and very brave.

Walter H. Luther, for first lieutenant Company D; came from Warren, R. I.; is a nephew of Governor Turner; was in Company G, First Regiment Rhode Island Detached Militia; is well qualified for a lieutenancy.





George G. Hopkins, for captain Company E; a Newport man; came out second lieutenant Company C; was promoted to first lieutenant in June; has acted as adjutant about three months during sickness of the adjutant; well qualified to take command of a company.

Josiah D. Hunt, for second lieutenant Company E; came out in June last with first squad of Company F as sergeant; a man of great spirit and energy, excellent morals, and a good soldier.

William R. Landers, for captain Company F; has had command of the company for some time, and has filled the position with great credit to himself.

Charles F. Gladding, for first lieutenant Company F; is of the firm of Peckham & Gladding, of Providence; came out as hospital steward; a man of much coolness and bravery; steady and attentive to his duties; is very popular, and his appointment is strongly urged by the officers here.

Charles E. Douglas, for second lieutenant Company F; was in Company A, First Rhode Island Detached Militia; came out as fifth sergeant Company B; is modest and unassuming, and a promising officer.

John H. Robinson, for captain Company G; came from Newport; was with the first regiment; came out as sergeant; has had charge of company for some time; commanded them in last engagement, and is well qualified to command a company.

Henry P. Williams, for first lieutenant Company G; is from Woonsocket; came out as second sergeant Company D; a worthy young man and a good officer.

Henry B. Landers, for captain Company H, from Newport; was in First Regiment; came out as first sergeant Company C; promoted to second lieutenant; one of the best officers we have. Took charge of a company of New York roughs on their arrival here, and managed them with fine ability.

Edward F. Angell, for first lieutenant Company H; was in First Regiment; came out second sergeant Company A; is faithful and steady.

Charles Taft, for first lieutenant Company I; from Pawtucket; was out in First Regiment; was made first sergeant Company E, by promotion of Lieutenant Hall; had charge of company about three months; a valuable officer.

William W. Prouty is recommended for quartermaster; was formerly quartermaster-sergeant, but has done quartermaster's duty for a long time; is well known in the department here, and thoroughly understands his duties; it would be for the interests of the regiment to have him appointed; it is understood that the field officers have been fixed upon, therefore they are not mentioned.

Respectfully submitted, etc.





In a letter to Governor Sprague of the date of Feb. 13, 1863, Lieutenant-Colonel Arnold says:

“Probably ere this comes to hand, Colonel Sisson's report will have reached you. Colonel Sisson called Major Tew and myself to deliberate upon the qualifications of those recommended for promotion. He has spoken in detail of each, and so nearly does his report conform to my knowledge of them, I deem further particulars unnecessary. I heartily endorse his recommendations.”

And now let us turn for a moment from the consideration of promotions and the disappointments arising from blighted hopes of active service amid other scenes, to that side of life in camp that is only found amid the sick and wounded. Our new chaplain, the Rev. Henry S. White, had reported for duty, and he shall tell of his first experience in his new position:

“Yesterday and to-day have been spent in part at the hospitals. Often have my eyes been filled and voice choked in these holy duties. Our noble hero, young Drown, of Warren, while holding the colors in his right hand, received a musket ball in his right shoulder at the battle of Whitehall, and the collar-bone and a part of the arm were shattered, and eleven pieces have been taken out. Do you think I found him sad and down-hearted? No. His eye flashed and he seemed as ardent as at the hour when he enlisted. All our men in the hospital, some twenty, perhaps, are well cared for, and doing well generally.

“But a few days ago we were following these teachers and clerks, merchants and tradesmen, farmer lads and sailor boys, that form the rank and file of our Fifth Rhode Island Regiment, as they marched through winter rain or snow, with swollen and mud covered feet, in search of a vigilant enemy hidden in defensive works, only reached by fording waist-deep streams, or floundering through tangled swamps, flooded with freezing water, amid a shower of bullets and shell. We saw them tired, worn and shelterless, snatching a few hours of such rest as exhausted nature alone can give, on frozen ground or under pitiless rain. Then we saw them where the battle raged, and the fires of destruction followed their steps with clouds of smoke by day and pillars of fire by night. And these men, whose deeds vie with those of the Norsemen of old, returned to a life described in the following account of a Sunday in Camp Anthony.

“Let me give you a picture of our Sabbath. The morning was one of the loveliest of a southern winter—warm, clear and pleasant. At ten came the usual Sunday morning inspection. This is no form merely, I assure you. Every one did the best he could to appear like a soldier.





Colonel Sisson took each man's rifle and examined it. Each knapsack was opened, clothing examined, the best method of packing explained, etc. Every part of the soldier's dress and equipments was noticed. Every tent was entered by the colonel and staff and inspected. If ventilation was defective, it was noticed, and the company officer in command directed to rectify it. The quarters of the men were clean, comfortable and neat. In some instances they were fitted up with great taste. On one centre table I saw photographs of those well known at home. This seemed to greatly please the colonel, as it certainly did me and others. The men are in good heart, and vie with each other in keeping clean, and making their quarters neat and comfortable. Each kitchen sink was carefully examined. The dishes were taken down and inspected. I do not believe there is a yard in Providence kept as neat as is the camp of the Fifth Rhode Island. I must confess that I am disappointed. To be sure my experience is limited, but it does not seem to me that a camp is that low, corrupt place that some of us have been led to believe.

“In the afternoon those who chose to go formed in line, and with music marched to the Baptist church for service. It was an hour of deep interest to me. I saw many a tear, and felt that God was in the place. There is a fine choir among our men. I doubt if better singing can be often found. At the close of service we marched back to camp to some martial air. At dress parade, after a dozen verses of the ‘Good Word’ were read and prayer was offered, the regiment sang the doxology, and the benediction closed the religious services of the day. Evening prayer meetings will be held as soon as the room is ready.

“As night closed in, the voice of holy song came from many of the tents, and as in the calm moonlight I looked upon the tents and camps upon every side, it seemed to be God's hosts, and the overlooking stars smiled as the messengers of heaven.”

Governor Sprague acted promptly on the recommendations forwarded to him by issuing commissions to fill nearly all of the existing vacancies on the 14th of February. They were soon known in camp, formally published, and many of those who had been filling places of great responsibility for months at last had tardy justice done to them. They were as follows:

Quartermaster-Sergt. William W. Prouty, to be first lieutenant and quartermaster, vice Munro H. Gladding, who died Nov. 2, 1862.

Company A, Second Lieut. James Gregg, to be captain; Sergt. Dutee Johnson, Jr., to be first lieutenant; Sergt. William H. Durfee, to be second lieutenant.

Company B, Sergt. Thomas Allen, to be first lieutenant.





Company C, First Lieut. William W. Douglas, to be captain; Leander A. Davis, to be second lieutenant. He was appointed first lieutenant February 9th, and resigned April 4th.

Company D, Second Lieut. James Moran, to be captain. Captain Moran had held a commission longer than any other officer in the regiment, and was the only one who was not transferred from the company he was first mustered with. Sergt. Walter H. Luther, to be first lieutenant; Christopher W. Howland, to be second lieutenant. Lieutenant Howland was a private in the Twelfth Regiment, and was promoted for gallantry in the battle of Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862; his commission to date from Dec. 27, 1862, and assigned to our regiment.

Company E, First Lieut. George G. Hopkins, to be captain.

Company F, First Lieut. William R. Landers, to be captain. Hospital Steward Charles F. Gladding, to be first lieutenant. Sergt. Charles E. Douglas, to be second lieutenant.

Company G, Sergt. John H. Robinson, to be captain. Commissary Sergt. Charles E. Beers, to be second lieutenant.

Company H, Second Lieut. Henry B. Landers, to be captain. Sergt. Henry P. Williams, to be first lieutenant. Joseph McIntyre, to be second lieutenant. He had been commissioned some time previously and assigned to this company. He resigned February 17th to accept a captain's commission in the Second Regiment, and was killed in the first engagement after he joined it. George F. Turner succeeded him, being transferred from Company B. This officer joined at the same time Company G arrived, and he immediately became a favorite with all for his many good qualities.

Company K, John Aigan, late of the Third Regiment, to be captain. Robert Thompson, to be first lieutenant. This officer never joined the regiment, but was detailed on the staff of General Richard Arnold, of the United States Army.

“Our camp is really the most elegant and cleanly kept of any I ever saw,” writes our chaplain to Governor Sprague, under the date of March 3d. “You cannot find a chip, shell or stone from end to end of it, after eight A. M. The men have worked much and with pretty good cheer upon it. The other day you did a thing for us that set both line and staff on a grand round of cheers for our gallant governor, and, as I saw twenty





or thirty men, yesterday, in great glee chasing and kicking a small ball of yarn as large as your fist, I thought whether or no your excellency would not like to do a thing for the men that would please them as well as the commissions did the officers, by sending us two or three foot-balls and eight or ten balls for the hand and bat. The Massachusetts men had some balls come the other day, and they make great fun for the men, and if you can have some sent to us in your name as a present to the men for fixing up the camp, it will make them feel well toward you and do them good.

“You may think me a queer man for making this request, but anything that will cheer and help keep the men in good heart that I can get by any honorable means, I mean to obtain. I presume it does not displease you to see the men you send out earnestly engaged in trying to help build up the regiment and create good feeling among men and officers.”

The chaplain meant to have those balls even if he had to add to his “honorable means” a sly appeal to the governor's well known and very good natured egotism, for he adds by way of postscript: “If you should not find it in your heart to pardon me for this request, I will submit to any penalty you may appoint only give me the pleasure of hearing three rousing cheers for our governor—when the balls come.”

And the kind-hearted governor, with the good nature for which he was noted, endorsed on the chaplain's application, “Referred to the adjutant-general, hoping the balls will be furnished.” But the men were destined to see other than foot-balls before the chaplain saw the fruition of his desires in that line.

In the meantime the rebel authorities in Richmond, dissatisfied with the action of the officers in command in North Carolina, had appointed Gen. D. H. Hill to the command of the district of which Goldsboro was the headquarters. His troops were composed of Daniels's and Pettigrew's infantry brigades, Robertson's cavalry brigade, and some artillery. In March Garnett's brigade from Petersburg was ordered to report to Hill. General Hill was a native of the State, and for skill and judgment ranked among the best officers in the rebel army. He assumed command at Goldsboro about February 1st. Partly with the view of taking the men to the rations instead of carrying the rations to the men, and partly to open a vigorous campaign against General Foster, and thus recover their





lost prestige, a portion of General Longstreet's corps of the Army of Northern Virginia was sent down into this State.

It was about this time that General Foster wrote to the War Department:

“I have received information that the corps of Maj.-Gen. D. H. Hill is within the limits of this State, and that he commands this department. I referred in my last letter to some iron-clads being constructed on the Tar and Roanoke rivers. I understand that the iron-clad on the Roanoke River is nearly completed, and to prevent its being destroyed by our gunboats before it is ready for service, the enemy have assembled a large force at Hamilton, said to be 7,000 infantry, 1,000 cavalry, and seven batteries of between six and eight pieces each. The fortifications at Rainbow Bluff, just below Hamilton, destroyed by me, last November, are being repaired and heavy guns being mounted from Weldon. A considerable force is at Weldon, and the enemy are busily engaged in fortifying that point. To prevent the enemy from putting their threat into execution of taking the town of Plymouth, taking the gunboats or driving them out of the river, I propose to reinforce that point, and at the same time I have prepared a strong reconnoissance under General Prince, to move in the direction of Wilmington, and so prevent too great an accumulation of force on the Roanoke until such time as I shall be strong enough to attack with advantage. The command is only watching for a condition of the roads to move, the recent rains having rendered them almost impassable.”

General Hill is reported to have said to a delegation of citizens that waited upon him at Kinston about the 1st of March, that “On the 14th of March, 1862, New Berne was taken by the Yankees, but on the 14th of March, 1863, it will be ours again.”

The enemy's forces began their movement on the 11th of March, and on the 13th their scouting parties had appeared at different points, and Belger's battery and the Fifth and Twenty-Fifth Massachusetts regiments were sent to support the forces picketing the Trent River road. It should be borne in mind that Kinston lies a little north of due west from New Berne, and that between these places the Neuse River makes quite a bend to the north, with a large swamp lying in the hollow of the bend. The river road from New Berne to Kinston runs north of this swamp, while Kinston road passes on the south, and is the shorter and better highway. On both of these roads, as well as on the railroad, strong picket reserves were stationed, from





eight to ten miles out, so that we would have timely warning of the approach of an attacking force in that quarter. Evidently aware that ample preparations had been made to receive him on the right bank of the Neuse, General Hill decided to make his attack on the left or north bank. On this side of the river, just above the town, and nearly opposite the camps of our troops in that quarter was a small work, still in the process of construction, known as Fort Anderson. No guns had yet been mounted in it, and it was garrisoned by six companies of the Ninety-second New York Volunteers, under the command of Colonel Anderson, a brave and determined officer. An eye witness of the action that ensued, belonging to the Fifth Rhode Island, gave at the time this description of it:

“Saturday, March 14th, at dawn, a strong force of the enemy, under General Pettigrew, placed sixteen guns in position near a small fort opposite the town on the north, across the Neuse River. Two or three thousand infantry supported this artillery. They came into a clearing about eight hundred yards from the fort, and from my position I could see every movement, both in the fort and among the rebels. As soon as two or three guns were in position they commenced a rapid fire of shell and canister. After two or three rounds they sent in a flag of truce to Colonel Anderson, commanding the fort, demanding a surrender, saying that a combined attack was to be made that day on New Berne by General Longstreet's whole command, and that resistance was useless. To gain time for the gun boats to get into position, Colonel Anderson asked for half an hour to send and consult General Foster. The flag went back and returned, granting the half hour, and when it was up came in again to learn the result. The messenger sent to General Foster had not yet returned, and Colonel Anderson replied: ‘My orders are to hold this place, and I shall never surrender it!’ During this time the rebels had put all of their guns in position, and formed their infantry in three lines behind the guns. General Pettigrew was mounted on a large, white horse, and was constantly riding up and down the lines as if giving orders.

“When the flag went back with Colonel Anderson's final reply, the rebels opened a rapid and terrific fire, and the fragments of shell and the canister shot fell into the water, on this side of the fort, so





that the surface of the river looked like a pond in a hail-storm. The men in the fort, not wishing to show their strength, lay close behind their sand walls and waited for the expected charge. During the four hours of the cannonade only two men were severely hurt, and three slightly wounded by a shell. The boys got ready for the charge by biting off cartridges and placing them on the logs of the revetment to the breastworks, so as to be ready to fire fast. A thirty-pounder rifled gun threw shells across the river, and one struck within a short distance of the camp of the Fifth Rhode Island, just at the fort. It did not burst, and stands at my feet in my tent. You will soon have a chance to inspect this in Rhode Island, which you will do with all the more interest as it is a British shell and a splendid thing. The gunboats were late in getting into position, as the Hunchback was aground and the others were below the town.

“A schooner with one gun, manned by negroes, lay in a good position, and at once entered into the fray with great gusto, and sent her neat compliments directly to the spot. I stood thirty or forty yards from this schooner and saw the men work. There was only one white man on board, and when men tell me the negroes will not fight, I shall beg leave to differ with them in opinion. The gunboats were struck a number of times. For nearly four hours the rebels had it all their own way, but time brings changes. I have seen ‘a skeddadle.’ The gunboats came around from the Trent River, and opened fire, and if you had been there you would have seen ‘a skeddadle,’ too. The batteries in town and the gunboats threw from twelve to one hundred-pound shells, and the rebels went into the bushes faster than they came out. One thirty-pounder siege gun in the rebel batteries burst, killing a number of their own men, and it is now in our camp. They attempted to creep up in the afternoon and plant a battery in the woods below, but were unable to gain a foothold.

“Just before dinner a train of platform cars with a locomotive in the rear and a twelve-pound brass Napoleon on the front car, stopped before our camp. Within twenty minutes from the receipt of the order we were dashing out to the camp of the Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania, Colonel Jones commanding, doing picket duty at Batchelder's Creek, some eight miles from New Berne, on the Kinston railroad.





“Soon after reaching this picket station it was reported from head-quarters that from eight to ten thousand rebels, with thirty guns and some cavalry, had reached a point on our flank nearer New Berne than we were, and Colonel Jones was ordered if pressed to retire on New Berne, fighting his way as he came in. Captain Douglas with his Company C from our regiment, and one company from the Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania, went up the railroad, and the enemy in small force retired beyond Coal Creek. About dusk the outer pickets were driven in. Colonel Arnold suggested that tattoo be beaten in several places, and the ears were kept running that the enemy might be led to think our force much larger than it really was.*

“About nine o'clock the scouts reported a small force within about a half a mile of our camp. Major Tew, with the companies of Captains Moran and Gregg and one piece of artillery, were posted so as to defend the road leading from the Trent road to our camp, the other end of which was supposed to be in possession of the enemy. Major Tew's command spent the night in throwing up a rifle-pit, and every preparation was made by Colonels Jones and Arnold for a desperate defence. Colonel Arnold informed me that unless an attack was made before morning, one would not be made. Early in the morning, Sunday, the 15th, Colonels Jones and Arnold concluded that as the rebels had not attacked them, they would go out and see what had become of them. Four companies of the Fifth Rhode Island and a company of cavalry went two miles towards Kinston on the railroad, then four miles to the left to the Red House road towards Kinston, and then some four or five miles to Deep Gully, a small, deep creek, in a deep cut. The ashes were still warm where the enemy had had their camp-fires, and the trees were splintered from the firing of the previous day.

“We learned here that Belger's battery was planted in the face of the enemy, supported by two regiments of infantry (Fifth and Twenty-fifth Massachusetts) the day before, and, just as things began to be lively, an order came to retire on New Berne. Deep Gully bridge was torn up, and a large pine tree lay in and across the road

[note]



on this side. Sixteen volunteers went some two or three miles to our front and found the enemy's camp-fires still burning, but they did not see a single rebel. Just as we had finished our work and were about to return, two or three companies of cavalry came dashing past from the direction of New Berne. On our return to the post we met Colonel Amory with his brigade and some artillery moving
[Illustration:

Hospital Steward John K. Burlingame.
]

out. This force encamped about three miles from Deep Gully, and the next morning went some four miles farther towards Kinston, and there formed in line of battle, sending some cavalry still further. They found no enemy, but learned that the evening before some 20,000 (?) troops passed on their way to Kinston.

“In our own opinion we had not thought our scouting any great thing, but when we saw the force General Foster thought necessary





to make this reconnoisance, and do just what we had done some hours before with a few hundred men, we began to think that possibly it might have been a respectably brave thing to do. Returning to the camp at Batchelder's Creek safe and in good cheer, we found orders for us to return to our camp. When we reached our quarters the usual quiet reigned over both town and camp. No evidence of the turmoil and struggle of the previous day was visible. The rebel attack on New Berne, on the first anniversary of its capture by our forces, had ended in an ignominious failure.”

Just at the time the expected attack on New Berne engrossed every mind, it became generally known in camp that we were to have another change in the field officers of our regiment. And this time it caused universal regret, for it was understood that Lieutenant-Colonel Arnold, who had so recently received his long-deserved promotion, had decided to sever his connection with the Fifth Rhode Island. “In this he was actuated by motives that reflected equal credit upon him as a soldier, a gentleman and a friend.” The opportunity had been offered to him to be transferred to another regiment, without increase of rank, thus creating a vacancy which could be filled by the promotion of Major Tew. Personally he did not desire to change. But it seems that it was our Colonel Arnold that was wanted in the Seventh Regiment, not some one else; and with that unselfishness for which he was already noted, he felt that he could not stand in the way of the advancement of a brave and worthy fellow officer. He therefore decided to accept the proffered transfer. The official papers came to the regiment just at the time the enemy appeared in force in front of New Berne. He could not see his old comrades meet dangers which he did not share, so he declined to accept the transfer until the expected battle was over.

The following sketch of Colonel Arnold is taken from a report of the Rhode Island Society for the Encouragement of Domestic Industry:

“The youngest son of Stephen G. and Mary (Angell) Arnold, was born in Smithfield, Jan. 18, 1827. Removing early to Providence, he received a common school education at the First District School. At the age of thirteen he went to New York, and spent four years in the dry goods store of his brother, John Arnold. Returning to Providence at seventeen,





he entered the manufactory of Messrs. Payton & Hawkins, where he learned the trade of jeweler and engraver, which pursuit he followed until the breaking out of the war, in 1861.

“During these years, by well selected reading, he had acquired very valuable and varied information. As a skilled mechanic, he had familiarized himself with all valuable improvements in machinery. But the study of horticulture and agriculture were his chief delights, and he hoped for a time when he could devote himself to these.

“Thoroughly informed on political questions, he foresaw the great struggle of the nation, and abandoned all other occupations and personal aspirations for the service of his country at the first call to arms.

“Lieutenant-Colonel Arnold, when in command of his regiment, showed great talent for organization and a genius for command, as well as extraordinary celerity in deciding upon and executing field movements. In disciplining his regiments he substituted a system of rewards for punishments. His men loved and confided in him, while at the same time, his decision was inflexible and his rule absolute. Colonel Arnold was one of the best specimens of the citizen soldier sent by Rhode Island to the war.

“When his own health broke down from exposure and arduous service, only eighty men were left in the Seventh Regiment fit for service. At intervals, after his return, he was able to attend to business. On June 16, 1864, he married Anna Maria, daughter of Job Angell. At about this time he became a member of the firm of Mooney, Arnold & Shaw, manufacturers of gas burners.

“Colonel Arnold suffered much from the disease which had fastened itself upon him, but was always hopeful, cheerful and thoughtful of others, even when confined to his room, and gradually wasting away during the last year.

“Colonel Arnold died December 28, 1869. His wife with one child, survive him.” . . .

Colonel Sisson had been home for some time on leave of absence, mainly with the idea of obtaining men enough to fully complete the organization of ten full companies for the regiment, and Lieutenant-Colonel Arnold was thus in command at Batchelder's Creek on the 14th and 15th. Upon our return to camp the transfer was officially completed, and Major Tew was appointed to fill the vacancy that ensued. Thorndike C. Jameson, formerly chaplain of the Second Regiment, was then appointed major in our regiment, to fill the vacancy caused by the promotion of Major Tew.

No sooner had the regiment returned to camp than it was determined that Colonel Arnold should not be allowed to depart from





among us without first presenting him with some testimonial of the universal love and respect felt for him by both officers and men. For this purpose the line officers of the regiment procured an elegant sash and a fine field glass. Nor was this feeling toward Colonel Arnold confined to the Fifth Rhode Island, for no sooner was the intention known than the officers of Battery F claimed the right to join in this expression of esteem. The men, with a fine instinct, happily decided upon a testimonial which not only showed how sincere and unanimous was their regard for this noble-minded and unselfish gentleman, but how surely they knew they were presenting him with something that money could not buy, and which he would ever after treasure with that just pride which only men like him could feel.

The idea first came like an inspiration to Hospital Steward Burlingame. It had only to be mentioned to the men to be adopted and acted upon at once. To this end an engrossed memorial was prepared and signed by every non-commissioned officer and private then with the regiment. On the afternoon of Tuesday, March 17th, the men marched to the parade ground and formed in hollow square. Colonel Arnold was brought out and took his station with the field and staff and company officers in the centre. Sergeant Conger, bearing the testimonial, then stepped forward and said:

“Colonel Arnold: It has fallen to my lot to have the honor of presenting the popular feeling of this regiment as expressed in this paper, unanimously signed by the non-commissioned officers and privates, which I am requested to read to you. We have thought best to present it in this form, that in after years, when this strife is over, you may look upon it when amid your own family circle, and be cheered with the thought that your exertions and your patriotism were appreciated by those under your command. You have ever been to us as a father, and we are loth to part with you. But in parting let us mutually put our trust in Him who is able to say to this angry storm of war, ‘Peace, be still!’ When our flag shall wave in peace from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from the lakes to the gulf, may we all be spared to return to our own beloved State, there to enjoy with our families and friends the fruits of our sacrifices and toils.”

The memorial, duly signed, was then read and presented to the colonel. It was as follows:





“Camp Anthony, Fifth Regt., R. I. V. New Berne, N. C., March 17, 1863.

Lieutenant-Colonel Arnold:

Sir: It is with feelings of the deepest regret that we learn that you are to be taken from us and transferred to another regiment. We cannot allow this opportunity to pass without unitedly expressing to you our best wishes for your future success and welfare.

“While reviewing your past, we cannot recall the first unkind word or dishonorable act.

“You have been loyal to the government and to your command. You have never asked us to go where you were not willing to lead, and have always shared with us the fatigues of the march and the dangers of battle.

“In parting allow us as Rhode Island soldiers to pledge with you anew our entire devotion to our country's cause, and through all the fortunes of war, in whatever positions we may be placed, our resolve to stand firm for the right until this unholy rebellion shall be crushed, and every aider, abettor or apologist of treason shall wither beneath the consuming scorn and contempt of a free and enlightened people.”

With an emotion which showed how fully he appreciated the feeling which dictated the preparation of this unsought and unsolicited evidence of the love and regard of the assembled men, he briefly thanked them for it in the following fitting reply:

“Comrades of the Fifth Rhode Island: I cannot find words with which to express to you my heartfelt thanks for this touching and beautiful testimony of your confidence and affection. I shall prize it, not only for the kindly feeling manifested for me, but for the high and noble patriotism herein expressed, which does credit to you all. This is the proudest day of my life. I shall treasure this document as a souvenir, to be kept as long as life shall last.

“I am glad to know, that though a year and a quarter of hardship and danger has passed, you are still animated by the same motives of patriotism as when we left the shores of dear New England. Let us continue to strive to do our whole duty until peace shall reign.

“Soon after our arrival at New Berne I told you the time was not far distant when every man would be proud to own himself as one of the Fifth Rhode Island. That time came long ago. To-day you stand second to none among your country's defenders.

“I can bear willing testimony to the cheerful and soldier-like manner in which you have performed all duties and borne all fatigues, and to your undaunted courage on the battlefield. It is a source of sincere gratitude to me that I leave you in such good hands. I have every confidence





that your future will be alike honorable to country, to State, and to yourselves.

“A few more hours and I shall bid you farewell, dear friends, and in parting I wish you health and strength to continue until the end of this rebellion, and a glad return to home and friends. And, my friends, if in the future you sometimes think of him who loved this regiment, remember, if he failed in the performance of his whole duty, it was a failure of the head and not of the heart.”

The statement is made here that the whole history of the late war cannot parallel this instance of an officer long in command of a regiment engaged in march, and siege, and battle, always enforcing strict discipline and exacting implicit obedience to orders, and yet doing it with such singleness of purpose and uprightness of conduct as to win such an expression of esteem from every enlisted man under his command.

In the evening Captain Belger and the officers of Battery F, together with the line and staff of the Fifth, assembled to formally present their testimonials to Colonel Arnold. The presentation was made by Captain Douglas in a neat and felicitous speech. It was a complete surprise to Colonel Arnold, and he was too much overcome to make more than a brief reply. Colonel Tew was then called out, and in an eloquent and feeling speech he stated the fact that when Colonel Arnold received his appointment as lieutenant-colonel he had asked the department at home to commission Major Tew as lieutenant-colonel, and make him major. This change was not made, but the major referred to the manliness and unselfishness which prompted the action, and then stepping forward and taking Colonel Arnold's hand, he said: “Colonel, as you go out you bear with you our prayers and our best wishes, and if in the vicissitudes of the campaign we meet not here, may we be present to answer to our names at the great roll-call in the day of the resurrection.”

Nor was this the end of the pleasant incidents of the evening. Colonel Tew had in his possession two swords, presented to him by the citizens of Newport. He took this occasion to present one of them to Captain Belger, saying, as both came from that city, he thought that he was carrying out the spirit of the wishes of the donors by committing it to the care of one who was so well able to wield it, and in whose hands the interests of our State were always safe. Captain Belger replied that he would seek to so use the sword as not





to disgrace the gift, and the only thing he asked was the privilege of opening his battery on the ranks of treason while he was supported by such men as the Fifth Rhode Island. In this pleasant manner did the brave and respected Colonel Arnold take leave of his comrades in the Fifth Rhode Island, and join the Seventh Regiment under the command of General Burnside, at this time on the march for the department of the Ohio.

The following deserved tribute to the worth of Lieutenant-Colonel Job Arnold is from a non-commissioned officer of the regiment, who says:

“He was my ideal of an officer, soldier and gentleman. When our battalion came to Camp Anthony, our knowledge of battalion movements was very limited. Although only a captain of the line when he assumed command of the battalion, he, with the assistance of that able officer, Col. Thomas G. Stevenson, our brigade commander, brought our battalion to a commendable degree of efficiency in drill and discipline. We recall his presence on the drill ground when some difficult battalion movement was to be executed. How cool and self-possessed he seemed. He always gave the right command at the right time. I am informed by a member of the company of carbineers in the First Rhode Island Detached Militia that Colonel Arnold, who was then a private in the ranks, evinced the same determination to excel in the duties of a soldier which characterized him when assuming the responsibilities of a battalion commander. We well knew his fearlessness in the hour of battle. Nothing seemed to disturb the serenity of his countenance in the thick of danger. We recollect his kindness to the soldiers of his command. Often on the toilsome march have we seen him alight from his horse and place thereon some weary and foot-sore soldier, who was greatly relieved for the time being. No wonder, then, that the men of the Fifth Rhode Island loved Colonel Arnold, for he was worthy of their love, and it may justly be said of him:

  • ‘None knew him but to love him,
  • Nor named him but to praise.’ ”

On the 20th of March General Foster wrote to Governor Sprague, saying; “I have the honor to express my feeling of gratification at the promptitude with which you have appointed the officers of the Fifth Rhode Island Volunteers, in accordance with the recommendations from this department. It gives me great pleasure to say to you that this action has produced a decided effect upon the regiment for the good of the service, and that the regiment is in a most excellent condition, and the men are in the best condition for active service.”





CHAPTER X. RELIEF OF LITTLE WASHINGTON.

The Fifth Runs the Rebel Batteries and Carries Relief to General Foster and the Garrison at Washington, N. C.

DEFEATED in their attempt to make a successful attack on New Berne, the enemy, still under the command of General D. H. Hill, determined to turn their attention to Washington, a town of considerable military importance on the Tar River near its junction with Pamlico River, about twenty-five miles north of New Berne, by land. Immediately after the rebels disappeared from in front of New Berne, General Foster, impressed with the belief that they would attack some other point in our possession, set out upon a tour of inspection through his department, in order to see for himself how well other places were prepared for defence. The enemy appeared in force in front of Washington, Monday, March 30th. General Foster arrived there the same day from Plymouth. He found there a garrison composed of eight companies of the Forty-fourth Massachusetts, which had arrived from New Berne on the 16th; eight companies of the Twenty-seventh Massachusetts, one company of the loyal First North Carolina Volunteers, one company of the Third New York Cavalry, and Battery C, Third New York Light Artillery, the whole amounting to 1,160 men. The gunboats Eagle, Ceres, Louisiana, and Commodore Hull were lying in the river in front of the town.

That evening our pickets were driven in, and the enemy appeared in force on all the roads leading to the town. Having placed his troops in position during the night, General Hill sent in a flag of truce the next morning with a demand for the surrender of the town. It was addressed to the “colonel in command.” General Foster was heard to say to the officer who reported the arrival of the flag with





General Hill's summons to surrender, “Go back and tell them if they want Washington, come and take it!” This message revealed to the rebel general the fact that General Foster was present in command, and undoubtedly led them to suppose that he had arrived with reinforcements, thus causing them to abandon the assault they had
[Illustration:

Lieut. Christopher W. Howland.
]

contemplated. At once they commenced the erection of batteries for a regular siege of the place. So great was their activity that by the night of April 1st they had erected batteries around the north side of the town, and across the river on the south side, also batteries on both sides of the river below the town, and had removed the buoys marking the channel, thus completely blockading the little garrison from receiving supplies or reinforcements by land or water.





Before reaching Washington General Foster had ordered reinforcements to it. The transports bearing this force, under the command of Brigadier-General Prince, appeared in sight down the river. General Foster sent him an order to land his troops and march in, but the general reported that it was impracticable to do so, and he did not attempt it. The enemy's investing force numbered fifteen thousand to sixteen thousand men, a large portion of whom were on the south side of the river. With this very brief statement of the situation in Washington, we will return to the Fifth Rhode Island.

Very soon after Colonel Arnold left to join his new command Colonel Sisson returned to us. When the report of the threatened attack upon New Berne reached the North, all other considerations were put aside, and he left Providence at once to join us. Major Jameson also reported at the same time. Activity now reigned in New Berne. The air was filled with rumors of another attack on the town. The work of strengthening and completing the defences was vigorously carried on, and every negro—“contrabands of war” were they at that time—who was able to wield axe or shovel, was pressed into service. The utmost vigilance was exercised to prevent the approach of even the smallest raiding party of rebel cavalry without ample warning. Reconnoisances were pushed in every direction. “Colonel Sisson went out beyond Deep Gully, on a reconnoisance in force, Thursday, April 2d. We found no rebels. The quaker gun on which the rebels made a famous charge the other day is again in position.” The troops forming the garrison at New Berne were assigned their respective stations in the forts and breast-works, and drilled to take them without confusion and in the least possible time. So proficient did they become, that in eight minutes from the first alarm every man was in his place, and the guns in the forts and batteries were loaded, primed, and put in battery ready to fire.

All this time the dull boom of guns coming over the swamps and pine forests stretching away to the northward, told to the anxious hearts in New Berne of the danger of their beloved general and the little garrison composed of their comrades. Each morning they listened for the sound with renewed anxiety, for it told them also that the brave men in Washington still held out. On the 6th the firing





could not be heard for some time, and every heart sank with fear that the end had come to the besieged band, that Washington had been captured. Towards night, when the low rumble came down again, it was hailed with a great feeling of relief, almost of joy for the story it told of the unfaltering courage and steadfastness of the men environed by a force of more than ten to one.

Wednesday, 8th. At one o'clock this morning we formed in line in light marching order, and just as we were moving off the order was countermanded, and we remained behind. The Fifth Rhode Island and the Forty-fifth Massachusetts were left to guard the town. It was late in the day when we heard that General Spinola, with sixteen regiments of infantry and Belger's, Ransom's, Riggs's, Howell's, and Ashby's batteries had marched from the north bank of the Neuse to go to the relief of Washington. About noon on the 9th the head of the column came upon the enemy in force, in a strong natural position on Blount's Creek. He was posted on a hill on the further side, his flanks protected by a swamp, and his position could only be approached over a mill-dam completely enfiladed by his guns. Belger's battery was ordered to open on the enemy, and met with a severe return from both artillery and musketry. Captain Belger was severely wounded in the thigh and his horse was killed. “I would not care a —— about being wounded myself, if they hadn't killed my horse,” was the energetic remark of this genuine lover of his noble animal, as he was carried to the rear. After using up considerable artillery ammunition, General Spinola decided that the enemy's position was too strong to attack with any hope of success, and he accordingly put his column in motion towards New Berne He made a rapid march until late in the night to reach Street's Ferry, on the Neuse, and prevent a flank attack on his column from the direction of Kinston. The next day he brought his command to New Berne.

While the troops were absent on this expedition Colonel Sisson was in immediate command of the defences of New Berne, and was very active in providing against any attempt the enemy might make to profit by the almost defenceless condition of the town. As soon as General Spinola returned, General Palmer, who was in command of the department during General Foster's absence, determined to attempt





to send reinforcements and supplies to Washington by the way of the river.

On the 10th the Fifth Rhode Island and a number of other regiments received orders for this expedition. Our regiment, with the exception of Company F, Lieut. C. F. Gladding, which was left in Fort Rowan, embarked about one P. M. on the transport steamer Escort. General Palmer had determined to assume command, and with his staff and Lieut.-Col. Southard Hoffman, assistant adjutant-general to General Foster, also embarked at that time. “A number of ladies on the wharf took such tender and tearful leave of them that we all felt that something important was at stake.” After we were fairly off, Colonel Sisson called the officers together and told them that General Foster was besieged in Washington, and was short of provisions, ammunition and forage. It was all important hat reinforcements and supplies should go to him. In the morning Colonel Hoffman had sent for him and said: “I will not order or ask you to go, but wish to lay the case before you.” Colonel Sisson at once offered himself and command to go and open the way to General Foster. With a noble unanimity the officers supported him.

The next morning, Saturday, the 11th, the transports anchored off Maul's Point, Pamlico River, some ten miles below Washington. Five gunboats and a number of vessels laden with supplies were lying here. General Palmer left us here to become the guest of Captain Behm, of the Southfield, the senior officer of the squadron.

The blockade which prevented the approach to Washington consisted first of a triple row of piles, firmly driven into the river bottom and then cut off under water, and a number of hulks sunk along this line. This work had been done by the rebels early in the war. When our troops took Washington the obstructions in the channel had been removed for a space of about one hundred feet wide, and the passage buoyed. Second, the enemy had reoccupied the abandoned batteries on Hill's Point, on the south bank, and, after greatly strengthening them, had armed them with heavy rifled guns. These batteries were close to the passage through the rows of piles, and completely commanded it. Third, Swan's Point batteries were further up, and on the north bank of the river, and the guns bore on the channel just above Hill's Point. Fourth, Rodman's Point batteries,





armed with Whitworth guns, were on the south bank of the river, two miles below Washington. At this point the channel approached very close to the shore, and the enemy's guns had complete command of it. In addition to all of these obstructions and batteries, the rebels had removed all of the buoys marking the narrow and crooked channel, and had lined the banks in every place where the channel approached them with infantry.

Up to this time it seemed to be the intention at headquarters to run the batteries with all of the force present. Saturday was passed on the Escort in taking aboard and stowing ammunition and supplies for the beleaguered garrison, and in placing bales of hay so as to protect the pilot-house, machinery and boilers. Saturday night we expected to run by, but the officers of the gunboats and others in authority thought it best not to run the risk in the night. Sunday morning, in accordance with orders from General Palmer, the Escort got under way and slowly approached the opening in the blockade in front of the Hill's Point batteries. A fog had arisen about daybreak, and soon became so dense as to prevent further progress, and we were soon ordered to return to our anchorage. Then the gunboats opened and showered their shell upon the batteries, as they had been doing daily for nearly two weeks, with the usual daily result of producing no apparent effect.

At sundown very impressive religious services were held on the Escort by our chaplain, assisted by Chaplain Hall, of the Forty-fourth Massschusetts, who had been waiting here for some days to join his regiment in Washington. At the close Colonel Sisson called for fifty volunteers to go on a reconnoisance in the morning, and it seemed as if every man in the regiment wanted to go.

All this time the sound of the guns around Washington told all on the fleet that the brave little band still held out. Almost every night dispatches, brought in small boats that drifted down with the current, came from General Foster to General Palmer, urging him to action.

Monday morning, the 13th, the officers and men left the Escort on the projected reconnoisance. It was to ascertain the practicability of moving a land force in the rear of the batteries on the south bank of the river, across Blount's Creek to Washington. Captain Douglas and Lieut. Dutee Johnson, Jr., were in command of the fifty men who





had been selected for the task. They had a negro for a guide, who proved faithful and intelligent. They reached Blount's Creek and found the crossing defended by three batteries and about 3,000 men. Captain Douglas and Sergeant-Major Hatlinger displayed great bravery and coolness in advancing almost under the enemy's guns and preparing an accurate sketch of their works. With the return of Captain Douglas vanished the last hope of reaching Washington by land with any force available at this time, and valuable time had again been wasted to no good end.

All that both officers and men of the Fifth Rhode Island now wanted was the mere permission to make the attempt to reach Washington. In view of this feeling, Colonel Sisson called all of the officers and men of the regiment together. He briefly stated the situation of their general and comrades in Washington and their urgent need of succor, and the difficulties and dangers attending the attempt to run the batteries, as well as the opinions of the officers in command of the land and naval forces as he understood them. He then told them that the question should be left with them to decide whether the attempt to run the batteries should be made or not. When the ayes were called for, one mighty shout of “aye!” rent the air. Then the vote of those opposed was called for, and just one man replied with a loud “no!” He said afterward that he “didn't want the d——d thing to be too unanimous.” Backed by the unanimous voice of every man of whatever rank in his regiment, Colonel Sisson took immediate steps to make the opinion and resolution of his regiment formally known. Accordingly he dispatched Lieutenant-Colonel Tew and Major Jameson to General Palmer. Major Jameson was a man of fluent speech, and he was made spokesman of this committee, if such a term may be used in this connection. The guarded official reports do not voice the fiery request then made that their regiment he permitted to attempt the relief of their general and his comrades, who were still holding out so manfully, and knowing that men and supplies were now ready to come to their relief. Right here it is but justice to the naval officers in command to say they had spared neither their boats nor men in attacking the batteries. All of them seemed in sorry plight, and bore ample evidence of the skill of the rebel gunners and the great range of their guns. Some of the





boats seemed riddled from stem to stern. The greatest danger of all, however, was that the vessel attempting to run the batteries would run aground in the narrow, crooked and buoyless channel, and become a helpless target for the enemy's gunners, or the easy prey of the rebel infantry, which lined the river banks. It was under these circumstances that our officers sought the presence of General Palmer. In his modest report Colonel Sisson says:

“In consideration of the previous attempts to reach Washington, and of the situation of our noble commander and the brave men from our sister State who composed the garrison, I considered it my duty to offer the services of my command to attempt the passage of the blockade. Accordingly I dispatched Major Jameson to General Palmer, who was on board the Southfield, to volunteer ourselves for such an expedition. He reported that General Palmer did not feel warranted in ordering us upon an enterprise of this nature, as it was impossible for him to accompany us, and as the attempt of Sunday morning assured him of the extreme peril with which it would be attended. But he would allow me to make the trial, if in my judgment it were practicable, and offered me the assistance of the gunboats if I determined to go. After further deliberation and consultation with my lieutenant-colonel and major, I decided that the object of the expedition was of sufficient importance to demand the risk I proposed to assume.”

It was decided to make the attempt that evening, Monday, April 13th. Among the stores taken on board were twenty tons of ammunition. All of it could not be stowed below, so a large quantity was placed on the forward deck. In all cases of an undertaking of this desperate nature in war, it is the custom to call for volunteers or attempt it with a picked force drawn from the whole command, in order that should it meet with disaster the loss will not fall on any one organization. But to this Rhode Island colonel and his Rhode Island men it did not seem to occur that they were undertaking any wonderful thing. The only thought in their minds was that they were to carry food and ammunition and the succor of their own brave hearts and willing hands to their general and comrades who were in great peril. To them, then, it was a matter-of-course affair. Looking at it now, when more than a quarter of a century has passed, the coolness and bravery with which it was undertaken, it was heroic in the highest degree. A shot—a spark in those tons of ammunition—some of it exposed on deck, and the boat and the Fifth Rhode Island





Regiment would have ceased to exist. To run aground meant for these men a worse fate—Andersonville and Salisbury. And every man in the regiment knew this and accepted the issue. There was no calling for volunteers, for the whole regiment had volunteered. There was no selection of picked men for this forlorn hope. The whole regiment formed the forlorn hope. Not even the non-combatants were sent away. Surgeons, chaplain, quartermaster, hospital steward and commissary sergeant would not be left behind, though they could be of no earthly use until after the enterprise was successfully accomplished. Not only this, but a non-combatant passenger was taken aboard. The chaplain of the Forty-fourth Massachusetts, with a courage worthy of his high calling, begged for permission to go, in order that he might the sooner join his regiment in Washington. Lieut. W. H. King of the First North Carolina (Union) Volunteers also accompanied us. He had been stationed at Rodman's Point, and when the enemy occupied that place he and his men went on board a flat-boat and dropped down the stream to the gunboats, being unable to cross to the town.

Looked at from the standpoint of the present time the detail of the preparations is intensely interesting. A twelve-pounder gun was placed on the forward deck, to be used in case the boat should run aground and be attacked by the rebel infantry on shore. A company of men to act as sharpshooters was detailed to remain on deck and assist in repelling any shore attack. These men were under the command of Capt. I. M. Potter, assisted by the officer of the day, Capt. H. B. Landers, and the officer of the guard, Lieut. Thomas Allen. Lieutenant-Colonel Tew, and Major Jameson were also to remain on deck with Colonel Sisson. A final arrangement of the bales of hay to protect the pilot-house and machinery was made, and then every man except those detailed to stay on deck, was peremptorily ordered below, so as to be as safe as possible, to the great disgust of our chaplain especially, who wanted to be up where he could see how it was all done. The pilot was the most important single factor in this problem, for success depended on his skill and coolness under fire. In this case it seems that a protecting Providence had sent the right man to the right place. A North Carolinian, but a loyal man, Mr. Petherick had long been in the Union service as a





pilot, and, having received his discharge, he was on his way to his wife and children in New Berne, whom he had not seen for a long time, when he was pressed into this service. “Oh, how he begged not to go,” said one of the men who heard him. “If the boat runs aground and is lost, they will blame me for it, and say that I did it on purpose.” At last he consented, and to his remarkable and unrecorded bravery is due the fact that there is any subsequent history of the Fifth Rhode Island Regiment to chronicle.

The following extract, taken from a paper read before the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Historical Society of Rhode Island, by Capt. William W. Douglas, is worthy of recording at this point:

“In order to appreciate the risk we were to run, you may imagine yourselves starting from Newport on the Bay Queen on a trip to Providence. Place upon Nayatt Point a battery of heavy guns, and on the shore at Conimicut Point another, both well manned by experienced artillerists. Suppose the channel to run within point-blank range of the western shore, and to be obstructed by a triple line of piles driven closely together; then place a still more formidable battery, containing at least one gun capable of throwing a shell three miles with accuracy, at Field's Point, and calculate the chances of getting by all this and anchoring safely at the Continental Steamboat Company's wharf. Then place on the boat fifteen tons of ammunition, and consider that if a shell were to explode so as to fire it there would be no boat left, and you would have the last chance left you of swimming ashore into the hands of the enemy, who, if they did not shoot you in the water would march you to a rebel prison. Add to this the fact that no one on board knew the channel except the pilot, and he had to grope for it without a beacon light, in intense darkness, and to have got upon the flats meant sure capture at daybreak. We had not either that opportunity to fire back which occupies a man's whole attention to the exclusion of thoughts of his personal danger in the excitement of a battle. We had simply to box ourselves up and constitute ourselves a floating target.”

The plan for running the batteries was simple enough. The gunboats were to steam slowly into position and have their guns ready for action. The Escort was to follow, and, as soon as the gunboats were in readiness, the signal was to be given and she was to steam slowly and silently to the opening in the obstructions. As soon as she was discovered and fired upon the gunboats were to reply with every gun that they could bring to bear upon the enemy's battery, in order to divert as much of the rebel fire as possible and lead them to





think that a number of vessels were attempting to pass the batteries. The buoys were gone, a fog lay on the water, and the pilot would have to depend on the lead for his bearings. Colonel Sisson took his station at the bow between the leadsman and pilot, and soon the signal came over the waters through the gloom, and about 8.30 the Escort started on her perilous mission. Not a light was to be seen on board. And here occurred another incident of the cool courage that marked the progress of this remarkable feat in the annals of war. A number of the men who were to remain on deck lay down on the exposed pile of ammunition, in order to cover it with their bodies from any chance shell or spark of fire from some fuse that might ignite it. “I thought I was just as safe there as anywhere, and I might keep the stuff from being exploded,” said one of these men when talking of it afterwards.

Lieut. Dutee Johnson, Jr., in a paper entitled Personal Recollections of Service in the Fifth Rhode Island Volunteers, says:

“The lower after cabin in which the officers were ordered to remain contained three tiers of berths; the middle berth being nearly on the water line. Most of the officers took the beds from the berths and made couches on the cabin floor. Two of them being very tired fell asleep, and knew nothing of the passage of the rebel batteries until they awoke from their slumbers when the steamer arrived at the wharf at Little Washington. Their astonishment and disgust was great when they discovered that they had slept all through those exciting scenes. The other officers who were awake occupied themselves in alternately observing the positions of the batteries on shore through two bulls’ eye lights in the stern of the steamer. They could see the flash of every gun and the report was distinctly heard, but sounded very flat and queer; the listener being about on a level of the water.

“In the forward cabin or hold of the steamer the men of the regiment were placed under the charge of an officer or two. In this cabin had been stored all the ammunition and commissary stores, and the fact of so much powder being stored made it doubly dangerous in case of accident.”

In this way this slightly constructed passenger steamer, designed to carry excursions in Boston harbor, loaded with men and munitions to within one foot of the depth of water in the river channel, moved slowly toward the opening through the rows of piles, right under the guns of a battery that for two weeks had kept a fleet at





bay. Almost noiselessly and quite unnoticed, under the skillful direction of the pilot, she approached and entered the narrow passage way, crushed on the piles on one side with a momentum that, slow as her speed was, shook her from deck to keel, rocked, hung for a moment, slowly fell off, and then, under full head of steam, darted up the channel. Instantly signals flashed in the batteries on shore, the rebels sprang to their quarters, and the heavens fairly glowed with the lightning of their guns, and the air was filled with the roar and hiss of flying and exploding shells. The instant they opened on the
[Illustration:

The Steamer “Escort.”
]

Escort the gunboats opened on them with an accuracy of range acquired by long practice. Through this turmoil and din of strife the silent Escort sped away up the river, Colonel Sisson standing beside the cool and clear-headed pilot, calling out in a firm voice the direction to the man at the wheel. Shell followed them, but in their excitement the rebel gunners seemed to pay more attention to rapid firing than accuracy of aim, and not one shot struck the Escort. Then the guns of Swan's Point battery opened with no better success. Two batteries were passed, but the worst was yet to come. The alarm had spread, and the rebel infantry on the shore poured volleys of musketry on the passing boat. Twice was the pilot compelled





to bring her to a full stop before he could make sure of his direction, and he derived not a little aid from the sharpshooters on the river bank, for the flashes of their rifles indicated the line of the shore, which he could not see. Twice the boat grounded, the grating of the keel being felt, not heard, in the din; and each time, after hanging motionless on the muddy bottom for a few moments, she would slowly forge ahead into deeper water. During this time but for the bulwarks made of the bales of hay, the decks of the boat would have been swept of every living being. “I went up and looked towards Washington,” wrote our chaplain, “and the batteries about the town saw that we were at something, and at this moment opened a most terrific fire on the town. You have seen heat lightning in summer time. So, in a half circle about that distant town did the flash of gun and shell leap and gleam. I went back to my berth. A soul suspended on a thread over a fathomless void might feel as we felt amid those shells whistling past us, any one of which might ignite our cargo and send ship and souls to destruction.”

By the time the boat neared the Rodman Point batteries the enemy were fully aware of what was being attempted, and were all ready for the approaching boat. At this point the channel closely approaches the shore, and the firing from the banks was far more severe than at any point below, while their guns opened at a range of about four hundred yards. Again the scene of Hill's Point was repeated with even more exciting surroundings. Amid the roar of guns firing on town and boat, and the rattle of rifles and rush of shot through the air, the firm, clear voice of the colonel repeating the pilot's commands was the only sound that could be heard on the dark and silent boat that had now with the most wonderful providence passed the last battery, and was speeding away unharmed toward the town. There all were on the alert, for they felt that some desperate effort was being made to bring the long looked for relief. Another mile at full speed, followed by near half a hundred shells, and the wharf was reached at 12.15 A. M., and this large, unarmed and deep laden steamer had accomplished what armed vessels, built and manned for the purpose, had failed to do.

“You can guess,” wrote the chaplain of the Forty-fourth Massachusetts, our one passenger, “what cheers arose, and with what a





will, from the hundreds that had been repressing their emotions through these four long hours in the boat, and from the imprisoned soldiers on the wharves, who had seen in this their first hope of rescue. Cheers for the Forty-fourth Massachusetts from the boat, and cheers hearty and long for the Fifth Rhode Island from the shore, and so a new bond of union was struck between these brother regiments.”

The men began to debark at once. When a company was in line and ready to march ashore the officer in charge would give in his highest tones the loud command, “Attention, battalion!” and, for the benefit of the rebel pickets on the south side of the river, continue to give the necessary orders for marching a regiment ashore as his company left the boat. This was repeated until the last of the men had come ashore, and also when they were marched away to the places they were to occupy for the night.

We are again indebted to Lieutenant Johnson for the following incident:

“The steamer arrived at the wharf in Washington about one A. M. The same morning at daylight found us on shore, and as many as could comfortably do so were occupying a little building just up from the wharf. It had a small stage inside, which no doubt had formerly been used as a place where entertainments were held. Our men were enjoying themselves here when the enemy from some point on the opposite shore opened fire, and the building having been made a target for their guns, our men vacated the building, feeling safer in the open streets.

“My attention was attracted about the time we left the ‘theatre’ as one of the men called it, to the actions of a little boy, some eight or ten years of age. He stood hugging a building closely, and, with his head protruding around the corner, and, with an ear open for the sound of the expectant shell, he keenly observed the actions of our men. Hearing no sound of the dread missiles of death, he finally came over and mingled with the men. But, though seemingly much occupied in what we were doing, it could be readily seen that his young ears were well trained in determining the sounds of danger. Aye! the little ones in Washington had for the past fifteen days shared with the troops the dangers of a besieged town.”

The next morning the several companies were assigned positions in the lines of defence, and when the enemy commenced their usual fire from their batteries the men again enjoyed the excitement of dodging rebel shell. Says one of the comrades of the battalion, “We had no





such experience since Fort Macon, but quickly became accustomed to it again, and soon felt safe enough to be comfortable.” “Tuesday, the 14th, the fog cleared early,” says the historian of the Forty-fourth Massachusetts. “We were all feeling comfortable now that the charm was broken, and we were both physically and morally reinforced by the arrival of our old comrades of the Fifth Rhode Island.”

The position assigned the regiment in the defences was on the right of the line near the river and below the town. It had been determined that the Escort should run the batteries, down, during Tuesday night, but the fog was so deuse that she ran aground nearly a mile below the town, and was compelled to wait until morning to get off. General Foster had decided to go down in her, organize a force, and march to the relief of the town. Before going he issued a general order expressing his admiration for the courage and determination displayed by the garrison during the siege, and informing them that he knew they would hold out until he could return with a force sufficient to relieve them. The Escort had remained hard aground, waiting until the fog should lift in the morning When at last it slowly rose she was within easy range of the Rodman Point battery, which at once opened on her. Slowly backing out of her unsought berth in North Carolina river mud she steamed on her mission, and succeeded in getting through. The brave pilot who had brought her up so successfully was killed soon after passing the Rodman Point batteries. He raised his head above the bales of hay placed around the pilot-house, and was shot dead by a rifleman on the river bank. Thus fell this hero, without even the privilege of seeing his loved ones, for whom he cherished a most touching affection. General Palmer had promised him that if he would try to take the Escort up and should lose his life, he would pay his family $2.600. This sum was afterward paid to them in New Berne. The Escort was struck with eighteen shot and shell, and her upper works were riddled with bullets. General Foster had gone aboard the night before to obtain some much needed rest. When nearing the batteries he was persuaded to go below. Within two minutes atter he left, a shell passed through the stateroom, destroying in its passage the bedding of the berth he had occupied.






[Illustration:

Plan of WASHINGTON, N.C. Drawn by C.M. Allis, 27th Mass. 1863. Reduced by J.B. Gardner, Co. D. Jany, 1886.
]









Their success in running the batteries and reaching Washington but stimulated the spirit of enterprise in our men. On the night of the 15th some men of Company C, Captain Douglas's company, determined to attempt an operation on their own account. It was no less than the capture of the Rodman Point battery. Procuring an old scow they set off soon after midnight and silently paddled across the river and then drifted down to the battery. Here they slowly worked their way in shore as far as the boat would go, and waited until just as dawn began to appear, when they silently left the boat, waded ashore, and, dashing up the bank, they sprang over the breastworks into the battery—only to find them silent and deserted. Seeing a number of the enemy in the edge of a wood near by, they secured a notice which had been fastened to a stake stuck up in the middle of the fort, and returned to the other side of the river. By this time it was known that the enemy had abandoned their works on the north side of the town. This exploit of Company C had no other result than to show the good will of the men to capture the battery had the rebels remained in it. The notice posted up is still in existence. It said:

YANKEES.

We know not what brave regiments passed our batteries on the night of the 13th inst., but whoever you are, whilst we admire your pluck and courage, we despise your cause.

Co. “K,” Thirty-second Regt. N. C. Vols.

April 15th, 1863.

When the enemy had put their trains in motion after they had determined to abandon the siege, the roads proved to be in such au impassable condition that they were in great fear that they might lose them. So they at once strengthened their rear guard. A small force returned and occupied the works on Rodman's Point. In the meantime the officers on the gunboats saw that the guns were withdrawn, and they determined to occupy the works. Accordingly the Commodore Hull, Ceres and Eagle shelled the battery for some time before attempting to land any men. At last Acting Third Assistant Engineer Thomas Mallahan, of Providence, R. I., with the small boat's crew pulled ashore to hoist our colors over the battery. On approaching land they were fired upon and Mallahan was killed.





The gunboats came back, and at two P. M. ran down again and shelled the battery for some time. Again a call was made on the Fifth, and in half an hour Lieutenant-Colonel Tew, with Companies D, E, H, G and I, together with one gun of a New York battery, under the command of Lieutenant Mower, were detailed and on their way to take possession of the much disputed Rodman's Point. In view of the experience of the gunboats in the morning, Colonel Tew made preparations to meet a considerable force, and effected a landing some distance below the fort. Colonel Sisson's official report says:

“Captain Robinson's company (G) was put in advance, and, proceeding along the road, came in sight of a company of the enemy about three-quarters of a mile from the landing. Deploying his company, he advanced cautiously and immediately attacked them. After a sharp skirmish, in which he displayed great coolness and bravery, he dislodged them, killing one man and taking three prisoners—a captain, lieutenant and a drum-major. Having set fire to the building in which the enemy had quartered, Captain Robinson fell back about one-fourth of a mile, and, under the direction of Lieutenant-Colonel Tew, posted his pickets so as to command every approach to his position. The enemy's pickets were posted about two hundred yards from ours, and exchanged shots with them repeatedly during the night. The whole detachment formed promptly in line at each alarm, but no other attack was made, and in the morning our scouts could not discover the enemy within five miles of the Point.”

Chaplain White, in a letter to the Providence Journal, says:

“When we entered the batteries at Rodman's Point our troops found a note reading thus:

‘YANKEES!!!

‘We leave you not because we cannot take Washington, but the fact is, it is not worth taking, and, besides, the climate is not agreeable. A man must be amphibious to inhabit it. We leave you a few bursted guns, some stray solid shot, and a man and brother, rescued from the waves to which some fray among his equals consigned him. But this tribute we pay you, you have acted with much gallantry during this brief siege. We salute the pilot of the Escort.

Co. K, 32d N. C. Vols.’

“This tribute to the pilot must have been because of his daring in running the boat up, and not on account of his death, as they could not have known that.”





The detachment under Colonel Tew remained at Rodman's Point, and, on the 18th, Colonel Sisson was ordered to repair to that place with the other companies of the regiment, with the exception of Company C, Captain Douglas, who was stationed at Gracie's house, one mile south of Washington, on the New Berne road. During the night of the 18th the rebel breastworks were leveled and a new line defending the battery on the land side was erected. The battery was then christened Fort Sisson.

Early Sunday, the 19th, guns were heard about eight miles to the south, and about noon the advance of General Foster's column, under command of General Naglee with two detachments of cavalry, marching overland from New Berne, reached Washington. The column from New Berne found that the enemy were all well on their way toward Kinston.

Immediately upon his arrival General Foster issued the following order to the Fifth Rhode Island:

Headquarters, Washington, N. C., April 19, 1863.

Colonel Henry T. Sisson, Comd'g Fifth Reg't R. I. Vols.:

Sir: By direction of Major-General Foster, I have to express his regret that in the hurry of his departure from Washington he was unable to formally acknowledge the valuable aid you brought to Washington, N. C., during its siege.

The many things he had to attend to allowed him only time to say “good bye” to the old garrison and not to welcome the new.

He directs me to thank you, and the brave officers and men under you, for the energy, perseverance and courage displayed in running the gauntlet of the enemy's batteries in a large and scantily protected steamer, and bringing to your comrades in Washington the much needed supplies of men, ammunition and commissary stores.

The doing of what you did reflects equal honor on yourself, your officers, your men, and the State from which you are proud to come.

I have the honor to be, with great respect, your obedient servant, Southard Hoffman, Assistant Adjutant-General.

Nothing occurred to disturb the quiet of daily routine until the 22d, when Colonel Sisson was ordered to leave two companies at Rodman's Point, and embark the rest of the regiment on the Thomas Colyer for New Berne. This was done about ten o'clock the same





morning, and we reached our destination the same night. Companies H and I, under the command of Capt. Benjamin L. Hall, remained at Rodman's Point. The other gun of Lieutenant Morris's section had been brought over. Captain Hall was in command of the post, and Lieutenant Pierce acted as adjutant. They remained here some days, but, beyond some scouting, nothing of interest occurred, and Captain Hall soon rejoined us at Camp Anthony.

Camp and garrison duties were now resumed, and the men had leisure to recall the many incidents of their late very exciting and eventful expedition. Here the following very pleasing general order was published:

Headquarters Eighteenth Army Corps, New Berne, April 24, 1863.

General Order, No. 633.

The garrison of Washington, N. C., composed of the Twenty-seventh Massachusetts Regiment, the Forty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment, Fifth Rhode Island Regiment, First North Carolina Volunteers, Company I, Third New York Cavalry, Battery G, Third New York Artillery, have well merited, by their steadiness, courage and endurance the honor of inscribing, and they are so ordered to inscribe on their banners and guidons, Washington, April, 1863.

Per order Major-General J. G. FOSTER. Southard Hoffman, A. A. G.

Scarcely had the interest of both officers and men in the foregoing order died away, when a new and unexpected honor came from quite another source. This testimonial, so gratifying in its nature, shall speak for itself:

Camp Stevenson, Headquarters Forty-Fourth Reg't M. V. M., New Berne, April 25, 1863.

Col. Henry T. Sisson, Commanding Fifth Regt. R. I. Vols.:

Colonel: At a meeting of the field, staff and line officers, held at Washington, N. C., on Tuesday evening, April 21st, Colonel F. L. Lee presiding, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted:

Whereas, During the late siege of Washington, N. C., when the town had been bombarded and all its communications cut off for fifteen days, after several ineffectual attempts had been made to relieve the garrison, and the enterprise had been pronounced impracticable, Colonel Sisson volunteered the services of his regiment, and succeeded, against every





obstacle and discouragement, in running the blockade with the steamer Escort, thus bringing to the besieged forces the much needed reinforcements, ammunition and supplies, therefore

Resolved, That in this achievement Colonel Sisson, with his brave regiment, has performed one of the most heroic acts of the war; and that this act, by so disheartening the enemy that in two days he was led to retire, was the immediate cause of the raising of the siege.

Resolved, That the members of the Forty-fourth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia feel that thanks are particularly due from them to their comrades-in-arms, who so generously volunteered their services and met such great risks in carrying succor to a brother regiment.

Resolved, That, as an expression of their gratitude and admiration, if it meet the wishes of the Fifth Rhode Island Regiment, a set of colors be presented to them, bearing a device commemorative of their act of gallantry.

Francis L. Lee, Colonel Comd'g Forty-fourth Reg't. Mass. V. M.

The following was Colonel Sisson's reply:

Camp Anthony, New Berne, April 28, 1863.

Colonel: I take great pleasure in acknowledging to you and the officers of your command my sense of the high honor which you have done us in the very complimentary resolutions which I have just received.

Be assured, colonel, they are the more acceptable as coming from a body of men whose character and good opinion we respect so highly as the regiment you have the honor to command. Your generous action will tend not only to cement more closely our two brother regiments, but also the sister States from which we came, already closely united by a common history, and by struggles and dangers in defence of our country.

May we be more closely knit together in peace and union under the flag which both Massachusetts and Rhode Island have done so much to uphold.

Accept, sir, the thanks of the Fifth Rhode Island for your kind sentiments, and believe me, With respect, very truly yours, H. T. Sisson, Colonel Commanding Fifth Rhode Island Volunteers.

It is almost needless to record here that no one of the many congratulations received by our regiment for its work in succoring their besieged comrades in Washington was so gratifying as this one from





the Forty-fourth Massachusetts in all respects. Capt. James Moran and Adjt. J. M. Wheaton joined the regiment on its return from Washington. They had been home on the first leave of absence either had received since joining the regiment. Their pride in the gallant action of the regiment in carrying relief into Washington was only equaled by their regret that the fortunes of the service had prevented them from sharing in it. The tidings of the affair of running the blockade and batteries met them on their return at Hatteras Inlet. On their way to New Berne they received many felicitations on account of this act of the regiment. General Foster openly and enthusiastically expressed his commendation of the courage and daring shown in succoring him at the moment of his extreme peril, and ever after showed himself the firm friend of the regiment. It remained for the legislature of our State to remind us that in doing our duty in the cause of our country our deeds were appreciated by the representatives of our neighbors and friends at home, as may be seen by the following resolution of our General Assembly:

State of Rhode Island, In General Assembly, May Session, A. D. 1863.

Resolved, That the thanks of the General Assembly be and they are hereby presented to Colonel Henry T. Sisson, and to the officers and men of the Fifth Rhode Island Regiment Volunteers for the gallantry and heroism which they displayed in running the gauntlet of the enemy's batteries on the Pamlico River, under circumstances of extraordinary peril, on the night of April 13, 1863, and carrying to the beleagured garrison of Washington, North Carolina, reinforcements, ammunition and supplies. And that His Excellency the Governor be and is hereby directed to transmit a copy of this resolution to Col. H. T. Sisson, and another copy to the Honorable Secretary of War.

A true copy, attest:

[L. S.] Joshua M. Addeman, Secretary of State.

Many incidents occurred, some of which may be mentioned. The three prisoners captured by Company G when Lieutenant-Colonel Tew first occupied Rodman's Point, speedily became the guests of the command. “The captain seemed much of a gentleman,” wrote Chaplain White, “and gave me much information. He says there can be no chance for the Confederacy to triumph. The lieutenant





said they would fight it out, and all die before they would surrender. I asked him why he sang out so lustily, ‘Don't fire! don't fire! we surrender! we surrender!’ if they were going to die fighting?” Another letter contains this: “The night we arrived we cheered wonderfully, and the ‘secesh’ thought the rebels had got in, and at once they went to cooking, and some kept it up all night so as to be ready for their friends.”

As indicating how soldiers can avail themselves of every opportunity to improve their condition in regard to food, we will relate this incident: One day some of the men of Company C captured a calf, killed and dressed it. After cooking, eating and disposing of what they desired of the carcass, two of them took the head and carried it into the town where they traded it for delicacies that were not issued to soldiers by the commissary department. They consisted of pies, cakes, etc., and were an agreeable exchange for Uncle Sam's army rations.

As an evidence of the feeling that prevailed throughout the regiment an extract is here made from a private letter written the next day after we reached Washington: “Taking everything into consideration, I think that although we are in a pretty tight place we shall come out all right, somehow. The blockade has been run, and the old Fifth did it. Others may follow, so that we shall have troops enough to man our long line of defences, and then they may attack and be d —— feated.”

The Hill's Point battery had been constructed by the enemy at the time they blockaded the river at this point in 1861. When our forces took Washington in 1862, they had left these abandoned works intact. It proved to be a grave oversight. When the siege was raised the earthworks had not been injured in the least, apparently, by the fire of the gunboats, nor had there been much loss of life in the fort. The rebels had constructed an excellent bomb-proof under the platform of each gun. After the rebels evacuated it on the 16th, a barrel of powder was placed in each bomb-proof and exploded simultaneously, completely demolishing it.

Chaplain Hall, of the Forty-fourth Massachusetts, had been waiting at the mouth of Pamlico River some days for an opportunity to rejoin his regiment in Washington. As has been stated he was on





the Escort on the night of the 13th. Immediately after his arrival he wrote home: “You can imagine my joy at having reached my regiment once more. Perhaps no hour of my life ever brought more entire relief than when I landed here last night. It had been insufferably wearisome and depressing. Penned up in a small boat, Washington just within sight each day, but just out of reach; heavy firing constantly about the little town, leaving us to imagine the consequences; each morning bringing some new hopes and each evening some fresh and bitter disappointments. Patience and hope had begun to fail. . . . Relief came at last, and that you will be pleased to hear, from a Rhode Island regiment. Let it be spoken as widely and loudly as you choose, that when everything else had failed, poor, beleagured Washington got its first ray of promise and of comfort from Colonel Sisson and the Fifth Rhode Island. It was one of the heroisms of the war which should not be forgotten.”

A correspondent of the New York Herald, writing of our passage of the batteries on the night of the 13th, closes his account with these words:

“You know that I have seen many feats of valor during the war, and can judge somewhat of the nerve and boldness requisite for them, and can also approximate unto something like a reasonable comparison of such events; and here allow me to say that this feat of the Escort and those on board has had no parallel during the war. Gunboats and iron-clads, to be sure, have run past batteries in wide rivers, as it was their place to do, and the events have been telegraphed far and wide; but I have yet to learn of an unarmed transport, loaded with a regiment of men and a cargo of supplies and ammunition even attempting such a thing before.”

The following vivid account of the feat as it appeared to the beleagured garrison is from the History of the Twenty-Seventh Massachusetts Infantry:

“The night settled dark, rainy and cheerless, and our men, smeared with mud in their bomb-proofs, and wearied with constant watching, were placed on three-quarter rations of meat and bread. Orders had been issued during the day to collect and save the enemy's missiles, for use by us in case of necessity. We were certainly verging on bitter extremities, but there was no diminution of purpose to resist to the last. At ten o'clock an alarm was given, bringing every man to his post; and through the darkness we strained our eyes for an explanation of the





alarm. Hill's Point and the river batteries were belching forth a sheet of flame, and, mingling with the peal and din, was the rattle of musketry and clash of arms below. Nearer and nearer the contest waged, until at eleven o'clock Rodman joined in the fray. The enemy on the hill seemed puzzled like ourselves, and opened with grape, canister and shell along the entire line, our guns replying with vigor and effect. All was intense excitement and suspense. The blaze of gun and shell, with gleam of Parthian arrows and peal on peal in quick succession told of a desperate strife, but ‘what could it be?’ By the flash of guns at Rodman's Point our men at number four detect what seems to them a phantom steamer, ploughing its way up the river through a storm of fire and iron hail. Rubbing their eyes, already strained by constant watching, they pierce again the curtain of night, and, now assured, send cheering tidings along the line, ‘There's a steamer coming!’ How we trembled with hope and fear as we saw it defying Rodman's murderous fire, and, as it emerged from the gauntlet of death, we were in an ecstacy of joy, the lapping of its friendly wheels assuring us that all was well. As it passed No. 4, the garrison gave cheer on cheer, which received a ringing response from those on board, and three steamer whistles, so exultant and natural, that every man in the beleagured town exclaimed, ‘That's the Escort! that's the Escort!’

“General Foster repaired to the wharf, and, as the steamer drew near, Colonel Sisson jumped ashore, and saluting him said, ‘General, I am here with the Fifth Rhode Island Regiment.’ Rome immortalized her sons, but these immortalized their State, and how grand and herculean they looked as they marched along. And the grand, old Escort, too; how she loomed in the darkness like a thing of life, proud in her unconsciousness, filled to the brim with aid and comfort, and yet with only a single scar to tell of the terrible ordeal through which she afforded this cheer. Such a miracle or succession of miracles! Not a soul had been injured, nor an ounce of supplies lost or damaged. Such cheers and wild delight as filled the besieged town is given only few to know, and we say now as then, God bless the Fifth Rhode Island and that noble craft and crew of the Escort!”

And thus the Fifth Rhode Island again proved that in times of great emergency sublime audacity means sublime success.





CHAPTER XI. THE FIFTH BECOMES A REGIMENT OF HEAVY ARTILLERY. A Summer and Autumn in New Berne.

WITH the siege of Washington ended the active operations of the enemy in force in North Carolina, for the spring and summer of 1863. The needs of the rebel army in Virginia had caused the recall of General Longstreet from South-western Virginia and North Carolina, and obliged the Confederate authorities to send every man that could be spared from the seaboard to General Lee. In a like manner were all of our troops that were not actually needed to defend fortified places in North Carolina sent away from time to time, until the Eighteenth Army Corps was so reduced as to be the mere skeleton of an organization. Even this small force was soon to be reduced by the loss of a number of regiments of “nine months” men, whose terms of service would soon expire. For the present the force at General Foster's disposal could only hold that much of the country that was within his picket lines.

In the changes that now took place the Fifth Rhode Island was selected by General Foster to garrison the several forts in the line of works around New Berne. At this time he also warmly recommended to the secretary of war that the regiment should be changed to and be known as the Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery. This change, if completed, would increase the regiment to an organization of twelve companies of one hundred and fifty men each, or 1,800 men in all. Each company would then have one captain, two first and two second lieutenants, with a quartermaster and commissary sergeant. The regiment would also be divided into three battalions of four companies, with a major and an assistant-surgeon for each battalion.





Pending the action of the secretary of war in this matter, Lieutenant-Colonel Tew was sent home to Rhode Island to make arrangements for recruiting the regiment to its maximum number. In the meantime no incident of note occurred to break the monotony of the daily routine. Lieutenant-Colonel Tew reached Providence about
[Illustration:

Lieut. Herbert D. Leavitt.
(Formerly First Sergeant Company H Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery.)

]

May 3d, and at once commenced his work. Chaplain White left us at this time on his first leave of absence. Indeed, the approaching heat of a Southern summer, with no prospect of active work in the field, made every one who could get away anxious to go North. The situation in the regiment during the first half of May is thus described:





“This is probably the last letter you will get from Camp Anthony. The Fifth is to garrison Forts Totten, Rowan and Stevenson. Yesterday two companies went to Totten, and two to Rowan. You know we have had one company in Rowan for some months. The rest will follow as soon as convenient. I should not like to be in the forts if there was likely to be any active campaign here this season. But, from present appearances, the Eighteenth Army Corps is to be merely an army of occupation, and, in fact, unless we were to take Wilmington, I don't see where we can move to any advantage. It seems to be the intention to hold all the places we now have here, or if we leave them, to do it of our own accord. We won't be whipped out.

“May 12, ‘Camp Anthony.’ We have not all got away yet. The last two companies go to-day. The colonel and staff will go as soon as we get our new quarters cleaned up. They are to be in a fine, large, brick house at the head of Craven Street, and were lately occupied by General Stevenson. Lieutenant-Colonel Tew will be in command at Fort Totten, Major Jameson at Rowan, and probably Captain Potter at Stevenson, when it is completed. Colonel Sisson will be in command of the whole line.”

The change from Camp Anthony to the new quarters in the forts entailed a vast amount of severe labor, known in camp as fatigue duty. Therefore the most pleasant occupation that presented itself was in receiving “news from home.” The activity of our chaplain and his thoughtfulness for our welfare did not cease with his departure from among us. There was always a practical side to his fertile brain that led him to care for our bodily comfort as well as our spiritual welfare. So we were not surprised that he should make “An Appeal for the Fifth Regiment,” in which he reminded our friends that we were still in North Carolina, where our duties subjected us by night as well as by day to constant exposure in a malarious and debilitating climate. He said:

“Since my arrival home I am greatly pleased to know that the recent gallant conduct of Colonel Sisson and command in running the blockade near Washington, N. C., relieving Major-General Foster and raising the siege that was fast driving him to a surrender, is justly appreciated. Through the great mercy of God we lost no men. But the strain upon the nerves of the men was terrible. This is the second season of the Fifth in the South. It has seen much service and done some noble work. I hear that the hearts of the people of our noble State throb with a quicker impulse at the mention of their patriotic services. These men need some ice and a few luxuries to help them past the sickly season,





and bring them up to better health. The moral effect of such a gift upon the men would be incalculable. Not much has been done for the Fifth in this way, and so we ask with the more confidence. If you appreciate our services, let us see it in a gift of the few things we ask.

“I am instructed to ask for one hundred tons of ice, twenty barrels of potatoes, five barrels of onions, one hundred hams of dried beef, ten barrels of dried apples, five barrels of dried sweet corn, a few books, and a supply of soft woolen stockings, as the coarse ones furnished make the feet of the men sore when marching. Persons wishing to aid can furnish parts of the above, or money. The noble men in Belger's battery are near us, and what the Fifth gets will be shared by them. Packages for soldiers will be taken.”

To have such kind words spoken for them among their relatives and friends at this time did the men of our regiment and Battery F almost as much good as the store of good things that came in answer to this did us a few weeks later.

Lieutenant-Colonel Tew, having returned from his leave, Colonel Sisson left us June 5th to complete the visit home which the attack on New Berne had so rudely interrupted in March. He went in company with the Forty-fourth Massachusetts, whose term of service had expired, and was the recipient of many pleasing compliments for himself and the regiment. He was with that regiment when it was welcomed home by the assembled people of Boston on their Common. In his address of welcome Mayor Lincoln said, “I cannot conclude without acknowledging the important aid given to your regiment in the perilous period of your history by the Fifth Rhode Island Regiment, Colonel Sisson, who, I am happy to know, is present, and can bear to his command the gratitude of our people for their timely assistance.” Colonel Lee, of the Forty-fourth, in his reply said, “I thank you for your allusion to Colonel Sisson, of the Rhode Island Fifth, for a more gallant act has never taken place in the war than that rendered us by that noble regiment.”

It seems fitting that we should make a brief allusion to the gallant record of the Forty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment, as it had been associated with our brigade during its entire stay in North Carolina. Although its term of service was limited in comparison with the regiments that were enlisted for three years or the war, yet it cheerfully and courageously bore all the hardships and duties incident to an active campaign in the Old North State, and it had cause to feel





proud of the record it made while in service. We shall ever cherish a kindly interest and feeling for every man who was connected with it.

We cannot give a better account of its gallant service in the field than the one which appeared in the Boston Journal on the return of that regiment to Massachusetts. It says:

“The regiment has been in five engagements, viz.: Rawle's Mills, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro, and Washington, all in North Carolina, in which thirteen men were killed. On leaving Massachusetts there was an aggregate of 1,018 in the regiment, and it returns with 916, one hundred and two having been killed in battle, died of disease or discharged for disability.”

May 27th the Secretary of War issued an order authorizing the Governor of Rhode Island to change the Fifth Regiment Rhode Island Infantry to the Fifth Regiment Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, and to increase it to the maximum strength of twelve companies. It also contained the conditions under which the increase was to be made and the additional officers appointed. This order was soon published in the regiment, and with it ended its history as an organization for active duty in the field. There can be no doubt that to most of the officers and nearly all of the men the change was received with great pleasure. To them it meant that the rest of their term of service would probably be passed in the vicinity of New Berne, where they would enjoy fixed quarters, full and regular rations, an exemption from duty in the field, except in cases of extreme emergency, and a higher grade in the service. “It also meant,” as an officer tersely expressed it, “that they need not seek the enemy, but the enemy must seek them.” Or, as one of the men put it, “good times and better clothes.”

On the other hand some of the more thoughtful ones saw in the change a greater liability to relaxation from the high standard of vigor and discipline which the regiment had attained while engaged in their very active service up to this time; a greater danger of the deterioration of the morale of officers and men which the ease and monotony of a life in camp sooner or later engenders, together with less ability to withstand the debilitating influences of the climate they were in. It meant also a greater exposure to the deadly malaria





while erecting and garrisoning the mud forts and earthworks, much more sickness, broken constitutions and deaths. They urged that in such cases as this the officers would be more liable to social temptations, and that it was an invariable rule that the demoralization of frequent desertions was always greater during the soldier's life at a military post, than when engaged in the most active and dangerous campaign in the field. But these forebodings of the few could not dampen the general joy caused by a change procured by a general universally loved, as a reward for their gallantry, so they put away the sober-hued uniforms in which they had won fame for themselves, their State, and their country, and donned the gay, scarlet facings of the artillery arm of the service. This order was the signal for the dispersion of the companies among the various forts and stations around New Berne, never again to assemble in one body until ordered home to be mustered out of service.

The days immediately succeeding the change to heavy artillery were days of drill and fatigue to the men and anxiety and fatigue to the officers. A new vocabulary as well as a new drill had to be taught, and the officers themselves had first to become pupils in the same school. Books on the manual for field and heavy guns could be seen on all sides. Officers with wrinkled brows carefully conned the lesson for the day before going out to drill the gun squads. The old and familiar terms of company and battalion drill fell into disuse and a new language was in every one's mouth. The talk was of cascable and chase, pintle and trunnion, primer and tompion, elevation and field of fire, and the multitude of things that are the deepest of mysteries to the uninitiated. Their new duties also implied a practical knowledge of the elements of military engineering as applied to the construction of enclosed and other field works, and it was not long before our officers could talk learnedly about scarp and counter-scarp, fraise and palisade, abatis and chevaux-de-frise, berme, banquette, and tread of banquette, and a whole dictionary full of other unknown terms.

The anticipated “good times” did not come, but instead a vast amount of hard work on the forts and breastworks. Platforms for guns in the new works had to be placed, magazines for ammunition were made and then the shot and shell and powder had to be





stored. Quarters for men and officers were erected and roads made so that men and guns could be easily and quickly moved to any threatened point. All this in addition to the usual drill and guard duties. The southern summer, in all its fervor, was upon them, and the fatigues and exposure began to tell upon the health of all. Such was the state of affairs in camp when our chaplain arrived as the bearer of good gifts. He shall tell the story of his return:

“I reached New Berne at five P. M. July 3d, and just in time to cheer the men with my good things, and help them have a cheerful and joyous Fourth. Various dispositions had been made of me by rumor. All night Friday, were the men hard at work breaking out the cargo and conveying it to camp. My things came in fine shape. The joy of the men was unbounded. Nearly everything has been distributed. There will be no complaint that each man did not get his share of everything sent out to the regiment. Lieutenant-Colonel Tew gave me every facility, and Quartermaster Prouty and Lieutenant Beers, with their active assistants, have been indefatigable in helping me distribute my things. The noble men of Belger's Battery have shared in the distribution.”

The men of the regiment were at all times remembered at home by those who were not privileged to share the stern realities of war in the field. As a tangible evidence of the thoughtfulness and solicitude of the gentler sex, we append herewith a poem which was forwarded to one of the comrades, in conjunction with a box of good things, and we hardly need mention that it was greatly appreciated by the recipient. These amusing verses read as follows:

A Song for the Times.

  • Three cheers for the Union, three cheers loud and strong,
  • Here's the box come at last, that's been coming so long,
  • And when it is opened we hope ’twill prove plain,
  • Though you've waited so long, you've not waited in vain;
  • And now we will try if you'll just give attention:
  • Here's a nice plum cake, of Aunt S's make,
  • Who they say is the best cook in town,
  • And we hope ’twill prove true, that all that you do,
  • May be done up as nice and as brown.
  • Some linen and lint, she happened to think,
  • Might be useful, if such things you lack,
  • But whatever is done, may it never be known
  • They were applied to a wound on the back.





  • Peppers, and pepper-sauce, too, which she promised to you;
  • A sour milk cheese she pressed with much care,
  • Cookies and cup cakes, sweet, which we know can't be beat,
  • And all this is Aunt S's share.
  • Uncle B. sends some rare-ripes, fresh from the farm;
  • Take them and eat them, they'll do you no harm;
  • Some handkerchiefs from S., ’mongst the rest will be seen,
  • So please take the hint and keep your nose clean.
  • Here's one for the Union, of red, white and blue,
  • We hope to that Union, you will ever prove true,
  • And the next city or fort you may happen to take,
  • Hold it up in the air and give it a shake.
  • “May the best man win,” this motto you see,
  • Ambrose E. Burnside, of course that will be.
  • If your flag should get torn from the hand of the brave,
  • Give three cheers for the Union and let this one wave.
  • If the nights should be damp, and your blankets be thin,
  • It is large enough quite to wrap yourself in.
  • And if for clothing you happen to lack,
  • It will take the place of a shirt to your back.
  • So much for the handkerchief sent from afar,
  • Three cheers for the Union, hurrah boys, hurrah.
  • This comb and brush from Abby, selected with care,
  • To comb out the locks of your bonny brown hair;
  • Towels and soap, you know what they mean,
  • Another little hint to keep your face clean.
  • Here's butter and cheese, we hope they will please,
  • And help these nice crackers to go down with ease.
  • Balm of Gilead, balsam, and peppermint, too,
  • You know very well for what they will do.
  • Here's sugar and tea, you can make a strong dish,
  • I think ’tis not hurtful even to a Fish;
  • But don't drink it too strong, or I fear you will find
  • Yourself more of a Wide Awake, than is just to your mind.
  • Here's a cake from friend B., from Mrs. W. another,
  • Seed cookies and ginger snaps, nice from your mother;
  • While poor old Aunt E. so thoughtful and kind,
  • Made the one on which her name you will find.
  • Cayenne and black pepper, sugar plums and honey,
  • A few postage stamps, just as good as the money.
  • Here's a nice lot of apples, a rarity, too,
  • Though they are dear, you will see they are not dearer than you.





  • Peanuts from G., from L. and B. some candy,
  • A jack-knife from A. she thought ’t would come handy.
  • Oranges and lemons from J., don't despise them though small,
  • A joke-book from S., ’twill make fun for all.
  • Pens, paper, and envelopes from Betsey, you couldn't find better,
  • From S. and M. each a long letter.
  • An Almanac from S. you'll find good indeed,
  • Carefully read it, and in reading give heed.
  • Thread, needles, and buttons, good to make repairs;
  • But don't spend too much time in sowing the tares.
  • Here’ something from all except Brother Joe,
  • We couldn't get him word when the box was to go;
  • And hoping these things will reach you all right,
  • We'll only just add e're we bid you good night,
  • We hope that success all your efforts will crown,
  • And our flag will go up, while the rebel's goes down;
  • Give three cheers for Burnside, for Sprague three more,
  • Three cheers for your Captain, so thin and so poor,
  • Three cheers for Rhody's brave sons, wherever they're seen,
  • Three cheers for the Union, three cheers for Eugene.

Chaplain White, upon his return to the regiment, was also the bearer of the stand of colors from the Forty-fourth Massachusetts, which he was delegated to present to the Fifth, in behalf of the officers and men of that regiment. It was not until the afternoon of August 3d, that it was found possible to assemble all of the men, not on necessary guard duty, to formally receive them.

When all was ready, Chaplain White stepped forward and made an eloquent address, recounting incidents in the return of the Forty-fourth Massachusetts and their reception at home, saying among other things: “The name of the gallant Fifth and its noble officers and men, I am proud to tell you, has gone not only to Rhode Island, but throughout New England, and I may say throughout the whole North. Everywhere I received the most courteous attention, because of my connection with you and your service.” And then in glowing language he spoke of the genuine feeling of comradeship and gratitude which dictated the preparation and presentation of this costly and elegant testimonial to the Fifth Rhode Island, and foretold the feeling of brotherhood that in the near future would exist, not only between the men engaged in this terrible strife, but between the





different states and sections of our common country, when this war should end in a glorious peace.

Lieutenant-Colonel Tew, in behalf of the regiment, received the colors, and in terms as eloquent as those of the first speaker, thanked the donors of this most appropriate gift, and expressed the regard of
[Illustration:

Lieut. William H. Chenery.
(Formerly Sergeant Company D, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery.)

]

every officer and man in the regiment for their former comrades, the feeling of gratitude with which this banner was received, and the resolution with which it would be defended when the fortunes of war should cause it to be carried to the front of battle. The colors were then placed in charge of Color Sergeant George W. Ford, who had recently been appointed to that position.





At the conclusion of Colonel Tew's remarks the whole regiment broke forth into such cheers as our men knew how to give; three for the gallant Lee, three for the officers and men of the Forty-fourth, and nine for the splendid gift.

A letter of the date of August 4th says: “There is some sickness among us, but not more than would be expected at this season. We are waiting with open arms to kindly receive our brethren who have been invited by ‘Uncle Sam’ (drafted men) to lend us a helping hand. The kind face of Lieutenant-Colonel Tew lights up with benignity as the hour draws near for them to join us, and our Quartermaster, Lieutenant Prouty, seems almost ubiquitous as he moves to and fro securing tents, ‘hard tack,’ etc., etc., for their accommodation and comfort. Colonel Sisson is looked for daily, and when all are together again there will be an hour of general rejoicing.”

Immediately after the battle of Gettysburg a call for troops had been made, and the several states were asked to raise their quotas by draft. Those drafted were permitted to send substitutes. At once it became a lucrative business for a certain class of men to furnish these substitutes. In a short time this business grew to such dimensions that one man would make a contract to furnish the quota of a whole county for a fixed sum of bounty for each man. When this draft was ordered, Governor Smith, of Rhode Island, in a letter of July 13, 1863, asked the Secretary of War to assign 850 of the men proposed to be drafted in that State to the Fifth Rhode Island. It was the largest number of men he recommended to be assigned to any one regiment. While the regiment was still rejoicing over the stand of colors presented to them by the Forty-fourth Massachusetts, some four hundred of these men arrived in camp. The officers who came with these recruits proved valuable acquisitions to the regiment. We cannot refrain from mentioning one, who, although drafted as an enlisted man, and could have paid his exemption fee and remained at home, yet when drafted entered the service and prepared himself for the duties of a soldier. By his persistent efforts at Providence he assisted in recruiting a large number of men for the regiment, and was rewarded for his untiring exertions a few weeks later by a commission. His name I need scarcely mention to any member of





the Fifth. His musical abilities are well known, and his genial good nature and kindly assistance on all occasions when the exigency demands it is proverbial among his comrades. We refer to Lieut. Levi L. Burdon. He had previously served in the Tenth Rhode Island Infantry.

Another worthy comrade who came to us at this time deserves especial mention: Sergt. William H. Johnson. He was a drafted man but preferred to go to the front instead of paying the sum requisite to exempt him from military service. He had been a member of the First Rhode Island Detached Militia and detailed to the company of carbineers.

After the return of Colonel Sisson with the recruits before noted, the usual quiet attending purely garrison duty in the summer again descended upon our camp. About September 20th, Companies C, E and I, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Tew, were sent to garrison the forts at Hatteras Inlet. These forts had been garrisoned by two companies of “Buffaloes,” as these islanders were called. They had enlisted with the condition that they should not be ordered off the banks for active service. General Peck, in command of that district, was not aware of this conditional enlistment when he issued the order for relieving them. General Foster at once countermanded the order when he heard of General Peck's action. Captain Taft with Company I remained at Hatteras, and Company E, Captain Hopkins, and Company C, Lieutenant Pierce, were ordered to Washington, N. C. At this time the companies at New Berne were stationed as follows: Company H, Captain Landers, in Fort Stevenson. This fort was on the bank of the river above the town; Company G, Captain Robinson, and Company F, Lieutenant Gladding, were in Fort Rowan, the next in line to the southwest, with Captain Robinson in command. Major Jameson was in command of Fort Totten, with Company A, Lieutenant Durfee, Company H, Lieutenant Angell, and Company K, Captain De Meulen; Company D, Captain Moran, was in Fort Amory, across the Trent; Company B, Captain Potter, was in Fort Spinola, a strong work on the bank of the Neuse, below the mouth of the Trent. Colonel Sisson was in command of the whole line of defence on the south bank of the Neuse.





The correspondent of the Providence Journal, September 27th, thus describes the situation in camp:

“Our regimental headquarters are in a fine cottage near Fort Totten. Near it are the regimental stables, and also the commissary and quartermaster stores. In the centre of a fine orchard, at headquarters, is the regimental hospital. Our surgeon, Doctor Warren, has been sick nearly two months, but he returned to us to-day. Doctor Potter, first assistant surgeon, has charge of Forts Stevenson, Amory, and Spinola, and also Belger's battery. Second Assistant Surgeon Greene has charge of the regimental hospital and Forts Rowan and Totten. This regiment has been exceedingly fortunate in its officers, and there is great harmony and efficiency among them. So many independent commands must necessarily lift a large number of these into prominence, and full well do they bear their honors and their care. The season has been somewhat unhealthy, but the malarious weather is departing.

“The prevailing camp diseases have been fever and ague and intermittent fevers, with an occasional case of dysentery. Nearly every person connected with the regiment has been sick more or less, but these diseases are not very fatal. Since the first of July but three deaths have occurred. One died of fever brought on by over exposure, one was convalescent, and had a relapse caused by eating green fruit, which proved fatal, and one was drowned. I had heard much of the sickly season and feared much suffering, yet the reality has by no means equaled my fears. And yet at times some of the sick suffer intensely. An instance that just occurred will give you an idea of my meaning. About twelve o'clock to-day a negro servant at the house all at once began to pick up the things he was using and button up his coat, and in a few minutes he sat at the fire, gripping his hands and shivering as if freezing, while the tears ran down the poor fellow's face and he moaned piteously. One day a soldier will be bright and cheerful, and the next the spell of disease is upon him, and he writhes as if beneath the frosts of winter, or in the consuming heats of an intolerable fever. There is something most singular to me in these intermittent diseases. Persons who appear sick unto death one day seem as cheerful and well as possible the next. Nor do we, as some suppose, live a half barbarous life out here in ‘Dixie.’ Colonel Sisson found a piano somewhere, and by some means caused it to visit these headquarters. With plenty of hymn and other books of music, which Doctor Stevens of your city kindly furnished me, we get on famously in our institutions of home life, home songs and home sounds. At times we feel lonely, but still we are willing to toil on. To abide in the joys of social life and home comforts would please us, but it were nobler first to finish our work.”





Fort Totten has been mentioned so often in these pages that it may be well to attempt a brief description, for which we are indebted to Capt. James Moran. It was the largest and most important work in the line of defences around New Berne. It was situated about one mile from the town, and between the two principal roads entering the city from the west. They were known as the Trent and Neuse roads. It was a five-pointed work with bastions at four of the angles, while the salient, at the fifth one, was to the rear. The work enclosed from six to eight acres, and was surrounded with a wide and deep, but dry ditch. Each bastion mounted five guns; one at the salient, one on each face, and two as “flankers,” to sweep the ditch. It also had on the front curtain embrasures for four thirty-two-pounder howitzers. There were four eight-inch mortars in rear of the howitzer platforms. The guns were thirty-two's, with the exception of one eight-inch columbiad and one rifled thirty-two-pounder in bastion number three, and the flankers, which were thirty-two-pounder carronades on ships’ carriages, and were to throw grape or canister. Extending across almost the entire length of the fort, parallel with the front and about forty feet behind the front curtain was a high traverse. It was made of faced timbers, about forty feet long. A trench about three feet deep was traced around the space the traverse was to cover. These timbers were placed on end in this ditch, and the earth was firmly tamped around them. They were then drawn in at the top, and the whole bolted and braced together from top to bottom. At each end of this framework magazines were constructed, each one opening to the rear. Then the whole of this frame was filled with well tamped earth, which covered the magazines and made them shell and bomb-proof. The whole was surmounted with a breastwork sodded and revetted, affording a splendid place for sharpshooters in case of an attack. The rampart on the traverse was reached by stairways from the rear. This great traverse was a landmark to the country for miles around. The quarters for the garrison and the parade ground were in rear of this traverse. It was supplemented by other and smaller ones at different points to protect the several faces of the work from an enfilading or reverse fire. If properly armed and manned it could not have been taken by assault with any force the enemy could bring against it.





In October the Department of North Carolina was merged with that of Virginia, and the two became the Department of Virginia and North Carolina, with Major-General Butler in command. Many changes in the forces in the new department now occurred. The one most affecting the Fifth was the loss of Belger's Battery, which was ordered to Fort Monroe, and with it we bade adieu to the last of the organizations that had become endeared to us during our service up to this time. Upon assuming command General Butler set out on a rapid tour of inspection of the forces and posts in his department. At New Berne every person at the post had an extreme desire to see this man who had the legal acumen to solve the status of escaped slaves within our lines by declaring them contraband of war, who had the courage to hang a traitor, who had the executive ability to rule wisely and well so turbulent and hostile a city as New Orleans, and who had the nerve to quell draft riots in New York. For days he had been expected; and who can tell the story of those days of preparation, the cleaning up of streets in town, the policing done in all the camps and quarters of every arm of the service, the sweepings which were given to parade grounds and company streets, and last and not least, the cleaning of the iron guns in the forts and the polishing of the brass ones, the cleansing of uniforms and polishing of buttons, belt-plates and shoulder scales. And what man was there in all that garrison that did not feel deep down in his heart that that eye of this famous general would see, and note too, the fleck of dirt on the butt-plate of his rifle as he stood at “ordered arms?” He reached Beaufort by steamer November 19th, and inspected Fort Macon and the troops at Beaufort and Morehead City that day.

The guns of Fort Totten announced his arrival in New Berne early in the morning of the 20th. Soon after, accompanied by Major-General Peck and Brigadier-General Palmer, and the officers of their respective staffs in full uniform, he proceeded to Fort Stevenson, on the right of the line, and commenced his inspection of the defences. He rode into the fort, noted the nature of the ground around it, scanned the men as they stood in their places at the guns, facing inwards. Often he had word for the officers in command, and then he rode out and away to the next fort to do the same thing in exactly





the same way. A passing glimpse of a heavy-featured, corpulent man on a gaily-caparisoned gray horse, as he hurried by, followed by a number of officers of inferior rank, who kept getting in each other's way as they turned sharp corners in the fort, or strung out in a disorderly looking group as they scurried after him outside, is all that we saw of General Butler. And as we marched away to our quarters each one of us had a conviction that General Butler had not noticed whether our belt-plates and shoulder-scales were polished or not; nor had he asked Colonel Sisson for our name. Then we thought of the days of sweeping, scouring and cleaning, and how he galloped through it all in an hour, and was off on the evening train for the — “next,” and we felt our enthusiasm for an inspection by the major-general commanding the department slowly but surely ooze away.

Again we settled down to our routine duties. At this time our surgeon, Doctor Warren, received an honorable discharge from the service on account of continued illness. It was to date from November 7th. Assistant-Surgeon Albert Potter was commissioned as surgeon, and mustered as such Nov. 27, 1863. The recommendations asking for his promotion, from his superior officers in the medical department, as well as from his immediate superiors in the regiment, bore flattering testimony as to his worth as a skillful and faithful surgeon. Why we ever had any other surgeon was one of the things the men in the regiment could never understand.

There was no formal observance of Thanksgiving day in our camp this year. Such of the men or companies as could, made some additions to their usual rations. Company D had peafowl in lieu of turkey. At the regimental hospital the patients were more fortunate than the majority of the regiment. Hospital Steward Burlingame determined that they should have a dinner. But all of his energy could not procure the conventional turkeys. So he did the next best thing by getting a pig that when dressed weighed at least sixty pounds. This he had nicely roasted at the post bakery. A table was laid for thirty guests in one of the hospital tents, and the pig, nicely browned and standing on its feet, was the centre-piece. Around it were all of the vegetables and sauces, puddings and pies, fruit, and other things that make up a real New England Thanks-giving





dinner. It was the success of its kind in New Berne that day. Assistant-Surgeon Greene presided at the table, and every man in the hospital certified by deeds his appreciation of Steward Burlingame's labors for their comfort and pleasure.

At this time our chaplain wrote: “The regiment is in fine health and spirits. The days are pleasant, the nights are cool, and sometimes we get a light frost. I wish it were possible to say some word that would adequately and clearly express my opinion of the large majority of the non-commissioned officers and privates of this regiment, their devotion, patience and patriotism. When I see them in pain and in toil bearing up against despondency, I am astonished. I depend, not so much upon sermons, as upon social, kindly visits to the tents of the soldiers for the accomplishment of my work, and so, of course, see how things actually are.”

On the 31st of December the regiment was startled by the news of the death of Quartermaster William W. Prouty, of apoplexy. The funeral services were held in the Presbyterian Church, in New Street, January 2d. Pursuant to an order from headquarters of the regiment, the flags in all the forts were at half-mast, and all of the officers and men not on necessary guard duty attended the services in the church. He was buried with military honors at the grave. The escort was under command of First Lieutenant Angell. In an unfinished letter to his mother Lieutenant Prouty's last words were, “I want to come home.” He had gone sooner than he thought. First Lieutenant Charles E. Lawton was appointed quartermaster. Of him it was said at that time, “He is a gentleman, has been in business in Newport for twenty years, and when he was drafted he did not send a substitute nor pay three hundred dollars, but came himself. He was soon after commissioned by Governor Smith, and is now our quartermaster.”

So quiet was the life in New Berne during the autumn and first part of the winter that it seemed difficult to realize that we were actually in a state of war. The news from other fields reached us through the papers, so that the roar of the mighty struggle which raged along the Potomac and the Mississippi came to us as the murmurs of some far-off sound. Busy as they tried to keep us, some of the men found more leisure than was good for them. It was a custom to allow passes to visit the town to a certain proportion of the





men not on duty each day. Too often “commissary” would work its perfect work on those thus enjoying a day's liberty. From this failing on the part of some of the men arose the following incident, which shall be told just as our chaplain related it at the time, Jan. 26, 1864:


[Illustration:

First Sergt. Daniel Dove.
]

“Our mess was greatly interested when the following letter was received by Colonel Sisson. When letters of general interest are received the adjutant reads them for the benefit of the company. As a specimen I send you the following from one of the boys who had remained down town a little too long, and the provost guard had arrested him. He was, evidently, one of our new recruits of foreign birth and limited knowledge of the English language:





Craven Street Jail, New Berne, N. C.

To the most illustrious warrior of the noble and patriotic State of Rhode Island, Colonel Sisson, commanding the Fifth Regiment Rhode Island Artillery:

We, the undersigned, member of the celebrated regiment which has the honor to be commanded by you;

We address you for the purpose of informing you that we are held in durance vile on the base charge of desertion. But, noble sir, I do assure you that in reality it is no more than mere absence without leave. What makes the charge more disgusting to me is the imputation of flying in so disgraceful a manner from under the command of so noble a warrior as you are well known to be. Sir, if you could make it convenient to call at this place for a few moments, I hope I can convince you that my conduct has in no manner merited the vile stigma attempted to be attached to it. Hoping that your illustrious highness will grant the request mentioned in this, by so doing you will confer eternal obligation on your humble and devoted admirer and fellow patriot.

—— ——

Company ——, Fifth Reg't R. I. A.

We all voted that the colonel could do no less than see his “fellow patriot.”

At this time our chaplain speaks of his work in the regiment in these terms:

“God is with us in our work. Save the daily service at dress parade in Fort Totten and the two services per week in the hospital, our religious work is chiefly done in a kind of pastoral labor. It is my custom to visit each tent where our men are stationed, in the six forts around New Berne, every week. It takes from two to three days every week to do this work. In sermons it is more difficult to get at soldiers, but go into the tent and talk with them and they will open their hearts to you. Some of the most interesting moments in my life have been in the tents with the soldiers, talking of Jesus Christ. Let those who think all soldiers are given to evil and wrong remember that in fact there are good men all among the camps, and that the God of all Mercy is not far from us, our duties and trials, our sufferings and our dangers. In all of the fields of labor where I have been I have never felt more entirely satisfied that I am doing God's work and God's will than here. I have no reason to suppose that a single officer or soldier in the regiment tries to hinder me in my work. Nor is my duty simply a work of faith. I see tokens of good.”










[Illustration:

Map of Department No. Carolina. Arranged by Tristram Griffin Architect.
]













CHAPTER XII. THE SECOND ATTACK OF THE REBELS ON NEW BERNE.

IN August, 1863, the rebel army in Virginia had taken up the position near Louisa Court House and Culpepper, Va., which it substantially occupied until the opening of the campaign of the Wilderness, in May, 1864. Early in September, 1863, General Longstreet, of that army, was sent with two divisions of his corps, Hood's and Kershaw's, to reinforce General Bragg. It was the arrival of these troops that made it possible for the rebels to attack General Rosecrans at Chickamanga. The other division of Long-street's corps, Pickett's, or what there was left of it after its famous charge at Gettysburg, was withdrawn from the rebel army and sent south of the James, to rest and recruit its depleted ranks. When winter set in, and it was certain that active operations in Virginia were over for that season, this division, under its able and dashing commander, was sent into North Carolina to find subsistence for itself and collect supplies and conscripts for the rebel army. The rebel authorities took advantage of the presence of this force in North Carolina to attempt another movement on New Berne, and with all the more chance of success now that General Foster had been transferred to another department, and our forces had been weakened by an unusually sickly summer and autumn, together with the withdrawal to other fields of every man who could be spared. The plans of the enemy were carefully and skilfully made, and as carefully concealed. In New Berne rumors of contemplated rebel movements were plentiful enough, but their only effect was to cause increased vigilance at the various outposts. At this time the One Hundred and Thirty-second New York regiment was stationed at





Batchelder's Creek, while the Twelfth New York Cavalry picketed and scouted through the country west of the city along the Trent River. At this time, January, 1864, the aggregate force of all arms at New Berne was less than five thousand men.

Such was the state of affairs when, at five o'clock Monday morning, Feb. 1, 1864, the long roll was beaten, and officers and men hastily turned out to hear the sounds of desperate fighting at Batchelder's Creek and the stations along the Trent. The threatened attack on New Berne was being made, under circumstances more favorable to the rebel arms than ever before. Such reinforcements as could be spared from the scanty force in the city were hurried forward to the reserve posts, only to find themselves in the presence of large forces of the enemy, and, struggle as they might, they were soon borne from the field by the mere weight of overwhelming numbers. They had either to retire on New Berne or be captured. At Batchelder's Creek the One Hundred and Thirty-second New York, under Colonel Classon, made a brave and determined stand, but were compelled to retreat, after losing heavily in officers and men. They destroyed their camp and brought their iron-clad car, the Monitor, in with them. The fighting at Deep Gully and other stations was proportionately severe, and attended with the same results. The enemy followed our retiring men until they were under the cover of the guns of our works. By the middle of the afternoon the situation in New Berne was gloomy enough. Everything moveable, cavalry, artillery, infantry, contrabands and stores, were within the line of defences. Detailed men and convalescents were hurried to their respective companies, the fire companies were ordered out and armed, and all able-bodied civilians, white and black, were soon added to the forces in the works. The gunboats were now moved into position in both the Trent and Neuse rivers, so as to assist the forts in repelling an assault.

Night came on, and our outer picket line was established within hailing distance of the works. General Palmer made the very best disposition possible of his meagre force. His line was six miles long. He had but eight hundred men for each mile, and no one could tell the point in this line on which the attack would fall.





At this time the Fifth was distributed in the forts as follows: Fort Totten had two companies, D and I, and also two companies of the Second Massachusetts Heavy Artillery. The fort was in command of Major Oliver, of that regiment, while Captain Moran was in command of bastion number three, and Captain Taft, of Company I, had charge of bastion number two. Fort Rowan had Company F, Lieut C. F. Gladding. Fort Stevenson had Company H, Capt. H. B. Landers. Fort Spinola, south of the Trent, had Company B, Capt. I. M. Potter. Fort Amory had Company G, Captain Robinson, and Fort Gaston, Company K, Captain De Meulin. Companies C, Lieutenant Pierce, and E, Captain Hopkins, were still at “Little” Washington. Company A, Lieut. Dutee Johnston, Jr., was at Croatan Station, some twelve miles out, on the railroad towards Beaufort. Colonel Sisson was in command of all the forts, and our men were to man and work the guns. Careful instructions were given to the pickets; the guns in the forts that would bear on an attacking force were shotted and trained, and the officers and men were at their posts.

Time was now taken to ascertain the losses of the morning. Colonel Classon, of the One Hundred and Thirty-second New York, had been compelled to retreat, with the loss of his quartermaster shot dead, two officers mortally wounded, and a total of seventy enlisted men killed, wounded and missing. He had also lost two guns of Angell's New York Battery. The Twelfth New York Cavalry had burned their camp and stores before leaving it. The Seventeenth Massachusetts was reported to have lost six officers and sixty-five men out of thirteen officers and 115 men, while the lieutenant-colonel, J. P. Fellows, was missing. The utmost care was taken to have the men in the best possible condition for the attack, which was now expected would be made not later than just before dawn in the morning. Hot coffee was served to all of the men in the forts at least once during the night.

In addition to the anxiety caused by the situation in New Berne, every one in the Fifth feared that the worst had befallen Lieutenant Johnson and Company A. Up to this time it had been the good fortune of the Fifth to meet every emergency with coolness and courage. Indeed, the reputation of the regiment for bravery and steadiness





was second to that of no organization in the department. Every one knew that the company and its commander would give a good account of themselves. They occupied a small earthwork armed with two six-pounder brass guns, To the great relief of all, Lieutenant Johnson marched into New Berne during the night. When nearly surrounded he had collected some two hundred and fifty contrabands, spiked his guns, and made his way safely along the Neuse River road to our lines without loss.

Morning dawned, and the expected attack had not been made, About nine A. M. a battalion of the Twelfth Regiment New York Cavalry moved out on the Trent road about one mile, and when near a piece of woods deployed a line of skirmishers. They had no sooner advanced this line than it received a severe fire from a large force of the enemy in the wood. One man was killed and a number were wounded. It took the cavalry but little time to learn that the enemy were still in strong force in our front, and they returned within our lines. The body of the dead soldier was brought in across the saddle of one of his fellow troopers. This occurred within sight of Fort Totten. It was learned that the force of the rebels engaged in this attack on New Berne was composed of Pickett's division, from Lee's army, Hoke's brigade, from Wilmington, N. C., and Clingman's and Cobb's brigades, that had so long been stationed at Kinston and Goldsboro. The exact number of this force was not known, as many must have been away on furlough at this time, but it could not have been less than fourteen to fifteen thousand of all arms. There were not less than three batteries. Owing to our very small force, nothing could be done but to wait until the enemy developed their plans; and so we passed the long, depressing day.

Night came again to the wearied men in New Berne, only to increase their anxiety. “What will the rebels do next?” was the query in every mind. That they had some enterprise in hand was deemed certain, for they had as yet made no open demonstration against the town since the return of the cavalry reconnoisance in the morning. Preparations were made to pass the night in the same manner as the last one. As many men as could be spared at one time were permitted to take a short sleep. They were then aroused to relieve their comrades on post at the guns, who took their rest in turn,





while hot coffee was again served as before. About one o'clock a general alarm was made along the whole front. In some cases the pickets retired hastily to our works and reported the enemy advancing. The cause of this alarm was soon known throughout our lines.


[Illustration:

Musician George W. Hoxie.
]

The enemy had brought a complete gunboat's crew of two hundred and sixty men and a number of barges to Kinston by rail, where the boats were placed in the Neuse. The plan of using them was well conceived and came near being successful, as will be seen. These men were to drop down the river as near as possible to New Berne, and wait until about midnight. They were then, under cover of the





usual fog that settles at night on the rivers in this section in the winter, to silently approach one of our gunboats in the river above the town, board and capture her. Then they were to man her and open fire from the rear on the forts and breastworks defending the city. In the confusion that would ensue, Pickett's columns were to sweep forward to the assault, carry the works, and New Berne would be their's again.

On Monday morning the Underwriter, one of the smallest but most useful of our gunboats, had been ordered to a point in the Neuse, just below Fort Stevenson, where she dropped anchor, beat to quarters, and trained her guns so as to sweep the plain in front of our works, at the same time cross-firing with the guns of the forts on any attacking force. About dusk the gig of the gunboat was sent up the river to see if any movement was being made by the enemy, and at the same time to try to communicate with some of our pickets at Batchelder's Creek, which had been cut off the day before. It seems that while this boat was running up the channel south of Fleache's Island, the rebel boats were coming down the channel on the north side, and they thus passed each other in the darkness. One of the Underwriter's officers, after his exchange, gave this description of the fight that ensued: “Two o'clock, Tuesday morning, the lookout forward saw the bow of a boat coming out of the heavy fog which had settled on the river, and hailed her. Receiving no answer, he fired, killing the man in the bow, although he believed it was our boat returning, yet the rule was, ‘obey orders if you break owners.’ Immediately after the shot was fired some dozen boats shot out from under cover of the fog, at a distance of only fifty yards, and, dividing into two divisions, attempted to board us fore and aft. The alarm was quickly given by the officer of the deck. The crew rushed promptly to their stations and obstinately disputed the rebels in their attempt to board. At last they were compelled to give way, overpowered and outnumbered four to one. I am unable to give the exact number of our loss. It was not far from twenty. The captain was killed in the first part of the action, and two of our officers severely wounded. The heavy fog enabled them to come so near that we could not use our nine-inch ‘barkers,’ which would have turned the tide in our favor.”





The rebel crew went at once to their quarters; some to the fire-room to get up steam, some to the engine-room, and others to the guns. It is stated that they paid out the anchor cable to let her drop down the stream, so that if discovered the guns of Fort Stevenson would not be able to get her range before they got up steam enough to give her steerage way, and she swung in shore and went aground. During the struggle on her decks one of the crew jumped into the river, swam ashore, made his way into Fort Stevenson, and informed the commanding officer, Captain Landers, of Company H, the cause of the conflict he had heard on the Underwriter. He at once trained one of his largest guns on the boat and sent three shells into her. The enemy, finding that she was hard aground, that they had been discovered and were being raked by the shell from Fort Stevenson, set her on fire and took to their boats, leaving their own as well as our wounded, and escaped in the fog and darkness. At four o'clock the fire reached her magazine, and she blew up. All of the wounded left by the retreating enemy were either drowned or killed in the explosion. Captain Landers, in speaking of this short and exciting struggle said: “It seemed hard to fire into her when our wounded were groaning and crying for help, but it was my duty to shell the rebels out, and burn and sink her.” He did all three.

The rebel commander made this official report: “The force under my command boarded and captured last night the United States gunboat Underwriter, four guns and ninety men and officers. Her position, within musket range of several strong works, one of which was raking the vessel during the time we had possession of her, and her not having steam up, caused me to burn her. Our loss is twenty killed and wounded and four missing. The enemy's unknown.”

After the exciting events of the night, the morning of the third day dawned upon the weary men in the forts and breastworks, bringing to each one the confident expectation that this would surely be the decisive day. But there was no more apparent activity among the enemy they knew to be in their front than on the day before. Nothing occurred save a few exciting incidents here and there. Two of these will show the skill the Fifth had already attained in the use of heavy guns. Major Oliver, in command of Fort Totten, was general field officer of the day. About noon he came in from his morning





round and told Captain Moran that there was a rebel picket post of infantry out on the railroad, and he asked the captain if he could not stir it up a little. They estimated the distance to be one and one-half miles from Fort Totten. They went to the rifled thirty-two and found the gun squad just taking their dinner. Captain Moran withdrew the charge of shrapnel, cut the fuse of a shell to that distance, loaded and elevated the gun and discharged it. They watched the flight of the shell as it arose high in the air, and Major Oliver insisted that the elevation was too great, that the shell would go far beyond, and they left the bastion. It was learned afterward that the shell did drop, “by chance,” Captain Moran says, among the squad of rebels, killing three and wounding others. Just at evening the men of Company D had a chance to use their “pet,” the eight-inch columbiad. About sundown a rebel officer rode out of the woods on the Neuse road toward Fort Totten. He walked his horse at a slow pace, and his manner seemed to indicate that he was examining our works. “He was watched closely, and it was determined to give him a salute if he came much further. The columbiad was trained on a point in the road that was known to be 800 yards from the fort, and a shell primed for that distance was placed in the gun. By the time he had reached that point the gun was fired. It was a pretty shot. The shell exploded ten or twelve feet from the ground, right in front of the horseman. A moment after the flash of the explosion we saw the riderless horse scampering up the road until it was out of sight in the gathering darkness.” During the day the enemy appeared in some force in front of Fort Spinola, below the Trent, and Captain Potter opened on them. They soon sought the shelter of the woods beyond the range of our guns. Captain De Meulen, in Fort Gaston, had a similar experience.

Again preparations were made to pass another night under arms, and quiet settled down upon both friend and foe. Nothing occurred to attract attention until about eight o'clock, when a rebel band, which had been brought well down on the railroad, began to play “Bonnie Blue Flag,” and followed it with other tunes. Colonel Sisson said, “Well, well, if they serenade us by day with shell, and with music at night, we must not be outdone in gallantry.” So the fine band of the Second Massachusetts Heavy Artillery was brought





out to the top of the great traverse in Fort Totten, when it replied with “Rally Round the Flag,” and other patriotic airs. Just as the rebel band commenced “Dixie” in their best style, Lieutenant Gladding, commanding Company F in Fort Rowan, thought the serenade would not be complete unless he joined in with some music of his own. He had been busy preparing for it in the meantime by loading and training his “pet,” the one hundred-pounder Parrot, on the spot where he thought the rebel band was stationed. When the strains of “Dixie” reached him he fired, and with the explosion of the shell, the rebel tune stopped short, never to go again in front of New Berne. All this time the general feeling was that some movement was going on among the rebels, and all were alert to prevent a surprise at any point in our line of defence. When morning came the mystery was soon solved. The enemy had retreated from all points in our front. With the failure of the attack on our gunboats vanished their hopes of making a successful assault on our works. As soon as it was ascertained that the enemy had retired, Lieutenant Dutee Johnson, Jr., with Company A and a monitor car, started down the railroad for Croaton Station. He found a company of rebel cavalry there, shelled them out, and again took possession of the little earthwork, and before night was “at home” again.

General Pickett reported his loss at thirty-five killed and wounded. He claimed that he captured two guns, two stands of colors, thirteen officers and 280 men.

The officer of the Underwriter, whom we have before quoted, says: “In conversation with some of the Confederate naval officers, I was told that they had been watching us for several days, and intended to capture the two other boats lying off the navy yard. Coming down the river, they lost their way in the fog, and finding only our boat, concluded to turn their whole force on us, and, after capturing our boat, to run down and attack the other two. Their force numbered 260 picked men from Charleston, Wilmington and Richmond. Our force numbered sixty all told. A large number of the crew were ashore in the hospital, sick with the fever and ague. A detail had been sent to Plymouth, N. C., to join the surveying party. These facts account for the small number aboard at the time of the attack. Fort Stevenson opening on them caused confusion in the rebel guard,





and many of our men, taking advantage of it, rolled overboard with their hands tied behind them. Only sixteen men were taken to Richmond. Thirteen of these men died in Andersonville.” This officer also learned that the actual loss of the rebels in this attack on the Underwriter was thirty-four killed, wounded, and missing, including the executive officer, Midshipman Saunders.

Our total loss on land did not exceed three hundred. About three hundred deserters and stragglers from the rebel army came into our lines or were picked up by our scouting parties. “If they came to take the place, they showed a want of pluck in retiring without an attack. If they only meant to harrass us, they made a great deal of cry for a very little wool.”

One morning this incident gave variety to the excitement of the virtual siege we were enduring. It took place in the presence of a large number of spectators. A slender young fellow, apparently a recruit of the Second Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, was conducting a burly prisoner from the guard-house to the space in front of Fort Totten for some camp purpose. So much of a ruffian was this prisoner that he was handcuffed and had a ball and chain. When well outside the fort he broke his handcuffs and fetters, which he had previously filed nearly through for this enterprise, and, drawing a large knife, he bolted towards the woods. To the surprise of all, the slender guard threw away his rifle and followed with fine racing speed, rapidly gaining at every stride. Seeing that he was being overhauled, the big ruffian halted and brandished his terrible knife. Scarcely slacking his speed, the little fellow rushed in and landed one of his feet in the big man's stomach, and down he went in a heap. Another skillful kick knocked the knife from his hand. This the guard secured, and, when his man had recovered consciousness, he asked him if he wanted any more. The ruffian said he didn't. His guard, knife in hand, marched him back, recovered his rifle, and then took him to the guard-house. When asked why he threw away his rifle while in pursuit of his man, he said, “Why, I had been told that if a prisoner escaped while in my charge, I would be put in his place. I didn't know how to use the gun, and I did know that I could outrun and whip the fellow.” The slender young man was a noted runner and general athlete from Boston, and his kick was the well known French blow with the foot.





Surgeon Potter was appointed examining surgeon of recruits for the department, February 10th. Under this order he had to examine all of the negro recruits who enlisted in the various regiments of colored troops. This was in addition to his other duties. On the 14th Doctor Monroe came out with a commission as assistant-surgeon
[Illustration:

Commissary Sergt. Joseph P. Sisson.
]

in the Fifth. As the regiment had less than the minimum number of men, he could not be mustered into the service. He remained in the department for some time as a “contract surgeon” in one of the general hospitals. About the same time Major Jameson received authority to recruit a regiment of colored troops, under the general regulations of the war department providing for the enlistment of men in such organizations. Adjt. J. M. Wheaton and a number





of non-commisioned officers of our regiment were detached to assist him. Lieut. Frank Gladding was then made adjutant of the regiment.

At this time there seemed to be a sort of an epidemic desire throughout the whole department for commissions in colored regiments. Headquarters was fairly besieged with applicants who desired to go before General Silas Casey's examining board. Captains wanted to become field officers. Lieutenants wanted companies, and non-commissioned officers were anxious to exchange their shoulder scales for shoulder straps. This desire was very strong in our regiment, and many of our best qualified and most ambitious sergeants and corporals obtained the coveted commissions.

Among those who successfully passed the rigid examination of the military board and received promotion were:

Sergt.-Major Joseph G. Hatlinger promoted to first lieutenant in Second North Carolina Volunteers (Colored), July 17, 1863.

Sergt. C. Henry Barney, Company A, promoted to first lieutenant Company F, Fourteenth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Dec. 2, 1863.*

[note]



Sergt. William H. Chenery, Company D, promoted to first lieutenant Company F, Fourteenth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Dec. 21, 1863.

First Sergt. Herbert D. Leavitt, Company H, promoted to second lieutenant Company E, Fourteenth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Dec. 22, 1863.

Sergt. Robert S. Gaskill, Company D, promoted to first lieutenant Company H, Fourteenth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Dec. 31, 1863.

First Sergt. William F. Tansey, Company C, promoted to first lieutenant Company K, Fourteenth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, March 15, 1864.

Sergt. Allen F. Cameron, Company A, promoted to first lieutenant Company I, Fourteenth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, June 25, 1864.

Sergt. Oscar R. Livingstone, Company B, promoted to captain Company K, Fourteenth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, July 29, 1864.

Corp. Thomas P. Mahar, Company F, promoted to lieutenant in First North Carolina Heavy Artillery (Colored), Aug. 25, 1864.





Corp. James B. Babbitt, Company F, promoted to second lieutenant in First North Carolina Heavy Artillery, Jan. 11, 1865.

Private John H. Rhodes, Company E, promoted to second lieutenant in Third North Carolina Volunteers.

Private James D. Crolley, Company C, promoted to lieutenant in First North Carolina Volunteers.

With the exception of the usual rumors of a rebel attack on this place and a rebel movement on that one, the quiet of our garrison life remained almost unbroken until well toward the middle of March. Then our camp-fire talk was not so much about martial as marital affairs. Our colonel, and his usual straightforward and energetic way of doing things, was the subject of it. This was the reason and also the record of the affair: On the 14th of December, 1863, he was introduced to Miss Nettie Walworth, of Elmira, New York. On the 14th of February, 1864, he was engaged to her. On the 14th of March he married her. The ceremony took place at the residence of the bride's uncle, Mr. Mallory, in the presence of the field and staff of our regiment and some officers from other organizations. Chaplain White was the officiating clergyman, and Adjt. Frank Gladding and the young daughter of the host “stood up” with the bride and groom. The next evening they had a house warming, attended by the officers of our regiment and many others. Mrs. Sisson was soon well known in our regimental hospital, where her pleasant face and kind manner soon endeared her to all, and many were the delicacies that found their way through her instrumentality from the colonel's bountiful table to the bedside of the patients there.

Soon after this our surgeon paid a well deserved tribute to one of those hard working, but seldom mentioned men, the non-commissioned staff. He wrote:

“Hospital Steward Burlingame is at work on a hospital garden, from which to supply the regimental hospital with fresh vegetables this summer. He is invaluable in the hospital, keeping everything in good order, and he does not need to be told every minute what to do. I should feel very sorry to lose him, but still I hope he will get a commission some of these days. He certainly is worthy of one.”





Once more it became apparent that the rebels would repeat their campaign in North Carolina of March and April, 1863. After their failure at New Berne that year, they made their descent on Little Washington. That they intended an attack on some other important post seemed as certain now as then. At last information from within the rebel lines indicated that Plymouth, on the Roanoke River, would next be called upon to face the coming storm. That the enemy had built a strong iron-clad in the Roanoke, above Plymouth, was well known, and that it was intended to make a joint attack by river and land, was equally certain. Six gunboats were in the river, and a brigade of veteran troops manned the defences of the town, which was under the command of Brigadier-General Wessells, who was well known as one of our bravest and best fighting generals. Every precaution was taken to guard against the descent of the rebel ram Albemarle.

Sunday, April 17th, the land attack began, and it seemed only fun to our men. But at three o'clock Monday morning the ram suddenly made her appearance, crushing one of our wooden gunboats as a strong man would an egg shell. The heaviest solid shot made no impression on her iron sides. There was not room enough in the river for our boats to manœuvre and keep out of her way. Lieutenant-Commander Flusser ran alongside with one of the gunboats and tried to get a shell down her smoke-stack. Failing in this, he tried to fire a shell through one of her port-holes. The gun was fired when the ram was not more than two yards distant. The shell struck the side of the ram, was exploded by the concussion, and a piece of it flew back, striking and instantly killing Commander Flusser. The shell made no impression on the ram. The gunboats now had to get out of the narrow river or be destroyed one after another, so they retired to Albemarle Sound and blockaded the mouth of the Roanoke.* This formidable ram, with her heavy armament, made the defences of Plymouth untenable, and, on Wednesday, April 20th, General Wessels surrendered.

[note]



The appearance of the Albemarle created a panic in North Carolina as great in proportion as that caused by the appearance of the Merrimac in Hampton Roads in the spring of 1862. At this time the department had been almost denuded of troops to strengthen the Eighteenth Army Corps, which was now rendevouzed at Fortress Monroe, preparatory to a movement against Richmond by the Army of the James, under General Butler. It was feared that this ram would clear the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds of our fleet and blockade all of our land forces.

The nature of the attack was speedily known in New Berne, for on the night of the 20th, General Palmer and Colonel Sisson roused Captains Moran, of Company D, and Taft, Company I, after they had retired for the night, and explained to them the situation. It was feared that the ram Albemarle might attack and reduce the forts at Hatteras Inlet. They were ordered to get their companies ready to embark as soon as possible. In about an hour they were on the transport Pawtuxent and on their way to Hatteras, which they reached the next morning. Captain Moran was in command of the detachment and was instructed to take command of the post at Hattaras on his arrival there. It was garrisoned already by two companies of the First North Carolina Volunteers (white). He found the armament of the forts in very poor condition to withstand a vigorous attack. The men of the Fifth knew their business at this time. They relaid platforms and repaired gun carriages, moved the gun that would be of most use in case of an attack from the ram, a one hundred-pounder Parrott, to a new and better position, and, repairing the carriage, remounted it, also repaired the carriage of the eleveninch Columbiad which was unserviceable for a considerable time prior to this, and the second day after their arrival were ready for the rebel ram, or the rebel army for that matter. But our wooden gunboats had taught the Albemarle a most wholesome lesson when she attempted to leave the Roanoke, and she returned to Plymouth, there to remain until the daring Cushing put an end to her existence as a war vessel. On the 30th, Captain Moran was ordered to report with his detachment to the officer in command at Roanoke Island. He left Hatteras, May 1st, but did not reach the island until May 2d, owing to a defect in the machinery of the transport, the Pilot Boy.





Captain Moran, with Company D, went to Fort Foster, and Captain Taft, with Company I to Fort Parke, on the north end of the island.

The ram Albemarle, though she had retired from before our fleet of wooden gunboats, was still feared, and in order to prevent the loss of another post under circumstances similar to that of Plymouth, it was decided to evacuate Washington and concentrate all the troops in that vicinity in New Berne.

It will be remembered that in the preceding autumn Companies E, Captain Hopkins, and C, Lieutenant Pierce, had been sent from Hatteras Inlet to Washington, and that Capt. William W. Douglas, of Company C, was in Rhode Island on recruiting service at the time. Soon after these companies reached Washington, E was sent to Rodman's Point, and C to Hill's Point. They passed the winter at these posts doing the usual picket, guard and camp duties, and suffering severely from intermittent and other malarial fevers. Often the sick list was so great that there was not enough men “for duty” to supply the detail for picket and camp guards.

Nothing of interest occurred in the vicinity of Washington during the winter. At Hill's Point there were two companies of the Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania, the regiment so well known to every one in the Fifth while it was stationed at Batchelder's Creek, and also Company C. Capt. Cecil Clay, of the Fifty-eighth, commanded the post. He was of the Kentucky Clays, and a grandnephew of Henry Clay. Some time after Captain Douglas had rejoined his company word was brought to the post that a rebel detachment was at work in the country between the Neuse and Pamlico Rivers, impressing conscripts for the rebel army in Virginia. Captains Clay and Douglas determined to bring this detachment in. They made a detail of about fifty picked men from the three companies, and started from the post just before night. Marching all night, they reached the place where they had been informed the rebel detachment would pass on its man hunting expedition. Here they placed the men in ambush and remained all day, lying flat on the ground, and not even speaking to one another. They were cold and stiff enough when night came.

Towards night they learned that the rebels had stopped at a house not far away. They surrounded the house and broke in the door, only to find it competely deserted. After searching for information,





they at length learned that this much desired rebel band was in a small school-house, situated in an open field not far distant. The school-house was then surrounded. At the word the door was forced, and the men rushed in upon the sleeping rebels. They were told that if they fired a shot all would be killed, so they commenced destroying their carbines and shot-guns by striking the stocks on the floor. There were fifteen men under the command of a lieutenant in this press-gang thus happily captured without firing a shot.

From this time on one day was but the repetition of another until the siege and loss of Plymouth caused a ripple of excitement. When it was decided to evacuate Washington, the men at Rodman's and Hill's Points were ordered to that town. This was about April 28th. For two days Companies C and E were employed in dismounting the guns and removing the stores. On the 30th the order for evacuation was given. All reports that our troops destroyed large amounts of supplies and ammunition are false. Not even a shell was left behind. Everything worth moving was taken away. The fires that burned the barracks and many houses in the town were not set by Union troops. No enemy had appeared in the vicinity and all the labor attending such an evacuation was done in the most deliberate manner. The troops embarked on the 30th, the gunboats were withdrawn, and Companies C and E reached New Berne the next day.





CHAPTER XIII. CAPTURE OF COMPANY A AT CROATAN. Andersonville and Florence.

WITH the opening of the campaign in Virginia the enemy hurried every man that could possibly be spared from North Carolina to Richmond to oppose the Army of the James, which was at that time assembled at Fortress Monroe, and threatening to advance on Richmond by the way of James River. To cover this movement of troops from North Carolina, the ram Albemarle came out of the Roanoke into the sound May 5th. After a long and desperate engagement, during which two of our gunboats tried to sink her by ramming, she retired just at night up the Roanoke. She never came out again. In coöperation with this movement of the Albemarle, a large force of rebel cavalry, estimated at one brigade, with two batteries, made a raid on New Berne. They first appeared and attacked our pickets at Batchelder's Creek and Rocky Run, Wednesday afternoon, May 4th, but only succeeded in driving our outposts in on the reserves. Thursday morning they attacked the pickets at Evans's Mills, on Bryce's Creek, south of the Trent, and there they forced their way across. They then moved down the railroad toward Croatan Station, where they attacked Company A, of our regiment, and, after a gallant resistance, it was compelled to surrender.

Thursday afternoon they turned their steps back towards New Berne, and came up to within range of Fort Spinola, which at that time was garrisoned by Company B, Capt. I. M. Potter commanding. The gunboats, Fort Spinola, and the iron-clad car Monitor opened on them, and they replied with a few shells, and then retired beyond the range of our guns. Friday morning they sent in a flag





with a demand for the surrender of New Berne before sunset. They modestly stated their force to be three brigades of infantry, besides cavalry and artillery. Captain Potter went out to receive the flag, as he thought the picket might say something which would be improper in regard to the garrison or its defences. The officer in
[Illustration:

Col. Isaac M. Potter.
]

charge of the flag talked in a very boastful manner, at the same time the retreating rebel column was ten miles away. General Palmer advised them to depart, as he proposed to fire in that direction in half an hour, and some of them might get hurt. He also said that he was placed there to hold New Berne, and he should do so to the best of his ability. It afterwards transpired that they had been





recalled to Virginia, and the demand for the surrender of New Berne was only a ruse to gain time to get their trains away without molestation.

In giving an account of the capture of Company A,* which was the only disaster that ever befell the Fifth, we will first give the official report of Colonel Sisson, and follow it with the narrative of Chaplain White, which tells us of the fight and surrender at Croatan, and the incidents of the march of the company as prisoners to Kinston. This will be supplemented with the narrative of S. B. Hiscox, of Company A, one of the few who survived Andersonville.

Headquartets Fifth Regiment R. I. Artillery, New Berne, N. C., May 8, 1864.

General: I have the honor to report the capture by the enemy of a portion of my regiment, and submit the following particulars in relation thereto:

During several months Company A has been stationed at Croatan, N. C. This place is situated on the line of the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad, twelve miles from New Berne, and half a mile east of Bryce's Creek, and six miles from Havelock, going south. Croaton is an isolated place, and exceedingly difficult of access except by railroad, and has been held since the capture of New Berne simply to prevent guerrillas from tearing up the track and cutting the telegraph wire.

About seven o'clock on the morning of the 5th instant, the enemy in considerable force appeared at Croatan, having effected the crossing of Bryce's Creek at a point above the pickets of the company. Arriving at the “station,” they immediately surrounded our men, preparatory to an attack, and to prevent the possibility of any escaping. Captain Aigan collected his men and threw his entire command into the fort at that place, which had one small gun, a six-pounder howitzer, and opened a vigorous fire on the enemy. A desperate fight ensued, lasting over an hour and a half, when the enemy demanded an unconditional surrender. This was refused by Captain Aigan. Subsequently, however, seeing that he could maintain his position but a short time, he agreed to a conditional surrender, the terms of which I have been unable to ascertain. The citizens of Croatan affirm that the enemy freely acknowledged that our men fought with great gallantry.

[note]



Fortunately not one of Captain Aigan's command was killed, and but one was wounded. The loss of the enemy was not known. Chaplain White's horse was found dead in the ditch where it was shot. The men were allowed, as part of the terms of surrender, to take two suits of clothing each, which will be of great service to them while prisoners of war.

About a week prior to their capture they received four months’ pay from the government. Nearly one-third of the company had re-enlisted as veterans, and had received the first instalment of bounty, advance pay, etc.

It is a source of satisfaction to know that the men of the Fifth Regiment who participated in this affair fought bravely and well, and did all that men could do against such unequal numbers.

I am, sir, with respect, your obedient servant, Henry T. Sisson, Colonel Comd'g Fifth Reg't R. I. Artillery.

Brig.-General E. C. Mauran, Adjutant-General State of R. I.

One corporal and three men on picket below the point where the enemy crossed escaped and made their way to New Berne.

Chaplain White's narrative is as follows:

“On the afternoon of May 4th I received permission to visit Captain Aigan and Company A, at Croatan Station, a small fort on the railroad, eleven miles east of New Berne. In the performance of my duties as chaplain, I had usually visited this company by going on the cars, but this time I thought I would take my horse and visit also an old friend who was working a plantation a few miles below. I reached Croatan about four P. M., and found the captain, lieutenant, and company well. Everything seemed quiet, and there were no rumors of an enemy near. As was my weekly custom, I visited the tents of all the men, distributing newspapers and tracts and conversing with them. Lieutenant Durfee joined me in an evening ride, and we went over to see my friend, a few miles away, on the banks of the Neuse River. After supper we returned, reaching the fort just after dark. I spent the night with Captain Aigan, Lieutenant Durfee kindly compelling me to occupy his bed, while he slept on a blanket on the floor. Early in the morning Captain Aigan was up, and before I had arisen I heard the voice of an excited negro woman, who, near the fort, was telling the soldiers about the rebels, who, she





said, were near her house, and were cutting out the blockade of trees that our men had felled across the road to prevent the enemy from coming in upon the railroad at that point. Soon another negro came with substantially the same story. Captain Aigan judged the negroes to have become needlessly alarmed, or, if persons were cutting out the blockade, he thought it might be the negroes who had been permitted to make turpentine beyond the road, and were opening it to get it out.

“Captain Aigan sat but a few moments at breakfast, and just as he came out another negro came in, giving more definite statements. Sergeant Kennedy, with ten or twelve men, was sent out at once to reconnoitre the position, while Captain Aigan mounted his horse and went on another road on the left toward his own pickets to see if there was any real cause of alarm. He proceeded nearly a mile, when he suddenly found himself surrounded by some twenty rebels, but as they desired to capture him they did not fire. Wheeling suddenly, he put spurs to his horse and escaped to the fort. The tents were at once struck, water and what rations were on hand were taken into the fort, the drawbridge was taken up, the magazine opened, ammunition distributed, and every preparation made for action. While this was going on, Sergeant Kennedy and his men came in and reported the enemy advancing. The horse belonging to the fort and mine were taken to the rear of the fort and fastened in an old rifle-pit, where we supposed they would be safe. Skirmishing commenced between seven and eight o'clock, and not far from nine o'clock the enemy's cavalry appeared nearly a mile distant, coming upon the railroad between us and New Berne. They seemed to come rapidly, without fear, and in considerable force. As the column were in fair view, Captain Aigan ordered a shell to be thrown from the six-pounder brass piece, which was the only defence of the fort except the muskets of the men. The fort was a small earthwork, and not intended to be held against a large force. When the enemy advanced on New Berne last February, this work was evacuated by order, but as Captain Aigan had no orders he had no alternative but to stay and meet what might come. The shell from our gun struck about four feet from the horse of the captain, and, passing into the column, cut off a horse's head.





“The column was at once halted and seemed thrown into considerable confusion, as it filed into the woods on our left. A rapid fire was kept up on them until they disappeared in the woods. In a conversation with Captain Martin, whose troop was in advance, he told me that he had never before been under such close and accurate shelling. Captain Again had sent out a man, who had been in the cavalry service, to reconnoitre, and who reported them dismounting and apparently preparing for an assault. Soon a sharp fire was opened upon us from the woods, near a house on the right of the railroad. Not long after fire was opened on us from the low brush, near a house on the left of the railroad. Gradually the line was extended on the right and the left until we were entirely surrounded. The return fire from the fort was as rapid and as heavy as we could make it. Solid shot, shell and canister were thrown first in one direction and then in another, and, as our gun was a field-piece, mounted on an elevated platform, it commanded the approach in every direction. In using it the men were ordered to keep well down to escape the rebel fire. The rifles of the men also did their part of the work. The sharpshooters from the trees were more annoying to us than the fire from any other position. The gun became so hot that it was almost impossible to work it, and one cartridge took fire when the gunners were attempting to load it, throwing them against the walls of the fort. The men were compelled to handle their rifles by the gun slings they became so hot.

“As I went around among the men to cheer, help, or do what I could, I was more than ever impressed with the noble patriotism of the men who compose our army. Captain Aigan was cool and brave, and most nobly did he perform his duty. Lieutenant Durfee super-intended the ammunition, and was constantly at his post. At half-past two o'clock a flag of truce was seen coming down the railroad. Firing then ceased on both sides. Captain Aigan went out to meet it and asked what was wanted. The officer replied that the surrender of the fort was demanded. Captain Aigan replied that he could not surrender the fort. He was informed that it would be reduced, as ample means were at hand for that purpose, but if he would surrender they would not bring their artillery across the stream. Captain Again replied that he should not surrender, and,





saluting, each turned to join his command. As he came back Captain Aigan saw what he more than suspected, that the enemy had taken advantage of the truce. As soon as the firing ceased, a large number of the enemy rose from their cover and came into sight, and those that had not good positions advanced and took them. Captain
[Illustration:

Major John Aigan.
]

Aigan called Lieutenant Durfee and myself together, and, informing us of the result of the interview, he asked our opinion. We saw that the capture of the fort was only a question of time, and the only question aside from the lack of water was the sacrifice of the men. From the new position which the enemy had obtained during the truce we saw that we could hardly hope to work the gun for any





length of time. The only course then seemed to be the surrender of the fort. A white flag was then raised, and soon the officer who came before returned. Captain Aigan met Colonel Polk, of Deering's brigade of cavalry, and proposed to surrender on the following terms:

‘I. That all private property should be respected.

‘II. That the regimental chaplain, being present in the line of his duties, should not be treated as a prisoner of war.

‘III. That two negroes, who were company cooks, should be treated with humanity, and that two citizens, who were near the fort and entered it when the action came on, should be treated as non-combatants.

‘IV. That officers should retain their side-arms and the fort should be surrendered with the honors of war, and the troops march out with arms and music.’

“These conditions were at once granted, the firing ceased at half-past two, and the surrender was completed soon after four o'clock.

“As the representatives of the two forces came from the parley to the fort, the forces surrounding us also advanced and formed about the fort in an irregular line. The men were at once sent to their quarters to secure their clothing. But the quick rebels were before some of them, and stole what they could get. Most of our men got their clothes. The officers, composed of the high-minded chivalry, rushed to the quarters of Captain Aigan, and before he could give some orders to the men for whose interests he was looking out, they ‘gobbled’ most extensively, and it was only by my personal and earnest appeal to their honor, pride and shame, that I could induce them to leave some of the things for him. Many of the things that would have been a comfort to the officers in their prison life were shamelessly stolen by surgeons and staff officers of the brigade. The company chest was locked, and when the tent was struck, before the action commenced, it was left lying across the chest, and did not seem to attract the attention of the rebels. Having seen to the men, the captain and lieutenant opened their trunks, and such things as they did not want were distributed to the men. The company chest was opened, and though the rebels crowded and swore, Captain Aigan insisted on issuing to the men things to take the place of those lost by the rebels violating their agreement. Colonel Polk, to whom we surrendered,





treated us like a gentleman, and tried to fulfill his agreement, I think, and had it not been for him some of the miserable harpies who followed him would have stripped us on the spot instead of waiting their chance to do so afterwards. I found it difficult to keep my spurs or gauntlets. A staff officer took hold of them and insisted on having them. Men high in rank insisted that Captain Aigan should give up his dress coat. Everything was appropriated. My horse, that had been killed during the action, was stripped of all the accoutrements, not even leaving me my blanket. While our men were securing their things, I saw a rebel advance to the fort and attempt to plant their tattered flag on the parapet. I at once went to Colonel Polk and told him of the action of the officer, that the fort was not yet surrendered, and requested him to have it removed. He at once ordered it to be taken down.

“When the men had secured what they proposed to take with them, all entered the fort and prepared to evacuate it. The line was formed, arms were taken, and with music, we sadly, but with good heart, marched out. The tone of the martial air and the salute of the rolling drum caused many a rebel to bite his lip. Our drummers, it seemed to me, never played so well before. As Captain Aigan in his clear, strong voice gave his commands, I could detect in his tones defiance toward an enemy which had fought us forty to one, and to whom the fortunes of war compelled us to submit. The men handled and abandoned their rifles with an air that seemed to say, ‘You have captured but you cannot conquer us.’ Among the events of that day I will note the following: During a lull in the firing and while the guns were cooling, we all kneeled down around the old flag-staff in the centre of the fort, and, uncovering our heads before God, I offered prayer, seeking the help and protecting care of God. May I not now believe that He who ruleth in the heavens and regardeth men looked upon our humble devotions and remembered us? Not a drop of blood was drawn from us by the enemy. Several of the enemy we were informed were killed.

“Soon after four o'clock in the afternoon we were formed in line, and, under guard, marched about one mile towards New Berne, and halted at the quarters of the section master of the railroad. Here a large number of rebel troops were camped, who were cooking chickens,





and such things as came to hand. At this point we saw General Deering, and here Colonel Polk turned us over to another officer. Here we began to make the acquaintance of southern honor. The captain and Lieutenant Durfee had, by agreement, retained their swords. They were now informed that they must give them up, and they were compelled to do so, although it was a gross violation of their agreement. About sundown we started again, and marched to Evans Mills, some six miles, that night. The country seemed to be full of troops. At this place we were put in an old block-house, and kept there all night under close guard and without supper. During the night and early in the morning we heard the dull sound of heavy trains moving, and soon learned that the whole army was moving away. From the officers’ tables the negroes brought us a plateful of scraps of fried bacon and broken bits of corn bread. One plateful for fifty men. Captain Aigan turned to me and said, ‘Here, chaplain, give this to the men,’ refusing to take any. The men got a few crumbs each. I said to the man, ‘For God's sake go and get us some food. These men fought hard yesterday and are to march today, and, having received no supper, must have breakfast.’ He brought as much more. Any two men could have eaten all that he brought at one meal. That day, May 6th, we marched to Pollocksville, some twenty miles by the road we took, as we were informed. The dust and heat tried the men severely, as they had not been used to marching. About half-past nine that night we received about three pecks of unsifted corn meal in a bag and a few pounds of bacon. We borrowed a skillet and tried to make bread, and about midnight each of us got a small piece of corn bread. Water and meal, half baked, made but poor bread. I could not eat mine, and gave it away. The meat we ate raw. Hoping to find time in the morning to bake up the rest of the meal and get a breakfast of it, we lay down upon the grass and were soon asleep.

“At a quarter before five we were ordered to fall in. Leaving the ruins of the small town, consisting of a few chimneys and piles of rubbish, we crossed the Trent on a pontoon bridge and marched rapidly away. The meal was carried by the men for awhile and then thrown into a wagon, and we never saw it afterward. On past wagon trains, infantry and cavalry, at almost a double quick, we were





marched until we came to the rear of the artillery train. We were there informed by Captain Martin that he was ordered to keep us up to that during the day. Hour after hour went by of the hottest day, and mile after mile of the dustiest road. We were kept well up to
[Illustration:

Chaplain Rev. Henry S. White.
]

the train. It was a forced march. Endurance began to fail. There was one extra horse. It was used to spell us when most exhausted. The men were suffering. I appealed to the captain to allow us to go more slowly. He answered that his orders were imperative and that he could not violate them. I told him that the men could not stand it. He said they must stand it. I said, ‘you will kill these men





at this rate.’ He said he was sorry, but that he must obey his orders. Looking back, for the officers were compelled to keep in front, I saw one of our men staggering as though he would fall, when one of the guard drew his carbine on him, and with oaths ordered him to close up, saying that no one would be left. The men all understood it and pushed on. A cavalry scout had been captured and was one of our detachment. When almost desperate with fatigue, he said, ‘Give me back my horse and arms and I'll fight my way back to New Berne.’ The enraged captain drew his revolver on him, and swore that if he uttered another word about fighting he would blow his brains out.

“Captain Aigan and I concluded that something must be done or the men would die. We had some personal effects with us. The saddle, equipments, blanket, etc., that they took from my horse after he was killed, they had agreed to turn over to me when I wanted them. These things were in the brigade, but I was not fool enough to think that I could ever obtain them. I might, however, turn them over to Captain Martin, and by so doing make way for a new appeal for the men. I then approached him and told him I wished him to have the things, handing him my gauntlets and spurs, etc., then with me. He seemed much pleased. He said he hoped soon to be promoted, and he should value them much. After some more conversation I made a new appeal to him to go more slowly and spare the men. At first he said he could not, but at length began to yield. I appealed to his manhood, and the fear of God and the judgment, and told him kindly but plainly that if he killed our men by marching God would visit it upon him. He at length halted the column and gave them rest and water. From time to time our men were halted, and then we pushed on. About ten o'clock we reached Kinston jail, where we were turned in, and the rusty iron door was locked upon us. The artillery got through some five hours before us. I was informed that by the route we took we had marched about forty miles that day. When some of the men became so weary that they staggered, some of the guards would often give them a ride of a mile or so, and this helped a good deal. But some of the men did not ride one step. When I had marched some fifteen miles I was almost exhausted, but after that my system seemed almost to lose sensation,





and in a kind of a benumbed torpor I marched mechanically along. A soldier had a bundle of clothing, and, with his blanket, had a fine coat of Captain Aigan's. A mounted rebel rode up and joined our guard. Presently he said to the soldier, ‘Would you like a ride?’ He said he would. After riding some distance the owner of the horse asked him if he was rested. The soldier dismounted, but at the suggestion of the rebel left his bundle of clothing on the horse to be carried for him. For a time the rebel rode along as if connected with our guard, and then suddenly he was gone, and we saw him and the clothes no more.”

The story of Private Sylvester B. Hiscox, of Company A, is really a talk, in which, as far as possible, his own words and camp phrases have been retained. It was given to us amid the pressure of his business duties, in the most informal way, and his statements regarding dates and numbers are based on his recollection of them. It tells the awful tale of Andersonville and Florence so simply and so plainly that the great, ghastly scene seems before our eyes, and we feel it in our hearts. And that we have been able to get this story as it is and preserve it here, seems of itself to repay all the time and labor spent in collecting and arranging what is presented to our comrades in this volume. Comrade Hiscox said:

“Our company, A, was stationed at Croatan, N. C., on the Atlantic and North Carolina railroad, eleven miles from New Berne, to guard against a dash of the rebel cavalry to tear up the track or cut the telegraph wires. We were very comfortably located there, and had things about our own way. To our great surprise, our pickets came in one morning, the fifth of May it was, and told Captain Aigan, who was in command, that the ‘Rebs’ were out there. He wasn't expecting them, and didn't seem to think much about it, and sent the pickets out again, saying, ‘You were frightened boys, I guess.’ So out they went again, but had not gone a great distance when in they came on the double-quick. Then the captain ordered his horse immediately, and with Henry Seymour started for the front. We were all anxious to hear what the result might be, and commenced to get ready for an attack. They rode about fifteen minutes, when they came to a turn in the road and rode right upon the





‘Rebs.’ The captain and Seymour wheeled about and made good time for camp, and it was a laughable sight to us then to see them coming on the clean jump, lying as close to their horses’ backs as they could, with the ‘Rebs’ close on them, firing and ordering them to halt. They didn't pay any attention to these orders, but came in out of breath, saying ‘They are there, boys!’ and giving orders in wild excitement for a few minutes. Then we were all ordered into our little fort, with one six-pounder brass piece, which could do very good work as we found afterwards. And then we waited patiently for the rebels, not knowing from what direction they would come in on us.

“Here I might state that Chaplain White came down from New Berne the day before for the purpose of bringing us reading matter, and so forth, and had his horse saddled and at Captain Aigan's tent door, ready to start for New Berne when our pickets were driven in. The captain deemed it unsafe for him to set out, so he hitched his horse outside and came in the fort with us, saying that he would share our fate. He was a good soul, always cheerful and kind, and gave us encouraging words wherever he was, especially while he was with us as a prisoner; but still the ‘Rebs’ called him hard names, because he was a minister of the gospel I suppose. But to go back to my story. Well, to our surprise they came down on us from the north over an open field, all mounted and coming at a fearful pace. But we gave them a shell from our little brass piece, and it burst right in their column, scattering them in all directions at the same time. Captain Aigan's horse broke loose and ran towards the ‘Rebs,’ and we saw one of them who had lost his horse by our shell mount him and ride away. Then they came in on us from two sides, east and west, and we had it hot for about two hours, our good captain standing there and encouraging us, and dealing out ammunition in abundance. Besides our rifles that little brass six-pounder did its duty well, for it counted every time. The ‘Rebs’ would hardly believe that we had but one gun.

“Soon the ‘Rebs’ showed a white flag and demanded that we surrender. Captain Aigan refused to surrender, and soon we were fighting again with more vigor than ever, the captain saying, ‘If our ammunition holds out we will give them enough of it.’ Our





rifles at this time had got so hot that we had to handle them by the gun-slings, and we were hoping every minute that they would let up a little. But all the time they were crawling up nearer. When our shell scattered them they had gone into the woods and dismounted. Then they raised the flag and again demanded our surrender. Captain Aigan said he would not surrender until obliged to. The ‘Rebs” agent said, ‘You are a brave fellow, but we know just your force, and you will lose all of your men if you hold out much longer.’ Then they shook hands and parted again. Soon we were firing at them again, little thinking that we should be under their control in a little while. But our ammunition would soon be exhausted and our telegraph wires were cut in all directions. Captain Aigan, Lieutenant Durfee and Chaplain White held a council to see what was best to do. They concluded to propose to surrender on conditions that the officers and men could retain all their private prcperty. So up went a white flag on our little fort, and they agreed to our propositions, and about four o'clock in the afternoon, on the fifth day of May, 1864, a day that will never be forgotten by me, we marched out of our little fort, meek as lambs, and stacked arms.

“Of course they ‘gobbled up’ all of the government property first, and then got us into line as soon as possible. They allowed us to take all the eatables we could, and to fill our canteens, and then they hurried us away. We soon found out why they rushed us along so fast. They were ordered to Richmond as fast as they could go, and were about to leave us when we surrendered. Oh! if we could have known it before, but it was too late! That night they packed us into the block-house, about four miles from our camp, and there we began to sew what money we had into our clothing, in case the ‘Rebs’ should search us, We feared they would do so when we changed hands, but they did not break their agreement in that respect. I think there were about seventy men of us shut up there until about four o'clock in the morning, when they started us for Kinston, about forty miles distant, and the nearest railroad station that they held. The men that had us in charge were North Carolina troops, and many of them loyal if they had dared to be. When we rested along the sandy roads they were ready for conversation or trade. Just as we were falling in, after a short rest, General Deering,





the officer in command, rode up with his staff, He said to the officer who had charge of us, ‘What have those Yankee officers got their side-arms for?’ and he ordered them taken from them.

“We arrived in Kinston about half past ten at night, completely tired out, and after a scanty meal we laid down on the cold ground for the night. The next morning we were placed in the county jail, where we had the privilege of looking through the bars of the windows. The jail was anything but comfortable quarters—live stock in abundance—and we were told that we would have to wait until the troops had all gone through to Richmond, rolling stock being scarce. So we had the pleasure of seeing the different rebel regiments pass through, and we also recognized our little six-pounder when it went by, and we cheered it every time. This provoked the ‘Rebs’ so much that they threatened to fire on us if we didn't keep quiet.

“After five days they marched us out to the station. We were bound south, they said, We were packed in box cars, about as close as possible, with two guards inside of each car, and quite a number outside on top. By having the guards inside we could have the doors open so we could have some fresh air. The guards seemed to be good men. They would lie down with us and sleep at night, when the cars were in motion. The roads were so out of repair that they could not make more than six miles an hour, and if it could have been understood in all the cars of this train we could have taken possession of it as easy as it is to talk about it now. We could handle the guns of the guard any time, and they didn't seem to care much about anything they were so completely tired of the war. It has always seemed strange to me why Captain Aigan could not see it also. He had the privilege of coming from one car to another as often as we came to a stop. We knew every inch of that country around Kinston, and we could have run that train back easy, for there were no troops in the town after we left it.

“Our next stopping place was Wilmington, N. C., where we remained all night, and took breakfast, which consisted of a small piece of bacon, one egg, a small piece of corn bread and one cup of so called coffee, for ten dollars. They knew that each one of us had a little money, and they were bound to get it some way. The next place we stopped was Branchville, S. C., where we were used like





anything but human beings, but we soon pushed along to Augusta, Ga., and here we began to feel as though we were prisoners indeed. We were landed in the north part of the city and marched the whole length of it to the south side to take the cars for Macon, Ga. We thought there must be a circus or caravan going through the town,


[Illustration:

Sylvester B. Hiscox,
A Survivor of Andersonville Prison.
(From a recent picture.)

]

for old men and women, children and darkies ran from every direction to see the ‘Yankees,’ ‘Bluebellies,’ “Mudsills,’ and every conceivable name they could think of. They began to abuse us in every way they could.

“We there boarded another train, still bound south, and the next day arrived at a place called Andersonville. It was a collection of a





few huts. Here we were ordered out of the train and formed in line. We marched half a mile when we saw a stockade in the distance. Then we knew our destination. We were again formed in line and our names, company, regiment, etc., recorded. I should say here that Captain Aigan, Lieutenant Durfee, and Chaplain White came on this ‘excursion’ with us. After our names had been taken we were marched through the gates of Andersonville prison. That was the last that we saw of our officers. We found out afterwards that they were going back to Macon.

“Well, you cannot imagine how we felt then. You might have seen tears in our eyes, when we gazed upon such horrid looking beings as we saw before us. I can't tell you about it. Words are of no use. Our first thought was, have we got to stay in this pen, among these men, with no shelter but the heavens above us? And then they crowded around us, thousands of them, all clamoring and asking questions. Their one cry was, ‘Is there any possible chance of exchange?’ Oh, those many thousands of American soldiers. I've got to a point now when it makes my blood boil when I think for a moment of the misery that was around us. But that story—it can never be told as we felt it—has been published over and over again since the war, and I've told it myself, hundreds of times perhaps, but even now I don't want to think of what we had to endure, nor think of the many thousands of brave men that laid their bones away near Andersonville prison—many of them, too, my own well tried and dear comrades. We were added to a prison battalion of 270 men, divided into three companies of ninety men each, with a ‘Reb’ sergeant to each company to draw rations. It was not long before we men of Company A were scattered all over the prison.

“You may imagine how thick men were in there when I tell you there were about thirty acres inside the stockade, and we were told that there were 37,000 prisoners in this pen. As a general thing the rations consisted of about one small pint of mush—we called it; sometimes about two ounces of fat bacon, and occasionally a little rice or a few small, red beans, which we never could boil soft. There was but little wood, and that was greenpine, so that we couldn't half cook what we got, and not half enough water, and that was so filthy that a beast wouldn't drink it, and no shelter from the hot sun for





more than one-third of the men—and then the filth, from all these men, that was inside the pen too—Oh, it's too sickening to print. And so we suffered on in that way. All this time these men talked about four things and nothing else, getting exhanged, home, something to eat, and getting away.

“One afternoon, as the ‘Rebs’ were dealing out the rations, it was much as usual, a Rhode Island soldier sat down with us, while eating the scanty mess they gave us, he said: ‘Boys, I used when I was at home to give my chickens just such food, but,’ raising his head and arm heavenward, ‘I ask pardon for all I ever gave them.’ That was about the feeling among us all.

“Strong hearts melted, like snow in the sun. For three months we managed to weather the privations, but during August and September fifty-one of our company dropped away. After I had been in about three months I had gangrene sores come on my feet, so that I was not able to get around except by crawling on my hands and knees. So it deprived me of the privilege of going to the gates each morning to see if any of our men had died during the night, and report to those not able to get there. We could generally count, during the hot months, never less than one hundred and sometimes as high as one hundred and thirty deaths for the twenty-four hours. Then the army wagons would back up to the gate and they would throw the bodies in like so many swine. That was a heart-rending sight,—those half-naked, dirty bodies—covered with vermin, etc., carted off but a little way, right in sight of our prison, and put in trenches with nothing but a narrow strip of head-board bearing only the number of the man on the prison list.

“There was a great break planned. There were only about five thousand men in all to guard us, at that time, and we had about twenty thousand quite strong men, able and willing to go into the break and fight. One battalion of us was to tear up the railroad track and cut the wires; one battalion was formed for each of the four batteries that bore on us; one battalion was to secure the guns and ammunition that was in store, and one was to look out for what provisions they could find. We had a map of the whole country, and were only about three hundred miles from the place where Sherman was fighting, which we meant to reach before they could overtake





us. Every morning at daybreak the ‘Reb’ sergeants came in to have roll call, and the gates were opened to let them in. We were going to make the break at that time, when the gates were open. The day was set, and we were all ready the night before, but some worse than cowardly villain inside, informed on us—to Captain Wirtz. We could never find out who he was. Oh, but the ‘Rebs’ were wild with excitement. All night long they were bringing troops from every direction and making their breastworks and batteries stronger than ever. When morning came they had five thousand extra troops there, and we were too discouraged to try it. Occasionally, that day, Captain Wirtz would send a shell or two over the prison as a sort of a reminder, and then we would hiss at them and call them anything but good names.

“I haven't spoken of the raiders, as we called them. They were a gang of ruffians—Union prisoners, too, that would plunder, and even murder, their fellow prisoners. They got so bold and so dangerous that we organized a police force. This police arrested six of the worst of them, tried them by court-martial, found them guilty, and by permission of the ‘Reb’ authorities, hanged them inside our prison pen. Although we knew that they had been guilty of many murders, it was a pitiful sight to see six such horrible looking creatures as all of us were then, hanging on the gallows. But it put a stop to all raiding after that.

“About the 28th of August there was an order issued to take 10,000 prisoners to Florence, S. C., and I happened to be one of that number. It was new ground there, of course, but we had become so feeble from sickness and privation that we were even worse off, or what there was left of each one of us, than we were in Andersonville. And I have never seen one of Company A after I left Andersonville, and I was so reduced that I did not care to make a single new acquaintance, not even among the ‘Rebs,’ but waited patiently for release, which I knew must come some time. One hour we would hear all sorts of encouraging rumors, only to have them contradicted the next moment, and then we would think there was not a ray of hope for us. Men would get so full of despair that they would deliberately walk over the dead line, to be shot. I saw such instances several times. I must say that I think the surgeons





here were better men, and had more feeling for us; seemed more like doctors than at Andersonville.

“All sorts of orders were posted up in the prison, by the ‘Rebs,’ such as ‘thirty days’ furlough for each and every Yankee shot while crossing the dead line,’ ‘if any crowd collects it will be opened on with grape and canister.’ Tunnelling out was in order all the time; but most of those who got out were hunted down with bloodhounds, kept for the purpose, and brought back, and had to endure punishment of some kind. Once we were kept without rations for three days for refusing to let the ‘Rebs’ know where the tunnel was,—so many were getting away at that time.

“The days dragged along in this way until towards December. At this time things began to look rather mixed for the ‘Rebs.’ They wanted to get their prisoners away out of that part of the country, or off their hands on the best terms they could get. So, then, one Sunday morning, there was an order that eight hundred of the sick should be paroled. It was all that they had cars to carry at one time. That is one of the mornings I shall never forget. My name was the second one that was called to come forward and take the oath not to serve again until I was exchanged, and sign the papers. For four months I had not stood on my feet, but had crawled about on my hands and knees. I can never describe my feelings when I found myself outside of that stockade, and yet we did not realize; could not make it seem true that we were going home. But we were soon put on board the train, and the first thing I asked was, if any of the Fifth Rhode Island boys were there, but I could not hear of one. So I came to the conclusion that they must all be dead.

“The ‘Rebs’ gave us the best meal the day we left Florence that we had had in many months. We rode along very quietly until we got within about four miles—it seemed to me—of Savannah, when we could hear firing, not a great way off, and we were told that Sherman's army would soon be in; and we thought so, for when we got in the city all was in an uproar. They soon put us aboard a small steamer and took us down the river as fast as possible. It took but a little time to reach our fleet, where we were turned over to the officers waiting to receive us. It was a hospital boat, and





they had everything ready for us. What a change it was to be among friends,—to be free, under the dear old flag again. Sick as we were we sang the good old Union songs all that day. And then the smell of the good old government coffee, and enough for all of us to eat and to spare. Our surgeon was afraid they would kill us with kindness. It was not long before the dirty rags that we had on when we came aboard, and called clothing, was floating down the Savannah River. The steamer soon started for Annapolis, Md., and when we were settled in our clean and comfortable beds at night, we began to fully realize that we were released from our prison.

“We reached Annapolis the next Sunday morning, and were sent to a general hospital, and were informed that we could be hurt with kindness, for our sickness was such that everything that we eat seemed to disagree with us. As soon as we were able to travel we received a furlough to go home. During the journey home we were helped in every way, and lots of money was given us—because we looked so bad—for we were nothing but skeletons moving slowly about. Well, I arrived home Jan. 5, 1865, and there I remained for many months before I could walk without crutches. While at home Charles F. Chase was released from prison. He came to see me, he belonged in the same town, and was a dear comrade. And I thought that if I could have come out of that pen looking as well as he appeared to then I would have given all the world. But in a fortnight he was dead.

“I do not think there are many of the dear old company left now to tell the sad tale. I can recall but two, Lieutenant Durfee and Peter Melville, both in Newport. This is only a short talk about our experience. As I said before, no one can know all the story of the Southern prison pens, unless, under the providence of God, they were enabled to survive, as I did, those long months of sickness, starvation, and despair.”

“I suppose you know about Captain Aigan's escape, If you do not I will tell you what he told me as well as I can now recollect it. He got away four times and was retaken each time. He got out through a tunnel at Macon, and the fourth time he nearly reached Sherman's lines. There was one incident I must tell you. In the





first part of the winter of ’64 there were many ‘Reb’ officers on leave at Macon, and they would go in to see our officers who were prisoners. One day some of them came in at roll-call, and a group was standing near the company that the captain was in. When his name was called he noticed that some of them commenced talking, and he wondered what it meant. Soon the ‘Reb’ sergeant came and said he was wanted outside. There he was confronted by a Rebel colonel, who said: ‘Well, John, how do you like to be in the Yankee army?’ The captain replied, ‘Very well, colonel.’ Then he said. ‘John, what made you desert from my regiment in Texas?’ Captain Aigan said, ‘Colonel, I guess you are mistaken in your man.’ But the rebel flew into a rage and said he had his descriptive list with him, and he pulled it out and read it right there, and asked the captain if he knew the penalty of desertion. The captain replied, ‘Colonel, I guess you must have my company's papers to get that.’ And he could not convince the colonel that he was not the deserter from his regiment. So he was sent back into the pen feeling that there was but little hope for him. He was broken down, for the first time, I think, for he was always of good courage from the first of my acquaintance with him, and I believe even to this day that he died from the injuries and exposure of his prison life. But to go back. Later in the day he was told that they had decided that he was not the man they thought he was, for this reason: One of the officers who heard the talk between the ‘Reb’ colonel and Captain Aigan, turned to the colonel after the captain had been taken back to the prison and said, ‘Colonel, I believe you are mistaken, myself. Did you ever in your life hear a Texan soldier say I guess?’ ‘Never,’ said the colonel. So you see that one word probably saved Captain Aigan's life.

“Well, it was in February, about the middle of it, if I remember, when the captain made his last break. There were five of them. They were soon retaken, and at night a guard was placed over them in a field. The officers told him they would fix him that time. But the prisoners did not mean to be taken back if they could help it. So they pretended to go to sleep and watched, for what they felt that was their last chance. Soon all of the ‘Reb’ guard was asleep but the one on post. They managed to seize him, choking him so that he could





not make any noise, led him silently to a wood where they gagged and left him. They went some miles and finally met an old darkey and told him their story. He took them back of his barn where he brought a table and had them creep under it. Then he covered them up, table and all with manure. They had a fork handle with them which they used to keep a hole open to get fresh air. They heard what evidently were soldiers inquiring for them. The old negro would not let them out until the next night, by which time they were nearly suffocated with the heat of their cramped up hiding-place. The old negro put tar and red pepper on their feet so that the hounds could not trail them, and sent them to another negro some miles away. Finally they reached General Sherman's army, then on its way north through South Carolina.”

Captain John Aigan's Rrport.

Pawtucket, R. I., April 20, 1865.

General: I have the honor to submit to you the names of the men of my company who have died since we were captured by the enemy at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864. I have only a few correct dates, but I have given them as near as I could ascertain. I also give the names of some whom I presume are dead, but of whom I cannot give any correct information.

I have the honor to be, General, your obedient servant,

John Aigan,

Captain Co. A, 5th R. I. Artillery.

To Brig.-Gen. E. C. Mauran,

Adjutant General, Rhode Island.

1. Sergeant Michael Kennedy, died in Charleston, S. C., Oct. 4, 1864.

2. Sergeant Thomas Hanly, died in Andersonville, Ga., Sept., 1864.

1. Corporal W. H. Lillibridge, died in Andersonville, Ga., Aug., 1864.

2. Corporal Charles A. Slocum, died in Andersonville, Ga., Aug., 1864.

3. Corporal Edward O. Colvin, died in Andersonville, Ga., Aug., 1864.

4. Corporal Michael Riley, died in Charleston, S. C., Sept., 1864.

1. Musician John Livingstone, died in Andersonville, Ga., Sept., 1864.

2. Musician Daniel F. Hawkins, died in Andersonville, Ga., Sept., 1864.

1. Private John Goudy, died in Andersonville, Ga., June 7, 1864.

2. Private Andrew J. Johnson, died in Andersonville, Ga., August, 1864.





3. Private William Wallace, died in Andersonville, Ga., August, 1864.

4. Private Edward Lewis, died in Andersonville, Ga., August, 1864.

5. Private George L. Doolittle, died in Andersonville, Ga., July, 1864.

6. Private Frederick Bane, died in Andersonville, Ga., August, 1864.

7. Private John Hempstead, died in Andersonville, Ga., July, 1864.

8. Private William Garvey, died in Andersonville, Ga., July, 1864.

9. Private James Doyle, died in Andersonville, Ga., July, 1864.

10. Private Charles S. Sisson, died in Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 18, 1864.

11. Private Henry Seymour, died in Andersonville, Ga., August, 1864.

12. Private Jerry Sullivan, died in Andersonville, Ga., August, 1864.

13. Private Thomas Collins, died in Andersonville, Ga., July, 1864.

14. Private Cornelius Lee, died in Andersonville, Ga., August, 1864.

15. Private Charles Sanders, died in Andersonville, Ga., August, 1864.

16. Private Arthur Fee, died in Andersonville, Ga., July, 1864.

17. Private Jerry Wilson, died in Andersonville, Ga., July, 1864.

18. Private James M. Eddy died in after being paroled.

19, Private Charles F. Chase, died in in Warren, R. I., Jan. 19, 1865.

20. Private George Montgomery, shot while attempting to escape.

21. Private Amos Eaton, died in Andersonville, Ga., August, 1864.

22. Private Dennis G. Ballou, died in Charleston, S.C., about Oct. 8, 1864.

23. Private John Hanley, died in Florence, S. C., September, 1864.

24. Private Cornelius Keleghan died in Andersonville, Ga., August, 1864.

25. Private John Thomas, died in Andersonville, Ga., August, 1864.

Supposed to be Dead, as I Cannot Learn Anything Certain About Them—Sergt. Samuel R. Eddy, Corp. Franklin Wicks, Privates Stephen Wicks, James Brady, and William H. Vallet, Jr.

Recapitulation—Dead—Sergeants, 2; corporals, 4; musicians, 2; privates, 25; total, 33.

Missing, supposed to be Dead—Sergeants, 1; corporals, 2; privates, 3; total, 6.

With the Regiment—Privates, 5.

Not Heard from, but supposed to be Living—Privates, 5.

At Home Sick—Privates, 2; total, 12; aggregate, 51.

Not heard from, supposed to be Living and with the Regiment—Privates, Franklin Smith, Benjamin Bentley, Frank S. Clark, James Matthews, Charles Delaney, George O. Brown, James Lawrence, Edward McQuade, David H. Willard, John Conly.

At Home Sick—Private Sylvester B. Hiscox and Peter D. Melville.





CHAPTER XIV. YELLOW FEVER IN NEW BERNE. Companies D and I at Roanoke Island.

THE several companies of the regiment had been so long separated from each other that the sense of unity, the shoulder to shoulder feeling in the organization as a whole, outside of regimental headquarters, had worn away to a great degree. Hence the capture of Company A was not so keenly felt, did not cause such a feeling of loss, as it would under other circumstances. In addition to the present fragmentary situation of the Fifth, another cause detrimental to its best welfare existed, and in such a shape that it could only be borne, not removed, by the officers and men. We had lost Plymouth, and had evacuated Washington. Roanoke Island, Hatteras Inlet, and the district of New Berne comprised our possessions in North Carolina in May, 1864, while the navy watched the mouth of the Roanoke for the expected appearance of the Albemarle with a feeling that was not one of exultation. Every available man in North Carolina, whether Union or Confederate, was being drawn with resistless force into the vortex of that maelstrom of war that surged through the wilderness of Virginia and around Richmond, on the James. The outlook for the Fifth was not very pleasant at this time. A long and sickly summer was to be passed, in one or two company garrison posts. The trials it was to undergo tested the real heroism of officers and men quite as much as the dangers of an active campaign, and that, too, without any of the rewards that come to men who win the commendations of their commanding officers by service in the field.

The following play-bill may be of interest to our readers, showing how the soldiers in New Berne amused themselves in those days. Corp. Robert H. White, of the Fifth, was one of the principal performers, and with his permission a fac-simile of the bill is herewith presented:





Union Theatre.

ON RAILROAD ST., BETWEEN JOHNSON AND NEW STS.

New Berne MINSTRELS!!

A. J. MARSTON,Manager.
PHILIP S. HATCH,Musical Director.
R. W. EDWARDS,Treasurer.

Monday Evening, May 2d, 1864.

Regular Performances on MONDAY, WEDNESDAY and SATURDAY. Doors open at 6 1-2 P.M. Curtain rises at 7 o'clock, precisely. Performance concludes at 15 minutes before 9 o'clock, giving ample time to all parties to return to their quarters before SPECIAL PASSES are required.

CHANGE OF PROGRAMME EVERY EVENING.

N. B.—Owing to the great length of Programme, and necessity for early closing, it is hoped no repetition of any of the several acts will be requested.

PART I.

Representing the Dandy Negroes of the North.
1 Grand Instrumental Overture,Full Band
2 Opening Chorus, “Happy are We,”Company
3 Me and Eliza,Marston
4 Let me Kiss him for his Mother,White
5 Soap-fat Man,McDermott
6 Revolution Echoes,Gray
7 Lannigan's Ball,Marston
8 Near the Banks of that Lone River,White
9 Finale, - - Medley,New Berne Minstrels

PART II.

Portraying the Peculiar Characteristics of the Southern Darkey.
10 Heel and Toe-ology,Andy Kane
11 Flutina Solo Selections,Hatch
12 Essence ob ole Virginny,McDermott
13 Comic Banjo Solo,Gray
14 Banjo Duett,Marston and Gray

!Othello!

(BURLESQUE)

Oh! tell-erBilly Boyce
Deres-de-moneyFrank McDermott

PART III.

16 Guitar Solo . . . . . Seymour

SCENES IN A BARBER SHOP.

Boss “Good”Marston
Simpson,McDermott
BenBoyce

18 Ballad “Happy be thy dreams,” White

The whole to conclude with OLE DAN EMMETT'S Greatest Plantation Scene and Holiday Festival, WALK AROUND

High Daddy.

Characters embracing the full strength of the Company.

Admission.

PARQUETTE AND DRESS CIRCLE,50 CENTS.
UPPER CIRCLE,25 CENTS.

Front seats invariably reserved for Ladies and Gentlemen accompanying them.

TICKETS for sale at BEERS’ Bookstore, on Pollock st. near Craven.

PRINTED AT THE NORTH CAROLINA TIMES OFFICE.





The first days of May found Major Jameson fully engrossed with his duties in recruiting his regiment of colored troops. Assistant Surgeon Greene returned from a leave of absence May 5th. He was at once detailed to attend the sick of the major's recruits. This was in addition to his other duties. Surgeon Potter was still examining surgeon of recruits for the district of North Carolina. At this time many of the men felt that they had a serious grievance. Of the men who formed the old battalion there remained only one hundred and eighty-seven who were eligible to re-enlist under the provisions of the war department for such enlistments. During the winter one hundred and fifteen of these veterans re-enlisted. One of the principal conditions was that each man so enlisting should receive a furlough for thirty days. The furloughs had not yet been granted for one reason or another. This delay, valid enough at headquarters, caused a strong feeling among the men that they were being singled out for the purpose of indirect punishment.

On the afternoon of May 21st, Colonel Sisson, accompanied by his wife, left New Berne for Rhode Island on a long leave of absence. At this time there was a general change in the stations of the various companies of the regiment. Those companies in the forts between the Neuse and the Trent were relieved by five companies of the Second Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, and assigned as follows: Two companies to Fort Anderson and one to Fort Chase, on the north shore of the Neuse; two companies to Fort Amory, one to Fort Gaston, and one to Fort Spinola, south of the Trent. At this time Company A was in Andersonville, and companies D and I at Roanoke Island. June 1st, Company K, Captain De Meulen, went to Roanoke Island and relieved Company I, Captain Taft. On the island, Company D, Captain Moran, went to Fort Parke, and Captain De Meulen went to Fort Foster. These changes also caused a change of the headquarters of the regiment from Fort Totten to a house in Craven Street in the city. In consequence of these changes Surgeon Potter attended sick calls at Forts Anderson and Chase, while Assistant Surgeon Greene had charge of the sick in the forts south of the Trent.

And now the lethargy of garrison life, in a sickly, southern climate, fell upon officers and men. For the Fifth there was not even





the change and excitement of duty on the outposts and picket line. The re-enlisted men wondered and grumbled about their furloughs; those who could have re-enlisted but did not counted the days that must pass before they would be mustered out; while the men who joined as recruits discussed army regulations and acts of Congress
[Illustration:

Lieut. John B. Landers.
]

over the question as to whether they would be mustered out with the regiment, or must serve three years from the date of their muster in.

June 3d we were startled by a terrible explosion in the direction of Batchelder's Creek. We soon learned that while a fatigue party of the One Hundred and Thirty-second New York Volunteers were unloading a monster torpedo at the reserve picket station, on the





railroad, it was exploded in some unknown manner and some forty men killed. In this explosion, a colored boy, Tobe, who had been a follower of our regiment for two years, lost his life. He was a simple, kind-hearted fellow, blind in one eye, who, when asked in the morning how he felt, would always rub his hands together and say, “Fust rate, sah, fust rate; ’tween de sap and de bark.”

Sunday morning, August 14th, two men of the Fifth Rhode Island, with four others, were executed for the crime of desertion. The account here given appeared in a New Berne paper:

“As the assembly again sounded the troops forming in the usual square on the plain in front of Fort Totten, together with six newly-made graves yawning for their occupants, indicated that martial law was again to be vindicated. At six o'clock the procession issued from the sally-port of the fort, under charge of Major Lawson. At a slow march the prisoners with their escort and coffins passed to the inside of the square, and marched around the area. The coffins, six in number, were placed in order in front of the graves and the doomed men seated thereon. Their names were as follows: Private John Dailey, alias John Duffy, Company C, Fifth Rhode Island Volunteers, desertion; private James Simmons, Company C, Fifth Rhode Island Volunteers, desertion; private Robert E. Duncan, Company H, Ninty-ninth New York Volunteers, advising desertion; privates Robert Clark, Joseph Collins and George Berry, Company E, Sixteenth Connecticut Volunteers, desertion. The charges and findings of the court-martial were read, their eyes were bandaged, the parting word spoken, and the order given to fire. They met their fate coolly. Evidences of regret were painfully conscious in two instances. Life was not extinct in two or three cases, and it became necessary for the reserves to put an end to the existence of the unfortunate wretches by discharging their pieces into their bodies.”

All of these men were “bounty jumpers” of the worst type. One of the men belonging to Company C, during his trial claimed to be a British subject, and it was thought that the department commander rather hurried his execution, so that the death of the rascal would put an end to the case and his worthless career at the same time.

The summer passed slowly and monotonously enough. The one desire of all grades of soldiers, and all classes of civilians seemed to be to get away from New Berne during the heated term. At last





the veterans received notice that their much promised furloughs would soon be granted. As a partial recompense for the long delay the time was extended from thirty to forty days. On the 13th of September the furloughs came with orders to take the boat sailing for New York the next day. Lieutenant-Colonel Tew, Captain Robinson, Adjutant Gladding, Lieutenant Landers and Quarter-master Lawton were to go with them. Hospital Steward Burlin-game had a furlough for thirty days and went along with the veterans. The officers, however, not wishing to brave the discomforts of the outside passage around Cape Hatteras, took the inside route by the way of Norfolk. The men reached New York on the morning of the 18th, where the boat was boarded by a health officer. At length she was permitted to pass quarantine and run up to the city. It was the last boat from New Berne that passed quarantine for many months. During the day transportation was secured and they were able to leave for Rhode Island the same night. These men were destined to remain at home for many weeks, for a foe more destructive than Hill's and Pickett's rebel hosts was already within the gates of New Berne.

A press dispatch of September 10th said that the report that yellow fever existed in New Berne was incorrect; that the sudden change in the weather had developed congestive chills, which was the origin of the report; and that Doctor Doughty, the post surgeon, was very successful in the treatment of this disease. On the 18th, Surgeon Potter wrote: “There is a good deal of sickness in New Berne just now; cases of congestive fever, and I think, yellow fever. I have as yet seen none of the latter and may be mistaken. But I am afraid it is; and if it is, we shall have a hard time here. Every case that has been attacked, thus far, has died, and most of them within twenty-four hours. The disease seems to be confined to a narrow strip through the town, and embraces the machine shop, hospitals, jail, navy-yard, and in fact the whole business part of the place. No soldier has been attacked in camp or in town except in that district. Two officers have died, one of them Lieutenant Johnson, chief of the ambulance corps. I am inclined to think it will not spread out of the town, but of course there is nothing certain about it.”





Another press despatch from New Berne, September 22d, says: “The sudden appearance of congestive chills and bilious fever in New Berne has driven all transient persons out of the department, including many established business men, who supposed they were flying from yellow fever. Through the skill and untiring labor of the surgeons a material abatement of the epidemic has been effected.”

September 26th we find this grim record: “Most of the Northerners who can get away have left, especially the recruiting agents.” At this time the situation was terrible enough to appall even the most stout-hearted. A feeling of apathy seemed to fall upon every one. It even extended to the men on the outposts, for they knew that New Berne was safe from any rebel attack while this fearful scourge was doing deadlier work than any human foe could do. Again a providence seemed to guard the lucky Fifth. The fever did not spread into the camps and forts around the city, nor did a single case originate on the north side of the Neuse. Fortunately, too, there were but few of our men on detail in the city or sick in the general hospitals. Again we quote from Surgeon Potter, of the date of October 3d, from Fort Anderson:

“The fever here does not abate yet, although the impression among the surgeons seems to be that the cases are not so severe as they were at first, and are more amenable to treatment. I have had two cases, Lieutenant-Colonel Stone, of the Third New York Artillery, who was in command on this side of the Neuse. He contracted the disease in town and came here with it, and died yesterday morning; and also Lieut. George F. Turner, of the Fifth, who was detailed as superintendent of the police in New Berne. He contracted the disease while in the line of his duty, which was superintending the force cleaning up the filth in the city, which was causing the contagion. He is now sick with it in the city. I remember the day he received the order detailing him for that duty. I came over from the city, and he asked me into his tent and showed me the order. I said, ‘This is pretty rough, what are you going to do about it?’ ‘Do,’ said he, ‘go. Of course I never shall come out of it alive, but I came out to die for my country, if need be, though I expected it would be in battle, or somewhere but in filth. ‘Well,’ he continued, ‘it may as well be me as a better man.’ The disease does not





appear in the camps unless brought from the town, and does not spread there, showing that a poisoned air is needed to make it contagious.

“Sunday, October 9th. I wrote in my last that Lieutenaut Turner was sick with the fever. He died Thursday noon, October 6th. He had the ‘two o'clock in the morning courage,’ and showed himself
[Illustration:

Lieut. George F. Turner.
]

a hero even more than he who leads the forlorn hope or fires a mine with a quick match. We have also lost ten enlisted men, who were in general hospital or detailed in the city.

Monday, October 10th. We had a fine frost last night, and now we think ‘yellow jack’ must go.”

The following sketch of Lieutenant Turner was written by his sister. We deem it worthy of insertion here:





Sketch of Lieut. George F. Turner.

Doctor James V. Turner, the father of Lieutenant Turner, was the son of Doctor Peter Turner, of East Greenwich, R. I., a surgeon in the Revolutionary army, and the grandson of Doctor William Turner, a native of Newport, R. I., who settled in Newark, N. J.

In the year 1815 he (i. e., Dr. James V. Turner,) married Catherine Ray Greene, daughter of Hon. Ray Greene, of Warwick, and granddaughter of William Greene, governor of Rhode Island during the Revolution.

George Flagg Turner was the second son and fifth child of this family, and was born on the 26th of March, 1824, at the homestead of his maternal ancestors, a lovely country place, around which cluster many interesting historical associations.

In the year 1828 Dr. Turner removed with his family to Portsmouth, on Rhode Island, where they remained for five years. In this retired spot they were thrown very much on their own resources, and reading, music, drawing and domestic games were the principal recreations of the children during the long, quiet winter, occasionally diversified by evening lessons in dancing, in which the father would act both as teacher and musician.

Lieutenant Turner's early instructor was Mr. John J. Payne, one of the teachers so delightfully described in Snow Bound, who spent a portion of the time in each family, thus carrying freshness and refinement into the country home. Mr. Payne, though sufficiently strict in his school, dealt much more in rewards than in punishments, and his prizes, of which George always gained a large share, were his own paintings, little pictures in water colors, of no great merit in themselves, but which probably had great influence in developing the æsthetic tendency in Lieutenant Turner's character.

His main defect in childhood was a high and almost ungovernable temper, but through careful training and conscientious effort it became so subdued that in later life he was often characterized as too gentle and yielding. His disposition was generous and self-forgetful, and he was incapable of a mean action.

In 1833 the family removed to Newport, and Mr. Payne going at the same time, the children continued at his school, until, in 1835, his health gave way, and the older ones were placed under the tuition of Mr. Harper, an Englishman, a thorough scholar and an experienced teacher. Here George made rapid progress until an injury, received in 1837, obliged him to leave school, and kept him confined to his room for a year, during which he assiduously cultivated the taste for drawing which had always distinguished him.

On his recovery he again attended school for a few years, and became a proficient in the languages, which he acquired with facility, and which opened new fields for the play of thought and fancy he loved to indulge.





This habit of reverie, though it gave him rather a dreamy, abstracted expression, did not prevent his taking great interest in the politics of the country, of which he ever kept himself well informed.

Descended from the early Pilgrims, and trained in the strong tenets which have made New England what it is, the sacrifice of self for the common good was taught as a cardinal virtue. Accordingly, when the Dorr rebellion arose in our little State, George, then eighteen years old, and engaged in teaching a school in the city, came home with a pale, determined face, and announced his intention of going with the volunteers from Newport to assist in suppressing it. Tears and entreaties were of no avail, and he took his share of the toils and annoyances of the expedition to Chepachet, which resulted, however, in a bloodless victory.

After a few years spent in cultivating his talent for drawing, he made it his chosen profession, and continued the practice of it in the city of New York until the serpent of secession uncoiled its folds. Then, like myriads of ohers of our brave young men, he threw aside the pursuits of peace, until this serpent should be crushed, and the cause of truth and freedom vindicated. Anxious to place himself under the banner of his native state, he hastened to Newport, where he assisted in recruiting a company for the Second Rhode Island Regiment. Failing to receive a commission in this, and meeting a series of fair promises and disappointments which would have dampened the ardor of a man less determined, he returned to New York, and was on the point of joining a regiment there when he was recalled to assist in recruiting a company for the Fifth Rhode Island Regiment.

Here he received the commission of first lieutenant, but finding the officer next him dissatisfied, he willingly exchanged commissions, sufficiently happy if he were only allowed an active share in the cause next his heart.

The regiment was stationed at New Berne, under the command of Col. Henry T. Sisson. Lieutenant Turner shared the perils of the expedition up the Pamlico River to Little Washington for the relief of General Foster, the most distinguished service in which his regiment was engaged. His company (H) with four others, occupied Rodman's Point Battery until the return of General Foster, who had gone immediately to New Berne.

At the age of thirty-six he had married Miss Caroline A. Stevens, of Newport, who survived him. The only child, whom he had never seen died in the summer of 1863, aged four months. Her father was at this time on his way north, ordered to New Haven on recruiting service, happy in anticipation of at length beholding her.

He was at one time detailed as designer to beautify the grounds about the general's headquarters, a task most congenial to his tastes and habits. But, alas! a far diffent task awaited him.





When the yellow fever appeared in New Berne, in the autumn of 1864, he, having been promoted to the first-lieutenancy, was stationed with his company at Fort Chase, in a perfectly healthy locality. But an efficient officer being required as inspector of the streets of New Berne, he was ordered to that most disagreeable duty. A style of courage far superior to the blind impulse which rushes into the excitement of battle was needed for this, and he was the man for it; and he was accustomed to say that the true courage was the intelligent conquest of fear.

After a faithful discharge of his duties as inspector for one week, he was taken sick with the fever, to which he fell a victim on the sixth of October, 1864. The general order for his funeral gives so just an appreciation of his character that I am happy to be able to quote from it here:

“The lieutenant-colonel commanding takes this opportunity to testify to the worth of Lieutenant Turner as an officer and a gentleman. A simple reference to his character is the most fitting eulogy that can be bestowed on our deceased fellow officer. Simple and unostentatious in his manners, genial and pleasant in his intercourse with all, honest and ingenuous in his dealings, just, generous, and brave, imbued with a patriotic spirit and possessing an intelligent and cultivated mind, he combined in an eminent degree intellectual qualities of sterling worth with some of the highest traits of character, securing him the respect of all who knew him. Regretting the untimely death of our comrade, let us cherish his memory and emulate his virtues, while we devote ourselves with renewed energy to the cause in which he died.

“By order of Lieut.-Col. George W. Tew, Commanding the Regiment.

“E. F. Angell, First Lieutenant and Acting Adjutant.”

His remains, after a few months, were brought home for reinterment, and in considerations of scruples of the city authorities in regard to the disease of which he died, they were followed to the grave only by his own family, in the dead of night through the quiet streets, amid a drenching rain, the deep voice of his beloved pastor most solemnly pronouncing the last sad rites over the patriot's grave.

About this time we learned that Col. Henry T. Sisson had been honorably discharged from the service at his own request, on the ground of ill health, Oct. 5, 1864.

Colonel Sisson, after distinguished service with the Fifth, was honorably discharged the service on account of disability, Oct. 5, 1864. From 1875 to 1877 he was Lieutenant-Governor of Rhode He now resides at Seaconnet Point, Little Compton, Rhode Island, where he enjoys the confidence and respect of his townsmen and all his old comrades of the war.





October 28th. The fever is all gone except a few old cases that are slowly recovering; no new cases for the past week.

A press dispatch of October 27th, states that the fever originated from a slip at the foot of Craven Street, which had been filled up by Captain Bradley, provost marshal in New Berne, with manure and barrels of rotten beef. The number of deaths did not exceed two thousand, principally among citizens and refugees. Of a total number of thirteen army surgeons in New Berne eight died of the fever. Among the survivors were Surgeon Potter and Assistant Surgeon Greene, of the Fifth Rhode Island. During the prevalence of fever regimental headquarters were moved to Fort Spinola, and again transferred to New Berne when the epidemic abated.

It is now time to turn our attention to companies D and I, on Roanoke Island. Here the routine of garrison duty hung with a dull weight upon both officers and men. Company D at Fort Parke occasionally found a little excitement in firing a shot across the bows of some vessel, bound up the sound, that would attempt to run by without reporting to the commanding officer on the island. At times a raid would be made along “the banks,” or among the creeks and bays of the mainland, to collect the small boats that might be used in smuggling medicines, etc., in a small way, into the Confederacy. The re-enlisted veterans of the various detachments on the island received their furloughs during the latter part of September. While they were absent First Lieut. Walter H. Luther was detailed to command a detachment of the One Hundred and Third Pennsylvania Volunteers, while Lieutenant-Colonel Clark, of that regiment, was absent with the veterans. October 4th the enemy made a boat raid along the shore of the mainland and burned the light-house at the head of Croatan Sound, some four miles from Roanoke Island, carrying away the keeper and his family.

About October 24th, Lieutenant Cushing, of the navy, called at the island, on his way up from Hatteras Inlet to the Roanoke River. He was in a small torpedo steam launch, with which he was going to attempt the destruction of the rebel ram Albemarle, then lying at Plymouth. This he succeeded in doing October 27th, exhibiting a persistency and daring that has made his name historical. Monotony again resumed sway until the time came for the men to forward their





ballots for President, when this furnished a mild excitement. About this time our forces recaptured Plymouth. When the news of the reelection of President Lincoln was received at Roanoke Island, the officers stationed on the island, leading citizens and troops determined to express their joy over the result of the election by a celebration on Thanksgiving day. Captain Moran was sent to New Berne, where he succeeded in procuring the services of the fine band of the Second Massachusetts Heavy Artillery for the occasion. A large building, once used as a storehouse, was converted into a ball and supper room, and everybody from all the islands and country around was made welcome. Not until the light of the succeeding day dimmed the lamps and candles did their festivities cease. Neither before nor since then has Roanoke Island been the scene of so large and enthusiastic a celebration of that New England day.

Soon after Thanksgiving Chaplain White visited companies D and I, and entertained the men with graphic descriptions of the fight of Company A at Croatan Station, and his adventures while a prisoner in the hands of the rebel Philistines. On the 6th of December a battalion of three companies commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Clark, of the Eighty-fifth New York, was sent from Roanoke Island to Plymouth. One of these companies, composed of men from Company D, and some men from the One Hundred and First Pennsylvania, was under the command of Captain Moran. They joined a “picked-up” brigade, commanded by Brigadier-General Wilde, at Plymouth, the same day. The next day the command commenced its march to find the enemy, and, on the second day out, encountered a small force, with whom they had a running skirmish for some miles. For some days the column moved about from one place to another in the Roanoke country, just as the enemy were reported here, or there, visiting Hamilton in the meantime. This place recalled many incidents of their former visit, to the men of Company D. After wandering around more than a week searching for an elusive foe, the command marched “down the hill again” to Plymouth, having picked up a few stragglers. From this place the various detachments returned to their several commands.

Then followed the muster out of the officers and men of the old battalion organization whose term of service had expired.





CHAPTER XV. CLOSING OPERATIONS OF THE WAR AROUND NEW BERNE.

WE now approach the closing scenes of the existence of the Fifth Rhode Island as a military organization. From this time on the fortunes of war made its position that of a spectator rather than that of an active participant in the final operations attending the complete suppression of the rebellion. As spectators, then, we saw, during the first half of November, 1864, this general situation of affairs. In the west General Sherman was leaving Atlanta for the sea, while the rebel general, Hood, was entering upon his desperate campaign that ended in overwhelming defeat at Nashville. In the east, Sheridan had finished his dashing and victorious campaign in the valley of Virginia, and the rebel army in that section had practically ceased to exist. At Petersburg and Richmond the tenacious and tireless Grant confronted the greatest general and strongest army of the Confederacy in their formidable line of forts and entrenchments. In New Berne, the first frosts of autumn had come, bringing promise of release from the epidemic that had raged with such deadly effect.

At this time the situation of the Fifth, as noticed in the preceding chapters, remained unchanged. Three companies were on the north side of the Neuse, four were in the forts on the south side of the Trent, and two were on Roanoke Island, while most of Company A were filling unknown graves at Andersonville and Florence. During the prevalence of the yellow fever no officers or soldiers, outside of the medical department, were allowed to enter New Berne. All





who were absent had been directed to remain at their homes until ordered to report by the proper authorities, for the medical officers had deemed it best that those men who had not been exposed to the contagion should not return until the cold weather had set in and all danger had passed. It was not until after the November elections that the re-enlisted veterans of our regiment, and the officers on leave of absence, received orders to report in New York for transportation to New Berne. The rebel authorities had fulfilled so much of the terms of the surrender of Company A, as to release Chaplain White, as a non-combatant, at Charleston, S. C., on the 23d of September, and since that time he had been at home in Providence. About eighty of the veterans of the Fifth, together with Chaplain White, Captain Robinson, Adjutant Gladding, Quartermaster Lawton, and Lieutenant Landers assembled in New York, where they embarked for New Berne, direct. They reached Hatteras Inlet, November 19th, and this detachment again had the experience of entering the Sound in a storm. The steamer anchored north of the inlet and signaled for a pilot. Chaplain White shall tell of this adventure:

“The ship plunged terribly, and strained at the great anchor cable as if it must part it at the next roll. The rain fell freely, and the wind was coming with the force of a hurricane. Presently a speck was seen approaching from the inlet, and we soon recognized the pilot, and in a few minutes up came the anchor, and we started for the entrance. The pilot got us safely into the inlet channel. Just as we passed the fort we came upon the dreaded ‘swash’ and struck, so strong was the wind and tide and they took the bow of the ship and swung us fair about, till we headed for the sea again. We signaled for help and a tug run alongside, but both engines were unable to get us off. This ‘swash’ is a belt of hard sand across the inlet on the inside. The water is from seven to ten feet deep, varying with the force of the tide, and it is the dread of all vessels entering Pamlico Sound. Finding it impossible to go ahead and thus get off the ‘swash,’ the pilot reversed the engines and backed her, digging out a path for her keel with the propeller. As I looked upon the operation I thought that this was not the first time a party has had to get out of a bad scrape by backing out. To back out is one





thing, but to back through and so triumph in spite of obstacles is quite another. Our appetites began to sharpen, and faces that were long and of a doleful cast began to grow cheerful, and ‘off Hatteras,’ and ‘within the inlet’ were thought to be widely different situations.”


[Illustration:

Sergt. James B. Horton.
]

The veterans landed in New Berne in a drizzling rain. Under the command of Captain Robinson they marched to regimental headquarters and reported in a body to Lieutenant-Colonel Tew. And when they had time to realize the great danger they had escaped during their absence from New Berne, each and all felt that the delay in getting their furloughs had proved a blessing in the end.





Up to this time the regimental hospital had remained in its old location near Fort Totten. It was now removed over the Neuse to Fort Anderson. Soon after this change an incident occurred that showed the unsophisticated nature of the average North Carolina girl of that period. One day two young girls came to one of the hospital tents and asked for a drink of water. The hospital steward directed one of the attendants to give them ice-water, which was furnished to the patients at that time. One of the girls took the glass, raised it to her lips, and then with a scream of mingled fear and pain, she dropped it to the ground, and clasped her trembling hands over her mouth. She had never tasted ice-water before in summer.

Nothing broke the quiet of garrison duty for some weeks after the veterans returned. Various small expeditions and many scouting parties were sent out, but it did not fall to our lot to share in them. November 25th, Colonel Whitford, who commanded the rebel cavalry that did their outpost duty between Kinston and New Berne, came in with a flag of truce, ostensibly for the purpose of making arrangements for some refugees to cross our lines. But the duration of his stay, and the evident pleasure with which he enjoyed the hospitalities tendered him by some of the officers at headquarters, made many think that his real errand was to have a “good time.”

On Friday, December 9th, a reconnoissance in force was ordered towards Kinston. A detachment of one hundred and forty men from the Fifth Rhode Island, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Tew, together with similar detachments from other regiments, constituted the force. The column left New Berne about eleven o'clock at night. We quote our account from the diary of an officer who took part in this last march of the Fifth Rhode Island: “We marched in a pouring rain until five o'clock next morning, when we bivouacked until eight; then we started and marched all day until nine o'clock that night, and again bivouacked in a cold northeast rain storm. We started again at seven o'clock the next morning, Sunday, just as it began to clear off, and marched to within about four miles of Kinston. We skirmished with the enemy most of the day, but had no regular engagement. Monday we started for New Berne, where we arrived Tuesday afternoon, thoroughly tired and footsore. It





was the hardest march we were ever on, and we were in the worst possible condition to make it that we were ever in, from lying so long in garrison. I suppose the object of the expedition was accomplished; which probably was a mere feint to cover an attack elsewhere, and prevent rebel troops from being drawn from here to repel it.”

The regiment returned from the reconnoisance December 13th. The term of service of those members of the original battalion who had not re-enlisted would expire on the next Thursday, the 16th. Less than one hundred men and nine officers were to be mustered out. It was not to escape the fatigues of the march or the dangers of the battlefield that these men did not re-enlist, but rather to be free from the monotony of a camp life that had in its future no promise of a change for the better; it was that their hearts were filled with a longing for home. How well these men had fulfilled to the uttermost every duty required of them, these pages have borne most willing but feeble testimony. The officers were, Surgeon Albert Potter, Chaplain Henry S. White, Capts. William W. Douglas, George G. Hopkins, and Henry B. Landers, and Lieuts. James M. Wheaton, Henry P. Williams, Dutee Johnson, Jr., and Charles E. Douglass. The routine necessary to the execution of formal regulations and compliance with official details caused nearly a week to elapse before these men finally reached their homes. A fatality seemed to attend the quartermasters of the Fifth. On the 20th of December Quartermaster Lawton suddenly died of apoplexy. He was the third one who had died of disease since the regiment had been in North Carolina.

The winter season had now set in and compelled, for a time, a general cessation of hostilites. General Sherman was in Savannah, Ga., where his army was being recruited and refitted. As soon as this was done, and he had collected supplies for the march, he was to move north through the Carolinas and enter Virginia in the rear of Petersburg and Richmond, and effect a junction with General Grant. The latter was to watch and follow General Lee and the rebel army of Virginia, if they attempted to leave their lines, so closely that they should not be able to escape and attack General Sherman when he entered Virginia. The soldiers composing the garrison at New





Berne could only wait and watch the successive steps of this great campaign as its plan was gradually unfolded. General Sherman soon left Savannah and threw his army into the swamps and morasses of South Carolina, on his northward march. He was not to detach men or spend time to secure Charleston, or to capture Wilmington, but to march directly north to Goldsboro. In the meantime all of the men that could be spared from General Thomas's victorious army at Nashvillle, Tenn., were brought by rail to Annapolis, Md., and Washington, D. C., where they were embarked, and, under the command of Major-General Schofield, ordered to Wilmington, there to assist in the capture of that place. These forces were then to move north on the railroad to Goldsboro, or from New Berne to Goldsboro, and have supplies ready for General Sherman's army when it should reach that point.

When General Schofield reached Wilmington with his Twenty-third Army Corps, he found that Fort Fisher had been captured by General Terry, and he had only to assist in those movements which compelled the evacuation of Wilmington on the night of February 21st. Our forces entered that city February 22d, only to find that all the rolling stock had been removed, and the march on Goldsboro with supplies therefor impracticable within the the time required. While these movements were being made around Wilmington some five thousand men had been sent to General Palmer at New Berne, and a large quantity of rolling stock and engines, altered to the standard Virginia gauge of five feet, collected at Beaufort. On the 22d of February 1865, General Schofield ordered General Palmer to move from New Berne to Kinston, at once, repairing the railroad as he advanced. At the same time he ordered the Twenty-third Corps to New Berne. On the 25th he found that General Palmer had not yet commenced his march, and he placed Gen. J. D. Cox in command of the troops with orders to move, which were obeyed the same day.

It was at this time a significant event occurred which was hailed at the time as one of the signs of the approaching end of our great struggle. On the 25th of February, Company B, of the Sixth North Carolina (rebel) cavalry, came into our lines in a body, with their two lieutenants and horses, arms, and equipments, and delivered themselves up. After partaking of a bountiful supply of food, with





the old flag at the head of their column, they entered the city. Here they were informed that they would receive pay for their horses and arms, and could either go north or be furnished with employment there. These men said that there were thousands in the rebel army who would come in if they only knew they would be received in such a generous manner.

About March 1st Colonel Tew was placed in command of the forts and other defences of New Berne, and they were mainly garrisoned by the various companies of the Fifth and some detachments from other regiments. The troops of the Twenty-third Corps were now arriving at New Berne by thousands, and this sudden influx of men taxed the powers and endurance of both the officers and men on duty in the city to the utmost. Supplies of all kinds had to be issued to them, and they soon filled the hospitals to overflowing. Everything had been left behind them at Nashville, and many of the regiments did not have even a regimental medicine chest with them. Often the morning sick call of the Fifth lasted well into the day, and as many as four hundred of these men received treatment at the regimental hospital in one day. A fleet laden with supplies of all kinds soon gathered at the wharves, and the local troops had to furnish details and guards for every purpose known at a base of supplies. In his report the Adjutant-General of Rhode Island, says: “During the forward movement from New Berne, the Fifth regiment, in addition to its other duties, furnished the provost guard for the city, patrols for picking up deserters and stragglers, guards for conveying convalescents and others to the front, a guard for trains running to Goldsboro and after wards to Raleigh, a picket guard for protection against incursions by guerrilla bands, and performed various other kinds of duty in the city, at outposts and at the front. Many times a large percentage of the men were sick in hospital, or in quarters, from the effects of the severe duty imposed upon them. Although during this period the regiment did not go to the front, the officers and men would willingly have changed places with any regiment in the field, and even went so far as to ask the commanding general to be sent there. But the experience of the regiment in the care of fortifications and the use of heavy guns, as well as the general work pertaining to garrison duty, caused it to be retained in New Berne.” Such was





the lot of the Fifth Rhode Island during these days of bustle and excitement.

To yield up Goldsboro and let General Sherman establish himself there with New Berne as his base of supplies was to practically announce the speedy fall of Richmond and the end of the Confederacy. No one knew this better than the rebel generals. Kinston must be held at any cost, as its possession determined the fate of Goldsboro. Accordingly General Bragg assumed personal command of the troops defending Kinston. General Cox found them strongly posted at Wises's Fork, one and a half miles south of Southwest Creek. A stubbornly contested battle took place here. Through the want of caution a detached force of our troops numbering about 700 men were captured almost to a man. The enemy repeatedly charged our lines, and were repulsed with heavy loss each time. It was not until 13th of March, and after the whole of the Twenty-third army corps had been advanced to our lines, that the enemy finally evacuated Kinston. Our troops had come to stay this time, and the railroad was at once repaired to that point.

Rebel prisoners of war did not always find their paths strewn with roses while sojourning among us. But, when once within the walls of our stockades, our worst treatment was infinitely superior to the best they ever bestowed on such unfortunates as fell into their hands. No rendezvous of rebel prisoners in all the North was so hated by them as Point Lookout, Md. We have put before our readers a tale of Andersonville and Florence. In order that it may be the more impartially judged we will give a glimpse into our own treatment of such rebel soldiers as the fortunes of war put into our hand.

On the 13th of March First Lieut. C. W. Howland, with one sergeant and twelve men from the Fifth, reported to district headquarters for special duty. There Lieutenant Howland learned that he was to guard 362 rebel prisoners from New Berne to Fortress Monroe. They were to embark on an old transport, the S. R. Spaulding, which had just unloaded a cargo of beef cattle. The steamer was in a filthy condition, and the prisoners protested being sent aboard her until she had been cleansed. But there was no time to wait for that, so they had to embark. The steamer sailed that afternoon, and reached Fortress Monroe at eight o'clock on the morning of the 15th.





Here Lieutenant Howland reported to General Ord, commanding the department, who ordered him to take the prisoners to Point Lookout, Md. They were landed, by means of a tug, a squad at a time, and guarded by a detachment from the fort until about four P. M., the next day, when they were embarked on the steamer Clyde for Point Lookout. Lieutenant Howland shall tell his own story:


[Illustration:

Lieut. Charles E. Lawton.
]

“All went well until about ten o'clock, when we were within a mile or two of Point Lookout Light. I was in the act of getting into my berth, when suddenly I was flung against the door of my stateroom with such force that it was thrown open and I landed full length under the dining-table in the saloon, right under the eyes of the old colored stewardess, who sat there sewing, and I wasn't in





full dress either. Getting into my clothes as quick as possible, I ran forward to the hurricane deck. There I found the captain, lead line in hand, taking soundings. He told me that he had been run into, amidships, on the starboard side, by some unknown steamer, and cut through below the water line, and that our boat was making water fast. As soon as possible signals of distress were made, and the steamer came to our assistance.

At the time of the collision the prisoners were asleep inside the guard of the steamer, and when the boat that ran into us pulled her prow from the side of our steamer, the planking gave way and four of the prisoners fell into the sea and were never seen afterward. We soon learned that the steamer was the gunboat Western World, then on duty to prevent the destruction of the light-house at the Point, a raid having been made for the purpose of blowing it up some time before. The wind was blowing a gale, and the sea was so rough that the gunboat could not come alongside, so a line was sent to us, and preparations made to pass our men aboard. The painter of a surf-boat was kept around the hawser, but it seemed impossible for the boat's crew to pull against the wind, the sea was rolling so high. I made the first attempt, and finally succeeded in reaching the gunboat, where the executive officer furnished me with dry clothing and plenty of hot coffee. In the meantime the captain of the Clyde had stuffed the great leak with mattresses and spiked planking over it. He also shifted his chain boxes and other material to the opposite side so as to careen her over and make her tolerably safe.

By this time I had made arrangements to transfer the guard and prisoners to the gunboat. The guard came over first. One of the officers stood on one side and I on the other, with sailors holding us so we would not go overboard, then, when the surf-boat would rise on a wave we would reach out and grasp a man by the shoulders and pull him in. The marines were formed in open ranks with cutlasses drawn and revolvers in hand, while the prisoners were marched below. When the hold was filled, those remaining on deck were chained, handcuffed, and strapped to the guns in every conceivable way. This was done for our own safety. One poor fellow had his head crushed between the guard of the surf-boat and the side of the gunboat, killing him instantly, and we dropped the body overboard.





“We worked all night in transferring the prisoners. The next morning, at about eight o'clock, we took the disabled steamer in tow and started for the Point. There I turned the prisoners over to the commanding officer, who was pleased to congratulate me for my good management.

“After receiving a receipt for my prisoners they were formed in single file and a descriptive list taken of each officer and private. Everything was taken from them except knife and tobacco. Then they were taken to the prison pen, or stockade, and turned over to the officer in charge, there to remain until exchanged. This stockade enclosed many acres, and extended far into the waters of the Chesapeake, giving the prisoners fine facilities for bathing. The fence was seventeen feet high, with a walk inside three feet from the top, for the guard. The prisoners were divided into squads, with a non-commissioned officer in charge of each squad. Their quarters were about the same as most camps, having very large and comfortable tents for hospital purposes. The prisoners were allowed one-half of a government ration, which is sufficient for any unemployed man. If they desired the other half ration, or a plug of tobacco, or a ration of whiskey, they could get it by doing a day's work on the fortifications. At tattoo roll call those who wished to work the following day could report to the non-commissioned officer in command of the squad, and the person so reporting would get his detail for duty, receiving the promised reward at the close of the day. The camp and all its surroundings were very neat and tidy.

“I remained at Point Lookout until late the next day, when I took passage on the S. R. Spaulding for Norfolk, and returned to New Berne by the way of the Dismal Swamp Canal and Roanoke Island. The officer in command of the gunboat was tried by a court-martial and dismissed from the service, for his recklessness in causing the collision.”

Goldsboro was occupied by our forces March 21st. On that day General Sherman defeated the rebels under Gen. J. E. Johnston at Bentonville, N. C., and on the 23d his advance reached Goldsboro, where ample supplies were awaiting him. General Terry arrived about the same time from Wilmington, having marched along the line of the railroad. These armies remained here, resting and





refitting, until April 10th, when General Sherman moved towards Raleigh, which he occupied on the 13th. At this time, and by these great armies, was the original plan of General Burnside fully accomplished, and the men of the Fifth Rhode Island and the old Coast Division, saw others secure the prize for which they had so long and so manfully battled amid the forests and swamps of North Carolina.

From the time of the occupation of Goldsboro up to the departure of General Sherman's army for Washington, D. C., many of our officers aud men availed themselves of the opportunity to go to Raleigh on the supply trains and see something of the interior of North Carolina. At first the most noticeable thing was the number of rebel soldiers that were everywhere seen plodding wearily toward their homes. They could be seen following by-paths and making short cuts across the fields until long after Johnston's rebel army had surrendered.

During the winter of 1864-65 the following changes occurred in the roster of the regiment:

On the 6th of January Lieutenant-Colonel Tew appointed Lieut. C. W. Howland adjutant, and Lieut. C. F. Gladding quartermaster of the regiment.

January 11th. Assistant-Surgeon Jerome B. Greene was promoted to the rank of surgeon, his commission to date from Dec. 22, 1864, and was mustered into service January 18th. First Lieuts. Edward F. Angell, George H. Pierce and Walter H. Luther were appointed captains, to date from Jan. 1, 1865, and Second Lieuts. Henry B. Bateman, John B. Landers, and Benjamin F. Underwood, to be first lieutenants, to date from Jan. 1, 1865.

On the 13th of February, Lieutenant Howland was relieved from duty as adjutant and assigned to Company A, and First Lieut. B. F. Underwood was detailed as adjutant.

February 27th, Capt. Isaac M. Potter was promoted major, vice Jameson dismissed, and First Lieut. Lewis H. Bowen was appointed captain.

April 7th, First Lieut. C. T. Pierce was appointed captain.

May 9th, Lieutenant Underwood was formally promoted to be first lieutenant and adjutant of the regiment, and on the same day Lieutenant Gladding was commissioned quartermaster.





CHAPTER XVI. THE END.

THE war had ended. A feeling that they had done all that could now be required of them; that in doing further duty as soldiers they were performing useless labor; a feeling that they were out of place while lazily lounging around their quarters, or marching up and down for two hours at a time in front of some officer's tent, seemed to seize upon the men. And the same feeling appeared to exist to a great degree among the officers of the regiment. Discipline relaxed. Company and battalion drills ceased. “What did you do” was asked of a member of the regiment, “between the first of May and your muster-out at New Berne?” “Do? Why, I fished for crabs off the dock, or read anything I could get, in my tent,” was his candid reply.

During this time the companies were assembled in the forts south of the Trent, and regimental headquarters were established in Fort Spinola. Most of the regular garrison of New Berne were sent to other points, or discharged from the service, and by the first of June the streets of the city began to wear a deserted look. The men now performed their duties in a listless manner, and all of their thoughts and talks were upon the one question, “When will we be discharged and sent home?” And so the long, sweltering days were passed, until at length the good news came that some time during the last of June they would get transportation home. At length it was definitely known that on the 26th of June they would receive their formal discharge from the service; and on that day that formal proceeding took place. Then arose the question of transportation. It could not be furnished at once, and so the wearying, trying ordeal of waiting was again resumed. At this time the roster of the regiment was as follows:





Field and Staff, Col. George W. Tew, Maj. Isaac M. Potter, Surgeon Jerome B. Greene, Adjt. B. F. Underwood, Quartermaster C. F. Gladding.

Company B, First Lieut. M. O. Darling, Second Lieut. S. W. Burbank.

Company A, Capt. John Aigan, First Lieut. C. W. Howland. At this time this company numbered ten men, the survivors of the fifty-one who were captured at Croatan Station.

Company K, Capt. E. DeMeulen.

Company E, Capt, George H. Pierce.

Company G, Capt. John E. Robinson, First. Lieut. Charles C. Greene.

Company I, Capt. Charles Taft, First Lieut. John B. Landers.

Company D, Capt. W. H. Luther.

Company H, Capt. E. F. Angell.

Company C, First Lieut. H. B. Bateman.

Company F, Capt. William R. Landers.

On the 26th of June His Excellency the Governor made the following promotions in the regiment:

Sergeant-Major Patrick Hayes to be second lieutenant.

Hospital Steward John K. Burlingame to be second lieutenant.

Quartermaster Sergeant Lewis T. Hall to be second lieutenant.

First Sergeant Samuel B. Burbank to be second lieutenant.

First Sergeant John Radakin to be second lieutenant.

First Sergeant John Reddington to be second lieutenant.

First Sergeant Peleg Clarke to be second lieutenant.

Sergeant John B. Garteman to be second lieutenant.

Sergeant James McEwan to be second lieutenant.

Private William Goss to be second lieutenant.

These promotions did not reach the regiment until it was on the route home, and therefore the officers were never mustered into the United States service.

The 30th of June was at last set as the day of embarkation. With the first light of the morning the eager men were out and watching to see the expected steamer run up to the wharf, and all the morning the negroes swarmed through the camp, gathering what was for them a rich harvest of abandoned property. It was afternoon





before the long-looked for boat, the Ellen S. Terry, came to her moorings, and the Fifth Rhode Island assembled for the last time within the line of works that for nearly three years had been their only home. Soon all were on board, the lines were cast off, and the steamer sped swiftly down the Neuse. As the boat entered Pamlico Sound, and the men turned to take their last look at the low, forest
[Illustration:

Corporal Francis Eaton.
]

covered shores, now fading from view in the gloom of the coming night, more than one heart was filled with a feeling of mingled tenderness and sorrow for the comrades they were leaving behind whom no earthly reveille would ever waken.

No accident marred the voyage from New Berne to New York. Hope, joy, hilarity even, marked the demeanor of all. The sudden death of a convalescent comrade, who thought he was “strong





enough to go home with the regiment” did not long depress them. New York was reached on the morning of July 3d. Here they learned that they were expected in Providence in time to participate in the celebration of the Fourth, and that elaborate preparations had been made to give them a rousing welcome home. In the afternoon they again embarked on the steamer Nansit for Providence. This time the boat happened to be a very slow one. To these impatient men she seemed to crawl along. It was late the next morning when the steamer rounded from the sound into the bay. The day was all that could be desired. Never before to an equal number of men did the shores of Narragansett Bay appear so delightful to the eye as they did that morning. Three years of a life passed in tramping along the low, sandy shores and through the swamps and pine forests of North Carolina, enable these men to feel in the depths of their souls how very beautiful were the rivers and bays, the hills and valleys, the woods and fields of their own loved Rhode Island, and how pure and tender were the recollections that bound them to the home and firesides of their fathers.

The hour of the departure of the steamer had been wired from New York to Providence, and it was confidently expected that the regiment would arrive quite early on the morning of the Fourth, and preparations for the reception were made accordingly. The press of the city had given notice that the veterans were expected at an early hour on the Fourth, and were to be formally received by the state and city officials. Crowds came in from the surrounding country, for nearly all of the towns in the state had representatives in the well known Fifth.

An imposing procession composed of all the fire and military companies of the city, with bands of music, together with the civic authorities in carriages, were early in line at the dock where the steamer was to land. Hour after hour passed and the boat did not appear. She had been signaled, and it was known that she would arrive some time. At last the procession moved over a portion of the prescribed route, and halted at the foot of Benefit Street and waited till the snail-like boat crept up to her berth, and the impatient veterans debarked. Then in full fighting array, and carrying the tattered banners that bore record of their many battles, they took their places





in the line. From this time, during the rest of the march, the reception of the Fifth was one continued ovation from the people who crowded the streets to see them pass and welcome them home again.

When the march through the city had been completed, the city officials took charge of the regiment, and in the evening marched men and officers to the Howard and Phœnix halls, where an elegant and bountiful collation had been prepared for the military and other organizations that had taken part in the ceremonies of the day. Here Governor Smith and Ex-Governor Hoppin made short addresses of welcome to the returned veterans. “General Burnside was present and received a most enthusiastic greeting from his old soldiers of the Fifth, whose manifestations of loving regard for their old commander touched his heart and almost choked his utterance. There was something touchingly beautiful in the feeling manifested at this meeting between the General and the men who had shared the perils and glories of his North Carolina expedition.”

The men were now furloughed to their homes until the rolls could be prepared and the formalities attending their final muster-out completed. In about two weeks they assembled again, the last settlement of accounts was made, rolls were signed for the last time, and the Fifth Regiment Rhode Island Volunteers legally ceased to exist. But so long as the American Union shall remain one country, and her children shall be endowed with courage and patriotism to defend their liberties and her integrity, so long will the Fifth Rhode Island exist in the pages of her history, and the story of the dauntless band who carried succor to their beleagured comrades be cherished in the hearts of brave men.









ROSTER.








FIELD AND STAFF.
Colonels.

Henry T. Sisson. First lieutenant and paymaster, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; captain, First Rhode Island Light Artillery, Dec. 28, 1861; major, Third Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Feb. 5, 1862; resigned, Aug. 6, 1862; colonel Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Nov. 5, 1862; honorably discharged the service on account of disability, Oct. 5, 1864.

George W. Tew. Captain, Co. F, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; captain, Co. G, Fourth Rhode Island Infantry; major, Oct. 11, 1861; lieutenant-colonel, Nov. 20, 1861 ; resigned, Aug. 11, 1862; major, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery; lieutenant-colonel, March 2, 1863; appointed colonel, Oct. 14, 1864; not mustered; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Lieutenant-Colonels.

Job Arnold. Private, Co. C, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; captain Co. E, Fifth Rhode Island Infantry, Dec. 16, 1861; lieutenant-colonel, Jan. 7, 1863; transferred to Seventh Rhode Island Infantry as lieutenant-colonel, March 2, 1863; discharged on account of physical disability, May 28, 1864.

George W. Tew. As above.

Majors.

John Wright. Captain, Co. B, Second Rhode Island Infantry, June 6, 1861; major, Fifth Rhode Island Infantry, Nov. 7, 1861; resigned, Aug. 25, 1862.

George W. Tew. As above.





Thorndike C. Jameson. Chaplain Second Rhode Island Infantry, June 5, 1861; major, Dec. 13, 1862; resigned, Jan. 8, 1863; major, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, March 2, 1863; dismissed the service, Feb. 2, 1865.

Adjutants.

Charles H. Chapman. First lieutenant and adjutant, Fifth Rhode Island Volunteers, Nov. 30, 1861; discharged on account of disability, May 14, 1862; appointed sergeant-major, Thirty-ninth Massachusetts Infantry, Sept. 1, 1862; mustered in Sept. 4, 1862; discharged Nov. 10, 1862; mustered in as second lieutenant in same regiment, Nov. 11, 1862; commission dates Aug. 30, 1862; July 17, 1865, detailed acting assistant inspector-general fourth brigade, second division, first army corps, until brigade was disbanded; commissioned first lieutenant same regiment, Sept. 6, 1864; not mustered in, being prisoner of war; mustered out, April 29, 1865; mustered in as captain Forty-first United States Colored Infantry, April 30, 1865; commission dates Sept. 16, 1864; detailed acting assistant adjutant-general, second brigade, second division, twenty-fifth army corps and post adjutant, Edinburg, Texas, Sept. 26, 1865, until brigade was disbanded; mustered out, Dec. 10, 1865.

James M. Wheaton. Second lieutenant, Co. E, Dec. 16, 1861; first lieutenant and adjutant, June 9, 1862; transferred to Co. F, Feb. 28, 1864; mustered out, Dec. 22, 1864.

Charles F. Gladding. Hospital steward, Dec. 16, 1861; first lieutenant, Co. F, Feb. 14, 1863; adjutant, Feb. 28, 1864; first lieutenant and quartermaster, Jan. 1, 1865; appointed captain, not mustered, June 26, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Christopher W. Howland. Private, Co. A, Twelfth Rhode Island Infantry, Oct. 13, 1862; promoted to second lieutenant, Co. D, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artilery, Dec. 27, 1862; first lieutenant, Dec. 5, 1864; adjutant, Jan. 2, 1865; transferred to Co. A, Feb. 10, 1865; mustered out June 26, 1865.

Benjamin F. Underwood. Private, Co. H, Dec. 27, 1862, transferred to Co. K, and appointed corporal; transferred to Co. A, and appointed sergeant; second lieutenant, Co. H., Dec. 5, 1864;





first lieutenant, Co. H, Jan. 27, 1865; appointed adjutant, Feb. 11, 1865; mustered out June 26, 1865.

Quartermasters.

Munro H. Gladding. Private, Co. D, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; quartermaster, Fifth Rhode Island Infantry, Dec. 16, 1861; died at Beaufort Hospital, North Carolina, Nov. 26, 1862.

William W. Prouty. Private, Co. D, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861: quartermaster sergeant, Fifth Rhode Island Infantry, Dec. 16, 1861; quartermaster, Feb. 14, 1863; died at New Berne, N. C., Jan. 1, 1864.

Charles E. Lawton. Quartermaster, Jan. 1, 1864; died of apoplexy, Dec. 20, 1864.

Charles F. Gladding. As above.

Surgeons.

Ephraim L. Warren. Surgeon, Dec. 10, 1862; honorably discharged on account of physical disability, Nov. 7, 1863.

Albert Potter. Mustered as assistant surgeon, Oct. 10, 1861; surgeon, Dec. 4, 1863; mustered out, Dec. 22, 1864.

Jerome B. Greene. Acting assistant surgeon, U. S. A., May 27, 1862; assigned to Mountain Department; assigned to artillery Eleventh Corps Army of the Potomac; resigned, January, 1863; assistant surgeon, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, May 25, 1863; surgeon, Dec. 22, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Assistant Surgeons,

Albert Potter. As above.

Jerome B. Greene. As above.

Chaplains.

McWalter B. Noyes. Chaplain, Dec. 16, 1861; resigned, Aug. 15, 1862.

Henry S. White. Chaplain, Jan. 7, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; exchanged, Oct. 6, 1864, mustered out, Dec. 22, 1864.





Non-Commissioned Staff.
Sergeant-Majors.

Joseph G. Hatlinger. Sergeant major, Oct. 30, 1861; discharged to accept commission as first lieutenant in Second North Carolina Volunteers (colored), July 17, 1863.

Joshua C. Drown, Jr. Private, Co. C, Dec. 16, 1861; corporal, June 7, 1862; transferred to Co. A, as sergeant, Feb. 4, 1863; promoted to sergeant-major, July 18, 1863; promoted to second lieutenant, Dec. 5, 1864; declined commission; mustered out, Dec. 23, 1864.

Patrick Hayes. Corporal, Co. F, August 12, 1862; sergeant-major, Jan. 1, 1865; second lieutenant, June 26, 1865; not mustered; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Quartermaster Sergeants.

William W. Prouty. As above.

Lewis T. Hall. Private, Co. A, Aug. 15, 1862; quartermaster sergeant; second lieutenant, June 26, 1865; not mustered; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Commissary Sergeants.

Charles E. Beers. Private, Co. A, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; commissary sergeant, Fifth Rhode Island Infantry, Oct. 7, 1861; second lieutenant Co. G, Feb. 14, 1863; honorably discharged on surgeon's certificate, Dec. 21, 1863.

Joseph P. Sisson. Commissary sergeant, Dec. 1, 1862; discharged for disability, June 1, 1863.

Richard A. Brown. Corporal, Co. G, Aug. 11, 1862; commissary sergeant, May 28, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Hospital Stewards.

Charles F. Gladding. As above.

John K. Burlingame. Private Co. F, Aug. 14, 1862; hospital steward, Feb, 14, 1863; second lieutenant, June 26, 1865; not mustered; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





COMPANY A.

[Note.—The first date mentioned after the names denotes either the enlistment or muster into service.]

Captains.

Jonathan M. Wheeler. Dec. 27, 1861; resigned, Aug. 4, 1862.

James Gregg. First sergeant, Co. B, Dec. 16, 1861; second lieutenant, Co. C, June 9, 1862; captain Co. A, Feb. 14, 1863; honorably discharged the service on account of physical disability, Dec. 21, 1863.

John Aigan. Private, Co. E, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; second lieutenant, Co. F, Third Rhode Island Heavy Artillery; appointed by Governor Smith captain in Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Jan. 25, 1864; assigned to Co. A, Feb. 15, 1864; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; escaped from prison Feb. 19, 1865; mustered out June 26, 1865; appointed major, July 5, 1865.

First Lieutenants.

Daniel S. Remington. Private Co. C, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; first lieutenant, Co. A, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Dec. 27, 1861; resigned, Aug. 6, 1862; first lieutenant, Co. C, Seventh Rhode Island Infantry, April 30, 1863; transferred to Co. G; captain Co. B, June 19, 1865; mustered out, July 13, 1865.

Dutee Johnson, Jr. Sergeant, Co. E, Dec. 16, 1861; first lieutenant, Co. A, Feb. 14, 1863; mustered out, Dec. 22, 1864.

Christopher W. Howland. Assigned to this company from adjutant, Feb. 10, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Second Lieutenants.

Levi P. Goodwin. Dec. 27, 1861; resigned, Aug. 4, 1862.

William H. Durfee, Jr. Private, Co. F, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; sergeant, Co. C, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Dec. 16, 1861; second lieutenant, Co. A, Feb. 19, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; paroled; exchanged; mustered out, March 15, 1865.





Sergeants.

Robert S. Brownell. Private, Co. H, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; first sergeant, Co. A, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Oct, 17, 1861; wounded at Battle of New Berne, March 14, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate of disability, Dec. 11, 1862.

Silas T. Burbank. Dec. 11, 1861; discharged for disability, Sept. 12, 1862.

Edward F. Angell. Private Co. C, First Rhode Island Detached Militia; sergeant Co. A, Fifth Rhode Island Infantry, Dec. 16, 1861; first lieutenant Co. G, Feb. 14, 1863; transferred to Co. H, June 15, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Allen F. Cameron. Oct. 28, 1861; first sergeant, discharged, June 25, 1864, to accept commission as first lieutenant in Co. I, Fourteenth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, (colored); mustered out, Oct. 2, 1865.

Charles Perrigo. Nov. 1, 1861; died April 26, 1862, from wounds received at Battle of New Berne, March 14, 1862.

Joshua C. Drown, Jr. Dec. 16, 1861; transferred from corporal, Co. C, Feb. 14, 1863; promoted to sergeant-major, July 18, 1863.

Samuel R. Eddy. Corporal, Sept. 10, 1862; sergeant; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died Nov. 19, 1864, of chronic diarrhœa, at Mellen, Ga.

Benjamin F. Underwood. Private, Co. H, Dec. 15, 1862; corporal, Co. K, Dec. 27, 1862; sergeant, Co. A; second lieutenant, Co. H, Dec. 5, 1864; not mustered; promoted to first lieutenant, Co. H, Jan. 1, 1865; adjutant, Feb. 11, 1865.

James McEwan. Corporal, Dec. 14, 1861; sergeant, May 1, 1862; transferred to Co. K.

C. Henry Barney. Private, Dec. 14, 1861; corporal; sergeant; discharged Jan. 14, 1864, to accept commission as first lieutenant, Co. F, Fourteenth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery (colored); adjutant of second battalion of same during its entire period of service; mustered out, Oct. 2, 1865.





Thomas Hanley. Private, Dec. 9, 1861; corporal; first sergeant when taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Nov. 15, 1864.

William Reynolds. Private, Dec. 21, 1861; corporal; discharged for disability, May 28, 1863.

Michael Kennedy. Private, August 9, 1863; sergeant; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Charleston, S. C., Oct. 14, 1864.

David H. Willard. Sept. 18, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; exchanged Nov. 27, 1864; rejoined Co. Jan. 20, 1865; promoted to first sergeant; mustered out June 26, 1865.

Corporals.

Caleb W. Colvin. Corporal, Dec. 6, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 10, 1863.

Richard Arnold. Corporal, Dec. 16, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 12, 1862.

Edward O. Colvin. Private, Dec. 14, 1861; corporal; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; taken prisoner at Croatan, May 5, 1864; died at Andersonville, Ga., Sept. 5, 1864.

Herbert Fenton. Private, Dec. 19, 1861; corporal; discharged for disability, May 11, 1864.

John George. Private, July 10, 1863; corporal; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864.

William H. Lillibridge. Private, Jan. 17, 1862; corporal; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 16, 1864.

John Nickerson. Private, Dec. 16, 1861; corporal; mustered out, Dec. 23, 1864.

Michael Riley. Private, Dec, 14, 1861; corporal; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Charleston, S. C., September, 1864.

Charles A. Slocum. Private, Dec. 14, 1861; corporal; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 14, 1864; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 31, 1864.





Jacob Snoble. Private, Jan. 1, 1862; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; appointed corporal; mustered out June 26, 1865.

Franklin Wicks. Private, Dec. 21, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; appointed corporal; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga.

Privates.

Adams, Sabin. Dec. 9, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Ballou, Dennis G. Dec. 14, 1861; taken prisoner at Plymouth, N., C.; died Oct. 10, 1864, in prison at Charleston, S. C.

Bane, Frederic. Aug. 9, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 2, 1864.

Bass, Edward F. Dec. 23, 1861; died March 18, 1862, of wounds received at Battle of New Berne, March 14, 1862.

Bentley, Benjamin. July 9, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; exchanged; rejoined regiment, Jan. 20, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Bishop, Benjamin. Dec. 10, 1861; mustered out Dec. 16, 1864.

Bourn, George O. Dec. 11, 1861; remustered as a veteran Jan. 4, 1864; taken prisoner at Croaton, N. C., May 5, 1864; exchanged March 1, 1865; mustered out June 26, 1865.

Brady, James. Dec. 27, 1861; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died Dec. 1, 1864, on steamer Baltic, while on passage from Savannah, Ga., to Annapolis, Md.

Brewer William. July 13, 1863; discharged by transfer to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Briggs, George E. Dec. 9, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 13, 1864.

Briggs, Jonathan, July 29, 1863; mustered out, June 25, 1865.

Burgess, Benjamin N. Aug. 30, 1862; transferred to Co. G, Feb. 19, 1863.

Campbell, David. Dec. 23, 1861; sent to hospital, at Beaufort, N. C., Aug. 6, 1862; died there Sept. 16, 1862; buried in National Cemetery at New Berne, N. C.

Caswell, William F. Dec. 23, 1861; died Dec. 12, 1862.





Champlin, John B. July 9, 1863; mustered out June 26, 1865.

Chase, Charles F. Sept. 1, 1862; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; escaped Dec., 1864; died at his home in Warren, R. I., Jan. 19, 1865.

Clark, Frank S. Aug. 1, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; paroled; absent sick in hospital June 26, 1865, at muster out of regiment.

Collins, Thomas. Dec. 27, 1861; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 16, 1864.

Connelly, John. July 14, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; exchanged Dec. 3, 1864; rejoined regiment, Jan. 20, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Copeland, Charles. Dec. 14, 1861; died Oct. 27, 1862. Buried in National Cemetery, New Berne, N. C.

Curtis, Charles F. July 7, 1863; deserted Jan. 1, 1865, while on furlough.

Delaney, Charles. Oct. 25, 1861; remustered as a veteran, March 1, 1864; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Feb. 22, 1865.

Doolittle, George L. Aug. 2, 1862; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864, died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 6, 1864.

Doyle, James. Dec. 20, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 14, 1864.

Drown, Joshua C. Aug. 15, 1862; discharged for physical disability, July 7, 1863.

Eaton, Amos. Dec. 16, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864, died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Oct. 1, 1864.

Eddy, James M. Dec. 20, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864, paroled and died at Annapolis, Md., Dec. 30, 1864.

Farrell, Patrick. Dec. 1, 1861; mustered out Nov. 21, 1864, term of service having expired; brought dead to U. S. General Hospital, Fortress Monroe, Nov. 29, 1864; buried at Hampton National Cemetery, Va.





Fee, Arthur. Dec. 7, 1861; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 31, 1864.

Garvey, William. July 10, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 13, 1864.

Goudy, John. July 10, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., June 2, 1862.

Gray, Michael. Dec. 23, 1861; mustered out, Dec. 31, 1864.

Gray, Owen. Dec. 23, 1861; discharged for disability, Sept. 12, 1862.

Hackett, Edward. Dec. 10, 1861; mustered out, Dec. 31, 1864.

Hampstead, John. Oct. 16, 1861; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., July 24, 1864.

Harvey, William. Aug. 1, 1863; deserted September, 1863.

Hawkins, Daniel F. Dec. 23, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; musician; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Nov. 5, 1864.

Heath, James O. Dec. 14, 1861; deserted June 25, 1863.

Higgins, Charles. Dec. 10, 1861; discharged for disability, Feb. 7, 1863.

Hiscox, Sylvester B. Aug. 21, 1862; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; exchanged Nov. 30, 1864; rejoined Co. Jan. 20, 1865; absent, sick at Annapolis, and mustered out at Providence, R. I., July 17, 1865.

Holmes, William, July 28, 1863; deserted while on furlough, January, 1865.

Hopkins, John O. Dec. 9, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 2, 1862.

Hornby, John. Dec. 27, 1861; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Florence, S. C., Sept., 1864.

Johnson, Andrew J. Aug. 9, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died at Andersonville, Ga., July 8, 1864.

Johnson, Daniel B. Dec. 21, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 30, 1863.





Kebana, Charles. Oct. 10, 1863; deserted from Fort Totton, New Berne, N. C.

Keleghan, Cornelius. Aug. 5, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., August, 1864.

King, George W. Dec. 21, 1861; discharged for disability.

Lawrence, James. Aug. 4, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; exchanged Dec. 3, 1864; returned to Co. March 6, 1865; mustered out June 26, 1865.

Leach, John B. Dec. 26, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Lee, Cornelius. Dec. 17, 1861; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Oct. 31, 1864.

Lewis, Edward. July 9, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., July 29, 1864.

Linehan, Daniel. Oct. 22, 1861; discharged for disability, May 5, 1863.

Livingston John. Oct. 25, 1861; transferred from Co. E, Aug. 2, 1862; musician; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Oct. 31, 1864.

Manchester, Samuel G. Dec. 6, 1861; discharged Nov. 26, 1862.

Mann, James F. Nov. 1, 1861; wounded at Battle of New Berne, March 14, 1862; mustered out, Nov. 17, 1864.

Mathews, James. July 9, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; rejoined Co. April 30, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

McLaughlin, James. Dec. 24, 1861; died March 30, 1862, of wounds received at Battle of New Berne, March 14, 1862.

McQuade, Edward. Jan. 17, 1862; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; rejoined Co. Jan. 20, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Melville, Thomas H. Dec. 23, 1861; discharged Feb. 5, 1862.

Melville, Peter D. Dec. 21, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; exchanged, Dec. 10, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





Melville, David. Dec. 21, 1861; deserted in camp at Providence.

Montgomery, George. Aug. 3, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; shot and killed while attempting to escape, 1864.

Moore, John. Oct. 10, 1863; deserted from Fort Totten, New Berne, N. C.

Moran Michael. Oct. 10, 1863; deserted from Fort Totten, New Berne, N. C.

Mullen Terrance. Dec. 20, 1861; discharged for disability, Nov. 26, 1862; enlisted in Co. G, Fifteenth United States Infantry; discharged for disability, November, 1864.

Murray, Patrick. Nov. 28, 1861; discharged for disability, Sept. 13, 1862.

O'Leary, Patrick. Dec. 25, 1861; died March 15, 1862, of wounds received at Battle of New Berne, March 14, 1862.

O'Neil, Cornelius. Dec. 11, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Peck, Hezekiah M. Sept. 8, 1862; discharged for disability, Aug. 9, 1863.

Peck, James E. Sept. 8, 1862; died Nov. 7, 1862; buried in National Cemetery at New Berne, N. C.

Rice, Charles. Oct. 10, 1863; deserted from Fort Totten, New Berne, N. C.

Rodman, Henry. Oct. 10, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Ryan, John. Dec. 27, 1861; deserted at camp in Providence.

Sanders, Charles. Aug. 3, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 28, 1864.

Schmidt, Thubi. Oct. 10, 1863; deserted Oct. 25, 1864.

Sears, John S. Aug. 1, 1863; discharged for disability, Nov. 21, 1863.

Seymour, Henry. July 29, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 19, 1864.

Shoales, John. Oct. 10, 1863; deserted from Fort Totten, New Berne, N. C.





Sisson, Charles S. Aug. 21, 1862; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 18, 1864.

Sisson, Shubael B. Aug. 28, 1862; transferred to Co. E, Feb. 19, 1863.

Smith, Franklin. Sept. 6, 1862; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; exchanged; rejoined Co. April 25, 1865; discharged July 21, 1865.

Smith, Palmer. Oct. 9, 1861; discharged Feb. 7, 1863.

Smith, Thomas E. Oct. 24, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Steere, Francis E. Dec. 16, 1861; mustered out, Dec. 16, 1864.

Sullivan, Jerry. Dec. 16, 1861; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 21, 1864.

Thomas, John. July 29, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Sept. 11, 1864.

Vallet, Orren. Dec. 12, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Vallet, William H. Dec. 16, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; exchanged; left sick in prison at Andersonville, Ga., and doubtless died there.

Wallace, William. July 13, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., July 11, 1864.

Waterman, Charles B. Dec. 9, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 14, 1863.

White, James P. Dec. 27, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Wicks, Stephen. Dec. 21, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 4, 1864; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; exchanged; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Wilson, Jerry. July 10, 1863; taken prisoner at Croatan, N. C., May 5, 1864; died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Sept. 4, 1864.





Wilson, William. Oct. 10, 1863; in confinement at New Berne, N. C., sentence of court martial.

Wood, Thomas. July 9, 1863; deserted Sept., 1863.

Colored Under-Cooks.

Augustus, Alfred. Nov. 11, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Augustus, Loudon. Nov. 11, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

COMPANY B.
Captains.

Allen G. Wright. Captain, Dec. 16, 1861; resigned, Jan. 14, 1863.

Isaac M. Potter. Private, Co. C, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; first lieutenant, Co. F, Third Rhode Island Heavy Artillery; resigned to accept appointment as captain Co. B, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Nov. 20, 1862; promoted to major, Feb. 27, 1865; not mustered; lieutenant-colonel, July 5, 1865; not mustered; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

First Lieutenants.

William W. Hall. First lieutenant, Dec. 16, 1861; resigned, Aug. 2, 1862.

Thomas Allen. Promoted from sergeant, Co. E, Feb. 14, 1863; dismissed the service, Nov. 28, 1864.

Christopher T. Pearce. Promoted from second lieutenant, Co. C, Dec., 1864; appointed captain, April 7, 1865; not mustered; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Second Lieutenants.

William W. Douglas. Second lieutenant, Dec. 16, 1861; promoted to first lieutenant, Co. D, June 7, 1862.

Benjamin L. Hall. Promoted from first sergeant, Co. E, June 7, 1862; promoted to captain, Co. H, Dec. 13, 1862.





George H. Pierce. Nov. 22, 1862; promoted to first lieutenant, Co. C, May 21, 1863.

Henry B. Bateman. May 21, 1863; promoted from sergeant, Co. G; transferred to Co. G, Feb. 15, 1864.

George F. Turner. Oct. 16, 1862; transferred from Co. G; transferred to Co. H.

Levi L. Burdon. Feb. 15, 1864; transferred from Co. F; resigned and discharged on account of disability, Sept. 30, 1864.

Sergeants.

James Gregg. Private, Co. B, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; first sergeant, Co. B, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Oct, 22, 1861; second lieutenant, Co. C, June 9, 1862.

Charles E. Douglass. Private, Co. A, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; sergeant Co. B, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Oct. 8, 1861; second lieutenant, Co. F, Feb. 14, 1863.

John H. Robinson. Private, Co. G, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; sergeant, Co. B, Nov. 9, 1861; promoted to first sergeant; captain, Co. G, Feb. 14, 1863.

Lorenzo V. Ludwig. Nov. 12, 1861; died of typhoid fever at Fort Macon, N. C., April 24, 1862; buried in National Cemetery at New Berne, N. C.

Samuel W. Burbank. Private, Co. B, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; sergeant, Co. B, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Dec. 2, 1861; first sergeant; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; promoted second lieutenant, June 26, 1865, not mustered; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

William E. Adams. Corporal, Oct. 14, 1861; sergeant; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Henry F. Card. Corporal, Nov. 13, 1861; promoted to sergeant; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

James Norris. Corporal, Nov. 4, 1861; sergeant, June 27, 1862; discharged for disability, March 18, 1864.





Francis C. Gardiner. Private, April 2, 1863; promoted to sergeant; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Oscar R. Livingston. Private, Sept. 10, 1863; sergeant; honorably discharged, July 20, 1864, to accept appointment as captain in Co. K, Fourteenth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery; mustered out, Oct. 2, 1865.

William H. Easterbrooks. Private, Nov. 11, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; sergeant, Jan. 23, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Corporals,

Richard E. Barden. Oct. 28, 1861; discharged; appointed second lieutenant; commission revoked and cancelled by Gov. Sprague, Feb. 20, 1862.

Leonard B. Barrus. Oct. 17, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

William L. Collins. Oct. 10, 1861; mustered out Nov, 21, 1864.

George J. Smith. Oct. 24, 1861; discharged for disability, May 5, 1863.

Adam Scott. Nov. 16, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; corporal, April 22, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

John Austen. Private, Oct. 14, 1861; corporal; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Archibald Bell. Private, Nov. 27, 1861; corporal, June 26, 1862; discharged for disability, Sept. 12, 1862.

Henry F. Sherman. Private, Oct. 22, 1861; corporal, June 26, 1862; mustered out, Nov. 21, 1864.

William Grant. Private, Aug. 5, 1863; corporal, Jan. 1, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

James Lowrey. Private, Oct. 11, 1861; corporal; discharged for disability, April 15, 1863.

Edward M. Meigs. Private, Dec. 6, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; corporal, Sept. 1, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





Owen Smith. Private, Oct. 15, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; corporal, April 22, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Gardiner W. Sisson. Private, Dec. 10, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; corporal, same date; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

George E. Wilkinson. Private, Oct. 9, 1862; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; corporal, same date; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Thomas F. Cahill. Private, Oct. 12, 1861; corporal; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Mark A. Handy. Private, Oct. 19, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; corporal, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Musicians.

George Alger. Dec. 16, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

James McIntyre. Oct. 19, 1861; discharged for disability, May 27, 1862.

Privates.

Adams, John. July 9, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Anderson, Thomas. Aug. 5, 1863; mustered out, May 24, 1865, by order of War Department.

Austin, Charles H. Sept. 8, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Aylesworth, William. Nov. 28, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Baggott, John. Oct. 23, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Blackmar Henry. Dec. 4, 1861; discharged for disability.

Brahee, George. July 9, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Brannigan, Daniel. Aug. 25, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Brayley, Isaac. Dec. 16, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





Brightman, Francis T. Oct. 8, 1861; discharged July 5, 1864, for disability from hospital at Portsmouth Grove, R. I.

Brown, John. July 9, 1863; drowned while bathing in the Neuse River, Aug. 15, 1863; buried at National Cemetery, New Berne, N. C.

Bullock, James F. Oct. 8, 1861; wagoner; mustered out, Jan. 1, 1865.

Clarke, James. Aug. 1, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Clough, Robert. Nov. 30, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Congerelt, John. July 9, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Corbett, William. Sept. 15, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Cornell, Charles H. July 27, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Cullen, Hugh. July 8, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Cumerford, Henry. July 10, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Coyle, Patrick. Jan. 4, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Davis, John. July 8, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Dennison, Jeremiah. Aug. 28, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Derwin, Owen. Sept. 24, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Dillon, William H. Nov. 15, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; deserted while on furlough, Nov. 23, 1864.

Donagan, Edward. Oct. 10, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 21, 1864.

Donnelly, Robert. Oct. 9, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 21, 1864.

Donovan, Thomas. July 8, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Farnsworth, David. Oct. 11, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Farnsworth, Robert. Oct. 11, 1861; discharged for disability.

Ferrent, Peter. July 9, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Fish, Eugene A. Oct. 16, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Flood, John. Oct. 19, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; died Nov. 26, 1864, in hospital, Soldiers’ Depot, New York City.

Franklin, John. Nov. 18, 1861; discharged for disability, March 26, 1863.





Frazier, Thomas. Dec. 16, 1861; discharged for disability, June 26, 1863.

Gavin, Patrick. Nov. 16, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Greene, Jeremiah. Oct. 12, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Grimshaw, John. Oct. 23, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Hanley, Daniel. Oct. 19, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Harrington, James. Nov. 5, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Hassett, William. July 8, 1863; absent in hospital, New Berne, N. C., since Nov. 3, 1864.

Hastie, William A. Dec. 2, 1861; transferred from Co. C; musician; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Hanz, Lawrence. Not accounted for on rolls.

Hazard, Albert. Oct. 15, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Held, Jacob. Aug. 22, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Hilton, Jonathan. Nov. 26, 1861; discharged.

Hopkins, George W. Nov. 14, 1861; died March 15, 1862, of wounds received at the Battle of New Berne.

Johnson, James. Aug. 15, 1863; deserted from Fort Spinola, New Berne, N. C., Aug. 6, 1864.

Jones, Peter J. July 8, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Kelley, Michael. Oct. 14, 1861; discharged.

Kennedy, Alexander. Nov. 4, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Kinder, William. Nov. 26, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 29, 1864.

Lake, Jonathan. Dec. 13, 1861; transferred to Invalid Corps, New York, Nov. 22, 1863.

Lang, Thomas. Oct. 15, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Lawton, William J. Oct. 14, 1861; died of typhoid fever at New Berne, N. C., Aug. 28, 1862; buried in National Cemetery at New Berne.





Le Valley, Cromwell. Oct. 14, 1861; discharged for disability, Sept. 12, 1862.

Lindsay, John P. Nov. 25, 1861; discharged for disability at Washington, D. C., July 6, 1864.

Lindsay, William F. Oct. 14, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Liscomb, Byron D. Dec. 11, 1861; died at New Berne, N. C., Nov. 3, 1863; buried in National Cemetery at New Berne.

Lynch, William. Sept, 3, 1863: mustered out, June 26, 1865.

McDermott, Michael. Oct. 23, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

McGann, Patrick. Oct. 15, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

McKeough, John. Nov. 3, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Meyer, Henry, July 14, 1863; deserted from Fort Spinola, New Berne, N. C., Sept. 14, 1863.

Mitchell, John C. Nov. 18, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Murphy, Daniel. July 8, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Murphy, Lawrence. Oct. 14, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Norton, George. July 27, 1863; deserted, Sept. 14, 1863.

Norman, Henry. July 9, 1863; deserted July 5, 1864; received permission to report before General Casey's Board of Examination, April, 1864; failed to return.

O'Brien, James. July 27, 1863; absent in confinement at Fort Macon, N. C., May 1, 1865; released from confinement, by special order War Dept., Feb. 2, 1866.

O'Brien, John. Oct. 23, 1863; discharged July 23, 1865, at Portsmouth Grove Hospital, R. I.

O'Brien, Jeremiah. Oct. 21, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; deserted while on furlough; dishonorably discharged and confined at hard labor for three years at Concord, N. H., State Prison.

O'Connell, Thomas. Sept. 25, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





O'Shea, Jeremiah. Nov. 12, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Owens, Hugh. Oct. 10, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Perkins, Horace. Sept. 11, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Powers, James. Oct. 21, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; deserted Nov. 23, 1864, while on furlough.

Redfern, Joseph. Oct. 13, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 21, 1864.

Remington, George W. Nov. 12, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Ridgeway, George. Oct. 9, 1861; discharged for disability, June 26, 1863.

Riley, James. July 28, 1863; in confinement at Fort Macon, N. C., sentence General Court Martial, June, 1864; deserted from same, June 12, 1865.

Ross, George D. Aug. 1, 1863; deserted from Fort Totten, N. C., Oct. 20, 1863.

Savage, William. Dec. 2, 1861; discharged.

Shawcross, David. Oct. 22, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 21, 1864.

Simpkins, Thomas. Dec. 4, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Smith, Samuel. July 29, 1863; died at New Berne, N. C., April 25, 1864; buried in National Cemetery, New Berne, N. C.

Tallman, William F, Sept. 12, 1862; deserted from Fort Totten, New Berne, N. C., Aug. 5, 1863.

Troy, William. Sept. 7, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Warner, Chester. Oct. 25, 1861; discharged.

Wilmarth, Horace. Oct. 11, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Whitney, Moses G. Dec. 9, 1861; discharged for disability, Sept. 18, 1862.

Wharton, George. July 27, 1863; deserted from Fort Totten, N. C., Sept. 19, 1863.

Colored Under-Cooks.

Atkinson, Esek. Feb. 1, 1865; mustered out June 26, 1865.

Atkinson, Irvin. Feb. 1, 1865; mustered out June 26, 1865.





COMPANY C,
Captains.

James M. Eddy. Dec. 19, 1861; resigned, Aug. 6, 1862.

William W. Douglas. Promoted from first lieutenant, Co. D, Feb. 14, 1863; mustered out, Dec. 20, 1864.

First Lieutenants.

John E. Snow. Private, Co. A, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; first lieutenant. Co. C, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Dec. 16, 1861; resigned Jan, 14, 1863.

Leander A. Davis. Feb. 19, 1863; promoted from second lieutenant; resigned April 4, 1863.

George H. Pierce. May 21, 1863; promoted from second lieutenant, Co. B; transferred to Co. E, Feb. 7, 1865.

Henry B. Bateman. Jan. 1, 1865; promoted from second lieutenant, Co. G; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Second Lieutenants.

George G. Hopkins. Dec. 16, 1861; promoted to first lieutenant, June 7, 1862, and assigned to Co. E.

James Gregg. June 9, 1862; promoted from first sergeant, Co. B; promoted to captain, Co. A, Feb. 14, 1863.

Leander A. Davis. Nov. 13, 1862; promoted from sergeant, Co. F.

Christopher T. Pearce. Feb. 14, 1863; promoted from private, Co. G; promoted to first lieutenant, Co. B, Dec. 1, 1864.

Sergeants.

Henry B. Landers. Private, Co. F, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; first sergeant, Co. C, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Oct. 23, 1861; second lieutenant, Feb. 23, 1862, and assigned to Co. E.

William H. Durfee, Jr. Private, Co. F, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; sergeant, Co. C, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Oct. 23, 1861; first sergeant, June 7, 1862; promoted to second lieutenant, Co. A, Feb. 19, 1862.





William F. Tansey. Private, Co. G, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; sergeant, Co. C, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Oct. 5, 1861; first sergeant, Feb. 1, 1863; honorably discharged to accept appointment as first lieutenant in Co. K, March 15, 1864, Fourteenth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, (colored); mustered out, Oct. 2, 1865; drowned while returning to the north.

Amos B. Sherman. Oct. 23, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; died at Newport, R. I., while on furlough, Oct. 9, 1864.

Walter H. Luther. Private, Co. G, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; sergeant, Co. C, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Oct. 18, 1861; first lieutenant, Co. D, Feb. 14, 1863.

Nathan H. Gleason. Corporal, Oct. 9, 1861; sergeant, Feb. 18, 1863; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

George H. Chase. Corporal, Oct. 24, 1861; sergeant, Feb. 18, 1863; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

John Radakin. Corporal, Oct, 24, 1861; sergeant, June 7, 1863; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; promoted to second lieutenant, June 26, 1865, not mustered; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

George H. Gladding. Musician, Oct. 23, 1861; sergeant, transferred to Co. K.

John H. East. Private, Aug. 4, 1863; corporal; sergeant, June 1, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

John Horton. Private, July 29, 1863; corporal, Jan. 1, 1865; sergeant, June 1, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Luke Nyland. Oct. 24, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; corporal; sergeant, Jan. 1, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

John F. Thacker. Private, Aug. 12, 1862; corporal; sergeant; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Corporals.

Thomas Hill. Oct. 22, 1861; discharged for disability, June 24, 1863.





Thomas L. Boyden. Oct. 24, 1861; discharged for disability, March 26, 1863.

Peter Cornell. Oct. 23, 1861; transferred to the Invalid Corps, , March 2, 1864.

Edward F. Babbitt. Nov. 21, 1861; mustered out, Dec. 23, 1864.

Franklin E. Wilmarth. Private, Co. G, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; on duty in commissary department; corporal, Co. C, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Dec. 16, 1861; mustered out, Dec. 23, 1864.

George E. Allen. Private, Oct. 23, 1861: corporal, Nov., 1862; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864; private, Co. B, 2d Battalion 15th U. S. Infantry; sergeant, 1865; discharged, Sept. 30, 1868, from the 24th U. S. Infantry.

Richard B. Blake. Private, Oct. 22, 1861; corporal; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

James L. Bicknell. Private, Oct. 22, 1861; corporal; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

James Burns. Private, July 29, 1863; corporal, June 1, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Joshua C. Drown, Jr. Private, Dec. 16, 1861; corporal, June 7, 1862; transferred to Co. A, as sergeant, Feb. 4, 1863.

Benjamin F. Drown. Private, Nov. 4, 1861; corporal, June 7, 1862; on detached service as clerk to Jno. M. King, captain and commissary of subsistence on Gen. Parke's staff, Hd. Qrs. 3d Div. 9th Army Corps; returned to regiment, Nov., 1862; wounded in right shoulder at Battle of Whitehall, N. C., Dec. 16, 1862; promoted to second lieutenant, April 22, 1864; not mustered; mustered out, Dec. 23, 1864.

John M. Galliger. Private, Dec. 23, 1861; corporal; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; died at New Berne, N. C., May 28, 1864; buried in National Cemetery, New Berne, N. C.

John Hazard. Private, Oct. 14, 1861; corporal; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.





Jeremiah T. Murphy. Private, Aug. 12, 1862; corporal, June 1, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Thomas Moran. Private, Aug. 4, 1863; corporal, June 1, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

George W. S. Potter. Private, Nov. 18, 1862; transferred from Co. I, June 19, 1863; corporal, June 1, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Charles H. Whitford. Private, Nov. 20, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; corporal, June 1, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Frank H. Wixon. Private, Nov. 7, 1861; corporal, July 6, 1863; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Horace Bullock. Oct. 24, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; corporal, June 1, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Nelson King. Oct. 30, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; corporal, June 1, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

James Ryan. July 29, 1863; corporal, June 1, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Musicians.

George W. Hoxie. Oct. 23, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

George H. Gladding. Oct. 23, 1861; see sergeants.

Privates.

Aborn, Joseph R. Oct. 25, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Adamson, John S. Oct. 25, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Albert, Henry. July 27, 1863; deserted, Dec. 30, 1863.

Allen, John M. Wagoner; died in hospital at New Berne, N. C., Oct. 10, 1864, of yellow fever.

Alonzo, Frank. July 8, 1863; deserted, Oct., 1863.

Austen, George P. Oct. 17, 1861; remustered at New Berne, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Austin, James M. Nov. 11, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Banister, Wilson. Oct. 9, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Bassett, Franklin E. Aug. 22, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





Bolt, William. Deserted, Feb., 1864.

Boylan, James. Oct. 29, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Boyle, Edward. Oct. 14, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Bradbury, Samuel. Oct. 9, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Bray, William. Oct. 2, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Brown, Cyrus B. Nov. 18, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Brussells, Thomas. Oct. 22, 1861; mustered out, Oct. 31, 1864.

Burns, Thomas. Nov. 1, 1861; discharged for disability, June 4, 1863.

Calder, Charles. Oct. 17, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan 5, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Campbell, Thomas. Nov. 1, 1861; transferred to Co. E, Sept. 8, 1862.

Carr, John. July 29, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Carroll, Edward. July 8, 1863; discharged for disability, April 24, 1864.

Clark, Charles C. Oct. 21, 1861; died at New Berne, June 4, 1862.

Connor, George. July 28, 1863; discharged by transfer to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Crolley, James D. July 29, 1863; discharged by order of Gen. Butler to receive an appointment in the First North Carolina Infantry.

Curren, Bartholomew. Nov. 6, 1861; discharged for disability, March 26, 1863.

Daily, John. July 8, 1863; deserted, Sept., 1863; shot to death at New Berne, N. C., Aug. 14, 1864; cause, desertion.

Darling, Nelson. Nov. 2, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Day, George. July 28, 1863; deserted, Oct. 13, 1863.

Dean, George B. Oct. 24, 1861; died of typhoid fever at Newport Barracks, N. C., April 4, 1862; buried in National Cemetery, New Berne, N. C.

Doyle, Patrick, Oct. 19, 1861; discharged for disability at Hill's Point, N. C., Dec. 9, 1863.





Eliott, Thomas, Jr. Sept. 10, 1862; deserted at Providence, May 1, 1863.

Emerson, John G. Nov. 11, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Fielding, Philip. Oct. 19, 1861; died in Foster General Hospital, New Berne, N. C., Sept. 10, 1864.

Fitzsimmons, Martin. Oct. 25, 1861; discharged for disability, May 17, 1863.

Fort, Irvine A. Oct. 16, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Foster, John. Oct. 21, 1861; discharged for disability, March 26, 1863.

Frazier, Robert. Oct. 22, 1861; died at New Berne, N. C., Oct. 19, 1862; buried in National Cemetery, New Berne.

Gorton, Charles A. Oct. 25, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Green, John. July 8, 1863; died in hospital at New Berne, N. C., of yellow fever.

Hanley, James. Oct. 28, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Harney, James. Aug. 8, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Harrington, Mark. Oct. 22, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Hastie, William. Dec. 2, 1861; transferred to Co. B, Aug. 28, 1862.

Hutton, John. Served in the British army; was present at the siege of Sebastopol, and the battles of Inkerman and Alma; private, Co. C, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, July 29, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Jackson, James. July 28, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Johnson, James C. Oct. 18, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Kelly, John. Oct. 18, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Keegan, Patrick. Oct. 18, 1861; discharged for disability, Nov. 20, 1864.

Krans, Marcus. Aug. 16, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1863.

Leonard, Benjamin F. Nov. 14, 1861; discharged for disability, Sept. 13, 1862.

Lynch, Martin. Aug. 4, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Mahoney, John. Oct. 23, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.





Manchester, H. C. Oct. 15, 1861; discharged for disability, April 25, 1862.

Martin, John. July 8, 1863; deserted to the enemy, Oct., 1863; released prisoner at Annapolis, Md., Dec. 1, 1864.

McCarty, Michael. Oct. 14, 1861; discharged for disability, May 7, 1862.

McGowan, Martin. July 8, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Melville, Thomas D. Oct. 28, 1861; deserted at Beaufort, N. C., Sept. 6, 1862.

Merchant, Curtis. Oct. 17, 1861; discharged for disability, May 2, 1862.

Morgan, Charles. July 28, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Murphy, Thomas. July 29, 1863; transferred to Third Regiment New Hampshire Volunteers, April 16, 1864.

Murphy, Jeremiah. Oct. 21, 1861; died at Washington, N. C., Oct. 6, 1863.

O'Leary, Timothy. Oct. 24, 1861; discharged for disability, Oct. 28, 1862.

Peckham, Charles H. Nov. 27, 1861; discharged for disability, June 13, 1862.

Phillips, Thomas. Aug. 4, 1863; deserted, Sept., 1863.

Place, Samuel G. Oct. 17, 1861; discharged for disability, Sept. 13, 1862.

Place, William K. Nov. 27, 1861; mustered out, Dec. 23, 1864.

Pratt, James. July 8, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Rourke, Patrick. Oct. 27, 1861; died at Beaufort, N. C., Aug, 3, 1864.

Sanford, William A. Nov. 14, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Shea, Daniel. Oct. 22, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Sheedy, Thomas. Oct. 17, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Simmons, James. July 29, 1863; deserted, Sept., 1863; returned, Dec. 2, 1863; shot to death at New Berne, N. C., Aug. 14, 1864; cause, “desertion.”

Smith, Michael. July 8, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Smith, James. Aug. 5, 1863; deserted, Sept., 1863.





Stevenson, Charles. July 28, 1863; deserted, Jan. 7, 1864.

Sullivan, John. Oct. 16, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 26, 1862.

Sullivan, Patrick. Oct. 22, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Tibbitts, John G. Nov. 20, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Tripp, John. Oct. 22, 1861; discharged for disability, Sept. 13, 1862.

Wardwell, George A. Oct. 20, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Warner, David E. Jr., Nov. 23, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Welch, Patrick. Aug. 4, 1863; deserted to the enemy, Oct., 1863.

Weidman, Joseph. Nov. 21, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Williamson, John. July 8, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Williams, John. July 8, 1863; deserted Jan. 2, 1865, while on furlough.

Wilmarth, Andrew. Sept. 19, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Whitaker, John. Aug. 31, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Colored Under-Cooks.

Davis, Henry. Feb. 25, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Lang, George. Feb. 25, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





COMPANY D.
Captains.

George H. Grant. Ensign, Co. K, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; captain, Co. D, Fifth Rhode Island Infantry, Dec. 16, 1861; resigned, Aug. 6, 1862.

James Moran. Second lieutenant, Third Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Aug. 20, 1861; second lieutenant, Co. D. Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Nov. 5, 1861; commanded Co. A from Aug. 10 to Sept. 18, 1862; commanded Co. D from Sept. 26, 1862, till promoted captain of same, Feb. 14, 1863; mustered out, Jan. 12, 1865.

First Lieutenants.

Henry R. Pierce. Dec. 16, 1861; killed at Battle of New Berne, March 14, 1862.

William W. Douglas. June 7, 1862; promoted from second lieutenant, Co. B; promoted to captain, Co. C, Feb. 14, 1863.

Walter H. Luther. Feb. 14, 1863; promoted from sergeant, Co. C; appointed captain, Dec. 22, 1864; not mustered; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Second Lieutenants.

James Moran. As above.

Christopher W. Howland. Promoted from private, Co. A, Twelfth Rhode Island Infantry, for gallantry at the first Battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862; assigned to Co. D, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Feb. 14, 1863; promoted to first lieutenant and adjutant, Jan. 1, 1865.

Sergeants.

Charles C. Greene. Private, Co. K, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; first sergeant, Co. D, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Nov. 19, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; promoted to first lieutenant, March 1, 1865; not mustered; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





Henry P. Williams. Nov. 19, 1861; promoted to first lieutenant, Co. H, Feb. 14, 1863.

Amos P. Boyden. Private, Co. K, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; sergeant, Co. D, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Oct. 30, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 26, 1864.

Charles H. Smith. Private, Co. E, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; sergeant, Co. D, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Dec. 5, 1861; promoted to first sergeant, Co. K, March 2, 1863.

Joseph G. Haven. Nov. 27, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; died at New Berne, N. C., June 1, 1865, of apoplexy.

Robert S. Gaskill. Corporal, Nov. 23, 1861; sergeant, 1862; promoted to first lieutenant Co. H, Fourteenth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery (colored), Dec. 21, 1863; mustered out, Oct. 2, 1865.

William H. Chenery. Private, Dec. 11, 1861; corporal, May 1, 1862; sergeant, June 13, 1863; promoted to first lieutenant, Co. F, Fourteenth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery (colored), Dec. 21, 1863; mustered out, Oct. 2, 1865.

George W. Ford. Private, Dec. 16, 1861; corporal, 1862; sergeant, Jan. 2, 1864; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

James E. Bowen. Private, Nov. 14, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; sergeant, Jan. 7, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Joseph Martin. Private, Nov. 19, 1861; corporal; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; sergeant, March 16, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Corporals.

Henry Eddy. Nov. 19, 1861; discharged for disability, Feb. 7, 1863.

Adam Hargraves. Oct. 15, 1861; reduced to the ranks; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; deserted while on furlough, Nov. 23, 1864; returned March 23, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





Thomas H. Sweetland. Private, Co. G, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; discharged Aug. 2, 1861; corporal Co. D, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Oct. 17, 1861; discharged for disability, Feb. 20, 1863; re-enlisted in the navy Dec. 10, 1863; mustered out Aug. 1, 1865; re-enlisted as private, Co. D, Twenty-sixth United States Infantry, April 6, 1866; promoted to first sergeant, May, 1868; mustered out, April 5, 1869.

Alonzo W. Pickering. Oct. 21, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Patrick H. Costigan. Sept. 6, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1864, and promoted to sergeant.

Thomas Lloyd. Nov. 19, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Edward Southwick. Nov. 19, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 26, 1864.

Edward Spencer. Oct. 31, 1861; discharged for disability, at Boston, Mass.

Henry B. Hall. Private, Dec. 3, 1861; corporal; mustered out, Dec. 31, 1864.

Andrew J. Smith. Private, Dec. 14, 1861; corporal; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, June 20, 1864; mustered out, Dec. 16, 1864.

Dennis Sweeney. Private, Nov. 19, 1861; corporal; mustered out, Dec. 31, 1864.

Henry H. Parkhurst. Private, Oct. 15, 1861; corporal; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Charles A. Sherman. Nov. 21, 1861; corporal; mustered out, Nov. 26, 1864.

John Brown. Private, Aug. 3, 1863; corporal, July 10, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Thomas Dunn, 1st. Private, Nov. 29, 1861; mustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; corporal, mustered out, June 26, 1865.





Michael Gray. Private, Oct. 18, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; corporal, July 10, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Thomas Dunn, 3d. Private, July 10, 1863; corporal; June 26, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Musicians.

James Carroll. Oct. 15, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

George D. Haynes. Nov. 19, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Wagoners.

George W. Scott. Oct. 15, 1861; discharged for disability, April 27, 1864.

Barney Mahan. Sept. 20, 1862; transferred from Co. H, Feb. 9, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Privates.

Aldrich, Edward M. Oct. 30, 1861; deserted, date unknown.

Aylesworth, John. Oct. 22, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 26, 1864.

Ballou, Ira. Dec. 11, 1861; mustered out, Dec. 31, 1864.

Ballou, James. Nov. 25, 1861; wounded in trenches in front of Fort Macon, N. C., April, 1862; discharged for disability, Sept. 26, 1862.

Barr, George A. Aug. 9, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Bicknell, Mumford. Nov. 28, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Billings, Thomas E. Dec. 11, 1861; discharged for disability, at Fort Macon, N. C., June 1, 1862.

Blake, James. Dec. 11, 1861; broke from jail Beaufort, N. C., and deserted, Aug. 6, 1862.

Borden, Thomas. Nov. 22, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 26, 1864.

Brady, Michael. July 3, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Budlong, William F. Oct. 16, 1861; discharged for disability, March 26, 1863.





Callahan, Patrick. Nov. 21, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; drowned, March 26, 1865, at New Berne, N. C. While crossing the Neuse River the boat upset, and, in endeavoring to rescue some of his companions who could not swim, he was seized with cramps and drowned.

Campbell, John. Nov. 19, 1861; discharged for disability, Feb. 20, 1863.

Campbell, Joseph. Dec. 22, 1861; deserted, July 5, 1863; joined from desertion, April 16, 1865; again deserted, June 8, 1865.

Clough, George H. Oct. 15, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Cobb, Daniel, Jr. Nov. 22, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 26, 1864.

Collins, David. Aug. 29, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Devitt, William M. July 31, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Donohue, John. July 10, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Dunn, John. Nov. 27, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered ont, June 26, 1865.

Dunn, Thomas, 2d. Dec. 20, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; deserted while on furlough, Nov. 23, 1864.

Everett, Charles H. Nov. 27, 1861; transferred as a musician to Co. H, March 2, 1863.

Gardner, Thaddeus. July 29, 1863; died at Fort Amory, New Berne, N. C., Oct. 19, 1863; buried in National Cemetery, New Berne, N. C.

Gaskill, Otis. Dec. 3, 1861; discharged for disability at Fort Macon, N. C., May 19, 1862.

Goodrich, Charles A. Dec. 11, 1861; mustered out, Dec. 31, 1864.

Gray, Patrick H. Nov. 8, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Gray, Thomas J. Oct. 15, 1861; discharged for disability, Sept, 13, 1862.

Hapgood, Alonzo. Oct. 22, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Haskell, Abner, Jr. Dec. 9, 1861; died in hospital at New Berne, N. C., Oct. 10, 1864, of yellow fever.





Hopkins, Ephraim. Nov. 28, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Hopkins, George H. A. Dec. 4, 1861; discharged for disability, Sept. 12, 1862.

Hopkins, William A. Dec. 4, 1861; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, June 20, 1864; discharged at Beaufort, N. C., Dec. 16, 1864.

Hughes, Thomas. Oct. 17, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Jillson, Arlon. Oct. 15, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 26, 1864.

Kendrick, John. Oct. 29, 1864; transferred to Co. I.

Kempton, Ezra. Dec. 4, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Knight, Charles. Aug. 1, 1863; discharged by order of Gen. Peck, Sept. 18, 1863.

Larkin, John. July 9, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Marsh, Willard. Dec. 2, 1861; mustered out, Dec. 31, 1864.

McBride, James. Nov. 30, 1861; discharged for disability, Nov. 21, 1862.

McCaffrey, Andrew. Nov. 19, 1861: discharged for disability, Sept. 15, 1862.

McCanna, Hugh. Dec. 5, 1861; mustered out, Dec. 31, 1864.

McCarty, John. July 14, 1863; deserted at New Berne, N. C., Nov. 20, 1863.

McDermot, Edward, July 31, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

McDonough, Thomas. Nov. 23, 1861; deserted at New Berne, N. C., Oct. 31, 1863.

McMahon, Thomas. Dec. 16, 1861; mustered out, Dec. 31, 1864.

Meagher, Dennis. Dec. 16, 1861; broke jail at Beaufort, N. C., and deserted, Aug. 6, 1862.

Miniter, Patrick. July 10, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Moore, Charles. Nov. 13, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Morehead, William. July 9, 1863; deserted to the enemy at Roanoke Island, N. C., Oct. 19, 1864.





Morrill, David C. Oct. 18, 1861; discharged for disability, April 25, 1863.

Murray, Patrick. Nov. 28, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Nixon, James. Oct. 21, 1861; discharged for disability, March 26, 1863.

O'Connell, Owen. July 28, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

O'Connell, William. Oct. 31, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Owens, John. July 28, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Paine, Simon A. Oct. 15, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Pickering, Julius A. Oct., 21, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 31, 1863.

Prior, Timothy. Oct. 22, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 26, 1864.

Rose, Edward. Nov. 27, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Ryan, Thomas. Dec. 16, 1861; killed at the Battle of New Berne, March 14, 1862.

Ryder, John. July 29, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Smith, James. July 9, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Stewart, Charles. Aug. 1, 1863; drowned March 26, 1865. While crossing the Neuse River the boat upset, and, in endeavoring to rescue some of his companions who could not swim, he was seized with cramps and drowned.

Sullivan, George M. July 31, 1863; deserted; sentenced by General Court Martial to be shot; commuted to confinement at Dry Tortugas.

Thornton, Isaac A. Oct. 31, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Thorpe, William. Nov. 29, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Wallace, Patrick. Oct. 9, 1861; discharged for disability, May 8, 1863; subsequently served in Co. B, Twenty-first Veteran Reserve Corps.

White, James. Oct. 18, 1861; mustered out, Dec. 31, 1864.

Wiggins, Patrick. Oct. 15, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 26, 1864.





COMPANY E.
Captains.

Job Arnold. Private, Co. C, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, Aug. 2, 1861; captain, Co. E, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artilery, Dec. 16, 1861; promoted to lieutenant-colonel, Jan. 7, 1863; commanded regiment as captain from Aug. 7, 1862, till the arrival of Colonel Sisson, Jan., 1863.

George G. Hopkins. Feb. 14, 1863; promoted from first lieutenant, Co. E; mustered out, Dec. 22, 1864.

First Lieutenants.

James M. Wheaton. June 9, 1862; promoted from second lieutenant, Co. E; appointed adjutant, June 9, 1862.

George G. Hopkins. June 7, 1862; promoted to captain, Feb. 14, 1863.

Emelius De Meulen. Had formerly seen service in the Italian army, under General Garibaldi. First lieutenant Co. H, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Nov. 28, 1862; transferred to Co. E. Feb. 14, 1863; promoted to captain, Co. K, Aug. 25, 1863.

Robert Thompson. April 17, 1863; transferred to Co. K.

George C. Almy. Aug. 7, 1863; promoted to captain and commissary of subsistence of volunteers; resigned, Oct. 22, 1864.

George F. Turner. Aug. 31, 1864; promoted from second lieutenant, Co. H.; died at New Berne, N. C., of yellow fever, Oct. 6, 1864.

George H. Pierce. May 21, 1863; transferred from Co. C, Feb. 7, 1865; mnstered out, June 26, 1865.

Second Lieutenants.

James M. Wheaton. Dec. 16, 1861; promoted to first lieutenant, Co. E, June 9, 1862.





Henry B. Landers. Feb. 20, 1862; promoted from first sergeant, Co. C; promoted to captain, Co. H, Feb. 14, 1863.

Josiah D. Hunt. May 1, 1863; promoted from sergeant, Co. F, May 1, 1863; resigned, March 21, 1864.

Sergeants.

Benjamin L. Hall. Musician, Co. A, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; first sergeant, Co. E, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Dec. 16, 1861; promoted to second lieutenant, June 7, 1862, and assigned to Co. B.

Charles Taft. Private, Co. E, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; sergeant, Co. E, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Oct. 30, 1861; first sergeant, June 7, 1862; first lieutenant, Co. I, Feb. 14, 1863.

Edward L. Alvord. Oct. 16, 1861; discharged for disability, Dec. 1, 1862.

Alfred Wild. Oct. 17, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan 2, 1864; deserted while on furlough, Dec. 10, 1864.

Dutee Johnson, Jr. Dec. 16, 1861; promoted to first lieutenant, Co. A, Feb. 14, 1863.

Thomas Allen. Corporal, Oct. 16, 1861; sergeant, June 7, 1862; first lieutenant, Co. B, Feb. 14, 1863.

Daniel Dove. Corporal, Sept. 29, 1861; first sergeant; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

John R. Allen. Aug. 6, 1862; transferred from Co. F; first sergeant, Co. E, Feb. 1, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Thomas Rice. Private, Oct. 9, 1861; sergeant; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

David L. Rose. Private, Oct. 21, 1864; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; sergeant, Sept. 1, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Solomon Wilcox. Private, Oct. 28, 1861; sergeant; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

George Dunlap. Private, Aug. 21, 1862; promoted to sergeant; missing in action at Plymouth, N. C., while on detached service on board gunboat Bombshell; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





Corporals.

William Bowen. Oct. 22, 1861; discharged for disability, May 5, 1863.

Edward P. Springer. Sept. 7, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Benjamin Glasby. Oct. 16, 1861; wounded at Battle of New Berne, March 14, 1862; discharged for disability, June 30, 1863.

Otis Bosworth. Sept. 8, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Samuel H. Grimwood. Sept. 15, 1861; died at Fort Macon, N. C., May 22, 1862, of typhoid fever; buried in National Cemetery, at New Berne, N. C.

John H. Peck. Dec. 22, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 30, 1863.

Joseph Chase. Private, Oct. 26, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; corporal, July 5, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Isaiah Crawford. Private, Nov. 19, 1861; corporal; mustered out, Nov. 21, 1864.

George K. Davis. Private, Co. A, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; private, Co. E, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Aug. 22, 1862; corporal; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Nathan Durfee. Private, Dec. 19, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; corporal, Sept. 1, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Charles H. Eddy. Private, Oct. 19, 1861; corporal; died at Washington, N. C., Oct. 18, 1863.

James Harley. Private, Oct. 15, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; corporal, Feb. 1, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Musicians.

Orrin F. Kinnecom. June 10, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





Thomas Campbell. Nov. 1, 1861; transferred from Co. C, Sept. 8, 1862; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Wagoners.

Curtis, Daniel W. Oct. 25, 1861; discharged for disability, June 1, 1864.

Sisson, Shubael B. Aug. 28, 1862; transferred from Co. A, Feb. 19, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Privates.

Alexander, Whipple. Oct. 14, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Angell, Benjamin R. Nov. 26, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 27, 1863.

Arnold, William. July 29, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Atkins, Samuel G. Oct. 30, 1861; discharged for disability, Dec. 1, 1862.

Balcom, Ebenezer. Oct. 1, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Barnes, Samuel A. Oct. 22, 1861; died at Fort Macon, N. C., June 23, 1862, of typhoid fever.

Becton, Patrick. Oct. 11, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Bourne, Isaac D. Oct. 8, 1861; died at Fort Macon, N. C., May 24, 1862, of typhoid fever.

Britton, Henry L. Oct. 10, 1861; discharged for disability, Feb. 5, 1863.

Barnes, Williams H. Aug. 4, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Brown, William N. Oct. 10, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 29, 1864.

Bush, William. July 29, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Callahan, Timothy. Dec. 20, 1864; discharged at Portsmouth Grove, R. I., July 8, 1865.

Chase, Francis R. Oct. 14, 1861; died at New Berne, N. C., Aug. 23, 1863.





Comiskey, John J. Dec. 12, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out June 26, 1865.

Connor, Thomas. July 29, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Cooney, Thomas. Oct. 24, 1861; killed, Jan. 24, 1863, on railroad; buried in National Cemetery at New Berne, N. C.

Costen, Francis P. Oct. 25, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Donnock, Thomas. Aug. 22, 1862; deserted, April 1, 1864.

Douglas, Hugh. Aug. 3, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Duncan, William H. Oct. 16, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Dyer, Edward. Aug. 3, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Eccles, Thomas. Oct. 8, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Firman, Michael D. Oct. 14, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Fitz, Edwin. July 28, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

French, George W. Nov. 5, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Greatreaks, James W. Dec. 9, 1862; transferred from Co. H, April 1, 1863; discharged for disability, Dec. 23, 1863.

Greene, Albert W. Oct. 8, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Greenup, Charles E. Sept. 23, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Hall, Thomas. Oct. 9, 1861; discharged for disability, March 23, 1863.

Handy, William. Oct. 14, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Henry, Lewis. Aug. 3, 1863; died in hospital at New Berne, N. C., Oct. 13, 1864, with yellow fever.

Herne, Michael. Sept. 20, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Hill, Smith. Oct. 22, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; died at New Berne, N. C., May 19, 1865, of typhoid fever.

Hillman, Frederic. July 31, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





Hilton, John. Aug. 3, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Humphreys, Joseph H. Oct. 4, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Hunt, Joseph S. Dec. 17, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Keach, George W. Oct. 7, 1861; discharged for disability, Sept. 13, 1862.

Leavitt, Herbert D. Nov. 1, 1861; promoted to sergeant and transferred to Co. H, Jan. 10, 1863; first sergeant.

Livingston, John. Oct. 25, 1861; transferred to Co. A, Aug. 22, 1862.

Lyons, William. July 9, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Martin, Bernard. Oct. 21, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Mathewson, Joseph W. Oct. 15, 1861; discharged for disability, June 6, 1862.

McCabe, James. Oct. 8, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

McLane, James. Dec. 26, 1861; mustered out, Dec. 31, 1864.

McFadden, William. July 29, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Millard, George C. Oct. 7, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Miller, John. Oct. 7, 1861; died at New Berne, Aug. 22, 1863; buried in National Cemetery, New Berne, N. C.

Miller, Walter. Dec. 10, 1862; transferred from Co. H, Jan. 12, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Murray, John. July 31, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Murray, John. Oct. 7, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Newby, Daniel. July 31, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Nutting, John W. Oct. 16, 1861; discharged for disability, Feb. 5, 1863.

O'Neil, James. Oct. 20, 1861; mustered out, Dec. 23, 1864.

O'Neil, Patrick. July 9, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Orr, James. Oct. 27, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Palmer, John. Oct. 11, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





Peck, Edwin B. Oct. 22, 1861; died at Hatteras Inlet, Feb. 9, 1862, of typhoid fever,

Potter, David R. Oct. 27, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Rapp, Benjamin E. Oct. 26, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Reeves, Henry I. Nov. 14, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Rhodes, John H. July 28, 1863; honorably discharged to accept appointment in Third North Carolina Volunteers (colored).

Rider, John. July 29, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Russell, Benjamin. Oct. 10, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Ryan, John. Oct. 25, 1861; died Jan. 8, 1862.

Sanger, Charles A. Oct. 10, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Septon, George T. Nov. 26, 1861; discharged for disability at Carolina City, April 6, 1862.

Schancy, Thomas. July 9, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Smith, Joseph. Oct. 21, 1861; remustered as a veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Smith, Richard. July 9, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Smith, William. July 9, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Stone, Charles. Dec. 21, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Tennant, James. Nov. 1, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Tisdale, Samuel W. Oct. 10, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Tompkins, Charles H. Oct. 9, 1861; mustered out, Nov. 20, 1864.

Vallett, David. Dec. 16, 1861; discharged, Jan. 1, 1864.

Viall, Charles A. Dec. 16, 1861; first man wounded in the Burnside Expedition, while on a reconnoissance, in attempting to land on Roanoke Island; discharged for disability.

Walker, Francis. Nov. 19, 1861; discharged for disability, Dec. 1, 1862.





Warner, Henry B. Oct, 14, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Whitman, Stephen. Oct. 8, 1861; discharged for disability, May 25, 1862.

Wilson, George. July 29, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Wilson, Thomas. July 9, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Colored Under-Cooks.

Teel, Ashley. Jan. 20, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Teel, Edward. Jan. 20, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

COMPANY F.
Captain.

William R. Landers. Feb. 14, 1863; promoted from first lieutenant, Co. G; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

First Lieutenants.

Charles F. Gladding. Feb. 14, 1863; promoted from hospital steward; transferred from Co. F, and appointed adjutant, Feb. 28, 1864.

James M. Wheaton. June 9, 1862; transferred from regimental staff and the position of adjutant, Feb. 28, 1864; mustered out, Dec. 22, 1864.

John B. Landers. Jan. 1, 1865; promoted from second lieutenant, Co. I; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Second Lieutenant.

Charles E. Douglass. Feb. 14, 1863; promoted from sergeant of Co. B; mustered out, Dec. 22, 1864.

Sergeants.

Charles H. Snow. First sergeant, Aug. 21, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Samuel E. G. Richards. May 17, 1862; transferred to Co. I, June 20, 1863.





John R. Allen. Aug. 6, 1862; transferred to Co. E, Jan. 13, 1863.

Francis Adams. Sept. 2, 1862; transferred to Co. H, May 1, 1863.

Leander A. Davis. June 10, 1862; promoted to second lieutenant, Co. C, Nov. 13, 1862.

Josiah D. Hunt. July 19, 1862; promoted to second lieutenant, Co. E, May 1, 1863.

Constantine G. W. Bischoff. June 4, 1862; mustered out, June 3, 1865.

Frederic G. Davis. June 11, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

James Nichols. Aug. 14, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Henry E. Hubbard. Private, Aug. 14, 1862; corporal; sergeant, Feb. 16, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

James B. Horton. Corporal, Aug. 16, 1862; sergeant; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Michael Dwire. Private May 27, 1862; sergeant; mustered out, May 19, 1865.

Corporals.

John M. Martin. Aug. 5, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Edward G. Anthony. May 14, 1862; discharged for disability, Dec. 1, 1862.

Albert Viall. Aug. 6, 1862; discharged for disability, July 23, 1863.

Robert H. White. Aug. 5, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Walter W. Paull. July 31, 1862; died in hospital at New Berne, N. C., July 22, 1863; buried in National Cemetery, at New Berne, N. C.

John F. Baker. Aug. 6, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Thomas F. Maher. Aug. 12, 1862; discharged at New Berne, N. C., Aug. 25, 1864, to accept commission as captain in the First North Carolina Artillery (colored).





James B. Babbitt. Private, Aug. 27, 1862; corporal; discharged at New Berne, N. C., Jan. 11, 1865, for promotion to second lieutenant, First North Carolina Heavy Artillery (colored).

Peter Buck. Private, July 29, 1863; corporal; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

William Conklin. Private, July 9, 1863; corporal; deserted, May 7, 1864.

Francis Eaton. Private, Aug. 5, 1862; corporal, June 1, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Patrick Hayes. Private, Aug. 12, 1862; corporal; sergeant-major, Jan. 1, 1865, and transferred to non-commissioned staff.

James H. Martin. Aug. 13, 1862; corporal, June 1, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Patrick Ryan. Private, Sept. 9, 1862; corporal, June 1, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Gustave Wilhelm. Private, Aug. 16, 1862; corporal, June 1, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Musicians.

Pasco Haines, Jr. July 21, 1862; died at New Berne, N. C., Oct. 20, 1864, of yellow fever.

Wagoner.

George Redding. Aug. 16, 1863; died in regimental hospital at New Berne, N. C., Oct. 3, 1864, of yellow fever.

Privates.

Arnold, Albert F. Aug. 11, 1862; discharged for disability, March 15, 1863.

Ashley, Joseph. July 30, 1862; discharged for disability, Sept. 3, 1862.

Barnes, Wilson D. May 19, 1862; transferred to navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Bates, George R, July 30, 1862; discharged for disability, June 25, 1864.

Black, Joseph. Aug. 4, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





Brown, Charles. July 22, 1864; deserted, Dec. 10, 1864, while on march to Kinston, N. C.

Brown, William S. July 22, 1862; discharged for disability, Sept. 3, 1862.

Brug, Philip. Sept. 8, 1862; discharged for disability, June 18, 1863.

Bugbee, Leander W. May 19, 1862; died at New Berne, N. C., Oct. 16, 1864, of congestive chills and fever.

Burdon, Levi L. July 7, 1863; promoted to second lieutenant, Aug. 5, 1863, and assigned to Co. B.

Burke, James C. Aug. 14, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Burlingame, John K. Aug. 14, 1862; promoted to hospital steward, Feb. 14, 1863; transferred to non-commissioned staff.

Bush, James C. Aug. 12, 1862.

Cady, Calvin L. Aug. 15, 1864; transferred from Co. K; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Cassidy, Thomas. May 27, 1862; mustered out, May 19, 1865, in accordance with Gen. Orders, No. 42, Hd-Qrs. Dept. of No. Carolina, May 10, 1865.

Clark, Charles. July 27, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Clark, David. July 26, 1864; transferred to Co. G.

Cole, Albert A. Aug. 14, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Collins, Peter. Aug. 3, 1863; deserted, Sept., 1863.

Dailey, James. Aug. 8, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Davis, Samuel. June 19, 1862; not accounted for on rolls.

Dawson, Joseph H. July 27, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Day, James. July 27, 1863; deserted at New Berne, N. C., Aug. 12, 1863.

Degnan, James. Aug. 6, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Devine, John. Aug. 8, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Donnelly, John. July 30, 1862; discharged for disability, June 20, 1865.

Fanning, Patrick. Sept. 11, 1862; discharged at Portsmouth Grove, R. I., July 11, 1865.

Farrington, Charles. July 27, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.





Flinn, Patrick. Aug. 15, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Flynn, James. Aug. 5, 1863; deserted, Sept., 1863.

Forbes, Thomas. May 19, 1862; mustered out, May 19, 1865.

Fox, Frank. July 9, 1863; deserted at New Berne, N. C., May 24, 1864.

Gallagher, Peter. Aug. 8, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Gould, Edwin A., Aug. 8, 1862; died in hospital at New Berne, N. C., Dec. 10. 1862, of jaundice.

Graham, George W. Aug. 8, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Green, James. Aug. 8, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Groves, John S. May 21, 1862; mustered out, May 19, 1865.

Haines, Daniel T. Aug. 6, 1862; transferred to Co. G, Nov. 21, 1862.

Hait, Michael. Aug. 4, 1863; died in Foster General Hospital, New Berne, Nov. 10, 1863, of congestive fever. Buried in National Cemetery, New Berne, N. C.

Hammond, Edward N. Aug. 6, 1862; deserted, July 22, 1863, while on furlough.

Hanley, Michael. Sept. 10, 1862; discharged for disability at Lovell General Hospital, Portsmouth Grove, R. I., May 11, 1864.

Harrabine, Benjamin. Aug. 15, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Hoffman, William. Aug. 30, 1862; discharged for disability, Jan. 30, 1863.

Hogan, Michael. July 9, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Holmes, Louis E. Aug. 14, 1862; discharged for disability, March 1, 1863.

Howland, Henry B, Aug. 5, 1862; discharged for disability, Sept. 3, 1863.

Jenckes, Theodore J. Aug. 8, 1862; discharged for disability, Sept. 3, 1862.

Jenkins, William C. Aug. 15, 1864; transferred from Co. K; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Joy, Orrin. Aug. 5, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





Kang, Lawrence. Sept. 6, 1862; deserted at New York, Sept. 14, 1862; rejoined from desertion, March 1, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

King, James. July 29, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Knight, Cyril N. Aug. 15, 1862; discharged for disability at New York, June 1, 1864.

Knight, Henry H. Aug. 14, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Levalley, Frederic H. Aug. 15, 1864; transferred from Co. K; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Lloyd, Horace. July 29, 1863; deserted while on detached service at Norfolk, Va., May 15, 1864.

McCaughin, Charles. June 11, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

McElroy, Peter. Aug. 15, 1862; discharged for disability in Providence, Dec., 1863.

Medbury, Horace A. Aug. 5, 1862; discharged for disability, Feb. 27, 1863.

Monahan, John. June 5, 1862; mustered out, June 5, 1865.

Moran, Charles W. Aug. 12, 1862; transferred to navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Morrissey, John. July 29, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Murray, Edward. Aug. 6, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Ody, George. May 16, 1862; mustered out, May 15, 1865.

Penno, William A. Aug. 5, 1862; discharged for disability, March 2, 1863.

Pine, Henry S. July 19, 1862; discharged for disability, Jan. 6, 1863.

Randall, Robert B. Aug. 19, 1864; transferred from Co. K; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Reichwein, George. Sept. 6, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Reithel, Louis. Aug. 30, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Reynolds, John. June 10, 1862; mustered out, June 10, 1865.

Robinson, Thomas M. Aug. 16, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Ryan, John. July 29, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.





Ryan, William. Aug. 6, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Shelby, James. July 29, 1863; deserted, Sept. 10, 1863.

Spencer, Henry. Aug. 5, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Sullivan, Dennis. July 29, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Sullivan, James. July 26, 1862; deserted, March 1, 1863.

Sullivan, Cornelius. Aug. 18, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Sweet, James L. Aug. 14, 1862; discharged for disability, Nov. 28, 1862.

Sweet, Randall B. Aug. 5, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Taite, John W. Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Thornton, Richard B. Aug. 18, 1864; transferred from Co. K; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Walsh, Michael. July 9, 1863; discharged for disability, Nov. 23, 1863.

Williams, Henry. July 9, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1863.

Wilson, George. July 29, 1863; deserted, Sept., 1863.

Wilson, Buchan. June 7, 1862; died in Foster General Hospital, at New Berne, N. C., Oct. 26, 1863, of congestive fever.

Wright, Thomas. June 3, 1862; died in hospital at New Berne, N. C., Oct. 30, 1862, of consumption; buried in National Cemetery at New Berne.

Young, Charles. July 29, 1863; deserted, Dec. 1, 1863.

Colored Under-Cooks.

Lewis, Noah. Oct. 31, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

McPherson, George. Oct. 31, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





COMPANY G.
Captains.

Jonathan M. Wheeler. Oct. 16, 1862; resigned, Jan. 26, 1863.

John H. Robinson. Feb. 14, 1863; promoted from sergeant, Co. B; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

First Lieutenants.

William R. Landers. First lieutenant, Co. L, Ninth Rhode Island Infantry, May 26, 1862; first lieutenant, Co. G, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Oct. 16, 1862; promoted to captain, Co. F, Feb. 14, 1863.

Edward F. Angell. Feb. 14, 1863; promoted from sergeant, Co. A; transferred to Co. H, June 15, 1865.

Second Lieutenants.

George F. Turner. Oct. 16, 1862; transferred to Co. B.

Charles E. Beers. Feb. 14, 1863; promoted from commissary sergeant; resigned and honorably discharged the service on account of physical disability, Dec. 21, 1863.

Henry B. Bateman. May 21, 1863; transferred from Co. B, Feb. 15, 1864; promoted to first lieutenant, Jan. 1, 1865, and assigned to Co. C.

Sergeants.

John B. Landers. Private, Co. F, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; wounded at Battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861; first segeant, Co. G, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Oct. 10, 1862; promoted to second lieutenant, Co. I, April 10, 1863.

Henry B. Bateman. Sept. 27, 1862; promoted to second lieutenant, Co. B, May 21, 1863.

Pardon P. Vaughn. Aug. 21, 1862; first sergeant; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

William W. Wales. Oct. 11, 1862; discharged at Portsmouth Grove, R. I., July 15, 1865.





Charles M. Griffin. Oct. 6, 1862; discharged at Providence, R. I., July 8, 1865.

Robert Vinton. Corporal, Sept. 13, 1862; sergeant; discharged at Portsmouth Grove, R. I., July 15, 1865.

Corporals.

Richard A. Brown. Aug. 11, 1862; promoted to commissary sergeant, May 28, 1863.

Peter Coyle. Oct. 1, 1862; deserted, April 9, 1863.

Edward Meader. Oct. 1, 1862; deserted, March 17, 1863.

John H. Vanderberg. Oct. 1, 1862; deserted, March 17, 1863.

Peter Gleason. Sept. 13, 1862; transferred to the Marine Corps, April 26, 1865, from which he had deserted.

Michael Ryan. Sept. 19, 1862; deserted, July 10, 1863; confined at “Rip Raps” for the period of five years from Sept. 23, 1863; sentence remitted, May 16, 1864; in hospital at Portsmouth Grove, R. I., June 20, 1865.

William H. Harris. Sept. 19, 1862; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Timothy McCarty. Sept. 9, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Oliver Bradford. Private, July 8, 1863; corporal; deserted, Dec. 4, 1863.

John S. Jackson. Private, July 9, 1863; corporal; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

John S. Kelley. Private, July 29, 1863; corporal, Dec. 30, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

John Neil. Private, July 3, 1863; corporal; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

George Vath. Private, Oct. 14, 1862; corporal, Feb. 16, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Louis J. West. Private, July 27, 1863; corporal; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Musician.

Daniel T. Haines. Aug. 6, 1862; transferred from Co. F; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





Wagoner.

Benjamin N. Burgess. Private, Co. A; transferred to Co. G, and appointed wagoner, Feb. 19, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Privates.

Abstein, John. July 29, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Anderson, Robert. Sept. 26, 1862; deserted, Aug. 5, 1863.

Aylesworth, Henry P. Aug. 21, 1862; mustered out, May 31, 1865.

Bammon, Martin. Oct. 1, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Black, William. Aug. 5, 1863; discharged for disability, March 12, 1864.

Boyd, Samuel E. Oct. 11, 1862; discharged for disability, April 26, 1863.

Bradford, Oliver. July 8, 1863; deserted, Dec. 4, 1863.

Braley, Samuel. Oct. 3, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Brink, John. Aug. 5, 1863; mustered out at U. S. General Hospital, Newark, N. J., July 22, 1865.

Britton, Charles. Sept. 22, 1862; deserted, March 17, 1863.

Brown, John. July 10, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Burgess, William. July 9, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Bushing, Frederick. Oct. 11, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Carpenter, James. July 31, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Chace, John C. Sept. 7, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Clark, David. July 26, 1864, transferred from Co. F; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Collins, Peter. Aug. 3, 1863; deserted, Sept., 1863.

Collins, Thomas. July 8, 1863; deserted, May 21, 1864.

Connelly, John. Sept. 24, 1862; transferred to the navy, May 17, 1864.

Connor, Martin. Aug. 5, 1863; discharged for disability, May 31, 1864.

Dawson, Christopher. July 31, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Doherty, Daniel. Sept. 12, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Doherty, Philip. Sept. 20, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





Dose, Louis. July 8, 1863; deserted at New York, while on furlough, March 11, 1864.

Duniven, Dennis. July 8, 1863; absent in confinement at Fort Macon, N. C., June 26, 1865; released from confinement and mustered out, Feb. 2, 1866.

Flanigan, John. July 29, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Flynn, James. Aug. 5, 1863; deserted, Sept. 3, 1863.

Gerzhein, George. Oct, 12, 1862; absent, sick in Foster General Hospital, June 20, 1865; discharged at Portsmouth Grove, R. I., July 15, 1865.

Greene, Albert C. Sept. 20, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Harris, William. Aug. 4, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Harrison, Joseph. July 31, 1863; deserted at New York, Jan. 17, 1864, while on furlough.

Hart, Joseph M. Sept. 29, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Howard, Henry. July 9, 1863; deserted, Aug. 23, 1863.

Ivers, Daniel. Oct. 7, 1862; died in General Hospital at New Berne, N. C., May 26, 1863; buried in National Cemetery, at New Berne, N. C.

Jennerson, Charles. July 26, 1864; absent sick in General Hospital at New Berne, N. C., since June 20, 1865; discharged at Portsmouth Grove, R. I., July 15, 1865.

Johnson, Charles. Sept. 3, 1862; died in General Hospital at Philadelphia, Penn., March 7, 1865, of consumption.

Josey, Anthony. Aug. 3, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Keenan, Michael. July 28, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Kenyon, Joseph. Oct. 13, 1862; discharged for disability, Aug. 9, 1863.

Mahoney, Jeremiah. Aug. 5, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

McCabe, John. Oct. 16, 1862; deserted at New Berne, N. C., March 22, 1863.

McCabe, Peter. Oct. 10, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

McCaffrey, John. Sept. 12, 1862; discharged for disability from General Hospital, New Berne, N. C., March 3, 1863.

McDermott, Thomas. Sept. 20, 1862; deserted at Providence, R. I., Aug. 5, 1863, while on furlough.





McGee, James G. Sept. 7, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

McGill, William. Sept. 25, 1862; deserted at New Berne, N. C., June 23, 1863.

Moore, William. July 8, 1863; deserted at New Berne, N. C., Aug. 17, 1863.

Mung, Henry. Aug. 3, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

. Aug. 4, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

O'Brien, Michael. July 29, 1863; deserted from New Berne, N. C, Sept. 3, 1863.

O'Brien, Thomas. Aug. 1, 1863; deserted from New Berne, N. C., Sept. 3, 1863.

Page, Oliver. Oct. 3, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Palmer, John. Aug. 3, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Perry, Martin H. Aug. 8, 1863; deserted from New Berne, N. C., Nov. 12, 1863.

Pierce, Christopher T. Aug. 20, 1862; promoted to second lieutenant, Co. C, Feb. 14, 1863.

Riley, Frederick. Aug. 8, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Riley, Joseph. Aug. 3, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Roland, George. July 9, 1863; discharged the service, by Special Orders No. 1, War Dept., A. G. O., Washington, D. C., Jan. 2, 1864.

Rose, John. Oct. 10, 1862; deserted in Rhode Island while on furlough, Nov. 8, 1863.

Rourke, Hugh. July 29, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Rushton, James. July 31, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Ryan, William. July 29, 1863; died in Foster General Hospital, New Berne, N. C., Jan. 24, 1865, of acute bronchitis.

Seator, Christian. Oct. 1, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Shippey, Thomas. Oct. 6, 1862; died Dec. 19, 1862, of wounds received at Battle of Whitehall, N. C., Dec. 16, 1862.

Smith, George. Aug. 5, 1863; died in Foster General Hospital, New Berne, N. C., Sept. 28, 1864, of remittent fever.

Smith, John P. Oct. 16, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Smith, William. July 31, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





Thompson, John C. July 9, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Tracy, Christopher. Sept. 19, 1862; died in Foster General Hospital, New Berne, N. C., Sept. 29, 1864, of remittent fever.

Wallace, James. Oct. 6, 1862; discharged for disability, Aug. 9, 1863.

West, Louis J. July 27, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

White, Charles. July 31, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

White, Emery. Sept. 24, 1862; died in Regimental Hospital, at New Berne, N. C., June 19, 1863; buried in National Cemetery, at New Berne, N, C.

Williams, John, 1st. July 29, 1863; died at New Berne, N. C., July 30, 1864, of typhoid fever; buried in National Cemetery, at New Berne, N. C.

Williams, John, 2d. Aug. 5, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Williamson, Thomas. July 9, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Wilson, George. July 29, 1863; deserted from New Berne, N. C., Sept., 1863.

Colored Under-Cooks.

Bess, Luke. Jan. 20, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Rough, Cæsar. Jan. 21, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

COMPANY H.
Captains.

Benjamin L. Hall. Promoted from second lieutenant, Co. B, Dec. 13, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 13, 1863.

Henry B. Landers. Promoted from second lieutenant, Co. E; mustered out, Dec. 22, 1864.

First Lieutenants.

Emelius De Meulen. Nov. 28, 1862; transferred to Co. E, Feb. 14, 1863.

Henry P. Williams. Feb. 14, 1863; promoted from sergeant, Co. D; mustered out, Dec. 22, 1864.





Benjamin F. Underwood. Jan. 1, 1865; promoted from sergeant, Co. A; appointed adjutant, Jan. 11, 1865.

Edward F. Angell. Feb. 14, 1863; transferred from Co. G, June 15, 1865; appointed captain, Dec. 22, 1864; not mustered; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Second Lieutenants.

Joseph McIntyre. Feb. 14, 1863; promoted to captain, Co. E, Second Rhode Island Infantry, April 1, 1863; killed at the Battle of the Wilderness, May 5, 1864.

George F. Turner. Oct. 16, 1862; transferred from Co. B, March 1, 1863; promoted to first lieutenant, Co. E, Aug. 31, 1864.

Sergeants.

Charles Morton. First sergeant, Nov. 26, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

Herbert D. Leavitt. Private, Co. E, Nov. 1, 1861; promoted to first sergeant, Co. H, Jan. 10, 1863; honorably discharged to accept commission as second lieutenant, Co. E, Fourteenth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery (colored), Dec. 22, 1863; mustered out, Oct. 2, 1865.

Lawrence Flanigan. Oct. 5, 1862; deserted; joined from desertion; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, April 12, 1864.

Francis Adams. Sept. 2, 1862; transferred from sergeant, Co. F; deserted, July 5, 1863.

Jonathan Davison. Oct. 30, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

George W. S. Potter. Nov. 18, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

William B. Mott. Dec. 12, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

John Reddington. Corporal, Oct. 22, 1862; sergeant, Feb. 13, 1863; first sergeant; promoted to second lieutenant, June 26, 1865; not mustered; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





William H. Johnson. Private, Co. B, First Rhode Island Detached Militia, May 2, 1861; detailed to company of carbineers of same regiment, June 27, 1861; sergeant, Co. H, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, Aug. 5, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Ernest Harting. Private, Dec. 12, 1862; sergeant, June 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Richard Lable, Private, Aug. 4, 1863; promoted to sergeant; deserted March, 1864, while on recruiting service.

John Meiners. Private, July 29, 1863; corporal, Dec. 3, 1863; sergeant, June 3, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865,

Henry Pickles. Private, Dec. 16, 1862; corporal; sergeant; deserted, Dec. 11, 1864.

John B. Gartenman. Private, Dec. 27, 1862; sergeant; promoted to second lieutenant, June 26, 1865; not mustered; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Corporals.

George Welch. Oct. 21, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863,

George W. S. Potter. Nov. 3, 1863; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

Charles Nelson. Nov. 25, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

George W. Conger. Nov. 29, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Feb. 11, 1863.

James W. Greatreaks. Dec. 9, 1862; transferred to Co. E, April 1, 1863.

George Phetteplace. Nov. 5, 1862; discharged for disability, Jan. 7, 1863.

Thomas Fitzpatrick. Dec. 16, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

John Schuppen. Private, July 31, 1863; corporal, June 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

William Schultz. Private, Aug. 4, 1863; corporal, June 20, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.





Ernest Ludwig. Private, Dec. 27, 1862; corporal, June 20, 1865; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

John Meyer. Private, July 9, 1863; corporal; deserted, Nov. 28, 1863.

Ludwig Paulson. Private, Dec. 23, 1862; corporal; mustered out at Portsmouth Grove, R. I., July 11, 1865.

Levin Richter. Private, July 28, 1863; corporal, June 2, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Thomas C. Richardson, Private, Oct. 30, 1862; corporal; deserted, June 12, 1863.

August Tillan. Private, July 28, 1863; corporal, Sept. 13, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

John C. Sweetman. Private, oct. 27, 1862; corporal; deserted, Feb. 24, 1863; returned, Aug. 26, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Musicians.

John B. Wallace. Dec. 4, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

Charles H. Everett. Transferred from Private, Co. D, March 2, 1863; discharged for disability, May 29, 1863.

Gustavus A. Messner. Dec. 4, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

William Nailer. July 9, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Wagoners.

Richard R. King. Nov. 15, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Feb. 12, 1863.

Joseph Briggs. Sept. 25, 1862; discharged for disability, Jan. 17, 1863.

Privates.

Adams, Edward. Dec. 4, 1862; transferred to Co. K, Jan. 12, 1863.

Anderson, Louis. Dec. 18, 1862; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.





Andrews, Luther. Nov. 19, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

Arnheim, Max. July 8, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Arnold, Stephen G. Dec. 14, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

Arnold, Charles. Dec. 16, 1862; deserted while absent at Morehead General Hospital, N. C., Dec. 4, 1864.

Bande, Adam. Dec. 15, 1862; sick in Foster General Hospital, New Berne, N. C., June 26, 1865.

Benhard, Frederick. July 28, 1863; transferred to Co. K, Aug. 22, 1863.

Bergman, William. Nov. 5, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Black, Edwin. Dec. 23, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

Blumhoff, August. July 9, 1863; deserted, Nov. 1, 1863.

Bode, Henry F. Dec. 22, 1862; deserted from New Berne, N. C., Jan. 18, 1863.

Bond, William. Dec. 24, 1862; deserted, Jan. 18, 1863.

Bramer, Lewis. July 28, 1863; confined at Fort Macon, N. C., serving sentence of court martial; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Bray, Charles P. Dec. 23, 1862; deserted while on furlough, April 30, 1864.

Brayman, Edward. Dec. 6, 1864; discharged at Portsmouth Grove, R. I., July 11, 1865.

Brittner, Carl. Dec. 15, 1862; deserted from New Berne, N. C., Feb. 22, 1863.

Brown, Thomas. Dec. 17, 1862; transferred to Co. K, Jan. 12, 1863.

Budderhagen, Adolph. July 31, 1863; transferred to the navy, Sept. 27, 1864.

Burchard, Davis A. Dec. 10, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Burger, Robert. Dec. 20, 1862; discharged for disability, Jan. 7, 1863.

Burns, John. Dec. 20, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan, 12, 1863.

Buttengagen, Frederick. July 9, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Cassidy, Patrick. Nov. 22, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.





Coburn, Thomas H. Dec. 23, 1862; deserted, Jan. 18, 1863.

Condon, James. Oct. 17, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Costier, Joseph. Dec. 10, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

Day, James. Dec. 9, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

Dolan, James. Nov. 14, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

Dow, Andrew. Nov. 19, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

Felser, Henry. Nov. 30, 1864; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Fish, Anthony. Oct. 21, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Fisher, John C. Dec. 23, 1862; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Flanagan, Thomas. Dec. 6, 1862; discharged at Providence, R. I., June 28, 1865, by order of War Department.

Flood, James. Aug. 20, 1862; deserted, Dec. 11, 1864.

Goes, William. July 8, 1863; promoted to second lieutenant, June 26, 1865; not mustered; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Greene, John. Nov. 19, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

Gross, Anton. July 9, 1863; mustered out, June 26, 1865.

Gross, Charles. July 31, 1863; deserted, Oct. 16, 1864.

Harris, Albert B. Nov. 24, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

Hart, Robert. Nov. 20, 1862; discharged for disability, June 1, 1863.

Hartford, Solomon H. Dec. 16, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

Hatch, John. Dec. 9, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Jan. 12, 1863.

Hauser, George. Dec. 19, 1862; deserted, Jan. 18, 1863.</