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A report upon the Back Swamp and Jacob Swamp drainage district, Robeson County, North Carolina

Date: 1912 | Identifier: TC975 .M33X 1912
A report upon the Back Swamp and Jacob Swamp drainage district, Robeson County, North Carolina / by Samuel H. McCrory ; assisted by Carl W. Mengel ; prepared under the direction of C. G. Elliott. Washington, D.C. : G.P.O., 1912. 47 p., [10] folded leaves : maps ; 24 cm. (Bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations ; 246) more...
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Issued January 27, 1912.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS—BULLETIN 246.
A. C. TRUE, Director.

A REPORT
UPON THE
BACK SWAMP AND JACOB SWAMP DRAINAGE
DISTRICT, ROBESON COUNTY,
NORTH CAROLINA.

BY
SAMUEL H. McCRORY,
Drainage Engineer,
ASSISTED BY
CARL W. MENGEL,
Assistant Drainage Engineer.
PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF
C. G. ELLIOTT,
Chief of Drainage Investigations.


[Illustration:

United States Department of Agriculture 1862 Agriculture is the Foundation of Manufacture and Commerce 1889
Seal of the United States Department of Agriculture]

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1912









1410
Issued January 27, 1912.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS—BULLETIN 246.
A. C. TRUE, Director.A REPORT
UPON THE
BACK SWAMP AND JACOB SWAMP DRAINAGE
DISTRICT, ROBESON COUNTY,
NORTH CAROLINA.

BY
SAMUEL H. McCRORY,
Drainage Engineer,


ASSISTED BY
CARL W. MENGEL,
Assistant Drainage Engineer.
PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF
C. G. ELLIOTT,
Chief of Drainage Investigations.

[Illustration:

United States Department of Agriculture 1862 Agriculture is the Foundation of Manufacture and Commerce 1889
Seal of the United States Department of Agriculture]

WASHINGTONGOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE1912



OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

A. C. TRUE, Director.

E. W. ALLEN, Assistant Director.

STAFF OF DRAINAGE INVESTIGATIONS.

C. G. ELLIOTT, Chief Drainage Engineer and Chief of Drainage Investigations.

A. D. MOREHOUSE, Office Engineer and Assistant Chief of Drainage Investigations.

R. D. MARSDEN, Office Engineer.

H. H. BARROWS, Assistant Office Engineer.

G. F. POHLERS, H. B. ARTLEY, J. G. HANFORD, Draftsmen.

H. S. YOHE, Senior Clerk.

DRAINAGE ENGINEERS.

S. H. MCCRORY, H. A. KIPP, F. F. SHAFER, O. G. BAXTER, G. M. WARREN, D. L. YARNELL, J. V. PHILLIPS, L. A. JONES, F. G. EASON, C. W. OKEY.

ASSISTANT DRAINAGE ENGINEERS.

J. R. HASWELL, N. B. WADE, W. J. SCHLICK, A. G. HALL, C. W. MENGEL.

DRAINAGE ENGINEERS FOR IRRIGATED LANDS.

R. A. HART, D. G. MILLER, W. W. WEIR, S. W. COOPER, W. A. KELLY, W. N. HALL, W. G. SLOAN.

ENGINEERS AVAILABLE FOR SPECIAL WORK.

S. M. WOODWARD, A. E. MORGAN, C. F. BROWN, L. L. HIDINGER.





LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,

OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS,

Washington, D. C., June 15, 1911.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith a report upon the Back Swamp and Jacob Swamp drainage district, Robeson County, N. C., prepared by engineers of this office under the direction of C. G. Elliott, chief of drainage investigations.

This district embraces an area of about 33,000 acres of swamp land in eastern North Carolina, which, when drained, it is believed, will become good agricultural land. The report embodies the results of an examination made by this office with a view to ascertaining and recommending the best methods of accomplishing the reclamation of this land.

The drainage district has already been organized, and as the matters discussed will be of interest to a large number of people who will be affected by the improvements, and likewise serve as an example for the drainage of similar lands in the coastal region, the publication of the report as a bulletin of this office is recommended.

Respectfully,

A. C. TRUE,

Director.

Hon. JAMES WILSON,

Secretary of Agriculture.









CONTENTS.

Page.
Introduction7
General description8
Watersheds8
Drainage channels9
The Lumber River10
Back Swamp10
Jacob Swamp11
Gum Branch and Cotton Mill Branch11
Soil and crops11
The survey12
Rainfall and run-off13
Rainfall14
Heavy storms14
Run-off17
The plan recommended18
Details of construction18
Size of ditches18
Berms and side slopes19
Right of way19
Unit prices for excavation20
Maintenance21
Bridges21
Outlets for farm drainage21
Drainage at Maxton22
The improvements in detail22
Back Swamp22
Lateral A.24
Dees Branch25
Cypress Branch25
Turkey Branch27
Little Back Swamp27
Jacob Swamp28
Little Jacob Swamp30
South Fork, Panther Branch30
Lateral X.31
Cotton Mill Branch31
Gum Branch32
Summary of estimates32
Review and conclusion33

APPENDIX I.

Monthly, annual, and normal precipitation, in inches and hundredths, at Lumberton, Robeson County, N. C.34
Monthly, annual, and normal precipitation, in inches and hundredths, at Fayetteville, Cumberland County, N. C.34





Page.
Monthly, annual, and normal precipitation, in inches and hundredths, at Whiteville, Columbus County, N. C.35
Storm periods for the years 1896 to 1910, inclusive, as shown by the records of the U. S. Weather Bureau stations at Fair Bluff, Lumberton, Fayetteville, and Whiteville, N. C.35

APPENDIX II.

List of bench marks set41

APPENDIX III.

Courses and distances of located lines44

APPENDIX IV.

General specifications for open ditches in Back Swamp and Jacob Swamp drainage district46

ILLUSTRATIONS.

Page.
FIG. 1.Watershed map of Back Swamp and Jacob Swamp drainage district9
2.Map of Back Swamp and Jacob Swamp drainage district. (Sheet 1, Back Swamp)12
3.Map of Back Swamp and Jacob Swamp drainage district. (Sheet 2, Back Swamp)12
4.Map of Back Swamp and Jacob Swamp drainage district. (Sheet 3, Jacob Swamp)12
5.Profiles of proposed ditches in Back Swamp and Jacob Swamp drainage district. (Sheet 1)12
6.Profiles of proposed ditches in Back Swamp and Jacob Swamp drainage district. (Sheet 2)12
7.Cross section of minimum dredged ditch, Back Swamp and Jacob Swamp drainage district19





THE BACK SWAMP AND JACOB SWAMP DRAINAGE DISTRICT, NORTH CAROLINA.

INTRODUCTION.

The need of drainage in the territory of the Back Swamp and Jacob Swamp drainage district, Robeson County, N. C., was brought to the attention of drainage investigations, Office of Experiment Stations, United States Department of Agriculture, in March, 1910, by Mr. Daniel B. McNeil, through Representative H. L. Godwin, who requested that an engineer from the office be sent to make an examination of the district and advise the interested landowners as to the possibilities of drainage. H. A. Kipp, drainage engineer, was detailed by the office to make a preliminary examination of the proposed district and to advise the interested parties as to the best plan to follow in the construction of a drainage system. On April 11 and 12, 1910, Mr. Kipp made an examination and found that all the land in the proposed district could be drained. The landowners had already started the formation of a drainage district, and they requested that the office make the necessary survey and prepare a plan for drainage. As the problems involved and the methods to be pursued in the draining of these lands are more or less typical of those of other swamp areas in the eastern part of the State, this request was granted. An agreement was made between the office and the interested landowners, under the terms of which the former agreed to make the survey and prepare a plan for draining the district, furnishing the services of engineers and rodmen, and the necessary equipment and subsistence for the entire party, the landowners to furnish the services of Mr. F. F. Wetmore, engineer for the drainage district, and all labor necessary in making the survey.

To expedite matters Mr. Wetmore made a preliminary survey of the district during the summer of 1910, and the organization of a drainage district was started under the State drainage law. The project was assigned to Samuel H. McCrory, drainage engineer, assisted by Carl W. Mengel, assistant drainage engineer, both of drainage investigations, Office of Experiment Stations. A field party was organized at Maxton, N. C., September 13, 1910, and the survey begun at the upper end of the district. It was completed December 9, 1910, and the party transferred to another project.





A description of the survey and the method of applying the data obtained therefrom are set forth in this report, which contains also detailed recommendations for draining the district and an estimate in detail of the cost of the proposed improvements. Accompanying the report and forming an essential part thereof are a general map (in three sheets), showing the physical features of the district and the proposed system of drainage, and two sheets showing in profile the several ditches and the natural ground surface along the lines upon which the ditches are located. Tables of rainfall data, a list of permanent bench marks set, descriptions of the located ditch lines, and specifications for the ditches are given as appendixes.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION.

Back and Jacob swamps are located on the south side of the Lumber River in Robeson County, N. C. Back Swamp heads about 1 mile southeast of Maxton, N. C., and runs to the southeast, paralleling the Lumber River to a point near Back Swamp Church, where it turns to the north and enters Lumber River. The watershed is about 17 miles long and varies in width from one-half to 2½ miles and contains 21,550 acres, about one-third of which is under cultivation. Jacob Swamp heads in Back Swamp near Back Swamp Church and runs to the southeast, entering the Lumber River at a point 4½ miles southeast of Lumberton, N. C. Its watershed has a length of 9½ miles and varies in width from 1 to 4 miles. Its drainage area contains 9,980 acres, approximately one-fourth of which is cultivated land.

Gum and Cotton Mill branches are two small tributaries lying south of the Seaboard Air Line Railway, near Lumberton. They empty directly into the river and drain 1,320 acres, about 10 per cent of which is under cultivation.

The general location of the drainage district and of the several watersheds is shown in figure 1. The boundary of the district has been made to coincide with the outside watershed boundary lines of the several drainage areas. The district is crossed from north to south by the Atlantic Coast Line Railway and the Alma Lumber Co. and Beaufort Lumber Co. tramroads. There are no towns in the district, and it can be most conveniently reached by driving from Maxton, Pembroke, or Lumberton.

WATERSHEDS.

The secondary watersheds are very flat with general slopes toward the branches, while the whole watershed slopes to the east. In a few places ridges rise abruptly to a height of 15 or 20 feet above the general level, the largest of these being the ridge at Back Swamp





Church and the ridge between Dees Branch and Cypress Branch above the Lowery Road. The natural drainage of nearly all the land in the district is poor. The land on the ridges that can be most easily drained has been cleared and is under cultivation. The lowland and that in the swamps is still in timber, although in places attempts have been made to clear this land and to farm it. The land will grow fine crops in dry years when conditions are favorable, but in wet years the crops are failures. The greater part of the timberland in the district has such poor drainage that until improved outlets are provided for the drainage it can not be cleared and cultivated successfully. The cultivated land has almost the same need
[Illustration:

FIG. 1.—Watershed map of Back Swamp and Jacob Swamp drainage district.
]

for drainage as the unimproved. Attempts have been made to drain this land, but on account of the poor outlets for the field ditches it has not been possible to obtain the results desired; nearly every field in the district shows the need of better drainage.

DRAINAGE CHANNELS.

During the rainy season the entire district is wet. The flat character of the watershed makes the movement of the water to the present drainage channels extremely slow; over much of the district the water stands in the low places until it evaporates. The present





drainage channels, even if cleared, are entirely inadequate to remove the drainage from the district or give a satisfactory outlet for lateral or farm drainage.

The district is drained by four main watercourses—Back Swamp, Jacob Swamp, Gum Branch, and Cotton Mill Branch, which discharge into the Lumber River, the ultimate outlet for this region.

THE LUMBER RIVER.

The Lumber River is the outlet for the entire district. In Robeson County the river is very crooked, flowing through a wet gum and cypress swamp. The banks of the stream in the swamp are low, and at many places the river overflows its banks and runs through the swamp; a small rise in the river will flood the entire river swamp. The bottom of the channel is sandy. The water in the deepest part of the channel was from 8 to 10 feet deep at the time the survey was made. The river has a fall of 41 feet from a point near Mr. J. B. Sellers's residence to the mouth of Back Swamp and of 20 feet from the mouth of Back Swamp to the mouth of Jacob Swamp Ditch. Above the mouth of Back Swamp the Lumber River drains 575 square miles. The flood line of the 1908 flood, as nearly as can be determined from available data, was between 10 and 11 feet higher than the water level at the time the survey was made. With the river in its present condition, a limited amount of work at the mouths of the proposed ditches will afford them good outlet.

BACK SWAMP.

Back Swamp is the most important of the interior drainage outlets, draining about two-thirds of the entire district. Through the greater part of its course it is a broad, flat, swampy waterway with poorly defined banks, and covered with a heavy growth of timber and underbrush. The channel varies in width from 50 to 1,500 feet. The drainage from its watershed finds its way slowly through the tangled undergrowth in the swamp, and in only a few places is the channel at all defined. At the time the survey was made the swamp was dry, excepting the portion near the river. The present channel or “run” of the swamp affords no outlet for lateral drainage when there is water in it; for this reason it is impossible to cultivate much of the land in the district. Back Swamp receives the drainage from a number of tributary drains; these are very similar in character to the main stream, with wide, flat swamps and poorly defined banks, most of which are so shallow that they afford but indifferent outlet to lateral or farm drainage. All tributaries are heavily timbered and covered with dense undergrowth, but they are well located to serve as outlet drains if their channels were improved.





JACOB SWAMP.

Jacob Swamp is similar in character to Back Swamp, having a wide, flat, swampy drainage channel heavily timbered and varying in width from 150 to 800 feet and having well-defined but not steep banks. About a mile above the mouth of Jacob Swamp a low place is found on the south bank. During floods part of the water is diverted from Jacob Swamp and, passing through this low area, reaches Panther Branch and through it the river. Little Jacob Swamp enters Jacob Swamp from the south, and Panther Branch drains part of the watershed and really should be considered as part of the same stream. Panther Branch is a wide, flat swamp, with no defined channel and covered with a very heavy growth of timber and undergrowth.

GUM BRANCH AND COTTON MILL BRANCH.

Gum Branch and Cotton Mill Branch are small watercourses that drain directly into the river. Near the river they have well-defined channels that flatten out near the head. Both branches head in large swamps or brakes.

SOIL AND CROPS.

The district lies within the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and its soils are typical of this region, being loams varying greatly in character, color, and texture. The Bureau of Soils, United States Department of Agriculture, has made a survey of Robeson County and divides the soils of the district into nine different types. From the report1 on this survey the following quotations are made:

Norfolk sandy loam.—The surface soil of the Norfolk sandy loam consists of a gray, yellowish gray, or light-brown, medium to coarse sandy loam, about 8 to 12 inches deep. * * * This soil is cultivated with ease, and its position allows the use of modern machinery for practically all areas. Over the larger and more uniform areas the subsoil is a yellow, sticky, sandy clay, and in a few localities it is a yellow, sticky, sandy loam, especially sandy near the areas of Norfolk sand. * * * The Norfolk sandy loam is the best general farming soil in the county. It is well adapted to the production of cotton, peanuts, tobacco, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, corn, and cowpeas. The truck crops, such as watermelons, cantaloups, beans, English peas, tomatoes, sweet corn, and asparagus, do well on the lighter phase of this type.

Portsmouth sandy loam.—The soil of the Portsmouth sandy loam to a depth of 6 to 15 inches is a dark gray or black, medium to coarse sandy loam. The gray phase is usually under cultivation, while the heavy black phase, locally known as black land, occurs in the forested and poorly drained areas. * * * The subsoil is a light gray, sticky, sandy clay mottled with brown and sometimes red or yellow. Just south of Lumberton a yellowish mottled clay is found. * * * Much of the subsoil holds water well and acts like an impervious clay. * * * This soil when good drainage has been established is well suited to corn, oats, cotton, cabbage, onions, strawberries,

[note]



and garden vegetables. It ranks as one of the best corn soils in the county. * * * The soil is fairly easily tilled, and machinery can be used to good advantage.

Swamp.—The soil in the areas mapped as swamp vary in texture from a heavy loam to a coarse sand, and no textural or type classification could be made on account of the wet conditions. If drained much of the soil could be classed with types of the Portsmouth series.

Small areas of Norfolk fine sandy loam, Norfolk very fine sandy loam, Portsmouth loam, Portsmouth fine sandy loam, Norfolk sand, and Orangeburg fine sandy loam are found at various places in the district, but are of such small extent as to be unimportant. All the soils in the district are fertile, easily tilled, and if well drained would produce fine crops. The value of the improved lands ranges from $25 to $100 per acre and that of unimproved portions from $10 to $35.

The principal crop in the district is cotton, it being the crop that is sold, corn and hay being raised for home consumption. Formerly tobacco was grown extensively, but its low price has made the industry unprofitable, and at the time the survey was made but a small amount of tobacco was being grown in the district. A few fields of wheat and oats are grown. Irish and sweet potatoes are raised for early shipping and home consumption. Strawberries, watermelons, and vegetables do well in the district, as do also peaches, pears, figs, apples, mulberries, and grapes.

Much of the timber is being cut and used for lumber and crossties. Lumbering at the present time is an important industry in the district, and the lumber products are valuable.

THE SURVEY.

A field party was organized at Maxton, N. C., September 13, 1910, and the survey started on the following day, at the upper end of the district. The large branches were all meandered, using stadia and compass, sufficient topography being taken to enable the best ditch lines to be determined. The ditch lines were then located, all distances being measured with a steel tape, and pine stakes 1 by 2 by 24 inches long, with the station numbers marked on them with blue crayon, were set at 100-foot inervals and at all points where the ditches changed direction.

In locating the proposed ditch lines, letters were used to designate the different lines and make them easy to identify. The station numbers marked on the stakes of the located ditch lines are in every case preceded by the letter that designates the swamp or branch which the ditch follows. The ditch lines located and the letter designating each ditch line are as follows:

Back Swamp (L), Lateral A (A), Dees Branch (B), Cypress Branch (C), Turkey Branch (D), Jacob Swamp (E), Little Back Swamp (F),





















































Little Jacob Swamp (G), Gum Branch (H), Cotton Mill Branch (K), South Fork Panther Branch (S), and Lateral X (X).

The trees on both sides of each line were well blazed, so that the line can be retraced even though the stakes be destroyed. All courses are magnetic bearings. Elevations were taken at each stake on all located ditch lines. Cross sections, consisting of a stadia and level traverse, were made at approximate 1-mile intervals and were tied to all ditch lines and other traverses that were crossed. All the important roads in the district were traversed. The elevation of the top of the rail in front of the Seaboard Air Line Railway depot at Maxton was obtained from the Dictionary of Altitudes, United States Geological Survey, the datum of which is approximately sea level. This was taken as a starting point and a base line of levels run around that part of the district surveyed from the first camp, and all level work was tied to this closed circuit. A similar plan was adopted for all the work. All level work was checked within the allowable error for good Y level work. On all level work bench marks were set at intervals of about 1 mile, each of these being numbered and marked with the number of the bench mark and initial of the person setting it. A list and description of all bench marks set are given as Appendix II. The watershed line and district boundary was located by running lines of levels across it at approximate half-mile intervals and sketching the watershed between these lines. The Lumber River was meandered from Barkers Bridge, above the mouth of Back Swamp, to McNeils Bridge, about 4 miles below the mouth of Back Swamp, and from the mouth of Jacob Swamp to a point about 1 mile below. The data obtained on the survey are set forth on the accompanying maps and profiles. (Figs. 2 to 6, inclusive.)

RAINFALL AND RUN-OFF.

Of the total precipitation that falls upon a given tract of land, a certain portion is taken up by vegetation, some is removed by evaporation, some sinks into the ground, and some finds its way over the surface into natural or artificial channels and thence into the larger streams. The water removed in the last-mentioned manner is known as run-off; a certain portion of the water that sinks into the ground later appears also as run-off. The rate of run-off, as the term is used in the following discussion, is the depth of water, in inches, over the entire watershed that passes off through surface channels in a period of 24 hours as a result of maximum precipitation. For convenience in making calculations the rate of run-off is also expressed in cubic feet per second. It is that part of the precipitation which appears as run-off that must be dealt with in reclaiming lands that under natural conditions are perpetual swamps or that are periodically damaged by the overflow of adjoining streams.





The most important factors affecting the rate of run-off from a given watershed are: Precipitation; the size, shape, and topography of the watershed; the nature of the soil; the character of the vegetation; and the rate of evaporation. Of these the most important consideration is precipitation, and therefore before an intelligent decision can be arrived at as to the volume of water a proposed drainage system must be designed to handle a careful study of the precipitation in the region involved must be made. The maximum monthly and daily rainfall, the frequency, duration, and intensity of large rainstorms, as well as the time of the year in which they are most likely to occur, are matters of prime importance as bases for the design of drainage improvements. The stations of the United States Weather Bureau are now so well distributed over the country that records for a varying number of years past are usually available for almost any region for which such information is desired. These records are invaluable in the study of rainfall as applied to the question of drainage.

RAINFALL.

The rainfall records from four observation stations of the United States Weather Bureau near the district have been compiled for a period from September, 1896, to date. Unfortunately the record at Lumberton, the only station in the immediate vicinity of Back and Jacob Swamps, is incomplete. Fayetteville was chosen as the nearest station to the district where a full record could be obtained. The records of the stations at Fair Bluff and Whiteville are incomplete, but are presented as showing something of the way the rainfall is distributed in this region. Tables have been prepared from the Weather Bureau records showing the monthly and annual rainfall for the years from 1896 to 1910, inclusive, and the daily precipitation during all storm periods within this time, where the daily precipitation at any station exceeded 1 inch; these tables are attached to the report as Appendix I.

The annual rainfall at Lumberton varies from a minimum of 38.43 inches in 1909 to a maximum of 62.76 in 1901. The table of monthly and annual rainfall shows that February, June, July, and August have a normal precipitation exceding 5 inches per month. The minimum monthly rainfall recorded was 0.28 inch in October, 1896, and the maximum monthly was 12.52 inches in May, 1901. The maximum recorded precipitation in 24 hours occurred September 14 and 15, 1904, when 5.87 inches fell.

HEAVY STORMS.

The following table has been prepared to show the frequency of heavy storms in the district and the seasons in which they are most likely to occur:





Dates of excessive precipitation (2 inches or more in 24 hours) at Lumberton, Robeson County, N. C., 1897 to 1910, inclusive.
[From records of the U. S. Weather Bureau.]
Date.Inches.Date.Inches.Date.Inches.Date.Inches.
1897.1900.1904.1907.
May 22.54Apr. 212.35June 302.91June 113.90
June 52.00Sept. 1415.87July 152.30
July 212.201901.Oct. 212.86Aug. 193.67
May 202.59Sept. 292.76
1898.May 224.121905.
July 312.95July 162.22May 112.721908.
Sept. 82.06Sept. 14.48June 262.51
Nov. 172.11Sept. 182.091906.Aug. 193.03
Jan. 262.14Sept. 62.22
1899.1903.Feb. 92.00Oct. 232.20
June 112.12Feb. 83.00Feb. 132.64
July 182.60Feb. 282.01June 143.061909.
July 252.09Mar. 302.46June 42.13
Oct. 314.06June 192.43Aug. 152.32
July 142.33
1910.
June 62.16
[note]

An examination of the foregoing table shows that during these 14 years there were 4 days in which there was a precipitation of 4 inches or more and 9 days in which more than 3 inches fell in the 24 hours.

The periods of heavy precipitation in the foregoing table are divided among the months as follows:

Periods of heavy precipitation at Lumberton, Robeson County, N. C., 1897-1910, inclusive.
Months.Periods.Months.Periods.Months.Periods.
January0May4September7
February4June8October3
March1July7November1
April1August3December0

It is apparent from the above classification that the heavy or flood-causing storms are most likely to occur during the summer months, from June to September, inclusive.

There is but little available information as to when overflow conditions occur in the district, and the lack of these data make it difficult to determine just how great a precipitation in a given period is necessary to cause overflow conditions. In June, 1910, there was a rainy period that caused the Lumber River to reach a high stage and caused overflow in the district. The precipitation for this storm period is given in the following table:

Daily precipitation (in inches) at Fayetteville, Lumberton, and Whiteville, N. C., from June 5 to 17, 1910.
Stations.June, 1910.Total.Average daily.
567891011121314151617
Fayetteville0.151.700.020.311.540.021.580.101.300.260.027.000.54
LumbertonTr.2.16.03Tr.Tr.Tr.1.67.411.14.15.70.42.026.70.51
WhitevilleTr.2.10.020.060.10.141.07.331.02.27.92.23.016.27.48





This storm caused high water over the entire district, and in the Lumber River the flood water is said to have reached a stage about 2 feet lower than that reached by the flood of 1908.

The records of the Weather Bureau show that two floods or freshets occurred in North Carolina during 1908. The first of these occurred in July and was caused by the storm period from the 28th to the 31st, inclusive. The largest flood occurred during the latter part of August, the river reaching its highest stage August 30, when the entire district was again flooded. The people living in the district stated that this latter overflow was the highest that they had ever seen. It was the opinion of some of the Croatan Indians that the river at this time was higher than it had been at any time in the past 100 years. The following table has been prepared showing the daily precipitation during the storm period that caused the floods of 1908:

Daily precipitation (in inches) at Fayetteville, Lumberton, and Whiteville, N. C., from July 28 to August 27, 1908.
Stations.July.August.
2829303116789131416
Fayetteville0.870.030.351.340.090.661.090.96
Lumberton1.12.061.041.82.090.40Tr..53Tr.
Whiteville1.50.505.601.50.170.37.100.05.66

Stations.August.Total.
17192021222324252627
Fayetteville0.400.630.320.860.614.681.020.781.4416.13
Lumberton.303.03.141.32.670.27.20.20.231.0012.42
Whiteville2.75.05.65.10.06Tr.1.002.00.8517.91

The rainfall records further show that in 1901 exceedingly heavy rains occurred at Lumberton, causing floods over the entire district; no information is available, however, as to the exact height reached by the water at this time. The maximum yearly and monthly precipitations recorded at Lumberton occurred during this year. The records of the Weather Bureau covering the period from 1882 to date show no storms exceeding in precipitation those of 1901 and 1908. C. F. von Herrman, section director in climate and crops, North Carolina section, September, 1901, states:

The average precipitation for the State from April 1 to September 30, 1901, was 15 inches in excess of the normal amount. During no other period since 1872 has such excessive rainfall been recorded in North Carolina.

In the past 14 years, as shown in the table on page 37, there have been 39 days when the precipitation at Lumberton has been 2 inches





or more in 24 hours. On 9 days the precipitation has exceeded 3 inches in 24 hours, and on 4 days it has exceeded 4 inches in 24 hours. The storm period of 1908, which caused the highest floods on record, extended over a period of 31 days. The average daily precipitation during this period was, at Fayetteville, 0.52 inch; at Lumberton, 0.40 inch, and at Whiteville, 0.54 inch. Two short periods of very heavy precipitation occurred during this time. From July 28 to 31, inclusive, the daily average precipitation was Fayetteville, 0.65 inch; Lumberton, 1.02 inches; and Whiteville, 2.27 inches. Again, from August 19 to 27, inclusive, the average daily precipitation was Fayetteville, 1.15 inches; Lumberton, 0.78 inch, and Whiteville, 0.83 inch. A storm period with heavy precipitation occurred from May 19 to 23, 1901; the average daily precipitation for this period was Fayetteville, 1.09 inches; Lumberton, 1.87 inches. The storm period that caused the 1910 storm had an average daily precipitation of 0.51 inch for 13 days. The storms of 1901 and 1910 are the heaviest that have occurred in the last 14 years. Storms of such intensity as that of 1908 are not apt to occur often, and from all that can be learned no other storm in the past 50 years has caused such high water.

RUN-OFF.

It has been stated that the rate of run-off from a watershed is affected by the size, shape, and topography of the latter. In a large watershed, other things being equal, the run-off in 24 hours, per unit of area, will be less than that in a smaller one, for the reason that in the former the water falling near the outlet channel will tend to pass off before the arrival of that falling upon the more distant portions of the drainage area. For the same reason a fan-shaped watershed, whose outlet is at the apex, would have a greater rate of run-off per unit of area than would a long and narrow one of the same area and having similar topography; and obviously, a rough, precipitous area would concentrate the water falling upon it much more quickly than would a level watershed.

The watershed of Back Swamp is long and narrow; the surface is flat, with no steep slopes in any part of the area. The soil over the entire area is a very absorbent sandy loam. In the months when, as shown by the records, the precipitation is apt to be the heaviest and floods most harmful, vegetation is growing rapidly and requires a great deal of water. Evaporation is also the most rapid during the summer months.

Aside from the storms of 1901 and 1908, there are no storm periods that show an average daily precipitation in this region of more than 0.75 of an inch over a long period of time, and as the heaviest storms generally occur in the months from May to September, when conditions





are most favorable for the soil to absorb precipitation, and as the soil absorbs water readily and responds quickly to drainage, it was decided that ditches designed to remove a run-off of one-half inch of water in 24 hours from the entire watershed of Back Swamp and three-fourths of an inch of water in 24 hours from the watershed of Jacob Swamp, would afford good drainage. The higher rate of run-off assumed for Jacob Swamp is due to the fact that its area is less than half that of Back Swamp. The size of the upper portions of the main ditch and of the lateral ditches was determined by the requirements of the machinery to be used in their construction; all lateral ditches will remove a run-off of 1 inch or more of water in 24 hours from their watersheds. The ditches are planned to remove this amount of water when the depth of flow is but 5.5 feet, and will remove about 30 per cent more when running bank full.

THE PLAN RECOMMENDED.

The plan recommended for the improvement of the district includes:

(1) The construction of ditches in the larger natural drainage channels.

(2) The improvement of the Lumber River.

DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION.

All the ditches in the district are located in the lowest parts of the swamps and branches, all of which are heavily timbered and during the greater part of the year wet. September and October of the year 1910 were the driest on record at Lumberton, and the greater part of the swamps was dry during these months, but with the usual amount of rain all the swamps and branches will be wet the greater part of the year.

In Appendix IV are given some specifications which cover the main points to be met with in ordinary ditch construction. These are general specifications for drainage ditches which have been altered to meet the conditions of the Back and Jacob Swamp project. It is assumed that more detailed specifications will be prepared before contracts are let. In the following paragraphs the main features of ditch construction are discussed in some detail.

SIZE OF DITCHES.

There are many different kinds of machines that are used for excavating drainage ditches in various sections of the country. It is probable, however, that the machine best adapted to the Back and Jacob Swamp work is some type of floating dipper dredge. The decision as to the type of machine to be used is usually left to the contractor for the work.





Experience has shown that the smallest ditch that can be built by a dipper dredge in a wooded country is one having a 14-foot bottom and side slopes suited to the material in which the ditch is excavated. A ditch with a 14-foot bottom and 1 to 1 side slopes and having a depth of about 6 feet is well adapted to the conditions existing in the district, and this size was therefore adopted as the minimum section for dredged ditches (fig. 7). Side slopes of 1 to 1 rather than one-half to 1, as is usual for dredged ditches, are specified on account of the sandy nature of the soil. It is true that a ditch of these dimensions is, in some cases, larger than the assumed rate of run-off would require. The cheapness of dredge work, however, as compared with handwork makes it much more economical to construct a ditch of sufficient size to float a dipper dredge in order
[Illustration:

FIG. 7.—Cross section of minimum dredged ditch, Back Swamp and Jacob Swamp drainage district.
]

to obtain the advantage of the low price per yard made possible by the use of a dredge of this type.

BERMS AND SIDE SLOPES.

Clean berms should be left on all ditches. The small ditches that are to be dug by hand labor should have a berm 6 feet wide on each side. All ditches constructed with 14-foot bases or wider should have a berm 8 feet wide on each side. All ditches should have banks with side slopes of 1 to 1.

RIGHT OF WAY.

It will be necessary to clear a right of way for all the ditches. A right of way 80 feet wide will be necessary for all ditches with 14-foot bottoms and 90 feet wide for ditches with 16, 18, and 20 foot bottoms. The right of way should be cleared as rapidly as possible after the contract is let. When cleared, there will be afforded a much better outlet to flood water than now exists. The fear has been expressed by persons living in the district that the lands in the lower part of the district would be flooded if heavy rains occurred while the ditch was under construction. By clearing the right of way in advance of the dredge all danger of flooding before the ditch is





completed is avoided. The following statement shows the amount of right of way required for each ditch:

Acres of right of way required for each ditch.
Ditch.Acres.Ditch.Acres.
Back Swamp180Jacob Swamp87
Lateral A.3Little Jacob Swamp41
Dees Branch48South Fork Panther Branch13
Cypress Branch43Lateral X.5
Turkey Branch33Cotton Mill Branch14
Little Back Swamp19Gum Branch23

The right of way required will be in the lowest part of the swamps and branches, and the price per acre should not be high. It is believed that $10 per acre will be a fair price for the land taken for right of way.

UNIT PRICES FOR EXCAVATION.

It will be best to let the work in the district in such a manner that each dredge will have enough work to keep it busy for the time allowed in which to complete the work. The unit cost of excavation will depend to a large extent upon the amount of excavation that each machine will have. Three dredges should be able to complete the work in two years after the contract is let. If the work is let to different contractors, it could be advantageously divided in the following manner:

Contract No. 1, ditch in Back Swamp, lateral A, and section No. 1 of Cypress Branch, all of which can be excavated by one dredge without rebuilding. Total excavation, 509,900 cubic yards.

Contract No. 2, ditches in Dees Branch, section No. 2 of Cypress Branch, Turkey Branch, and Little Back Swamp. Total excavation, 342,200 cubic yards.

Contract No. 3, ditches in Jacob Swamp, Little Jacob Swamp, South Fork of Panther Branch, and lateral X of Jacob Swamp. Total excavation, 359,400 cubic yards.

The hand ditches in Gum and Cotton Mill Branches should be let as a separate contract.

The amount of excavation that will be necessary in the construction of each ditch has been computed, using the elevations taken at the stations and assuming that the ground surface at each station is level transversely to the ditch. The estimated amount of excavation in each mile section of the several ditches and the total excavation required for the construction of each ditch, as determined in this manner, is shown in the following pages. Parts of the ditches where the surface is quite uneven should be cross sectioned before the ditches are constructed and the yardage more accurately determined.





Work very similar in character to that in the district has been let recently for from 6 to 10 cents per cubic yard. The time that is allowed for the construction of the ditches will have a material effect on the unit prices. Assuming that the work will be let in sections, so that each dredge will have approximately two years’ work, it is believed that the ditches which one dredge can construct in this time without rebuilding can be let for 8 cents per cubic yard, whereas those ditches where the dredge will have to be rebuilt at the completion of each ditch will cost approximately 9 cents per cubic yard. On all ditches that are to be constructed by hand labor the cost of excavation has been estimated at 20 cents per cubic yard. These prices include clearing the right of way.

MAINTENANCE.

After the ditches are completed they should be examined at least once each year, and all trees, logs, brush, snags, and other obstructions removed. If the ditches have become silted up at any place the silt should be removed. No fences, fish traps, or piling should be allowed in the channel. The inspection should be made before each rainy season. A small amount of work each year will keep the ditches in good order and make them permanent structures, but if dug and not taken care of they will deteriorate rapidly and will have to be rebuilt in a few years. The waste banks should be seeded to Bermuda or other grasses that will form a sod.

BRIDGES.

The State law requires that the drainage district construct all bridges on public highways made necessary by the construction of a ditch. It is recommended that steel bridges with concrete abutments be constructed wherever bridges are necessary. The first cost of such bridges will be greater than that for wooden bridges, but the cost of maintaining them will be much less. In making the estimate of cost, bridges have been allowed for at all public road crossings. It is assumed that in most cases a 32-foot steel bridge with concrete abutments will be suitable for ditches with 14-foot bases. On the lower part of Back Swamp the wider base will make longer bridges necessary, and the price has been increased accordingly. The estimated price is based on the cost of similar bridges in other parts of the country.

OUTLETS FOR FARM DRAINAGE.

The landowner in the district whose land has not a direct outlet into a ditch, and who, in order to obtain an outlet, must cross the land of another with whom he is unable to agree as to the terms or





conditions on which he may acquire an outlet, is fully provided for under the State drainage law. That part of the law relating to this matter is here given in full.

[North Carolina Drainage Law. Chapter 442, Laws of 1909.]

SEC. 30. The owner of any land that has been assessed for the cost of the construction of any ditch, drain, or water course, as herein provided, shall have the right to use the ditch, drain, or water course as an outlet for lateral drains from said lands; and if said land is separated from the ditch, drain, or water courses by the land of another or others, and the owner thereof shall be unable to agree with said other or others as to the terms and conditions on which he may enter their lands and construct said drain or ditch, he may file his ancillary petition in such pending proceeding to the court, and the procedure shall be as now provided by law. When the ditch is constructed it shall become a part of the drainage system and shall be under the control of the board of drainage commissioners and be kept in repair by them as herein provided.

DRAINAGE AT MAXTON.

The attention of the chief of party was called to the possibility of draining part of the town of Maxton by extending the main ditch in Back Swamp. It will be possible to drain the eastern part lying south of the Seaboard Air Line Railway by extending the main ditch approximately 1¾ miles. It probably will be much cheaper and give better drainage to improve Shoe Heel Creek and use it as the outlet for this part of Maxton.

THE IMPROVEMENTS IN DETAIL.
BACK SWAMP.

The drainage area of Back Swamp and its tributaries contains 21,550 acres, all of which is included in the district. The district is to be drained by a main ditch, located in Back Swamp, and five lateral ditches located as shown on the accompanying map of the district. (See fig. 2, p. 12.)

The main ditch starts in the flat woods near the head of the watershed and continues to the southeast, following the course of the present drain to a point near Back Swamp Church, where it turns to the north and enters Lumber River, which is the outlet for the drainage of the district. The main ditch, from the starting point to the mouth of Little Back Swamp, is to have a 14-foot base. From the mouth of Little Back Swamp at station 760 to station 800 the base is to be 16 feet wide; from station 800 to station 850 the base is to be 18 feet wide; and from station 850 to the outlet at the Lumber River the bottom is to be 20 feet in width. The ditch will have an average depth of approximately 6.5 feet. A profile of the ditch accompanies this report. (See fig. 5, p. 12.) The main ditch is crossed by the Alma tramroad and the Atlantic Coast Line Railway; at the point where the





Alma tram crosses, the ditch has a 14-foot bottom and is 6.7 feet deep. The Atlantic Coast Line Railway is crossed at station 506 + 15 and the ditch here has a 14-foot base and is 6.5 feet deep.

At the point where the Atlantic Coast Line Railway crosses the ditch the railroad at the present time has a 310-foot pile trestle. A clear span should be placed over the ditch; this span should be approximately 32 feet long and should be of steel. No piling or other obstructions should be permitted in the channel of the ditch. At the point where Jacob Swamp leaves Back Swamp the present bridge on the Harleesville road should be removed and the road made a solid embankment, the top being raised to an elevation of 127.5 feet above datum. It is estimated that approximately 1,000 cubic yards of excavation will be required to raise the present road grade to the desired elevation and put it in good condition. It is assumed that this will be done with teams at a cost of about 15 cents per yard. Seven highway bridges will be required on the ditch.

The capacity of the ditch has been computed, using the formula v = c√rs, where n in Kutter's formula is given a value of 0.025. The following table has been prepared showing the capacity of the ditch at various places.

Dimensions, fall, computed and required capacities of Back Swamp ditch, and area drained by it.
[Run-off, one-half inch in 24 hours. Depth of water, 5.5 feet. “n”=0.025.]
Width of base in feet.Side slope of banks.Slope in feet per foot.Fall in feet per mile.Capacity in cubic feet per second.Area drained in acres.Required capacity in cubic feet per second.Remarks.
Station 46+00141-10.000774.07Ditch will remove more than 1 inch in 24 hours.
Station 67+00141-1.0027814.67
Station 100+00141-1.0027814.67
Station 140+00141-1.001005.28
Station 600+00141-1.000603.168
Station 679+00141-1.000502.643351,380290To and including Turkey Branch.
Station 762+00161-1.000653.434311,669350To and including Little Back Swamp.
Station 940+00201-1.000653.435322,155452At Rockingham Road.

The ditch, if built as planned, will have a capacity approximately 30 per cent greater than computed when flowing bank full.

The Lumber River, as shown on the large map at the point where the Back Swamp ditch enters it, is not in very good order and is quite crooked. The fall in Lumber River is approximately 2 feet per mile, and by clearing the present channel and cutting off a few bends it will be possible to prevent any congestion in the river at the point where Back Swamp enters. The river was meandered for about 4 miles below the mouth of Back Swamp, but no improved channel





was located at the time the survey was made, as it was impossible to determine at that time what work would be needed. The approximate location that the improved channel should have is shown on the large map. (See fig. 4, p. 12) The cost of this improvement was estimated to be $2,000.

A table has been prepared showing the excavation in each mile of ditch and the total excavation for the ditch. The quantities were computed for each 100-foot station, using center cuts, and assuming that the ground was flat, transversely to the ditch. As stated on page 20, the ditch should be cross sectioned before it is excavated and the amount of excavation accurately determined.

Excavation per mile section and total excavation in Back Swamp ditch.
From station—To station—Cubic yards excavation.From station—To station—Cubic yards excavation.
Mile 120+0052+8013,000Mile 12580+80633+6027,500
Mile 252+80105+6021,000Mile 13633+60686+4023,300
Mile 3105+60158+4023,400Mile 14686+40739+2026,100
Mile 4158+40211+2024,100Mile 15739+20792+0030,300
Mile 5211+20264+0022,800Mile 16792+00844+8033,400
Mile 6264+00316+8023,000Mile 17844+80897+6041,200
Mile 7316+80369+6022,800Mile 18897+60950+4039,100
Mile 8369+60422+4022,100Mile 19950+40967+009,600
Mile 9422+40475+2024,700
Mile 10475+20528+0024,300Total480,500
Mile 11528+00580+8028,800

Beginning at station 830, a proposed relocation is shown on the map. (See fig. 3, p. 12.) This location has the advantage of missing the large island and will save considerable excavation and give better drainage.

Estimate of cost.
480,000 cubic yards excavation, at 8 cents per yard$38, 400
1,000 cubic yards excavation, at 15 cents per yard150
5 steel highway bridges, 30 feet long, at $500 each2, 500
2 steel highway bridges, 40 feet long, at $700 each1, 400
180 acres right of way, at $10 per acre1, 800
Improving Lumber River2, 000
10 per cent for engineering, legal, and incidental expenses4, 625
Total50, 875

LATERAL A.

This is a short lateral, 2,000 feet long, that drains a large and very wet bay or swamp on the north side of Back Swamp, just east of the Alma Tramroad. This lateral should be dug by the same dredge that constructs the ditch in Back Swamp. The lateral is so short that it can readily be dug upstream. It is to be a standard minimum ditch, having a 14-foot bottom, and depth as shown on the profile. (See fig. 6, p. 12.) Its construction will require the excavation of 8,300 cubic yards of earth.





Estimate of cost.
8,300 cubic yards excavation, at 8 cents per yard$664
3 acres right of way, at $10 per acre30
10 per cent for engineering, legal, and incidental expenses69
Total763

DEES BRANCH.

Dees Branch is a branch about 5 miles long, lying north of Back Swamp, which it enters about one-half mile west of the Atlantic Coast Line Railway, as shown on the map. (See fig. 2, p. 12.) It drains approximately 2,260 acres. The branch has no channel, but is simply a flat swamp covered with undergrowth and large trees. An attempt has been made to drain the swamp and adjoining land above the Red Banks Road, but the ditch is small and shallow and has a very poor outlet, and results have not been all that was hoped for, although this ditch is said to have improved conditions greatly. As constructed, however, it is so located that it will be impossible to use it in constructing the new ditch. The proposed ditch is to have a 14-foot base and an average depth of 6 feet, as shown on the profile. (See fig. 6, p. 12.)

Excavation per mile section and total excavation in Dees Branch ditch.
From station—To station—Cubic yards excavation.
Mile 1052+8024,600
Mile 252+80105+6024,200
Mile 3105+60158+4022,900
Mile 4158+40211+2022,200
Mile 5211+20261+0022,500
Total116,400

Estimate of cost.
116,400 cubic yards excavation, at 9 cents per cubic yard$10, 476
Two 32-foot highway bridges, at $500 each1, 000
48 acres right of way, at $10 per acre480
10 per cent for engineering, legal, and incidental expenses1, 196
Total13, 152

CYPRESS BRANCH.

Cypress Branch heads in the flat woods north of Dees Branch and west of the Lowery Road, and runs to the southeast, crossing the Atlantic Coast Line Railway 1,700 feet north of Back Swamp and entering Back Swamp about 1½ miles east of the railroad. In planning the improvement of Cypress Branch two methods were considered. One, to start a ditch at the point shown on the map and follow Cypress Branch, crossing the Atlantic Coast Line Railway track





and entering Back Swamp 1½ miles east of the railroad. This plan would require the rebuilding of the present 2-span plate-girder bridge and the removal of the present concrete pier to enable the dredge to pass through, and would require approximately 110,000 cubic yards of excavation. The plan adopted was to construct the ditch in Cypress Branch, as shown on the maps (figs. 2 and 3, p. 12), dividing the ditch into two sections—section No. 1, draining that part of Cypress Branch watershed east of the railroad, and section No. 2, draining that part of the watershed west of the railroad. This plan gives the advantage of having only one ditch in the district crossing the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, and reduces the amount of excavation about 8,000 yards. Section No. 1 can be excavated by the same dredge that excavates the Back Swamp ditch; it was planned with this idea in view, and can readily be constructed by a dredge working upstream. Two highway bridges will be necessary on this branch, one on each section. Both ditches are to be standard minimum ditches, with depths as shown on the profile. (See fig. 6, p. 12.)

Excavation per mile section and total excavation in Cypress Branch.
SECTION NO. 1.
From station—To station—Cubic yards excavation.
Mile 1040+0021,100
SECTION NO. 2.
Mile 163+96.5116+7622,200
Mile 2116+76169+5623,000
Mile 3169+56222+3624,100
Mile 4222+36240+008,900
Total99,300

Estimate of cost.
Section No. 1:
21,100 cubic yards excavation, at 8 cents per yard$1, 688
One 32-foot highway bridge, at $500500
10 per cent for engineering, legal, and incidental expenses219
Total2, 407
Section No. 2:
78,200 cubic yards excavation, at 9 cents per yard7, 038
One 32-foot highway bridge, at $500500
43 acres right of way, at $10 per acre430
10 per cent for engineering, legal, and incidental expenses797
Total8, 765
Total Cypress Branch11, 172





TURKEY BRANCH.

Turkey Branch heads in the flat woods along the Atlantic Coast Line Railway, south of the Rockingham Road. The proposed ditch is to start in the branch on the east side of the railroad and follow the course of the branch as shown on the general map. (Fig. 3.) After the survey was completed it was decided that it would be best to locate a sublateral which would drain the branch that leaves Turkey Branch about 1½ miles above Back Swamp. No ditch line was located on this branch. The approximate location that the ditch should have is shown on the map. It will be approximately 6,500 feet long and will require the excavation of 25,000 cubic yards. Both ditches are to be standard minimum ditches. The Turkey Branch main ditch is shown in profile in figure 6, page 12.

Excavation per mile section and total excavation in Turkey Branch.
From station—To station—Cubic yards excavation.
Mile 1052+8021,100
Mile 252+80105+6023,400
Mile 3105+60158+4023,600
Mile 4158+40182+009,900
Total78,000

Estimate of cost.
Main ditch:
78,000 cubic yards excavation, at 9 cents per yard$7, 020
2 highway bridges, at $500 each1, 000
43 acres right of way, at $10 per acre430
10 per cent for engineering, legal, and incidental expenses845
Total9, 295
Sublateral:
25,000 cubic yards excavation, at 9 cents per yard2, 250
12 acres right of way, at $10 per acre120
10 per cent for engineering, legal, and contingent expenses237
Total2, 607
Total for Turkey Branch11, 902

LITTLE BACK SWAMP.

Little Back Swamp drains approximately 1,740 acres lying south of Back Swamp. It heads in the woods and fields west of the Raynham and Moss Neck roads. The ditch is to start in the swamp at the Raynham and Moss Neck roads and is to follow the course of the swamp to Back Swamp. It is to be a standard minimum ditch, with depth as shown on the profile. (See fig. 6, p. 12.)





Excavation per mile section and total excavation in Little Back Swamp ditch.
From station—To station—Cubic yards excavation.
Mile 1052+8022,600
Mile 252+80105+6022,000
Total44,600

Estimate of cost.
44,600 cubic yards excavation, at 9 cents per yard$4,014
19 acres right of way, at $10 per acre190
10 per cent for engineering, legal, and incidental expenses420
Total4,624

JACOB SWAMP.

The drainage area of Jacob Swamp and tributaries contains 9,980 acres. The plan adopted for draining this part of the district consists of a main ditch and three lateral ditches, the locations of which are shown on the general map. (See fig. 4, p. 12.)

The main ditch begins in Jacob Swamp, about 1,500 feet below the Harleesville road crossing, and follows the course of the swamp to a point three-fourths of a mile below the Raleigh & Charleston Railroad, where the located ditch leaves Jacob Swamp and cuts across a low flat ridge to the head of Panther Branch, and thence down Panther Branch to Panther Lake, and through the lake to the river. This location was chosen because it discharges the water from Jacob Swamp into the river approximately 1 mile below where it would if the location followed the north branch of Jacob Swamp, thus reducing the elevation to which back water from the river will rise by the amount of the fall in the river between the two outlets. The outlet into the river through Panther Branch has the advantage of not requiring the ditch to cross the wide river swamp in order to reach an outlet, as would be necessary if the ditch followed Jacob Swamp. The fall and the amount of excavation is the same for both locations. An additional reason for choosing this location was the fact that practically all the landowners in the lower end of the district were in favor of this route for the ditch.

The ditch will be a standard minimum dredge ditch throughout, having a fall of 2.64 feet per mile above station 380 and of 3.696 feet per mile below this point and having a capacity at the lower end, when running at a depth of 5.5 feet, of 399 cubic feet per second. It will drain an area of 9,980 acres, which area, on the basis of three-fourths inch in 24 hours, would have a run-off of 319 second-feet. Its average depth is 6.5 feet, as shown on the profile. (See fig. 6, p. 12.)





At the point where the Raleigh & Charleston Railroad crosses the present channel there is a 400-foot trestle. A bridge should be built at this point, and no piling should be allowed in the channel. The construction of the ditch will enable the railroad to fill all of the trestle, leaving only the opening where the ditch crosses the track.

At the point where the river road crosses Jacob Swamp the present bridge across the swamp should be removed, and replaced by a solid embankment to prevent the backwater from the river from backing up Jacob Swamp and flooding the land. This will require approximately 1,500 cubic yards of excavation and can probably be best done with teams. As nearly as can be determined from available data, the water in the Lumber River is about 2 feet higher at this point than at Panther Lake when the river is in flood. Four highway bridges will be necessary across the ditch.

The Lumber River should be improved from the point where Panther Lake enters it to a point 1 mile below. The improvement should consist of removing all trees, snags, logs, and other obstructions from the channel and banks of the river and cutting off the worst bends. The cost of improving the river should not exceed $1,500. The improved channel was not located at the time the survey was made, as it was impossible to tell how much work would be necessary at this point. The approximate location of the improved channel is shown on the map. (See fig. 4, p. 12.)

Excavation per mile section and total excavation in Jacob Swamp ditch.
From station—To station—Cubic yards excavation.
Mile 11552+8014,300
Mile 252+80105+6024,100
Mile 3105+60158+4028,000
Mile 4158+40211+2028,000
Mile 5211+20264+0026,000
Mile 6264+00316+8026,000
Mile 7316+80369+6023,700
Mile 8369+60422+4029,300
Mile 9422+40475+2028,900
Mile 10475+20482+002,700
Total231,000

Estimate of cost.
231,000 cubic yards excavation, at 8 cents per cubic yard$18,480
1,500 cubic yards embankment, at 15 cents per cubic yard225
4 highway bridges, at $5002,000
Improving Lumber River1,500
87 acres right of way, at $10 per acre870
10 per cent engineering, legal, and incidental expenses2,308
Total25,383





LITTLE JACOB SWAMP.

Little Jacob Swamp heads in the fields southwest of Back Swamp Church and flows to the east, joining Jacob Swamp just west of the Raleigh & Charleston Railroad. It is very low and swampy in the upper part, the water apparently coming from springs in the swamp. The ditch as located follows the run of the swamp and is to be a standard minimum ditch, with depth as shown on the profile. (See fig. 6, p. 12.) Two highway bridges will be required.

Excavation per mile section and total excavation in Little Jacob Swamp ditch.
From station—To station—Cubic yards excavation.
Mile 1052+8018,400
Mile 252+80105+6023,200
Mile 3105+60158+4018,200
Mile 4158+40211+2022,200
Mile 5211+20230+006,500
Total88,500

Estimate of cost.
88,500 cubic yards excavation, at 9 cents per yard$7, 965
41 acres right of way, at $10 per acre410
2 highway bridges, at $5001, 000
10 per cent engineering, legal, and incidental expenses938
Total10, 313

SOUTH FORK, PANTHER BRANCH.

The south fork of Panther Branch drains the land south of Panther Branch and east of the Raleigh & Charleston Railroad. The proposed ditch starts in the flat woods east of the Raleigh & Charleston Railroad and north of the Pope Road and runs east to Panther Branch, following the general course of the branch. The ditch is a standard minimum ditch, with depth as shown on the profile. (See fig. 6, p. 12.) One highway bridge will be required.

Excavation per mile section and total excavation in South Fork, Panther Branch, ditch.
From station—To station—Cubic yards excavation.
Mile 1052+8023,800
Mile 252+8074+006,500
Total30,300

Estimate of cost.
30,300 cubic yards excavation, at 9 cents per yard$2, 727
1 highway bridge500
13 acres right of way, at $10 per acre130
10 per cent for engineering, legal, and incidental expenses336
Total3, 693





LATERAL X.

A short lateral ditch 3,175 feet long was located to drain Jacob Swamp below the point where the main ditch leaves it. This is to be a standard minimum ditch with depth as shown on the profile. (See fig. 6, p. 12.) The ditch can best be constructed by the same dredge that constructs the main ditch in Jacob Swamp. The construction of the ditch will require the excavation of 9,600 cubic yards of earth.

Estimate of cost.
9,600 cubic yards excavation, at 8 cents per yard$768
5 acres right of way, at $10 per acre50
10 per cent for engineering, legal, and incidental expenses81
Total899

COTTON MILL BRANCH.

Cotton Mill Branch heads in a gum bay or swamp south of the Seaboard Air Line Railway and just east of the National Cotton Mill. It flows to the southeast to Lumber River and is about 1½ miles long. From station 9 + 00 to station 31 + 00 the located line follows closely the existing ditch. The balance of the located line follows the general course of the swamp, leaving it at one point to cut across a low ridge, by doing which it was possible to shorten the located ditch line. The ditch has so much fall that it will not be possible to construct it with a dredge working up stream. The small amount of excavation would make it very expensive to construct a dredge at the upper end to excavate the ditch. For this reason it was decided that it would be most economical to make the ditch as small as possible and excavate it by hand. As planned, it is to have a 4-foot base, depth as shown on the profile (see fig. 6, p. 12), 1 to 1 slopes, and 6-foot berms. One highway bridge will be required.

Excavation per mile section and total excavation in Cotton Mill Branch ditch.
From station—To station—Cubic yards excavation.
Mile 1052+809,000
Mile 252+8076+003,800
Total12,800

Estimate of cost.
12,800 cubic yards excavation, at 20 cents per yard$2, 560
14 acres right of way, at $10140
1 highway bridge200
10 per cent for engineering, legal, and incidental expenses290
Total3, 190





GUM BRANCH.

Gum Branch heads in a cypress brake about three-fourths of a mile southwest of the National Cotton Mill and flows east to the Lumber River. The ditch as located will be 2¼ miles long. For the same reasons as governed the size of ditch adopted on Cotton Mill Branch, a 4-foot bottom was adopted for Gum Branch. The depth of the ditch is shown on the profile. (See fig. 6, p. 12.) Two highway bridges will be required across the ditch.

Excavation per mile section and total excavation in Gum Branch ditch.
From station—To station—Cubic yards excavation.
Mile 1052+8012,000
Mile 252+80105+6011,100
Mile 3105+60129+004,000
Total27,100

Estimate of cost.
27,100 cubic yards excavation, at 20 cents per yard$5,420
2 highway bridges, at $200400
23 acres right of way, at $10 per acre230
10 per cent for engineering, legal, and incidental expenses605
Total6,655

SUMMARY OF ESTIMATES.

Summary of detailed estimates of ditches in Back Swamp and Jacob Swamp drainage district.
Back Swamp$50,875
Lateral A763
Dees Branch13,152
Cypress Branch11,172
Turkey Branch11,902
Little Back Swamp4,624
Total Back Swamp$92,488
Jacob Swamp25,383
Little Jacob Swamp10,313
South Fork Panther Branch3,693
Lateral X899
Total Jacob Swamp40,288
Cotton Mill Branch3,190
Gum Branch6,655
Total9,845
Total cost Back Swamp and Jacob Swamp drainage district142,621





REVIEW AND CONCLUSION.

The poor drainage conditions existing in the territory covered by the Back Swamp and Jacob Swamp drainage district are due to the failure of the natural watercourses within the district to afford efficient outlet, these watercourses being usually broad, flat swamps covered with timber and undergrowth, and having in general little or no well-defined channel in them.

The Lumber River, which is the main outlet for all the drainage of the district, should have certain improvements in the vicinities of the mouths of Back Swamp and Panther Lake. These improvements, as recommended in the report, are in the nature of straightening and clearing the river channel, and are estimated to cost about $3,500.

The main feature of the improvements, however, is the construction of efficient ditches in the principal drainage channels within the district. These ditches are designed with sufficient capacity to take care of all the water that they may reasonably be expected to be called upon to handle, and they are of sufficient depth to act as outlets for future farm drainage in the district. The ditches are to follow, in general, the natural “runs” of the swamps, but in one or two cases, as, for instance, in Cypress Branch and Jacob Swamp, certain diversions have been made which it is believed will prove advantageous to the construction of the ditches and for the handling of the water.

The total cost of the recommended improvements, which will make available for cultivation all the land within the district, 32,850 acres, is estimated at $142,621. This gives a cost per acre of $4.34. Since the expenditure recommended may reasonably be expected to more than double the land values of the district, it would seem that the investment should be an attractive one from this standpoint alone.

The work has been planned with a view to permanence and efficiency rather than to cheapness of first cost, but it is not believed that any recommendations have been made that will not be amply justified by results.





APPENDIX I.
Monthly, annual, and normal precipitation, in inches and hundredths.

LUMBERTON, ROBESON COUNTY, N. C.
Years.Jan.Feb.Mar.Apr.May.June.July.Aug.Sept.Oct.Nov.Dec.Annual.
18825.7310.094.332.84
18834.213.505.322.412.2012.503.10
18844.235.604.475.316.08.11
18856.467.677.343.023.694.04
18861.273.2610.517.093.24.20
18872.751.982.979.111.129.51
18883.924.005.332.64
18893.136.808.657.611.581.343.51
18908.006.806.616.994.673.801.11
18913.534.825.4310.641.591.162.35
18923.826.045.224.912.751.161.93
18935.997.837.628.155.316.712.78
18941.473.802.938.609.397.267.501.242.20
18959.042.665.319.983.364.722.668.47.802.002.021.4052.42
18964.655.151.80.892.994.514.814.285.41.28
18975.396.168.034.371.652.541.902.56
18981.921.122.766.602.022.297.387.984.362.264.972.7146.37
18994.228.422.974.593.965.309.033.813.086.082.282.2055.94
19002.856.114.795.143.883.173.001.501.833.324.175.2845.04
19014.022.183.564.2512.525.476.546.979.381.211.015.6562.76
19022.155.922.522.983.422.292.634.493.324.444.343.2841.78
19033.157.435.873.642.136.446.253.551.264.25.352.5246.84
19042.374.44.911.605.573.448.307.282.962.352.50
19051.965.532.393.838.262.324.394.311.502.211.235.1943.12
19064.106.346.61.932.088.177.824.742.912.641.023.3150.67
1907.374.082.223.984.718.416.877.466.17.972.455.0752.76
19082.684.615.824.291.436.519.068.742.604.811.093.1754.81
19091.403.971.872.693.017.223.597.572.761.53.442.3838.43
19104.035.351.842.243.447.893.916.051.751.71
Normal3.685.033.863.834.295.285.946.254.283.222.223.3650.68
NOTE.—Weather observations at Lumberton are available for the growing season from 1882 to 1894, and for the whole year from 1895 to the present date.

FAYETTEVILLE, CUMBERLAND COUNTY, N. C.
18914.503.807.842.744.563.156.059.571.844.512.522.0453.12
18927.572.993.041.994.793.7510.324.642.44.342.123.5747.56
18933.154.602.081.637.675.773.397.365.104.732.393.4451.31
18944.583.472.101.305.312.124.2613.456.689.161.511.8455.78
18957.672.416.079.214.121.895.616.562.472.502.212.3053.02
18963.985.522.131.158.067.155.521.749.011.362.513.4551.58
18971.313.634.052.775.882.9411.115.411.422.173.432.1346.25
18982.191.022.934.751.595.535.977.462.432.704.952.8644.38
18993.6010.105.323.402.354.038.353.765.293.811.902.7654.67
19001.863.753.523.512.536.472.561.262.771.263.524.8937.90
19012.621.913.783.467.984.317.817.805.471.21.735.3452.42
19022.206.182.442.751.842.372.502.805.242.003.283.7837.38
19035.085.218.793.392.554.423.215.511.983.93.672.2847.02
19042.804.463.89.532.744.668.028.413.892.974.172.8849.42
19052.445.462.863.016.061.867.366.637.372.55.535.7851.91
19064.055.693.901.252.245.949.197.142.223.06.703.6949.07
1907.403.721.914.894.136.955.348.334.641.033.525.2650.12
19083.074.906.123.213.476.286.2513.542.032.781.163.6056.41
1909.963.611.801.805.185.313.656.862.91.85.211.3834.52
19103.623.961.204.135.509.974.475.552.473.20
Normal4.424.645.173.894.474.047.186.774.303.492.814.3855.04





Monthly, annual, and normal precipitation, in inches and hundredths—Continued.

WHITEVILLE, COLUMBUS COUNTY, N. C.
Years.Jan.Feb.Mar.Apr.May.June.July.Aug.Sept.Oct.Nov.Dec.Annual.
19038.996.362.923.811.281.89
19042.913.054.991.803.544.044.859.342.262.32
19052.165.912.704.696.983.448.582.174.273.001.355.6850.93
19064.776.564.351.152.527.65
19073.924.696.434.94
19082.298.5415.488.232.968.701.202.60
19091.474.23.992.996.773.965.295.13.41.432.68
19102.767.15.772.633.608.519.242.02

Storm periods for the years 1896 to 1910, inclusive, as shown by the records of the United States Weather Bureau stations at Fair Bluff, Lumberton, Fayetteville, and Whiteville, N. C.

Date.Stations.Date.Stations.
Fair Bluff.Lumberton.Fayetteville.Whiteville.Fair Bluff.Lumberton.Fayetteville.Whiteville.
1896.Inches.Inches.Inches.Inches.1897.Inches.Inches.Inches.Inches
Sept. 51.150.420.91Aug. 21Trace.
7.2022Trace.0.380.11
16.6424.63.01
17.781.40Sept. 1.11
20.831.2021.80
21.603.63
22.07.60Oct. 111.26.48
231.05.783.2419Trace.
292.001.911.80201.56.70.77
30.48.6221.10.05
Nov. 2.86.23Nov. 1.981.221.16
4.60.352.23.51.98
51.001.54Dec. 261.85.83.77
241.26
Dec. 1.201898.
2.55.82Mar. 41.141.291.19
31.28.855.28.25.12
151.03.9030.11.11.48
16.21311.05.78.74
Apr. 51.08.80.87
1897.6.10.10
Feb. 1.50111.161.02.56
2.95.0224.841.67.63
51.0125Trace..22.28
62.03271.571.531.53
20.12.0228.46.65.37
211.151.18June 16.41.34.95
22.53.0217.48
23.1018.17.04
24.0119.19.55.08
251.4020.20.33.72
26.63211.35
May 11.451.391.1822.50
2.532.54.82July 6.60.261.44
30.532.267.67.95.62
June 4.3582.151.04.18
52.022.00.2223.17Trace.
6.27.75.1424.33.181.10
7Trace.25.09Trace.
8.671.64.4826.17.08
9.15.4528.26.35.16
July 9.391.12.1629.39.70
10.34.24312.062.95.68
11Trace..011.27Aug. 1.431.22
12Trace..032.91Trace.
133.671.153.3610.18.53
181.001.1211.82.63.52
1912.96.21Trace.
201.04.60.86132.20.621.33
21.682.202.1114.96.23.60
261.80.3315.48.08Trace.
27.871.70172.25.46.12
28.3618.07.05.10
Aug. 6.44.80.5019.02.05
7.11.402.2120.10.30
8.10.98.3221.45
16.051.101.1025.26
17Trace.Trace.262.151.27.48
191.13.02.2327.72.38
20.25.04.04281.25.62





Date.Stations.Date.Stations.
Fair Bluff.Lumberton.Fayetteville.Whiteville.Fair Bluff.Lumberton.Fayetteville.Whiteville.
1898.Inches.Inches.Inches.Inches.1900.Inches.Inches.Inches.Inches.
Aug. 290.900.210.40Feb. 130.621.100.53
30.521.15.6214.01
311.60.75.30Mar. 1.801.04.81
Sept. 1.20.18Apr. 19.801.65.64
2Trace..15.0320.26.11.06
7.10211.942.352.37
8.572.06.98May 18.40.74.22
9Trace..42.11191.231.11
22.30.04June 51.86.091.72
23.14.421.198.40.10
24.25.399.23.09.39
Nov. 141.1510.84Trace..09
16.18111.06.01
172.11.9317.18.15.05
18.06.0718.241.101.73
19.581.1019.33.23.16
30.51Trace.1.11
1899.July 27.09.05.98
Feb. 5.97.4028.08.02.22
61.051.1029.64.03.55
71.012.4330.741.93
8.94.8031.081.23
12.40.71Aug. 161.70
13.601.0017.18Trace.
271.462.23Sept. 14.12.70
28.23.2115.80.96
Apr. 7.40.26.1816.441.11
8.851.601.34Nov. 41.901.67
May 4.11.35.1051.501.50
5.02Dec. 41.901.38
6Trace..02.115.57
7.35.32211.411.07
8.951.10.6222.02
9.2930.10
22.84.03311.431.23
231.78.04
June 1.07.261901.
21.65.92.64Jan. 2.15
3.26.0331.05.30
9.1017.09
10.85181.16.70
112.482.12.09Mar. 211.401.20
12.12.37.7525.21
13.11.381.06261.051.42
July 4.80.761.1527.36
5.12.37.64Apr. 2.09
7.55.62.1031.701.40
8.37.31.36141.571.30
92.31.091.44May 19.37.54
17.25202.591.00
18.682.60.15211.19.15
23.30.56224.123.70
24.84.07.67231.08.05
25.482.091.20June 141.681.25
261.321.01.8715.17.43
27.46.58.2616.03
28.16.08171.031.45
29.07.4818.32.16
Sept. 8.171.02July 12.01
26.37.881.18131.38.70
Oct. 6.64.751.2014.48.93
8.54.95.8915.40.40
30Trace..01.07162.221.31
313.084.061.6017.69.17
Nov. 1.15.54.2518.02
26.98.80.4119.051.12
271.46.73.4520.88.65
28Trace..04.4525.35
Dec. 24.791.08261.10
Aug. 6.081.25
1900.71.921.24
Feb. 111.251.52.738.25.08
12.971.18.6813.13.08





Date.Stations.Date.Stations.
Fair Bluff.Lumberton.Fayetteville.Whiteville.Fair Bluff.Lumberton.Fayetteville.Whiteville.
1901.Inches.Inches.Inches.Inches.1903.Inches.Inches.Inches.Inches.
Aug. 140.680.61May 221.200.33
15.36.1125.601.06
16.12311.06
17.18.04June 4.08.03
18.53.715.05.04
19.056.59.02
201.09.037.65.45
21258.04.30
22.369.02
23.03.1810.511.33
24.28.0211.16
25.501.6018.14.75
Sept. 14.48192.43
15Trace.July 51.50.30
16.06.126.28.07
17.3571.38.23
182.092.0713Trace..02
191.331.74142.331.20
20.07Aug. 1.16
281.10.982.541.48
29.22.2119.30.57
Dec. 14.73.7820.221.27
151.93.9321.35
291.111.00Oct. 17.56.55
30.61.76181.651.35
31.0424.10.43
251.04.61
1902.
Jan. 29.35.431904.
30.02.20Jan. 231.261.20
31.45.42Feb. 20.39.80
Feb. 1.30.3121.07.04
21.451.39221.411.25
281.801.6223.07.11
Apr. 81.171.19Mar. 271.04
May 261.37.52June 111.381.45
27.02.1812.25
July 81.4029.161.70
9.10.50302.911.25
Aug. 5.41.55July 21.56.23
6.12.1522.12.34
71.40.1223.03.32
Sept. 9.44.5124.212.50
101.27.1225.40.73
261.563.53Aug. 1Trace.
Oct. 5.15Trace.2.85.08
61.91.663.61.45
Nov. 6.51.584.39.17
71.00.675.98.90
8.42.0461.40.20
9.01.037
261.731.448.52.70
Dec. 11.021.839.45.92
10.111.12
1903.11.43Trace.
Jan. 2.0312.36.46
3.622.6513.51.02
4.2227.872.12
5.57.5028.41.66
6.13.02Sept. 141.43.45
211.17.87154.442.93
Feb. 7.09.20Oct. 212.862.80
83.001.37Nov. 3.17.03
121.081.484.181.20
282.01.995.45.90
Mar. 22.542.12131.021.32
231.671.8814.49.72
24.34.59Dec. 15.671.25
302.463.2016.13.08
Apr. 13.03.06
141.09.091905.
15.34.67Jan. 51.05
16.03.04Feb. 12.38.101.30





Date.Stations.Date.Stations.
Fair Bluff.Lumberton.Fayetteville.Whiteville.Fair Bluff.Lumberton.Fayetteville.Whiteville.
1905.Inches.Inches.Inches.Inches.1906.Inches.Inches.Inches.Inches.
Feb. 131.771.881.28Jan. 262.140.902.60
14.32.0927.24.80
20.04.28.1128.01.06.12
211.201.681.41Feb. 5.01.02.19
22.22.09.126.01.03
Mar. 10.48.80.267.02.01.03
11.058.38.082.30
12.721.6092.002.30.18
13.86.1512.37.302.50
14.55.15.49132.642.34
15Trace..35Mar. 8.72.201.79
May 3.03Trace..269.531.03.09
4.47.741.4619.10.041.30
5.04Trace..01201.64.80.05
6Trace.281.35.74.25
7Trace..0229.26.18.12
8.11.10.08301.11.34
112.72.321.3431.30
12.18May 26.06.11.28
13.32.0627.05.081.23
14.42.1428.56.31.25
21Trace..5329.12.62
22.43.37June 22.00.15
231.121.09.193.22.081.10
24.104.90.17
25.085.31
26.06.7811Trace..10
27.631.26.3412.10.03.27
28.02.03.1013.52.40.58
29Trace..70143.06.871.90
30.0615.40.152.00
31.341.58Trace.161.17.91.45
July 4.20.0617.04.09.10
51.381.02July 2.06.52
6.31.58.333.07
7.03.564.40.25
8.062.465.23.85
9.01.06.186.98.04
10Trace..08.407.13
11.11Trace.1.349.04.02
12.26.591.5013.30.03
13.26.41.6715.95.54
14.522.5516.39.12
15.02.2017.09.90
281.30.8018.59.75
Aug. 8Trace..0319.14.92
9.141.33.8020.25.70
101.09.83.0222.12
11Trace..15.0723.63.52
121.211.25.01241.55.64
13Trace..0225.06.42
14Trace..2928.45.08
15.98.45.3030.03
16.03.6531.541.70
17.60Trace..05Aug. 1.25.57
Sept. 2.07.622.19.05
3.73.161.123.04.52
4.132.42.10ept. 181.23.27
13.203.75.5819.05.20
16.05Oct. 17.01Trace.
17.36.02.5018.06.04
18Trace.1.0019.17.52
Dec. 2.04201.07.53
31.551.931.0121.48.72
141.0022.01
15.75.801.0523.02
190624.04.04
Jan. 22Trace..04Dec. 111.20.80
23.22.7219.02
24.02Trace.201.351.96
25Trace..9221.08





Date.Stations.Date.Stations.
Fair Bluff.Lumberton.Fayetteville.Whiteville.Fair Bluff.Lumberton.Fayetteville.Whiteville.
1907.Inches.Inches.Inches.Inches.1908.Inches.Inches.Inches.Inches.
Feb. 40.35June 262.512.511.65
51.62.82July 2.37.20
25.85.9031.571.02.32
264.90.36
27.35.119.15.464.90
Apr. 11.38.881.35101.19.96.10
7.89281.12.871.50
8.20.45.2529.06.03.50
9.31.12301.04.355.60
22.74311.821.341.50
231.45.941.23Aug. 9.531.09.10
24.37.48193.03.632.75
May 91.391.251.2520.14.32.05
261.791.84211.32.86.65
June 11.05.94.5622.67.61.10
2.39.26.8123.27.06
3.28.2324.204.68Trace.
113.902.011.6525.201.021.00
12.22.4426.23.782.00
28.80.21.50271.001.44.85
29.86.501.50Sept. 62.22.86
30.67.48Oct. 10.202.00
July 3.521.25232.20.974.80
13.93.58.4124.47.15
14.15.47281.10
152.30.351.63291.49.96.60
202.06Nov. 141.00
301.7015.76.97
Aug. 41.26Dec. 22.32.42.63
16.5423.571.30Trace.
171.03.28
18.551.401909.
193.671.57Feb. 101.22
20.37191.37
21.101.57201.051.12
Sept. 51.54.5422.85
28.05.12231.04.30
292.762.58Apr. 21.151.15
Nov. 29.95.46May 1.481.88.30
Dec. 101.651.34101.80
141.831.59191.30
203.10
1908.211.39.83.17
Jan. 3.8122.571.58
101.25June 3.30.381.00
121.1242.131.94
Feb. 1.90.8514.49.06.05
11.85.6015.89.64
12.06.0516.061.32.07
13.15171.26.12.22
14.751.3518.24.20
15.73.56July 151.87
Mar. 121.431.3016.53.22.21
20.55.8517.02.88.10
211.03.9026Trace.1.34
23.881.08Aug. 1.23
24.40.702.31.04
25.94.2431.211.12
Apr. 231.35.934.15.80
241.551.1211.77
May 19.66.84.9412.31
20.10.05.3513.222.02
21.30.70141.02
221.08152.32.20
June 4.1530.361.36
5.98.303.62Sept. 10.08.30.40
6.15.28.2511.891.10.50
11.921.23.8515.40
12.6516.02.19.30
21.96.2517.24.60
231.1618.34.70





Date.Stations.Date.Stations.
Fair Bluff.Lumberton.Fayetteville.Whiteville.Fair Bluff.Lumberton.Fayetteville.Whiteville.
1909.Inches.Inches.Inches.Inches.1910.Inches.Inches.Inches.Inches.
Sept. 190.380.052.19June 8Trace.0.19
25.111.029Trace..30
Dec. 13.23.231.1810Trace.0.31.11
14.70.77111.671.54Trace.
12.41.02.56
1910.131.141.58.34
Jan. 5.01.2014.15.10.55
61.651.44.5515.701.30.75
7.16.1016.42.26
211.02.5417.02
22.01.22202.50
Feb. 9.17.18.2324.14.65
10.06.42.0625.862.28
11Trace.1.12Aug. 5.62.242.60
121.001.02.0862.00
24.15.082.6071.181.50.60
251.60.70.178.90.78
27Trace..589.11.02
28.88.231.3011.40
Mar. 11.02.22.2812.17.02
2.35.14.16131.21.61Trace.
Apr. 13.74.411.1814.01.061.38
17Trace..1015.68.15.50
18.502.88.0816.28
19.15.08.23Sept. 1.191.16
May 7.02.20Trace.2Trace.
8.02.95.483.47.83
91.562.25.904Trace..01
24.02.22Oct. 7.10.38
251.341.681.288.611.08.28
26.16.029.11.20.08
June 5Trace..15Trace.19.11.02.70
62.161.702.4520.841.76.58
7.03.02





APPENDIX II.
List of bench marks set.

No. of bench mark.Elevation.Location and description.
Feet.
U. S. B. M168.76At intersection of Red Banks Road with Back Swamp Road; standard iron bench mark.
U. S. B. M193.241½ miles SE. of Maxton; at SW. corner of brick retaining wall, inclosing residence of H. McNair; standard iron bench mark.
U. S. B. M136.89At SE. corner Back Swamp Church; standard iron bench mark.
U. S. B. M144.98At intersection of Rockingham Road with Moss Neck Road; standard iron bench mark.
U. S. B. M106.00At intersection of Pope and River Roads; standard iron bench mark.
B-1[note]138.79Back Swamp, 100 feet E. of station 651; spike in 12-inch black gum.
B-2155.81Dees Branch, 90 feet NE. of station 51+28; spike in 20-inch pine.
B-3147.58Cypress Branch, 90 feet E. of station 55+18; spike in 9-inch black gum.
B-4149.94Cypress Branch, 50 feet W. of station 100+00; spike in 12-inch maple.
B-5152-52Cypress Branch, 60 feet S. of station 151+85; spike in 14-inch pine.
B-6155.43Cypress Branch, 70 feet SW. of station 216+00; spike in 8-inch black gum.
B-7140.53Turkey Branch, 75 feet NE. of station 53+00; spike in 18-inch sweet gum.
B-8144.26Turkey Branch, 80 feet SW. of station 110+25; spike in 16-inch sweet gum.
B-9147.10Turkey Branch, 110 feet NE. of station 176+00; spike in 10-inch black gum.
B-12122.51Jacob Swamp, 100 feet W. of station 56+00; on 28-inch black gum.
B-13121.01Jacob Swamp, 85 feet SW. of station 113+55; on 20-inch cypress.
B-14118.46Jacob Swamp, 100 feet SW. of station 160+00; on 12-inch black gum.
B-15134.39On cross section south from B. M. M43; spike in 32-inch short-leaf pine.
B-16138.50On cross section south from B. M. M43; spike in 16-inch black gum.
B-17136.66On cross section ending at a T. B. M. on Rockingham Road, 1¼ miles east of Moss Neck Road; spike in 18-inch water oak.
B-18140.12On cross section between B. M. M44 and B. M. M40; spike in 9-inch sweet gum.
B-20106.72Gum Branch, 100 feet N. of station 9+00; spike in 14-inch black gum.
B-21114.65Gum Branch, 150 feet N. of station 68+00; spike in 10-inch pine.
B-22119.20Gum Branch, spike in 12-inch S. L. pine near station 128+00.
B-23114.13Cotton Mill Branch, 50 feet SW. of station 65+30; spike in 14-inch black gum.
B-24119.62Little Jacob Swamp, 60 feet NW. of station 171+00; spike in root 24-inch maple.
B-25116.82Little Jacob Swamp, 60 feet N. of station 128+00; spike in 14-inch S. L. pine.
B-11157.46Turkey Branch, on line near station 223+55; spike in 20-inch gum.
B-2156.14Dees Branch, on line near station 90+00; spike in 16-inch gum.
B-3153.71Back Swamp, on line near station 380+00; spike in black gum.
B-4150.30Back Swamp, near station 463+00; spike in root of 18-inch pine.
B-5151.33Turkey Branch meander, on line near station M 123+65; spike in 10-inch gum.
B-6142.00Turkey Branch, on line near station 76; spike in 20-inch gum.
B-7158.44Dees Branch, north side of line, near station 149; spike in 4-inch black gum.
B-8148.08Right side of road, in front of water house, on old Townsend place; spike in 24-inch red oak.
B-10119.71East side of Beaufort lumber tram in Little Jacob Swamp; spike in 35-inch poplar.
B-12120.76100 feet north of Gum Branch near station M 91+45, on north side of road; spike in 15-inch S. L. pine.
B-13116.83Jacob Swamp, 75 feet north of located line near station 200+00; spike in 24-inch water oak.
B-14117.86Cypress Branch, 25 feet north of located line near station 121+25; spike in 20-inch black gum.
B-15130.01150 feet west of Marion Road, at intersection of Marion and Wiregrass Roads; spike in 20-inch pine.
B-16128.76200 feet south of intersection of Pope and Wiregrass Roads; spike in 10-inch pine.
B-17129.29On Kingsdale Road and 50 feet north of intersection of Kingsdale and Pope Roads, near a group of mail boxes; spike in 12-inch water oak.
B-18124.63On north side of Pope Road, ½ mile east of Raleigh & Charleston R. R.; spike in 12-inch hickory.
B-19106.32Northeast of station 380+00, Jacob Swamp line, near intersection of Jacob Swamp and Panther Branch; spike in 15-inch maple.
B-20105.35Jacob Swamp, north of station 435+00; spike in 6-inch hickory.
B-50100.025 feet west of intersection of Panther Branch and River Road; spike in 4-inch maple.
[note]





No. of bench mark.Elevation.Location and description.
Feet.
B-51102.61On bank of Lumber River at end of Jacob Swamp meander; spike in 5-inch gum.
B-52106.39At intersection of Panther Branch and cross section near station M 34+10; spike in tree.
M-1191.97300 feet south of B. F. Bodiford's house, 1 mile east of Maxton; crossed staples in root of 1 of 2 lone pines.
M-2191.43South side of Rockingham Road, 600 feet east of H. McNair's; center granite boundary stone.
M-3192.00South side Rockingham Road, opposite R. McNair's old house; spike in root of 24-inch persimmon.
M-4173.90On north side Rockingham Road, on SE. corner grove lying west of J. B. Sellers; spike in root 16-inch pine.
M-5168.07½ mile east J. B. Sellers; crossed staples in root 24-inch pine.
M-6166.94South side of road at bend, 150 feet west of small cabin; staples in root 18-inch pine.
M-7166.90North side Rockingham Road, 150 feet east of east end of woven-wire fence; staple in root blazed 14-inch pine.
M-8162.31Crossing of Rockingham and Red Banks Road, right side road; spike in root 16-inch pine.
M-9161.77Right side of Red Banks Road near Dees Branch located line; staple in root small pine.
M-10162.21Right side Red Banks Road, 20 feet right of Back Swamp located line, crossing of road; spike in 10-inch gum.
M-11167.49100 feet west of intersection Red Banks Road with Back Swamp Road; spike in root 16-inch pine.
M-12165.05SW. side road, 250 feet E. of G. D. Willard's house; spike in root 14-inch gum.
M-13178.71South side Back Swamp Road, ½ mile east of turn; spike in root 18-inch pine.
M-16184.00Back Swamp, 100 feet left of station 59+00; spike in 16-inch sweet gum.
M-17172-09Back Swamp, 100 feet right of station 108+00; spike in root 16-inch short-leaf pine.
M-18167.26Back Swamp, 100 feet right of station 170+50; spike in root 12-inch short-leaf pine.
M-21166.38100 feet E. of turn in Back Swamp Road, 1¼ miles east of Red Banks Road; spike in 8-inch short-leaf pine.
M-22160.56Side of Monroe's gin on Back Swamp Road; spike in root 60-inch branching mulberry.
M-23161.45Intersection of Back Swamp and Elrod Roads; spike in root 10-inch post oak.
M-24155.91At crossing of Back Swamp Road and Atlantic Coast Line R. R., front of H. H. Lowery's; spike in root 14-inch black gum.
M-25153.80At crossroads and 3 churches, on Back Swamp Road; spike in root 10-inch oak.
M-26150.42Crossing Moss Neck and Back Swamp Roads; spike in root 10-inch oak.
M-27160.55Left side Rockingham Road, 1 mile east of intersection of Red Banks Road and Rockingham Road; spike in 18-inch persimmon.
M-28152.94Left side Rockingham Road, at bend; spike in root 14-inch pine.
M-29152.50By mail box Z. B. Brooks, on Rockingham Road; spike in root 14-inch short-leaf pine.
M-30148.17On Rockingham Road, at junction with road leading to Pembroke; spike in 16-inch water oak.
M-31143.51Left side Moss Neck Road, 2,000 feet south junction of Moss Neck and Rockingham Roads; spike in root 10-inch pine.
M-32140.31Right side Moss Neck Road, 600 feet SE. of crossing of road with Turkey Branch located line; spike in 12-inch short-leaf pine.
M-33139.45In Back Swamp, on right side Moss Neck Road; spike in 10-inch gum.
M-34164.54Back Swamp, 100 feet left of station 228+90; spike in root 14-inch maple.
M-35158.61Back Swamp, 125 feet right of station 330+00; spike in 10-inch gum.
M-36151.09Back Swamp, 125 feet right of station 431+44, on Lowery Road; spike in 10-inch gum.
M-38143.91Corner made by junction of Harleesville and Back Swamp Roads; spike in 14-inch oak.
M-39101.06Dees Branch, 125 feet right of station 231+00; spike in 12-inch pine.
M-40139.13Junction Harleesville Road and an arm of Rockingham Road; spike in root 18-inch gum.
M-41141.05By mile post on Harleesville Road, “Lumberton 7 miles; Raynham 3 miles”; spike in 36-inch red oak.
M-42143.27On Rockingham Road, ½ mile from Junction with Moss Neck Road, and in front church; spike in root 10-inch pine.
M-43136.43Right side Rockingham Road, on tapped tree 200 feet east of clearing; spike in 20-inch short-leaf pine.
M-44134.01On Rockingham Road, by mail box 27; spike in root 30-inch water oak.
M-45128.46At crossing of Rockingham Road and road leading to Raft Swamp Church; spike in 18-inch short-leaf pine.
M-46128.05On Harleesville Road and on south edge Jacob Swamp; spike in 30-inch water oak.
M-47125.76On Harleesville Road, ¾ mile north of Rockingham Road; left side road by lane; spike in 8-inch persimmon.
M-48122.52Right side Harleesville Road, opposite dairy farm and near junction of ditches; spike in 8-inch sweet gum.
M-49119.89By Beaufort Lumber Co. tram, 100 feet left of Jacob Swamp line crossing; spike in 30-inch gum.
M-50132.05On left side Pope Road, 1,000 feet west of tram crossing; spike in 8-inch black gum.





No. of bench mark.Elevation.Location and description.
Feet.
M-51135.92On Pope Road, front G. L. Thompson's house; spike in 24-inch white oak.
M-52129.66On Pope Road, 200 feet west of milepost “S 3”; spike in 30-inch water oak.
M-53148.93Right side Back Swamp Road, by old 2-story building; 1½ miles east of Moss Neck Road; spike in one of three large oaks.
M-54144.94Left side Back Swamp Road, 100 feet east of small shack; ½ mile west of Harleesville Road; spike in double maple.
M-55123.28Left side Harleesville Road, ¾ mile north of Beaufort Lumber Co. tram; spike in 16-inch oak.
M-56113.99On Marion Road, front P. G. Campbell's house, 1,000 feet S. of Seaboard Air Line crossing; spike in 30-inch oak.
M-57110.74On River Road, 2,000 feet southeast of Raleigh & Charleston R. R.; spike in 20-inch pine.
M-58109.08Right side River Road, 300 feet east of house and opposite clearing; spike in 6-inch gum.
M-59114.47Left side Pope Road, between G. Pope's and Carter's houses; spike in 25-inch persimmon.
M-60105.71Junction of Pope and River Roads; spike in root 20-inch chestnut oak.
W-1181.71On Back Swamp Road at junction with old county road, 2 miles east of Maxton; spike in 16-inch pine.
W-2152.79South side Lowery Road, 75 feet south John Dees's house; spike in 12-inch water oak.
W-3154.81West side Lowery Road in Turkey Branch; spike in 6-inch gum.
W-4156.31In NW. corner Lowery and Rockingham Roads; spike in 18-inch pine.
W-5152.87Front Lottie Lowery house; spike in 10-inch oak.
W-6150.88On right side Rockingham Road by Atlantic Coast Line R. R.; spike in 16-inch pine.
W-7155.97On old county road east of Atlantic Coast Line R. R.; ½ mile north of three churches junction; spike in 16-inch pine.
W-8145.39On east side road between runs, on county road east of Atlantic Coast Line R. R.; spike in 15-inch water oak.
W-9145.95In small forked black gum on south side of branch.
W-10145.8912-inch maple, in branch.
W-11145.76On south side road in Turkey Branch; black gum.
W-15148.1878 feet S. 39° W. of station 485+15, on Back Swamp line; 16-inch water oak.
W-16145.7785 feet left of station 540+00, on Back Swamp line; 16-inch black gum.
W-17136.8776 feet S. 25° E. of station 698+75 of Back Swamp line; 18-inch black gum.
W-18133.9655 feet left of station 792+60 of Back Swamp line; 18-inch beech.
W-19130.7060 feet left of station 815+00 of Back Swamp line; 16-inch black gum.
W-20129.3570 feet left of station 832+00 of Back Swamp line; 10-inch water oak.
W-21129.6980 feet north of station 847+00 of Back Swamp line; 30-inch cypress.
W-22130.5958 feet north of station 869+60 of Back Swamp line; 30-inch beech.
W-23127.2945 feet right of station 894+50 of Back Swamp line; 12-inch twin maple.
W-24120.03129 feet right of station 966+80 of Back Swamp line; 16-inch cypress.
W-25132.13By signpost, “Harleesville R. 2”; 24-inch short-leaf pine.
W-26136.7990 feet left of station 715+00 of Back Swamp line; 12-inch water oak.
W-27135.08140 feet left of station 737+00 of Back Swamp line; 16-inch maple.
W-28134.9095 feet right of station 2+00 of Little Back Swamp line; 10-inch black gum.
W-29135.17135 feet right of station 36+00 of Little Back Swamp line; 16-inch sweet gum.
W-30137.0575 feet left of station 65+20 of Little Back Swamp line; 24-inch black gum.
W-31137.12120 feet right of station 84+60 of Little Back Swamp line; 14-inch sweet gum.
W-32140.5395 feet left of station 104+55 of Little Back Swamp line; 14-inch short-leaf pine.
W-33141.64Right of station 112+30 of Little Back Swamp line, at Moss Neck Road; 18-inch short-leaf pine.
W-34135.78South side Pope Road, ½ mile east from tram; 8-inch oak.
W-35115.64West side Marion Road, edge of swamp; 14-inch short-leaf pine.
W-36116.1650 feet north of Marion Road; 16-inch short-leaf pine.
W-37115.78West side Marion Road near milepost “L 2”; 10-inch black gum.
W-38113.19East side Marion Road and 160 feet south of Gum Branch Bridge; 10-inch short-leaf pine.
W-39113.23West side Lovett Road, by small branch; 16-inch short-leaf pine.
W-40112.60On Lovett Road, west edge of Little Jacob Swamp; 18-inch short leaf pine.
W-41130.95125 feet north of crossing Pope and Lovett Roads; 16-inch water oak.
W-42112.8375 feet left of station 24+90 of Little Jacob Swamp line; spike in 18-inch sweet gum.
W-43113.59100 feet north of station 52+85 of Little Jacob Swamp line; 16-inch black gum.
W-44115.72100 feet north of station 84+00 of Little Jacob Swamp line; 10-inch maple.
W-50119.74115 feet left of station 166+25 of Jacob Swamp line; spike in 24-inch black gum.
W-51116.33130 feet right of station 207+60 of Jacob Swamp line; spike in 20-inch water oak.
W-52115.8360 feet left of station 207+40 of Jacob Swamp line; spike in 8-inch maple.
W-53114.3860 feet left of station 228+00 of Jacob Swamp line; spike in 16-inch black gum.
W-54112.50100 feet right of station 263+25 of Jacob Swamp line; spike in 14-inch black gum.
W-55111.1175 feet left of station 289+40 of Jacob Swamp line; spike in 14-inch water oak.
W-56111.59On Jacob Swamp line and on east side Lovett Road; on forked black gum.
W-57110.8880 feet right of station 118+85 of Jacob Swamp line; spike in 24-inch water oak.
W-60104.96125 feet right of station 6+00 of South Fork of Panther Branch line; 10-inch water oak.
W-61108.20100 feet left of station 25+00 of South Fork of Panther Branch line; spike in L. S. pine.
W-62109.8375 feet left of station 44+00 of South Fork of Panther Branch line; spike in 16-inch L. S. pine.
W-63112.09Right of station 69+00 of South Fork of Panther Branch line; spike in 14-inch L. S. pine.





APPENDIX III.
Courses and distances of located lines.

BACK SWAMP.
From station—To station—Bearing.From station—To station—Bearing.From station—To station—Bearing.
0+00.020+00.0Abandoned.355+00.0358+00.0S. 21° 20′ E.580+00.0595+00.0N. 49° E.
20+00.026+25.0S. 41° 30′ E.358+00.0366+00.0S. 54° 30′ E.595+00.0634+00.0S. 56° 30′ E.
26+25.062+00.0S. 30° E.366+00.0370+33.0S. 3° 45′ E.634+00.0651+00.0N. 90° E.
62+00.086+79.0S. 68° E.370+53.0387+00.0S. 34° 30′ E.651+00.0666+50.0S. 29° 10′ E.
86+79.097+57.8S. 89° 30′ E.387+00.0391+00.0S. 52° 35′ E.666+50.0679+00.0N. 90° E.
97+57.8108+00.0S. 41° E.391+00.0397+05.0S. 82° 30′ E.679+00.0704+00.0S. 83° E.
108+00.0121+16.8S. 5° 10′ W.397+05.0406+50.0S. 42° 30′ E.704+00.0729+00.0S. 60° 30′ E.
121+16.8123+72.9S. 51° 45′ E.406+50.0414+35.0S. 73° 15′ E.729+00.0751+00.0S. 27° E.
123+72.9147+50.0S. 45° 04′ E.414+35.0420+00.0S. 0° 35′ E.751+00.0788+00.0S. 69° 15′ E.
147+50.0156+00.0S. 15° 04′ E.420+00.0426+25.0S. 44° 50′ E.788+00.0832+00.0S. 79° E.
156+00.0176+00.0South.426+25.0431+44.6N. 90° E.832+00.0850+00.0S. 56° E.
176+00.0208+00.0S. 22° 10′ E.431+44.6443+00.0N. 76° 20′ E.850+00.0890+00.0N. 90° E.
208+00.0256+00.0S. 49° 56′ E.443+00.0454+25.0N. 90° E.890+00.0904+00.0S. 66° 30′ E.
256+00.0269+61.2S. 27° 16′ E.454+25.0469+50.5S. 75° 30′ E.904+00.0933+52.0N. 80° 45′ E.
269+61.2282+00.0S. 38° 30′ E.469+50.5475+33.0S. 22° E.933+52.0940+00.0N. 8° 30′ W..
282+00.0290+00.0S. 59° 04′ E.475+33.0481+75.0S. 26° E.940+00.0952+87.0N. 30° E.
290+00.0306+00.0S. 31° E.481+75.0519+50.0S. 48° E.952+87.0966+92.0N. 7° 15′ E.
306+00.0320+70.0S. 88° 10′ E.519+50.0539+00.0S. 15° 30′ E.Lateral A.
320+70.0340+70.0S. 49° E.539+00.0563+26.0S. 44° 30′ E.0+00.012+00.0N. 10° 30′ W.
340+70.0352+00.0S. 0° 15′ W.563+26.0580+00.0S. 66° 30′ E.12+00.020+00.0N. 18° W.
352+00.0355+00.0S. 7° 50′ E.

DEES BRANCH.
0+00.08+00.0N. 24° W.103+00.0110+85.0N. 17° E.194+00.0203+54.0N. 15° 20′ W.
8+00.015+00.0N. 42° W.110+85.0128+00.0N. 41° 30′ W.203+54.0214+00.0N. 54° 30′ W.
15+00.026+00.0N. 16° 30′ W.128+00.0137+00.0N. 4° 30′ W.214+00.0224+00.0N. 31° 20′ W.
26+00.037+00.0N. 78° W.137+00.0157+00.0N. 28° 15′ W.224+00.0235+00.0N. 45° W.
37+00.063+00.0N. 47° 40′ W.157+00.0173+00.0N. 59° W.235+00.0244+00.0N. 35° 10′ W.
63+00.095+00.0N. 38° 30′ W.173+00.0182+00.0N. 27° 15′ W.244+00.0261+00.0N. 8° 15′ W.
95+00.0103+00.0N. 3° W.182+00.0194+00.0N. 48° W.

CYPRESS BRANCH.
0+00.037+00.0N. 58° W.114+50.0130+00.0N. 46° W.170+00.0179+50.0N. 38° W.
37+00.040+00.0N. 23° 10′ W.1e0+00.0142+51.0North.179+50.0192+55.0N. 90° W.
40+00.063+96.5Abandoned.142+51.0160+00.0N. 53° 10′ W.192+55.0215+50.0N. 47° 50′ W.
63+96.580+85.5N. 32° 30′ E.160+00.0166+00.0N. 30° 15′ W.215+50.0228+00.0N. 16° 30′ W.
80+85.599+00.0N. 24° W.166+00.0170+00.0N. 90° W.228+00.0240+00.0N. 8° W.
99+00.0114+50.0North.

TURKEY BRANCH.
0+00.021+00.0N. 12° 30′ W.49+90.068+00.0N. 79° W.114+45.0130+00.0N. 41° W.
21+00.027+00.0N. 58° W.68+00.085+10.0N. 38° W.130+00.0154+00.0N. 39° W.
27+00.035+70.0N. 36° 30′ W.85+10.0101+00.0N. 30° 30′ E.154+00.0161+50.0North.
35+70.043+00.0N. 60° W.101+00.0114+45.0N. 19° W.161+50.0182+35.0N. 33° 55′ W.
43+00.049+90.0N. 16° W.

LITTLE BACK SWAMP.
0+00.014+00.0S. 51° W.81+34.098+00.0S. 69° W.109+00.0112+10.0N. 28° W.
14+00.048+00.0N. 85° 30′ W.98+00.0109+00.0N. 43° 30′ W.112+10.0116+00.0N. 59° W.
48+00.081+34.0N. 55° W.





JACOB SWAMP AND PANTHER BRANCH.
From station—To station—Bearing.From station—To station—Bearing.From station—To station—Bearing.
0+00.015+00.0Abandoned.140+00.0158+00.0N. 71° 15′ E.290+05.0300+00.0N. 77° E.
15+00.018+00.0N. 62° E.158+00.0173+00.0S. 44° E.300+00.0311+36.0S. 35° E.
18+00.031+00.0S. 72° 30′ E.173+00.0190+50.0S. 87° E.311+36.0341+50.0S. 72° 45′ E.
31+00.049+26.0N. 65° 30′ E.190+50.0208+00.0S. 41° 30′ E.341+50.0349+00.0S. 43° E.
49+26.056+00.0N. 13° 45′ E.208+00.0216+50.0S. 10° 30′ E.349+00.0365+00.0S. 73° E.
56+00.070+00.0N. 63° E.216+50.0228+00.0N. 90° E.365+00.0389+00.0S. 14° 45′ E.
70+00.098+00.0N. 77° 30′ E.228+00.0240+00.0S. 46° E.389+00.0441+53.0S. 47° E.
98+00.0108+50.0S. 82° 30′ E.240+00.0249+00.0N. 56° E.441+53.0453+30.0S. 69° E.
108+50.0113+55.0S. 26° 30′ E.249+00.0275+00.0S. 75° 30′ E.453+30.0466+34.0S. 39° E.
113+55.0121+64.0S. 87° E.275+00.0281+00.0S. 28° 30′ E.466+34.0482+60.0S. 67° E.
121+64.0140+00.0S. 63° E.281+00.0290+05.0S. 55° E.

LITTLE JACOB SWAMP.
0+00.029+00.0S. 72° 30′ W.107+48.0125+00.0N. 52° 30′ W.176+00.0184+00.0N. 28° W.
29+00.056+82.0N. 69° W.125+00.0145+83.0N. 66° 15′ W.184+00.0197+00.0S. 78° 30′ W.
56+82.068+30.0S. 67° 30′ W.145+83.0161+00.0N. 84° W.197+00.0224+50.0N. 86° 45′ W.
68+30.085+50.0N. 69° W.161+00.0176+00.0N. 45° W.224+50.0230+00.0S. 23° W.
85+50.0107+48.0S. 78° 30′ W.

LATERAL “X.”
0+00.06+85.0N. 45° E.392+60.0403+00.0S. 29° 45′ E.403+00.0409+00.0S. 29° 30′ E.
384+10.0392+60.0N. 90° E.

SOUTH FORK PANTHER BRANCH.
0+00.040+77.0N. 77° 30′ W.54+48.064+06.0N. 72° W.64+06.074+00.0S. 76° W.
40+77.054+48.0N. 45° W.

COTTON MILL BRANCH.
0+00.09+00.0N. 53° W.16+58.018+58.0N. 22° 45′ W.31+06.041+47.0N. 19° W.
9+00.013+41.0N. 60° 45′ W.18+58.022+00.0N. 64° 15′ W.41+47.076+00.0N. 57° W.
13+41.016+58.0N. 8° 30′ W.22+00.031+06.0N. 58° 30′ W.

GUM BRANCH.
0+00.011+00.0N. 83° W.49+41.060+00.0N. 58° 30′ W.80+00.0100+00.0N. 68° 30′ W
11+00.027+00.0S. 51° 30′ W.60+00.080+00.0S. 76° W.100+00.0129+00.0N. 31° W.
27+00.049+41.0N. 82° W.





APPENDIX IV.
General specifications for open ditches in Back Swamp and Jacob Swamp drainage district.

1. The work shall be done under the direction and supervision of the superintendent of construction, who will give directions as to the manner in which the work shall be performed, and the contractor shall conform to such directions and to the plans and specifications hereto attached. The work shall be commenced at such points as the superintendent of construction shall direct and shall conform to his directions as to the order of time in which different parts of the work shall be done.

2. The contractor shall be present at the work at all times or be represented by a competent foreman to whom directions and instructions as to the manner and order of doing the work may be given, and such directions and instructions shall be binding upon the contractor.

3. The contractor shall not transfer or assign this contract, or sublet any part of the work without first securing the written consent of the superintendent of construction, and such transfer, assignment, or subcontract shall in no manner relieve the contractor of his obligations or liabilities under this contract.

4. The contractor will employ such methods, appliances, and forces for the performance of the work as will, in the opinion of the superintendent of construction, secure the completion of the work within the time specified in the contract.

5. The superintendent of construction shall decide all questions as to the true intent and meaning of these plans and specifications, and his decision shall be binding upon both parties. The superintendent of construction may make any alterations in the location, grade lines, or dimensions of the ditches, or any part thereof, either before or after the commencement of the work; provided, that if such alterations increase or diminish the total amount of excavation, the change shall be agreed to by both parties of the contract. The unit price for work required by any change in the plans shall be the same as the price named in the contract for work of similar character. No claim for extra work shall be allowed unless the same shall have been done in execution of a written order by the superintendent of construction, and the unit price allowed for such extra work shall be the price named in the contract for work of similar character. Work omitted shall be treated on the same basis as extra work and the deduction determined in a similar manner.

6. If, at any time, the work be found deficient in any respect, the superintendent of construction shall at once give notice to the contractor, specifying in what respect it is deficient, and the contractor shall remedy such deficiency before proceeding with the work. Failure or neglect to condemn defective work at or before the time of a monthly estimate shall not be construed as acceptance of said work.

7. No charge shall be made by the contractor for hindrance or delay, from any cause, in the progress of any portion of the work of this contract; but such hindrance or delay may entitle him to an extension of the time to be allowed for the completion of the work sufficient to compensate for the detention, this time to be determined by the superintendent of construction.

8. The contractor will be held responsible for all damage which may occur to property or persons in consequence of any neglect or carelessness of himself or his employees; he will be held responsible for all trespass or injury to persons or property which may





result from any acts or omission on the part of himself or employees, and which are not permitted under the North Carolina drainage law, chapter 442, section 24, laws of 1909.

9. The contractor will assume all risks due to the action of the elements, the nature of the work to be done under these specifications, or unforeseen obstruction or delays that may occur before the completion and acceptance of the work, and he shall deliver the same in perfect condition.

10. All directions and instructions given by engineers, inspectors, or other persons representing the superintendent of construction during the construction of the work under this contract shall be fully and implicitly carried out.

11. The work will be inspected at such intervals as the superintendent of construction deems proper; at least one inspection being made each month by the superintendent or his representative. Payments for work done shall be made in accordance with the provisions of the North Carolina State drainage law.

12. The contractor shall give the superintendent of construction at least five days’ notice before removing any highway bridge, and the removal of railroad bridges and the crossing of railroad tracks shall be done in the manner provided in the North Carolina State drainage law. Wherever the route of the ditch is traversed or crossed by public or private roads, commodious passing places must be kept open and in safe condition for use at the expense of the contractor. In passing through farms the contractor shall keep up such fences as will be necessary for the preservation of the crops and protection to property, and he shall be liable for all damage resulting from noncompliance with this specification.

13. The location of survey stakes, the maps and profiles, and the engineer's report shall constitute essential parts of these specifications. The locations of the ditches, as indicated by the survey stakes, and the dimensions as given in the engineer's report, shall be strictly adhered to by the contractor, except as provided in paragraphs 5 and 14. No work shall be accepted where the contractor leaves the line of the survey, except when done in the execution of a written order of the superintendent of construction, as provided in paragraph 5.

14. The material taken from the ditches shall be deposited not nearer than 8 feet from the margin of the ditch on dredged ditches, and 6 feet from the margin on hand ditches. The work shall be so finished that the margins shall be clear cut, the slopes of the sides uniform, and the bottoms of even grade. Unless otherwise directed by the superintendent of construction, openings not less than 4 feet wide and not more than 500 feet apart shall be left through the waste banks on each side so that surface water may have free access to the ditch. No natural watercourse emptying into the ditch shall be obstructed by the waste banks. The contractor will be held responsible for the ditches retaining their full dimensions until accepted. The contractor will be permitted to excavate the ditches to larger cross section than required by the specifications, excepting on such portions as shall be limited to the specified dimensions by written order of the superintendent of construction; provided, however, that the contractor shall be paid for the excavation of only that material included within the specified dimensions.

15. The entire width of right of way shall be cleared by the contractor of trees, logs, brush, vines, and undergrowth. The berms shall be cleared of all stumps over 12 inches in height.

16. If, within a reasonable time after being notified to do so by the superintendent of construction, the contractor shall fail to proceed with the work or shall fail to use suitable methods or appliances or sufficient force, or shall fail to correct defective work, the superintendent may then declare this contract void and the board of drainage commissioners may proceed against the contractor as provided in section 23 of the North Carolina drainage law, chapter 442, laws of 1909.













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