WHERE TO EMIGRATE AND WHY!
Farms and Homes for the People.
HYDE PARK SETTLEMENT
OFFER THE FINES, LANDS ON THE CONTINENT
AT PRICES AND TERMS WITHIN THE
REACH OF ALL.
AN OPPORTUNITY TO SECURE A GOOD FARM AND A HOME IN A
[illegible text] SETTLEMENT, AT LESS COST THAN THE RENT
OF AN ORDINARY TENEMENT IN THE CITIES.
FACTS FOR THE CONSIDERATION
OF THE MAN OF MODERATE MEANS, THE CAPITALIST AND EVERY
CITIZEN OF THE LAND.
OFFICE OF THE
SOUTHERN LAND COMPANY,
432 Broome Street, New York.
NEW ENGLAND OFFICE—18 State Street, Boston, Mass.
Thos. H. Dunilam, Special Agent.
J. P. Snow, Manager.
JOHN G. WELLS, President, New York.
H. E. STILLEY, Vice President, Washington, N. C.
S. T. CARROW, Treasurer, Raleigh, N. C.
D. P. BIBLE, Secretary, New York.DIRECTORS.
S. T. CARROW, U. S. Marshal, Raleigh, N. C.
W. B. RODMAN, Judge of the Supreme Court, Washington, N. C.
H. E. STILLEY, Int. Rev. Dept., Washington, N. C.
ROBERT MACOY, Masonic Publishing Co, New York.
JOHN G. WELLS, John G. Wells, & Co., New York.
D. P. BIBLE, Bible Bros., New York.REFERENCES.
Hon. W. W. HOLDEN, Governor of the State, Raleigh, N. C.
Hon. JOSIAH H. DRUMMOND, Portland, Maine.
Gen. ALBERT PIKE, Washington, D. C.
Hon. S. S. ASHLEY, Superintendent Pub. Inst., Raleigh, N. C.
Hon. E. T. CARSON, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Hon. HENRY L. PALMER, Milwaukee, Wis.
Hon. JOHN Q. A. FELLOWS, New Orleans, La.
Hon. SAMUEL M. TODD, New Orleans, La.
W. A. OLDS, Attorney General, Raleigh, N. C.
Hon. JOHN POOLE, U. S. Senator, Elizabeth City, N. C.
H. J. MEMMINGER, Secretary of State, Raleigh, N. C.
Ex-Gov. ANDREW G. CURTIN, Pa., Minister to Russ
Ex-Gov. JAMES L. ORR, South Carolina.
DANIEL SICKELS, Esq., New York.
Hon. HEMAN ELY, Elyria, Ohio.
JOHN R. McDANIEL, Esq., Lynchburg, Va.
ROBERT S. BURNS, Esq., Charleston, S. C.
Hon. J. C. ABBOTT, U. S. Senator, Wilmington, N. C.
JOHN AINSLIE, Esq., Memphis, Tenn.
Gen. SAMUEL C. LAWRENCE, Boston, Mass.
W. R. HIGBY, Esq., Bridgeport, Conn.
J. B. HOLLINGBECK, Esq., Burlington, Vermont.
Hon. WM. BARRETT, Nashua, New Hampshire,
Hon. THOMAS J. CORSON, Trenton, N. J.
Hon. THOMAS A. DOYLE, Providence, Rhode Island.
RICHARD BULL, Esq., Canada West.
Hon. T. DOUGLAS HARINGTON, Ottawa, Canada.
Hon. MARTIN COLLINS, St. Louis, Missouri.
Hon. HARMAN G. REYNOLDS, Springfield, Ill.
Rev. T. DOUGHERTY, Professor Carlisle College, Pa.
R. M. C. GRAHAM, President Manhattan Fire and Marine Insurance Co., New York.
MURRAY ANDERSON, London, Canada West.
G. S. BALDWIN, Esq., Chicago, Ill.
Hon. RUFUS W. LANDON, Niles, Mich.
Rev. THOMAS R. AUSTIN, New Albany, Ind.
Hon. C. N. NASH, St. Paul, Minn.
Hon. O. H. IRISH, Nebraska, U. S. Consul to Dresden.
THE NORTH CAROLINA HYDE PARK SETTLEMENT.INTRODUCTORY.
It has been said that the great primary law of Nature is perpetual change—the alteration of one condition to that of another; so it is with human nature. Mankind obeying the moral and natural laws of their being, “must disperse themselves over the face of the earth,” seeking the best means of subsistence and the most agreeable countries for homes,—hence, emigration.
In densely populated districts, where the rich become richer, and the poor poorer, the small farmers, tradesmen and laborers, are placed in that peculiar condition, where emigration to a region less thickly settled than their own, becomes an imperative necessity.
The great tide of emigration has been heretofore, westward, and for sufficiently good reasons. The south, although possessing every advantage of position, climate, fertility of soil, variety of productions, and accessibility to the markets of the world, has hitherto been as a “sealed book” to the masses, and is only now being opened up to the industry, enterprise and capital of the world, and from its vast natural resources and advantages, must soon be in the front rank of prosperity.
With less than one-third of the population of the Union, and amid all her trials, distress and poverty, the entire uprooting of her domestic and civil institutions, and the demoralization of labor and capital, resulting from the late war, the South furnished in 1869, exclusive of specie and bullion, over one-half of the entire exports of the country.
The exports of the country for the year 1869, were $371,008, 649, exclusive of $42,915,966 of specie, of which the south furnished $191,012,639, or nearly two millions more than the sum of the industrial products of the balance of the Union.
It is not, therefore, in the nature of things, that the uncultivated lands, the latent manufacturing and commercial interests
of a region possessing such extraordinary natural resources, should long remain unoccupied and undeveloped.
The difficulty heretofore experienced, and which has, in a measure, prevented the man of moderate means from seeking a home in the “Sunny South,” was the existence of slavery and the unwillingness on the part of landowners to dispose of their lands.
From an extensive and varied experience in the purchase and sale of Southern real estate, and possessing a thorough practical knowledge of the climate, geographical and physical advantages of the different sections, and through these means become familiar with the wants of the farmer, manufacturer, mechanic, tradesman, laborer and capitalist, The Southern Land Company have selected Eastern North Carolina as the most eligible field for the building up of a first-class settlement, in consideration of its possessing more natural and artificial advantages, with promise of better future results, than that of any other section of our country.
The Southern Land Company was chartered by special act of the Legislature of North Carolina, for the encouragement of emigration into the state, and with that view have purchased from the Board of Education of North Carolina, all the State lands situate in the counties of Hyde, Washington and Tyrrel, for the purpose of colonization and settlement; and as an earnest of the great work in progress, they have inaugurated the Hyde Park Settlement, which is now in successful operation.
The inducements to the settler, the location of lands, soil, climate, etc., low price and easy terms of payment, are more favorable than any which have heretofore been offered to the American people, or European emigrant.
A well known writer has expressed it as “the duty of every man to go where his mental and physical properties can be most advantageously exercised,” to found an agreeable home, surrounded with the attribute of rural wealth and comfort; and in this genial clime, it will be the settler's own fault if he does not enjoy in a few years, in abundance and independence, the solid comforts of life.
The description herein given of Eastern North Carolina, applies more particularly to that section of the State embraced in the counties of Hyde, Washington, and Tyrrel, and of these counties accordingly we give the area, population, products, etc. The lands of the Southern Land Company in these counties are fully described, especially the Hyde Park Settlement and its surroundings; productions, forests, manufactures,
commerce, and everything of interest pertaining to the country and colonists, etc., etc., etc., together with extracts which we give from the geological reports of Professor Emmons, State Geologist, General Walter Gwinn, formerly Surveyor General of the state; the late Honorable Edwin Ruffin, and other eminent authorities, with a series of letters from Hyde Park colonists and others.Geographical Position.
North Carolina lies between 33° 53߰ and 36° 33߰ north latitude, and between 75° 25߰ and 84° 30߰ west longitude, and is about four hundred and fifty miles in length, with greatest breadth of one hundred and eighty miles, containing an area of fifty thousand seven hundred and four square miles, or thirty-three millions of acres, of which about seven millions are under cultivation.
It is bounded on the north by Virginia, east and south-east by the Atlantic ocean, south by South Carolina and Georgia, and north-west by Tennessee, from which it is separated by mountains of the Apalachian range.Physical Structure.
Eastern North Carolina is indented with numerous sounds, inlets, bays and rivers. The lands bordering the shore of the sounds and rivers, in places, are considerably elevated above the water level, and there seems to be a nearly uniform ascent of from two to three feet to the mile towards the north and west, until the plateaux of the interior are reached, after which the country becomes broken, terminating in hills and mountainous ranges.Soils.
The lands possess almost every variety of soil, the sands of the coast, the finely comminuted clays and sands of the river banks, the rich alluvial of the bottoms and prairies, to the stiff clays of the western slope.
The bottom and prairie lands are singularly composed of vegetable matter, capable of being reduced to the most fertile soil in the world.Productions.
In no state of the Union is there so extensive a variety of valuable productions as in North Carolina. All the crops produced in the Temperate Zone flourish in the interior and on the western plateaux, as well as in the eastern section. The latter is peculiarly adapted to the cultivation of the semi-tropical fruits, and being subject to moderate frosts, will grow many of the tropical productions of the West Indies.
The climate represents in a remarkable degree, the entire range from almost tropical characteristics, to the temperate and moderate summers and winters of the best portions of the Northern States. In the eastern section, snow rarely falls, and ice rarely forms on the streams. In point of health it will compare favorably with the best countries on the globe; pulmonary, malignant and malarious diseases being of rare occurrence.Eastern North Carolina.
The physical geography of the State may be divided into four sections. The first of these commences south of the Virginia line, and extends south-easterly to Cape Fear. This is called Eastern North Carolina, and comprises some fifteen counties, among which are Hyde, Washington and Tyrrel, the richest agricultural section of the state.Hyde County.
Hyde County is situated in the extreme eastern section of Eastern North Carolina, the waters of Pamlico Sound washing its borders on the east and south, Pungo River on the west, and Washington and Tyrrel counties bounding it on the north, giving it a most favorable geographical position. This county was named after General Hyde, and was one of the original precincts of 1729. It comprises four hundred and thirty square miles, or two hundred and eighty-seven thousand two hundred acres, of which about thirty-two thousand acres are under successful tillage, and is, without doubt, the richest agricultural district of its size in the Union, or on the continent, the soils surpassing in productiveness those of the most favored portions of Southern Illinois and Texas. The population is about nine thousand.
The annual products in 1860, were as follows, for which reference is made to the statistics of the State:
550,000 bushels corn; 25,000 bushels wheat; 2,500 bushels oats; 1,200 bushels rye; 1,000 bushels Irish potatoes; 18,000 bushels sweet potatoes; 3,500 bushels peas; 200,000 lbs. cotton; 510,000 lbs. wool; 2,500 gallons honey, etc., etc.
Timber.—Red and white cedar, long and short leaved pine, oak, ash, maple, beach, gum, hickory, holly, etc., in large and varying quantities.
The county seat is Swan Quarter, located in the south eastern part of the county, near the sound, and is about one hundred and seventy miles east of Raleigh, the capital of the State, and fifteen miles from Hyde Park.
This county is north of Hyde; the waters of Roanoke river and Albemarle sound, forming its northern and eastern boundary. The surface is level and undulating; soils rich and varied and approximating in similarity to those of Hyde county. It was organized in 1799, and named after Gen. GeorgeWashington.
Surface, level; soil, rich and productive.
Area, 400 square miles; Population, 6,500.
Farms, 500; acres improved, 25,000; acres unimproved, 231,000.
Natural growth of timber: oak, elm, pine, juniper, cedar, gum and cypress.
Stock: horses, mules, cows; other stock, sheep, hogs, etc., etc.
Annual products: wheat, 35,750 bushels; oats, 2,000 bushels; corn. 250,000 bushels; rye, 1,000 bushels; rice, 10,000 pounds; wool, 5,000 pounds; pease, 20,000 bushels; Irish potatoes, 7,000 bushels; sweet potatoes, 50,000 bushels; hay, 2,000 tons; 20,000 barrels of tar and turpentine; $30,000 worth of lumber; 5,000 barrels of fish, besides grapes, wine, apples, etc.
Water courses: Roanoke River and Welch Creek on the west, Albemarle Sound on the north, Scuppernong River and Lake Phelps on the east, and Lake Pungo on the south.
This is one of the prettiest counties in the east. Lying on the Albemarle Sound.
There is in this county, in its natural growth, lands that will, when brought into cultivation, be as rich and valuable as any in the State. Its land, lumber, fisheries and productions, with easy access to all parts of the United States, give it peculiar advantages and attractions.
Plymouth is the county seat, 162 miles east from Raleigh.Tyrrel.
This county is one of the oldest in the State, having been settled in 1729. It was included in what is now Washington county. It lies in the extreme eastern part of the State.
Surface level; soil good, abounding in rich bottom and prairie land.
Area, 320 square miles.
Farms, 300; acres improved, 21,500; acres unimproved, 183,000.
Natural growth of timber: juniper, pine, gum, oak, cypress, ash, holly, poplar and maple.
Stock: horses, mules, cows; other cattle, sheep, hogs, etc., etc.
Annual products: wheat, 12,500 bushels; rye, 10,000 bushels; corn, 300,000 bushels; oats, 567 bushels; rice, 11,500 pounds; wool, 4,500 pounds; pease, 12,500 bushels; Irish potatoes, 4,300 bushels; sweet potatoes, 28,775 bushels; wine, 2,500 gallons; butter, 12,000 pounds; hay, 100 tons; flax, 4,000 pounds; beeswax, 2,500 pounds; honey, 25,000 pounds; fish, 5,000 barrels; lumber, shingles, staves, etc., $7,500,000.
Mills: grist mills, saw mills, shingle mills.
It is a splendid corn region and the Scuppernong grape grows luxuriantly here.
The farms around Lake Phelps are equal in soil and productiveness to any in the State.
Large forests of juniper, cypress and pine timber.
Cranberries grow wild in great abundance.
Tuckahoe, an esculent, grows wild in abundance, and furnishes a superior food for fattening hogs.
Columbia is the county seat.HYDE PARK SETTLEMENT.Character of the Enterprise.
The Southern Land Company was incorporated by special act of legislation, with special and liberal powers, and organized by the association of capital and men of influence, for the express purpose of encouraging Northern and European emigration; to influence the investment of capital; promote manufacturing and mining interests, and the development of the Southern States generally; but more especially for the colonization and settlement of this large domain in Eastern North Carolina. For the advancement of this enterprise, they have selected 90,000 acres of their extensive purchase, situated in Hyde County, on which they are now forming a first-class settlement, which in its character, design, proportions, and its prospective results, offer advantages over that of any enterprise of a similar character ever presented to the American people, or European emigrant.
The Hyde Park Settlement is composed of three Grand Divisions—the Cosmopolitan, the New England, and the Germania—each division comprising a full township, or equal to 36 square miles, and laid out uniformly and regularly, and when carried
out in accordance with the plan will form the grandest and most attractive settlement on the continent.Title of the Lands.
These lands of the State, held and owned by the Board of Education, for educational purposes were sold by the said Board to the Southern Land Company, and said sale ratified by special act of the Legislature. The chain of title is therefore clear and unquestionable.Location of the Lands for Settlement.
The lands set apart for settlement are situated in the north-western portion of Hyde County, and comprise that large and beautiful stretch of rich alluvial and undulating prairie and timbered land which lies between Pungo and Phelps and New Lakes, and Pungo River, a large estuary of Pamlico Sound. These fresh water lakes are penetrated and connected with each other by a series or net work of canals, which form outlets for the waters of the lakes to the rivers, and an admirable communication with accessible markets.Character of the Lands and Soils.
The lands are slightly elevated and undulating in places, and have a gradual westerly slope, and consist of the richest alluvions, which are singularly composed of vegetable and other organic matter, and capable of being reduced to the most fertile of all soils.
In some instances more than nine-tenths of the entire mass over a depth of perhaps ten feet, is vegetable matter, the accumulation of ages of decay, resting on a substratum of clay and sand.
By this long course of accumulation, the surface has been elevated so much, as to permit free, and in many instances, natural drainage.Inauguration of the Settlement.
Early in April, 1870, a detachment of Pioneer settlers located on Pungo canal, which forms an outlet for Pungo Lake to Pungo River. Additional detachments of settlers followed in rapid succession, and although but a short time has elapsed since the inauguration of the settlement, it is now in successful progress. Many buildings are erected, and the settlers are busy at work, putting up buildings, cultivating crops, building fences, etc., pleased with their situation, and satisfied with the prospects of the future.
Plan of the Settlement.
This tract is regularly laid out in sections of 640 acres each, with subdivisions of each section into 32 plots of 20 acres each.
Streets one hundred feet wide run east and west, crossing Pungo and New Lake canals, at intervals of one mile, intersected at right angles by streets one hundred feet wide, running north and south at intervals of one mile. Boulevards one hundred feet wide, shaded with trees, extend on both sides of the canals from Pungo River where they intersect with grand boulevards one hundred feet wide, lined with the stately forest trees, circling the lakes. From the center of the city plot (midway between the river and the lake, on canal) a grand boulevard, one hundred and twenty feet wide, will extend to New Lake, forming the most beautiful settlement on the continent, taking in connection its natural advantages and artificial planning.
In connection with this settlement, and as a part and parcel of the enterprise, three village plots have been laid out, each covering an area of about 1,280 acres, viz.:
First, Hyde Park City, in connection with the Cosmopolitan Division, located midway between Pungo Lake and Pungo River, elegantly laid out with liberal appropriations for Parks, Public Squares, Churches, Schools, etc.
Second, New England City, in the New England Division, located on New Lake canal, midway between Pungo River and New Lake, and possessing all the advantages in point of attractiveness of Hyde Park city.
Third, Frankfort, in the Germania Division, on New Lake. Locations most advantageous, being on elevated plateaux or natural terraces, commanding a fine site, and overlooking one of the most beautiful and varied landscapes to be found anywhere. A vast undulating prairie, almost centrally coursed by noble rapid streams, dotted with the farms of settlers, commingling with huge forests, and in the far distance broken by the watery sheen of river and lake.
The City Plots are regularly laid out in blocks of 300 by 800 feet, with lots 50 by 150 feet. Avenues, streets, one grand boulevard, 120 feet wide, cross each other at right angles. Reservations for churches, schools, city hall, public parks, &c., have been made.Price of Lands.
We are now selling the lands at the nominal price of five dollars per acre to actual settlers, twenty-five per cent. of the amount
cash on purchase, and the remainder in equal payments of two, three and four years. Purchasers also have the privilege of paying in monthly installments of ten dollars each.
The present low price of lands and terms, are offered as an inducement to settlers of moderate means, being intrinsically worth treble the price at which they are now offered.Price of Town Lots.
Until further notice the price of village lots will be $25 each, embracing one-fourth of an acre, or equal to three city lots.
Arrangements have been made to supply settlers with lumber at $16 per m, and shingles at $6 to $8 per m, delivered at the settlement.Productions.
Cotton.—In 1860, the total production of Cotton in the State was 145,514 bales, of about 400 pounds each. This was produced principally in the counties of the Eastern slope, and those bordering on the seaboard. Last year, the crop much less in quantity, exceeded that of former years in value. More attention is being paid to the culture of this important staple than formerly, and will eventually engross much of the capital and labor of the country. The cotton produced in the sea-board counties is generally classed as Middling Upland.
Indian Corn.—This crop is one of the most profitable, and Hyde County is specially noted for the immense yield of this crop; hence, for this reason, this county has been justly called the granary of the State.
Wheat, Rye, Oats, Barley.—Wheat is grown profitably; Rye and Oats are raised principally as forage crops. Oats yield well, and can be raised to advantage.
Tobacco.—Cuba, and other Tobaccos, are largely cultivated. This crop requires constant attention, and is very exhaustive, requiring fertile soil. Three cuttings in a season from the same stalk, are usual, yielding about seven hundred pounds to the acre. Much of the Tobacco classed as Virginia, is the production of North Carolina. It only requires the necessary attention in its cultivation to become a certain crop, yielding great profits.
Rice.—The bottom and prairie lands are well adapted to the cultivation of Rice, large quantities of which have been raised of late years. Fifty bushels to the acre is a fair crop of rough
rice, and, in this State, commands a price of about one dollar to one dollar and a half per bushel.Fruits and Vegetables.
The early seasons of Eastern North Carolina afford superior facilities for the rapid and prolific growth of such vegetables and fruits as always command a high price in Northern markets. Long before the favorite varieties of esculents and fruits begin to blossom and bloom in the latitude of New York City, the same varieties are full grown and ready to be transported where a good demand and high prices await their arrival; and those engaged in the culture North now begin to find that, since their production South, their farms and gardens, heretofore so remunerative, do not pay; hence the number purchasing truck farms further South, where they can reap the golden harvest.Garden Vegetables.
Under this head are comprised crops usually produced in market-gardens, to which the soil and climate of Eastern North Carolina are admirably adapted. The production of Vegetables for shipment to the Northern markets is attracting marked attention, competing favorably with Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey. Vegetables grown here can be delivered in the Northern seaboard cities six weeks earlier than those from the States named.
Peas.—Soils rich and moderately moist are the best for Peas. Large quantities are produced on the bottom lands annually, and shipped to Northern markets.
Tomatoes.—The Tomato is easily cultivated, and produces largely.
Cucumbers.—The plant has to contend with fewer enemies than at the North, and is ready for market about the same time as the Tomato, and bears shipment well.
Beans.—The Lima or Butter Bean grows well.
Sweet Potatoes.—Next to Indian Corn, the most important article of food is the Sweet Potato. The average yield per acre, is about three hundred bushels, depending on season, culture, and soil. The alluvium of the bottom and prairie lands seems peculiarly adapted to their production, and grows the largest crops and best potatoes. Here they approach the character
and flavor of the West India yam, containing more saccharine matter than those raised in the higher regions. For fattening stock, particularly hogs, it is one of the best crops raised. It bears shipment by sail vessel to any of the New York and Eastern markets, and is one of the most remunerative crops.
English Peas.—The English Pea is now cultivated extensively as a field crop, and produces well. It is sown between rows of corn, and produces from ten to fifteen bushels to the acre.
Cabbages and Turnips.—Cabbages are usually sown in the fall, and produce fine heads in the spring months. Rich and moist soil is peculiarly adapted to this crop.
Turnips can be produced fresh nearly every month in the year, and are a valuable winter crop.
Cauliflower, Broccoli, and Kohl-rabi are grown in luxuriance.
Beets.—Beets seem to do best in the deep, rich, moist soil of the bottom lands.
Onions—Grow finely and afford great profits.
Water Melons.—In no country do Water Melons attain greater perfection than in Eastern North Carolina, or are raised with less care. The Musk Melon and Cantaloupe also flourish. Two gentlemen of New York were interested in the planting of three barrels of seeds, in Eastern North Carolina; from the shipment of two vessels they estimated a profit of two thousand dollars.
Irish Potatoes grow well, and mature for shipment and use in time to plant the same ground in sweet potatoes. These are generally planted in December and January, and ready for use about May. They are shipped without difficulty, at moderate rates, and, on account of being early in the season, command about eight dollars per barrel in the northern markets. Their culture is the same as at the north.
Celery, onions, lettuce, radishes, pepper, parsley, asparagus, rhubarb, egg-plant, indigo and okra grow finely.
“Collards” (colewort) are raised in every garden, and are fresh and green throughout the year. With proper care and attention vegetables may be placed fresh on the table almost every month in the year.Advantages of this Section for Fruit Growing.
Grapes.—No section of this continent presents a finer soil and climate for the culture of the vine than Eastern North Carolina. The Scuppernong, a grape prized by every one for
its delicious flavor as a table grape, and as one of the best wine grapes in the United States, is indigenous to this soil, and grows under the most artless culture to be one of the best producers, and in less time than any other variety.
A vine in five years well arbored will produce five bushels of grapes, and cover a space of fifty feet square. It grows singly, and in very small clusters, ripening in August and September. One bushel of these grapes will make three gallons of wine, which is worth from $3 to $5 per gallon.
The Isabella, Catawba, Concord and other varieties do finely, and their cultivation will insure any enterprising man certain and speedy fortune.
As an illustration of what may be accomplished by enterprising efforts in this direction, the following authentic facts are cited:
“In the summer of 1857, a colony of Germans acquainted with grape culture, bought a tract of land in Los Angeles County, California, paying therefor $2 per acre. The tract only contained 1265 acres, and was divided into fifty rectangular lots of twenty acres each, with streets between them, and subdividing the residue into sixty town lots—one for each of the proprietors, and ten for public purposes. The lots were all fenced with willows, sycamores and poplars, and about ten acres of each planted with vines. At present there are over 1,000,000 vines growing in this village—most of which are in bearing—already producing annually over 100,000 gallons of wine and some 10,000 gallons of brandy. Of the various kinds of fruit trees there are more than 10,000. Every one of the fifty lots contains a comfortable homestead, and the village has a population of about 400, with a good public school, several stores, and a post office in the town. Each of these lots is worth at the present time fully $10,000, and is continually increasing in value. The history of Anaheim demonstrates the advantage of settlement by colonies. Had each of the original 50 settlers of the village located by himself, cut off from the encouraging sympathy and mutual counsel of congenial neighbors, it is doubtful whether success would have crowned the efforts of one-fourth of their number; but, adopting the colony plan, they have in twelve years advanced to a condition, not only of comfort, but of comparative wealth.”
Peaches.—Trees die out after producing one or two good crops in Delaware and New Jersey, and the experience of the most extensive and successful growers of those states say that an orchard rarely produces over three times with any degree of certainty, while in Eastern North Carolina, trees live from twenty to forty years, and yield an abundant supply, and a crop is most certain, and after yielding a handsome profit to the
grower as early fruit, they can be put up in cans, and sold at good prices.
Apples.—There is an apple peculiar to the Hyde County region which is of superior quality, and one of the best keepers in the world: it is called the Mattamuskeet, grows luxuriantly in the section referred to, and of which it is a native, and may be kept all the year round without rotting. All kinds of apples do well. Also, cherries, plums, apricots, pears, pomegranates, &c.; black-berries grow wild in great abundance; cranberries the same, raspberries and all the smaller fruits.
Figs.—“Of all the fruits of the south,” says a well known and distinguished horticulturist, “the fig requires the least care, and is one of the most productive and useful.”Stock Raising.
The winters are felt but slightly, and on the lands bordering on the beautiful fresh water lakes, Pungo, Phelps, New and Mattamuskeet, vegetation is green throughout the year. The open prairie, savannah and wooded lands are covered with a heavy growth of wild grasses, reeds and other vegetation, as nutritious as any grown on the table lands and stock ranges of Texas; and from the extent of range, mildness of climate, and the ease and cheapness with which the soil can be made to produce the grains and grasses, and the accessibility to the markets of New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore, Norfolk and Richmond, this is one of the finest, as well as the most desirable and profitable of stock countries, and will pay a handsome profit on the amount of capital invested quicker than any portion of this country. The demand for horses and mules in the State alone, at good prices, would give a sure home market.Value of the Timber.
The peculiar value of the forest growth of this section of the State entitles it to careful consideration, because of the facility with which the timber and lumber it produces may be made a source of great commercial wealth. Exhausted as the timber regions of the northern states are rapidly becoming, the demand for building and ship timber, for shingles, staves, coopers’-stock, flooring timber, railroad ties, posts, piling and dock timber, is now, and must for many years be supplied from the South.
The most valuable commercial trees are the long leaf, or naval timber pines, the cypress and white cedar, all trees of magnificent growth. The cypress averages from ten to thirty
trees per acre, ranging in diameter from two to seven feet, and from seventy-five to one hundred feet high, with straight bodies and small tops. The black and sweet gum are fine trees, from one to three feet in diameter, with almost uniformity of size, with average of fifty feet high, and are valuable for waggon and carriage hubs, boxes and a variety of purposes. Gigantic poplars and maples abound in several varieties; but the greater timber trees of this section are pines, cypress and white cedar.
Upon the lands embraced within the purchase and owned by the company, are large quantities of the different varieties enumerated, and more valuable from lying on and adjacent to navigable streams. Since the construction of Pungo and New Lake Canals, the timber around the lakes can be floated down the canals, or manufactured on the banks of the lakes and then shipped directly to northern or any other markets; affording very large profits in its manufacture or shipment for naval, dock, railroad and other uses. A very large amount of lumber will be needed for the settlement, and mills can dispose of all the refuse and most of their best lumber for years to come at good prices for home consumption.Fisheries.
Fish are abundant in the sounds and rivers of the eastern counties. The species of fish mostly taken are the herring, shad, blue fish, mullet and rock. The number of barrels annually packed for market is about 100,000 on the waters of Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds. Considerable quantities are packed on Pamlico, Neuse and other rivers.
Oysters, lobsters, soft and hard-shell crabs, scollops, clams, turtle and several species of terrapin abound. Fish and oyster boats visit the various towns and settlements, exchanging their cargoes for farm products. There are some of the finest oyster beds in Core Sound and Cous, and for the delicacy of the flavor, the oyster is unequalled by any.General Markets.
New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore furnish the best of markets, and are easily and quickly reached by direct communication by water. Hyde Park is only 450 miles by water from New York, and the product can be transported to either of these markets in from thirty-six to forty-eight hours, by steamer, and in from two to five days by sail vessels, affording easy and quick transportation of early vegetables, which afford the producer
large profits, from being two to three weeks earlier than Norfolk, and four to six weeks earlier than Delaware and New Jersey.Description of Towns nearest Hyde Park.
The following is a description of the various towns, with respective distances from Hyde Park, and which afford excellent home markets for the settlement, river boats plying regularly between them on the sounds and rivers adjacent to the settlement, thus affording ready and cheap transportation for products.
Leachville.—Leachville is located on Pungo River, about twenty miles from Pamlico Sound, and is seven miles from Hyde Park, being connected with the latter place by a good, public road, and also by Pungo River.
The town contains about a dozen dwellings, three stores, steam saw-mill, blacksmith's and wagon-maker's shops, Post-of-fice, &c. A thickly settled farming country surrounds it, and includes the most productive portion of Beaufort county. Considerable business is done there in the lumber trade—steam saw-mills being located below the town, on different parts of Pungo River.
Pantego.—Pantego is nine miles from Leachville and twelve miles from Hyde Park, and is a pleasantly located village on Pantego creek, a tributary of Pungo river.
It contains saw and grist-mills, store, and a number of dwellings. Large quantities of cedar shingles and staves are manufactured and shipped North from this point.
Bath—Is eighteen miles from Leachville and twenty miles from the settlement of Hyde Park.
It is located on Pamlico river, and was at one time the seat of government of the State. It is the oldest town in the State, and has many interesting historical associations.
Pungo Settlement—Consists of thirty-two families, with about the same number of farms under successful tillage, and located on Pungo river, and joins the lands of Hyde Park. It is 130 years old, and in a very prosperous condition. A good road-way connects it with Hyde Park.
Tarboro, the county seat of Edgecombe, situated on Tar river, is seventy-six miles east from Raleigh, and seventy-five miles
from Hyde Park, by land. The Rocky Mount and Tarboro railroad connects it with the Weldon railroad.
The steamer “Cotton Plant” plies regularly between it and Washington, on the Tar river. The town is pleasantly located, carries on a flourishing trade, and has a population of about 2,000.
Greenville is the county seat of Pitt Co.; it lies on Tar river, one hundred miles east from Raleigh, and fifty-five miles from Hyde Park. It contains about 1,500 inhabitants, and does considerable trade with the surrounding country. Tarboro and Washington line of steamers touch at this place.
Washington, the county seat of Beaufort, lies at the head of the Pamlico river, and is 120 miles east by south from Raleigh, and thirty-five miles from Hyde Park. Population about 3,000. It carries on a large trade with New York and the West Indies, owning, in 1860, forty-two sail of vessels.
A good public road leads from this place to Hyde Park, and water communication with the settlement by Pamlico and Pungo rivers. A line of steamers runs from this place to Norfolk inland by way of the Sound.
This city is about 50 miles distant from Hyde Park, by water, by way of Pungo river, Pamlico and Core Sounds, and the ocean. The Atlantic and North Carolina railway connects it with Raleigh, and intersects with the main railways of the State. Two lines of steamers run regularly to New York.
Edenton, the county seat of Chowan, settled in 1716, and has been the abode of wealth and refinement. Distance from Raleigh 150 miles, and from Hyde Park sixty miles, by way of Plymouth. This town is located on the mouth of Chowan river, on Albemarle Sound, and is one of the oldest towns in the State. It was originally the seat of North Carolina and Virginia.
Plymouth is the county seat of Washington, about 130 miles from Raleigh, and about forty miles from Hyde Park, although on a direct air-line only sixteen miles. It is located on the Roanoke river, and does a large naval store and lumber trade. A line of steamers, by way of Black Water, runs to Franklin station, connecting with the Weldon railroad.
Beaufort, the county seat of Carteret, distant 150 miles from Raleigh, has a very fine harbor, and is a fashionable summer resort. The distance from Hyde Park, by water, is about ninety miles. Fort Macon and Morehead city are located on the opposite side of the harbor.
Newbern, a port of entry, a flourishing city, population about 10,000; situated at the confluence of the Neuse and Trent rivers, 120 miles from Raleigh; 45 miles in an air line from Hyde Park, and about 50 miles above Pamlico Sound.Watering Places and Summer Resorts.
Portsmouth is located on the coast, at Ocracoke Inlet, and contains a resident population of about 200, a United States marine hospital, hotel and boarding-houses, summer cottages, stores, &c. It has very fine surf-bathing, sailing, fishing, and hunting; fine varieties of fish and shell-fish abound—the latter are the finest found along the coast. It is sixty miles from Hyde Park.
Beaufort, Morehead and Carolina Cities, are noted places of summer resort, and have large hotels for the accommodation of guests, with numbers of bathing houses. A fine harbor fronts these towns, which is penetrated by Old Point Comfort Inlet. The distance from Hyde Park is about eighty miles by water. A line of steamers runs from these points to New York.
Hatteras and Nag's Head are coast watering places of considerable resort. The latter, before the war, was much frequented by Virginians. It contains large hotels and summer cottages. Distance from Hyde Park one hundred miles.
Sail vessels run to any of these points in from six to ten hours.Large and Commodious Hotel at Hyde Park.
This valuable and important improvement is proposed, and its erection upon the public square in the central part of the city plot will by its position command one of the finest views—overlooking Lakes Pungo, Phelps and New Lake, and the surrounding county,
AND AS A PLACE OF RESORT, WILL HAVE NO EQUAL,
for the beauty and healthiness of location, pure water, mild and genial climate, fine views, elegant fishing and hunting, beautiful sailing, and the genial atmosphere, passing from the bosom of the ocean, across the Gulf Stream, Sounds, lakes and rivers, soft, yet bracing, its influence exhilarating, and the universal effect on those suffering from pulmonary disease in the North, the climate having proved curative.
Description of Lakes Paugo and Phelps; New and Mattamuskeet Lakes with their Canals and Tributaries.
Pungo Lake.—Fresh water lake of oval form, four miles long, by two miles and a half wide, with average depth of eight feet. The waters are of a dark blue color, strongly impregnated with white cedar, and near the border have a slight tinge of green, from the reflection of the surrounding verdure. The northern and western shores are covered with dense forests of cypress, white cedar, gum, maple, ash, &c. The lake is very beautiful, and abounds in many choice varieties of fish. Pungo Canal, six and a half miles long, forms an artificial outlet for its waters to Pungo River.
Lake Phelps is two miles north-east of Pungo Lake, and twelve miles long by nine miles wide, with an almost uniform depth of ten feet of water. Its western and southern shores are heavily timbered. On its northern borders are some of the largest and finest plantations in the State, as well as a number of smaller productive farms, with thriving, industrious settlements of many years’ standing. The lake abounds in several fine varieties of fish. A canal, sixty feet wide by six feet in depth, forms a navigable outlet from the lake to Scuppernong river, which flows into Albemarle Sound.
New Lake is eight miles south of Lake Phelps, and about ten miles south-east of Pungo Lake, with which it is connected by a net-work of canals. It is about six miles long, by four wide; of oblong shape, with shores, in places, heavily timbered. The principal outlet of this lake is New Lake canal, thirty feet wide, and six miles long, which extends in a south-westerly direction to Putman's creek, a navigable stream, which flows into Pungo river.
Mattamuskeet Lake.—This is the largest and most important lake in the State, being twenty-five miles long, and from six to eight miles wide. The settlement on this lake is one of the oldest in the State, and the lands in cultivation have been producing luxuriant crops for over one century, without the use of fertilizers, or showing any signs of exhaustion, and are valued by the owners at from fifty to one hundred dollars per acre.
EXTRACTS FROM OFFICIAL REPORTS, ETC.
To more fully substantiate our representations of the land presented for the Hyde Park Settlement, we give extracts of reports from official sources—from gentlemen of known integrity and worth, filling important positions in the State; also reports of parties visiting the lands with a view to their availability for settlement, as well as the evidence of actual settlers.
The late E. Emmons. LL. D., formerly of the Geological Survey of New York, and well and favorably known to the scientific world, was, at the time of his death, and for years before had been, State Geologist of North Carolina.
He examined with much care the agricultural characteristics of this eastern region of North Carolina, subjecting the soils to a thorough analysis, and personally inspecting their cultivation and production.
From an elaborate report made in 1858, the following extracts are taken:
Maize (Indian Corn) must be ranked among the most exhausting crops; and it is evident that poor soils will scarcely repay the farmer for its cultivation. * * * * * * * * * While it must be admitted that maize is an exhausting crop, it is equally clear and conclusive that it is one of the most important and valuable, and hence it may be regarded as one which pays the best. * * *
The foregoing remarks respecting the maize crop have been made in consequence of the peculiar adaptation of the soil of Hyde County to this cereal. It is the granary of the South. It is true that the number of bushels per acre which constitute the average crop is less than the number frequently made on other kinds of soil. Thus, a hundred bushels of corn may be grown upon an acre, but the Hyde County soils rarely exceed sixty bushels per acre; but from fifty to sixty bushels are grown, annually, per acre for an indefinite term of years, without the expense of fertilizers, while the heavy premium crops require a great expenditure on them; and these have to be repeated, in order to keep the ground in a good condition; and hence, in the long term of years, the profits of these rich lands greatly exceed those which are only moderately so, naturally, and require, every few years, an instalment of manure.
The Hyde County soils have acquired a deservedly high reputation.
Some tracts have been cultivated over a century, and the crops appear to be equally as good as they were at an early period of their culture; and yet no manure has been employed, and they have been under culture in Indian corn every year, or what would be equivalent thereto. * *
In accomplishing the object of my visit, I was ably seconded by Dr. Long of Lake Landing, who has become the owner of a tract which has borne this crop, (Indian corn,) for one hundred years without manures. It does not seem to have deteriorated by this long cultivation; or the crops do not show a perceptible falling off; still, there has been a large consumption of materials during the one hundred years of cultivation, which may be made to appear by analysis.
The great supply of nutriment, however, still holds out, and for one hundred years to come, if subjected to no greater drains upon its magazine of food, will, at such a distant period, continue to produce its ten or twelve barrels of corn to the acre.
Gen. Walter Gwynn, one of the most eminent and experienced civil engineers of the United States, and who, for many years, has been engaged in the various departments of his calling, in different States of the Union, has been several times in the employment of the Literary Board of North Carolina. A report made to the Board, in 1867, says:
All things considered, these lands are among the most desirable in the world: they produce grass and fruits as well as the cereals, are of easy cultivation, and are tilled from generation to generation without showing any signs of exhaustion.
They are generally covered with a heavy and dense growth of timber, vines, reeds, and grass; the soil is from three to fifteen feet deep, and consists of decomposed vegetable matter, fine sand, and finely comminuted clay. It produces exuberantly all the grains, grasses, cotton, rice, peas, potatoes, turnips, pumpkins, melons, the garden vegetables, apples, peaches, and grapes; but the test of its fertility, is its growth of Indian corn, an exhausting crop, which it will yield in large amounts, from year to year, without manures or stimulants, and for an indefinite period.
The average yield of Indian corn per acre, without the application of fertilizers or stimulants, is from fifty to one hundred bushels; and experience has proved that this will continue from year to year for more than a century, while science infers from the facts of the past and from careful analysis, that even two centuries of close cultivation will not exhaust the natural and ever renewing fertility of these soils.
The public archives, running through a period exceeding half a century, exhibit in regard to the low lands, repeated evidences of a high appreciation of their value; and their reclamation has at times engaged the attention of some of the most eminent citizens of the state, and of the country.
Indeed, the utility and vast importance of the undertaking has under-gone such thorough and searching investigations, that it would be difficult to present any views that would not be familiar to every intelligent and reflecting man for whom the subject possesses any interest.
It will be useful to compare these lands (of North Carolina) with the prairies of Illinois, whose characteristics have drawn westward so many emigrants from New England. New York and the old world. These eastern soils of North Carolina show a greater capacity for endurance than the prairie soils of Illinois.
As it regards health, Hyde County is no more subject to chills and fevers than the country of the prairies.OPEN PRAIRIE LANDS.
Some of these lands are open, or Savannah lands; the surface is usually destitute of timber, and covered with grass, or a growth of reeds and briars. These open lands were once, without doubt, clothed with a large and heavy growth of trees, which have, in the course of time, been prostrated by fire....The only things requisite to render these open lands fertile are drainage and cultivation.—Report of Hon. A. Nash, Engineer in 1827, to the Board of Internal Improvement of N. C.CLIMATE AND HEALTH.
The testimony of those who have cultivated lands in the vicinity for forty years is, that their families have enjoyed as much health as their neighbors who have lived at a distance.—Report of Dr. Emmons, in 1858, page 57.
A fact mentioned by the late Gen. W. A. Blount is of great importance; it is, that for forty years during which he had been a resident upon this class of lands, the health of his family, white and black, will compare favorably with those in the healthiest localities in North Carolina.
The late Edmund Ruffin, of Va., eminent for his practical contributions to agricultural knowledge, says:
The people I saw had the appearance of enjoying at least ordinary good health. Among the number there were three neighboring resident proprietors, each of seventy or more years of age, and then in good health. Few of the residents move to, or visit, the high lands in the autumn, and these few for short times, and more in pursuit of pleasure than of health.
To these evidences may be added the authoritative testimony of Gen. Walter Gwynn.
In an official report to the Literary Board, he says:
These facts corroborate the views advanced by Dr. Charles E. Johnson, in an admirable address on malaria, delivered before the Medical Society in 1851, and are conformable to my own experience. As chief engineer of the State, I was engaged in draining lands in Tyrrel County, from 1839 to 1843, a period of three years. The main features of this drainage consisted in lowering lakes Pungo and Alligator, each five feet. This was effected by cutting canals twenty-five and thirty feet wide respectively, which drained a surface of about 70,000 acres. Lateral canals were then cut twelve and sixteen feet wide, a mile apart. The work was done by contract, the average number of hands employed being about two hundred and fifty, all negroes, with the exception of the overseers and contractors. The latter were constantly exposed to the weather, the negroes worked every day in water and muck, generally knee deep—they, as also the overseers, were housed in shanties on the banks of the canals—and there was not a single case of fever on the work, nor was the attendance of a physician required in any instance.INTRINSIC VALUE OF THE LANDS.
The public archives, running through a period exceeding half a century, exhibit in regard to these lands, repeated evidences of a high appreciation of their value; and their reclamation has at times engaged the attention of some of the most eminent citizens of the State, and of the country.
Indeed, the utility and vast importance of the undertaking has underdergone such thorough and searching investigations, that it would be difficult to present any views that would not be familiar to every intelligent and reflecting man for whom the subject possesses any in erest. The late lamented Hon Edmund Ruffin, of Virginia, in his sketches of Lower North Carolina, presented to the State, and published by order of the Legislature, remarks in reference to the region embracing the lands of the Literary Board: “All my observations of this great and remarkable agricultural region have brought me to believe that I have not known or heard of any other comparable to it in value.”ADVANTAGES OF THESE LANDS FOR GRAZING, &C.
The natural pastures are perennial. The open bottom lands bear reeds in great quantity and which afford abundant and excellent food for cattle through winter and summer.
For cattle grazing and sheep husbandry Texas only exceeds it in extent of range; but for raising hogs and fattening them almost without feeding, this portion of the State is greatly and justly valued.—Gen. Gwynn's Report of 1867.
In one respect this region differs from others further from the sea. There is no difficulty in the cultivation of the grasses. It is evident the climate is more humid, and the sea breezes moderate the heat sufficiently in summer to favor the development of this family of plants.
There is no doubt, also, that if the attention of planters was turned to the cultivation of grasses, greater profits might be realized than from the cultivation of maize. It is less expensive, and as hay bears a high price in all parts of the State, there can be no doubt that the profits which would arise from hay-making would considerably exceed those of corn.
The green surface of the shores of the lakes, the yards of the houses, and the small pasturages, sustain this view.—Dr. Emmons.
Mr. Edmund Ruffin says: “Oats, and especially hay, would be good crops for this humid climate and soil. . . . There is no better country for grasses east of the mountains. In small lots, I saw dry meadows of orchard grass and clover that would have been deemed good in the best grass districts. The lands are populated by an industrious and thriving people, who entertain no doubt of their occupying the richest land in the world—in which opinion they are not far wrong.”FACILITIES FOR GETTING TO MARKET.
In addition to the peculiar adaptation for agricultural improvement and profit in the land itself, no known region possesses such great facilities for navigation and for choice of markets.
Such great and numerous natural facilities for navigation, as are found in the rivers and canals of this region, are unequalled; and they are excelled by the aid of art only in the canal navigation of the Dutch Netherlands.—Gen. Gwynn's Report in 1867.FISH AND FISHERIES OF Eastern North Carolina.
The abundance, variety and excellence of the fish in the waters of this region are unsurpassed by the same extent in any part of the Atlantic border.
The herring and shad of Croatan and Albemarle Sounds and Chowan river, are proverbially superior in the Southern markets. . . . The seines used in the different fisheries vary in length from 2200 to 2700 yards, and are eighteen feet deep as fished. They are laid out about a mile and a quarter from the shore. Mr. Ruffin says the seine at Stevenson's Point once brought 220,000 herrings at one haul. Terrapin and turtle also abound in great plenty.—Gen. Gwynn's Report in 1867.
It is wholly unnecessary to multiply proofs of a resource so universally known and acknowledged.GAME.
Only one illustration will be given of the abundance of profitable game in Eastern North Carolina. It is from the pen of the late Edmund Ruffin, of Virginia, venerable, when he wrote, for years, for scientific knowledge, and for his long and useful devotion to the cause of agricultural improvement.
His statements may seem remarkable to any but those familiar with the region referred to; but this proves only the want of general information in regard to the resources of one of the most interesting countries of the world.
He says: “Nor is game less abundant. Its extent is scarcely known by any one out of this region. * * * * * *
There are ducks of various kinds, of which the canvas back is the most esteemed. There are also wild geese and swans. Altogether, they congregate in numbers exceeding all conception of any person who has not
been informed. They are often so numerous as entirely to cover acres of the surface of the water, so that observers from the beach would only see ducks and no water between them. These great collections are termed ‘rafts.’ The shooting season commences in autumn and continues through the winter. The returns in game killed and secured, through any certain time to a skillful, and patient, and enduring gunner, are as sure as the profits of any ordinary labor of agriculture and trade, and far larger profits for the capital and labor employed. Hunters from the eastern cities make it very profitable in taking game from that point to New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, during winter. The following particular facts I learned from the personal knowledge of a highly respectable gentleman proprietor on the sound. The shooting, (as a business,) on his shores is done only by gunners hired by himself, and for his own profit, and who are paid a fixed price for every fowl delivered to him, according to its kind, from the smallest or least prized species of ducks, to the rare and highly valued swan. He has employed thirty gunners through a winter. He provides and charges for all the ammunition they require, which they pay for out of their wages. In this manner, he is obliged to know accurately how much ammunition he gives out; and it may be presumed that the gunners do not waste it unnecessarily at their own expense. In this manner, and for his own gunners and his own premises only, in one winter, he used more than a ton of gunpowder, and shot in proportion, which was more than four tons, and forty-six thousand percussion caps.
From this expenditure along the shore of one large farm only, there may be some faint conception of the immensity of the operations and the results along the shores extending for full one hundred and fifty miles, and on all of which the same business is regularly pursued.LETTER FROM MR. RISLEY.
Mr. H. W. Risley, who went to inspect these lands, to ascertain their availability for immediate settlement, after making an extended report on the lands, etc., writes from Augusta, Georgia, as follows:
.....The more I see of the country and compare the different sections, the more I am satisfied that the qualities of the soil, the prospective advantages of location, and the easy terms of payment, accessibility to market, health, climate, etc., render it altogether exceedingly desirable, and the more that go there together of the right sort, the sooner, the better.
I must refer you to my former letters for many particulars and suggestions which should be heeded and studied to understand what is wanted, and avoid mistakes and disappointments. I have no doubt, with industry, enterprise, and a sufficient population this whole tract of land can be rendered worth from $25 to $50 per acre in a few years.
Very truly Yours,
H. W. RISLEY.
Late of Harrall, Risley & Co., Druggists, N. Y.From the “Brooklyn Advocate.”
We take pleasure in presenting to our numerous readers for perusal a letter from Mr. Risley, who is authorized to prospect for lands on which to form a settlement. To those desirous of bettering their condition, we think this project the means by which to obtain the same.
Washington, N. C., Jan. 5, 1870.
Gents:—After much delay in getting off, and hindrance after starting, I reached the “Promised Land” a few days since, and after spending a day on it, and several days about the country, and seeing it with my own eyes, I am gratified in being able to report, and only regret my inability to describe the advantages which that land possesses for agricultural purposes, over any wild land in a primeval state I ever saw. A large portion of it is like the Western prairies, or a garden, with very little labor, ready to plant. The soil is from two to fifteen feet deep, on a clay subsoil.
The whole of this tract was once densely wooded, and has been burnt over yearly, since the memory of the oldest inhabitant of the neighborhood. It is surrounded with pine, juniper, cypress, and other timber, and on two sides, within two or three miles of the canal, and at the end of the canal, it is all wood, and lumber can be had in abundance, and very convenient. A large portion of the land is covered with reeds and a heavy, natural grass, like a vast prairie, no timber on it.
There are men here owning from five hundred to ten thousand acres, having what a Northern man would call very poor buildings and improvements on them, and with from fifty to two hundred acres of it cleared, and part only of this cultivated, that they are now asking from $15 to $25 per acre, for the whole domain. Some of the better and smaller plantations before the war were valued at from $50 to $100 per acre. The whole of this section of country is level.
This country, since the war, is very poorly supplied with horses. A large portion of team work, plowing as well as hauling, is done with steers—not pairs of oxen—but work singly, in the rudest kind of a two-wheeled cart. I saw several of these vehicles loaded with “belles and beaux,” going several miles to a social party. The cattle of this section are all small, probably owing to the original breed never having been improved upon. Very little care is taken or required for stock of any kind. Cattle, and hogs, and sheep can get their own living the year round. Sheep, I am told, are abundant and cheap, selling from $1 to $1.50 per head, and cows from $10 to $15. Horses and mules have to be brought from the North or West. The better class, or those who are able, use buggies and Jersey wagons for riding and traveling, but for work about the farm, and transporting produce and materials, all use the horse or steercart.
If you can be instrumental in getting five hundred families to settle on this land in the course of a year or two, you will not only confer a great blessing upon them, for they can make a good living with one-third the labor required at the North, but if they are ambitious and industrious, they may own a farm and improvements worth $10,000 cash, in five years.
This point or neighborhood is very eligibly located for establishing a manufacturing, trading, and sea-port town or city, and as soon as there is population and enterprise to do it, there is territory sufficient of the best kind.
I believe these vacant lands are capable of supporting many thousands of families, and the more that come, and the sooner they come, the better for each. The more improvements that are made, the faster the land will increase in value.
Very truly Yours,
W. H. RISLEY.Another Letter from Mr. Risley.
Newbern, N. C., Jan. 7, 1870.
Gents:—I enclosed to you from Washington, N. C., yesterday, my report on the lands which I visited, and hope the facts stated will animate the members of the Colony to renewed efforts to encourage their friends and acquaintances to join, and make a large company of pioneers of the right sort, having the enterprise and ambition to benefit themselves and their families, with the moral character and energy to make a model community, whose success and whose influence will be felt for good throughout this
whole section. There are no poor-houses in this section, as they have no need of them. Probably from $500 to $1,000 would be sufficient to insure all success. Those who could command more money would find it to their interest to help some reliable friend who has less to join and come along with them, as the land is sure to be advanced in price; and the more that come as pioneers, the first year, will reap the greatest benefits. The first year they can prepare comfortable homes for their families by next Fall, and in a very short time, with perseverance and industry, they may each be the owner of a splendid farm, with improvements worth many thousand dollars. It is possible there may be more desirable locations, but from all I see or learn, the one selected or named in a previous letter seems to me to be superior on many accounts. In the first place, the land will require less labor to put in a crop than it would to break up an old meadow or pasture in the North, or New England. There are no stones—not even gravel to wear out tools—and then the location, although at present a little off the lines of public communication, a population will soon remedy this, and a population only is necessary to render these lands in great demand at ten or twenty times their present price; and then the geographical position is such that a population only is required to build up an important town in their immediate vicinity, and to have a new county, of which this locality will be the centre. The more I think of the great advantages of a good beginning, with as large a number as possible, the more I feel the importance of encouraging all the members to use their best influence to this end. It may be well to state that the laws of this state are very favorable to the interests of poor men, and especially of those who become unfortunate. The value of $1000 in real estate or homestead, and of $500 in personal property, are exempt by sale from execution.
H. W Risley.
Editor Christian Intelligencer:
Raleigh, N. C., Jan. 21, 1870.
Dear Sir:—The letters which you have published at various times, descriptive of the attractions of North Carolina for Northerners, have not by any means overstated the truth. This State presents a most inviting field for the capitalist, or for the farmer or artizan, having sufficient means to develop the land he may purchase, or the business he may establish. How cheap is the land, compared with many portions of the North, can be readily perceived from the following calculation: Land in New York, New Jersey, or Pennsylvania, which will yield under fair cultivation, a value of $50 per acre, is sold at from $100 to $300 per acre in those States. Land in North Carolina, which will produce $50 to $150 to the acre, can be purchased to-day at from $5 to $30 per acre. Thus, ten acres in the North, costing $1500, will produce, say $500. Ten acres in North Carolina, costing, say $150, will produce $500 to $1000, with the same cultivation and fertilizing. Now compare first cost of land in the two cases, and you will see the immense advantage North Carolina possesses over the North, supposing the products are equal; but in many instances the products per acre will be greater in North Carolina than in New York. A farmer, therefore, from 100 acres of good land in North Carolina, can raise a value of from $5000 to $10,000 cash, if in cotton and in peanuts, or Scuppernong grapes, etc., which it would require $10,000 to $16,000 as purchase money. But this is not all. The North Carolina farmer has a most delightful climate, every variety of productions, all kinds of timber, everything which grows at the North; besides, in some sections, articles of ready sale and constant demand, such as alluded to above; the advantage of a mild winter of six or eight weeks over a vigorous winter of from four to six months, renders the land here of more value for a residence and for working purposes than land at the North. Another superiority is,
that North Carolina has a central position between the Northern and the Southern markets, and can use the advantage of the early and late seasons of each section, as two crops a year can be raised here of a variety of productions. Farmers can plough ten or eleven months of the year.
Many old residents here are from the North, who came here to die, perchance, in a few weeks, but have prolonged their sojourn thirty or forty years, in good health. Rheumatism, neuralgia, asthma, and various pulmonary complaints are usually cured or greatly alleviated by this climate.
The people of North Carolina want thousands of Northern men and women to come and settle here. Lands are cheap because most owners have more than they can till under the present system of labor, and it needs only a large incoming of men of means and skill to raise landed property nearer to its real value. Northern farmers, and others, who neglect this opportunity, will not soon have it again. Even a year or two hence, with another good cotton crop or two, the prices will rise, necessity not compelling the owners to sacrifice their property as at present. What North Carolina now needs is Northern people to cultivate it in Northern style, and erect Northern style of houses. Twenty thousand such farmers as New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania could spare without missing them, would speedily place North Carolina in the front rank of States.
Theo. Bourne.Letter from F. N. Blackstone, one of the Pioneer Settlers, formerly a resident of 226 Powers St., Brooklyn, E. D.
Hyde Park Settlement, N. C.
April 5, 1870.
Dear Sir:—I arrived here on March 29, at 5 P. M., well and hearty. I find the land as represented, and, in fact, better, for it is much higher ground than I had supposed, being, at least twenty feet higher than at Leachville, the present head of navigation on Pungo River. The location is delightful, and, I believe, as healthy as anywhere on the Western plains. The soil is a rich, vegetable loam which, in my opinion, is the best land in the state for all kinds of farming. The water I consider equal, if not better, than the Croton, for I think a cup of the best coffee I ever drank was made from juniper (cedar) water, while camping on the lands.
The climate in winter is very mild, and peculiarly adapted to those suffering with pulmonary affections. On the whole, I am well pleased with the country, and would not sell my land for five times its cost. I do not see why every man who comes here should not be pleased with his investment, for if he comes with a will he can have as fine a home in three years as any farmer within a hundred miles of New York City.
Yours in haste,
F. N. BLACKSTONE.Extract of Letter from William Morrison, one of the First Settlers.
April 24, 1870.
Dear Father and Sisters:—Have been living in Capt. Barrett's boarding house for ten days, I have made fine progress in getting ready to put in my crops. My lumber will be on the ground in two days, when I will build my house, so when you receive this you may come as soon as you like. I know you will like this place. The longer I am here the more I like it. The land is the best I have ever seen, and the canal is as beautiful a stream as I ever saw, lined on both sides with trees, and running at the rate of three miles an hour. I do not know whether Maggie and
Jessie would like to come now, but if they were here I am sure they would like it. The most of them that are here are sending for their wives and families. The country all about is said to be very healthy. It is above tide water.
WILLIAM MORRISON.Letter from some of the First Settlers.
May 16, 1870.
To Officers Hyde Park Settlement Association, 432 Broome Street, New York.
Gents:—We are all located, and busily engaged in erecting buildings, putting in crops, etc. A goodly number of the settlers have their dwellings up, while others have them in the course of erection.
We are all well pleased with the country and location, and believe the land to be very rich and productive. We like the climate and water, both seem to agree with us very much, as we find increased appetites and health. Although we have been here but a few weeks, some of us have our crops up looking finely. We are fully satisfied and pleased with the country, climate, lands, etc.
We are glad to see that you are disposed to co-operate with us in all that tends to advance the interests and prosperity of the Settlement.
We want to see the Hyde Park Settlement dotted all over with neat cottages, the land all under cultivation, good roadways constructed, railways running into the Settlement, steamers plying regularly in the streams, and a goodly city built on the town plot which the Settlement have laid out, manufactures established, and all kinds of mechanical shops, stores, churches, and school-houses. We have all the natural facilities, and only need capital and energy vigorously applied to make this the garden spot of America.
David S. Horton, Alexander Steel,
W. Morrison, P. Mulhall,
Lawrence Hennessy. A. Hilbrandt,
Geo. Dixon, and others.Letter from S. M. Wood, Esq.
Southern Land Company, Claremont, New Hampshire, Aug. 10, 1870.
Gents:—Have just returned from a visit to the Hyde Park Settlement. Left my home in New Hampshire to visit the Settlement to ascertain for my own satisfaction, whether the glowing representations given by your company could be sustained by facts; and after spending two weeks on the lands and making a thorough investigation of the merits claimed and the surrounding country, I am free to acknowledge that I am agreeably disappointed in every particular. All your representations, as glowing as they were, fall short of the reality. It is without a question the finest country I ever was in—the finest tract of land I ever saw, and I am fully familiar with the garden portions of the great West, having owned lands in most of the Western States, and repeatedly traveled over them. Taking everything into account—richness, durability and productiveness of the soil, geniality and healthiness of climate, accessibility to market, etc., I never have yet found any section to compare with it.
I have bought for myself a farm in the Settlement, of one hundred acres, and propose to build for myself a nice house, and be ready the coming season to exhibit a model farm, and would like all my friends to become members of the Settlement.
In conclusion, I have only to say that if your plans, as proposed, are fully carried out, you will have the finest settlement on the American continent, and will receive, as you will richly deserve, the blessing of every member of the Settlement.
S. M. WOOD.Letter from Charles E. Hilbrandt, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Southern Land Company:
Gents:—Being one of the pioneers of the Hyde Park Settlement, I am often interrogated as to my opinion of the advantages presented by the Settlement. While at Hyde Park Settlement, I became familiar with the lands and surroundings, and for beauty of country and healthiness, I never have seen a country to equal it. One thing, however, must be borne in mind, like all new countries, it is no place for drones. Any one who goes to Hyde Park to work can in a very short time make for himself a good home, and become independent. If richness and productiveness of soil, healthiness of climate, and accessibility to market is the sum total of requirements, Hyde Park is the place for the settler.
CHARLES E. HILBRANDT.From the Rev. Mr. Clark.
To Editor Brooklyn Advocate:
Before leaving my home to visit Hyde Park, N. C., I promised my people that on my return I would give them a plain, correct, unvarnished account of what I saw, with my opinion of the future prospects of those who emigrate to that place, seeking homes for themselves and families; also, if the Hyde Park Company were misleading or deceiving the public, I promised to lift the veil, and let the light of truth shine on the whole question.
Permit me first to make a general reply in one sentence. The lands at Hyde Park are all that the proprietors represented them to be in their description to the writer. Yes, in many respects they are better than the representations.
To the emigrant who designs to seek and find a home for himself and family, four important points should be kept in view:
I. Is the soil productive? II. Is it easy of access? III. Is the location healthy? IV. Is the title good?
As a failure in either of the above questions lessens the value of the selected home of the pioneer, I will try and answer them, in the above order, in regard to the Hyde Park settlement.I.—is the soil productive?
I have visited Ilinois, Iowa, Michigan, and the different parts of Kansas; and, unless I am deceived, I should prefer the lands of Hyde Park, N. C., to a location in any of the above states. They are different in geological formation from western prairie land; but I can see no reason why they should not bear luxuriant crops of the choicest productions. I admit that the low vales of Kansas are as productive as any lands that I have ever seen. But the lands of Hyde Park are much easier broken than lands in the West; they have been burned oftener, and the soil is looser.
In Hyde Park, where the canes grow rank, it requires ploughing with a yoke of oxen for the first year; after that is once accomplished, one horse will be sufficient; and even cane land is not as severe as prairie land in
breaking. Judging from lands in the vicinity now cultivated, these lands will produce in abundance the following crops: corn, sweet-potatoes, cotton, hemp, oats, rice, tobacco, sorghum, broom-corn, hay of all kinds, garden vegetables of almost all kinds in fine qualities and full crops. Also, I can see no reason why apples, pears, peaches, plums, etc., cannot be raised in abundance. Figs grow in Leachville, six miles from there, and, of course, would grow at Hyde Park.
Grapes grow wild in the woods. The scuppernong produces well in the jungle, and, as a matter of course, would do better with culture. High blackberies and huckleberry bushes were plenty in certain localities, and covered with a plentiful crop just setting from the blossom. I am told that cranberries can be raised; but on this point I am not certain, as the soil is not sandy.II.—IS THE LOCATION GOOD?
Here, kind reader, comes in the reason why I prefer the lands of Hyde Park to the vales of Kansas. In Kansas corn sells for 15 to 25 cents per bushel; in Hyde Park it is $1 a bushel. It can be raised as well in Hyde Park as in Kansas. Steamboats of light draft can not only navigate the Pungo River to the canal, but, by putting one lock at the mouth of the canal, they can go to the rapids four miles. And when the colony fills up, and when Yankee enterprise and capital comes in—and come it will—they will find their way to the lake. Just think, kind reader, only a fine broad street between your door and the river, and the other side of that street goes the gentle iron horse, stopping like the street cars, at the bidding of the manager when you want a passage. One point more, and the honest truth is this, New York's early market in future must be supplied from fields farther south than Long Island and New Jersey. Diligent hands can make northern soil fertile; but no labor or care can make the season early; and, as Mrs. Partington says, it is the early bird that catches the worms. At Leachville I picked ripe strawberries May 8th, saw potatoes in full bloom the 13th, etc. With steamers running direct to the New York market, the farmer of enterprise and industry can hardly fail of success, especially if his soil is purely of a vegetable formation of the richest kind, that will need no dressing for the next 25 years, and perhaps never require it for ages to come.III.—IS THE LOCATION HEALTHY?
I verily believe that it is far more healthy in Hyde Park, than Brooklyn or New York cities. Among all the pioneers that have arrived. I have not heard of a single case of sickness, although the first pioneers suffered some hardships that did credit to the men and promised well for the future health of the colony. There are several things that combine to render a location healthy or sickly. Among the first in importance is the water. At Hyde Park the soil in many locations is very loose and spongy, the descent from the lake to the river is quite rapid, and the water leaches near the pan, so there is no stagnant water or fetid mephitic gases arising. The water is highly impregnated with the roots of juniper, which give it near the color of brandy, and is rather agreeable to the taste. It will doubtless answer for every purpose, unless it be for fine clothes in the laundry; on that I am not certain. But if needed, cisterns and filters can fit the water for any use. That I might be prepared to speak from positive knowledge on health, I visited the Pungo settlement, three miles from Pungo canal, and near the western boundary of these lands; there I found thirty-two families living in the most primitive style. Their mode of living could boast of greater antiquity than the days of John Carver and the Mayflower—I may safely make it in the days of Abraham. Their buckets were juniper stumps dug out and hung with a pole, with which they drew water from their wells. (Reader, I cannot describe them, but I have sent back to the settlement for one for exhibition). They had, as in the days of yore, wind doors, glass being too expensive a luxury or too modern for
their use, and probably they were as innocent of squandering money on libraries as they would have been if the art of printing had not been invented. But they had one great blessing, almost continual health; some few cases of fever and ague had been known, those very seldom and of the mildest form. Pure juniper water and pure air kept them in health. Cases of longevity of life and green old age, were very common among them, knowing but little of the busy, bustling, grasping, outside world. Continual health gave no calls for physicians, and they have no money to tempt the avarice of lawyers, and as the missionary preaches without fee or reward, they seem to enjoy a comfortable quietude together. They have probably married cousins, until neither Benjamin Franklin, nor Daniel Webster, if they were called back to earth, could tell with all their knowledge of both worlds, what the relationship in many cases now is. Yet after all, perhaps they have more real enjoyment of life and peace of mind, than Wall Street or Fifth Avenue does or can afford. The want of energy and enterprise were plainly visible everywhere—they are living in poverty and surrounded by the most abundant means of wealth on every side;—but a change is at hand and brighter days are before them. They will be a benefit to the Colony, and the Colony a still greater benefit to them. With a fertile soil and a location with the air as soft and mild as the fair plains of Italy, only give them energy and the change is wrought, and the point gained. By the Church, School House, and the labor-saving machinery of the North before their eyes, they can but improve by degrees. They seemed free from prejudice, giving a cordial welcome to the stranger, ready to sell or loan anything they had.IV.—IS THE TITLE GOOD?
I reply in one sentence, after a thorough examination, I am fully satisfied that it is entirely reliable and perfectly sound.
The lands are held by the proprietors, by direct purchase of the Educational Board of North Carolina and the sale ratified by the State Legislature at its last session. The Company have ample means to meet all obligations. They are gentlemen of honor, and deserve, and have, the entire confidence of the public where they are known.
What I write is entirely gratutious on my part. The Company are ignorant of my views on any point that I have written, not being their agent, and having no interest only as I purchase lands.
I shall probably deliver a lecture on Hyde Park when I arrive in my chapel; by the aid of an outline map drawn by myself, I hope, to satisfy enquirers on location, etc., etc.
My next communication will be—“Advice to the Settler.”
WILLIAM C. CLARK,
Pastor of Myrtle St. Church,
Brooklyn, E. D.
Hampton Roads, Va., May 17th, 1870.
We are fellow-passengers with the Rev. Mr. Clark, returning from Hyde Park on the schooner, “Hattie Lou,” after our families, to take them to that Eden of the world, and most fully subscribe to his views as given above, as reliable and correct; and we take pleasure in fully endorsing the same.
T. S. BISHOP,
B. H. HOLTON,
Fair Haven, Conn.
Hampton Roads, Va., May 17th, 1870.
Having visited the settlement, and read the above statements of Mr. Clark, I consider his conclusions in regard to Hyde Park settlement to be sound and correct, and I fully endorse the same.
Captain of the “Hattie Lou.”ADVICE TO SETTLERS.
Hyde Park is no place for the Idler. Immigration means work. Drones in the hive are not wanted, and will not stay if they go. Let me kindly say to such,—stay at home.
Steady, industrious citizens who want to earn an honest living, and are willing both to work and fare hard the first year, with the bright prospect of future independence before them, will do well. Such men, with the blessing of God, will see permanent prosperity. They will own their houses, where the wolf of poverty cannot look in at the window. That animal cannot walk across the fields of Hyde Park, when those fields are owned and tilled by Northern men who are willing to work eight hours in twenty-four.
Remember, the first year, as hinted before, is the tug of war. Houses to build, land to break ditching and fencing to be done. After that comes clear skies, clam seas, and manly independence.
Take with you sufficient provisions to last until the first crop is gathered.
Corn-meal, honey, mutton, beef, and eggs, can be bought cheaper there than in New York.
Oxen for work, can be had for $25 or $30 each. Cows (such as they are) for from $10 to $20 per head.
But, when it come to hardware, groceries, and dry-goods, take your supplies with you.
You will find gentlemanly and kind agents ready to assist you, by showing lines and giving advice.
All is done that men can do to aid the settler in his new home.
But, will not some men come back, like the companion of Bunyan's Pilgrim, saying, “I've had enough of your fine country.” Of that point I cannot judge at this state of affairs, but presume such will not be wanting.
For, if the Garden of Eden was reconstructed on Long Island, with its flowing rivers, blooming bowers, rich fruits, soft breezes, and the Tree of Life, with access free, men would not be wanting who would leave in disgust, if like Adam they must keep and dress the Garden. And strong would be their aversion to staying, if the common and refined—yes, gilded rices of this fast and dangerous age were not to be enjoyed therein. Such men come back from the California mines and Kansas plains, saying there is a lion in the way. I beg of such lazy louts not to go to Hyde Park; for, when they have consumed what their friends have given them to get them out of sight, they will bless home with their presence again. But, before the man of real worth, there is the star of hope to lead his every step. True; for the first year, the cloud looks rather dark and severe, but the silver lining reflects a glorious light on the hope of the future.
With your energy and decision, take with you every dollar you can control; you will need funds for success. The immigrant should not go poor, it retards his rising at once to successful independence.
For the present, I would not advise men to take their families with them They can be sent to them when suitable preparations are made. We need the cheering light of their presence, but it is asking rather too much of a lady who has known the comforts of a home, to take the rough side of life and turn all the sharp angles that are in the pioneer's path. But, if they
have the courage to try it, all right. When ladies make up their minds to face any storm and finish the voyage before them, generally they succeed. I saw ladies in the West that had known the luxuries of refined life in the older States, living in houses 12×14 without floors, with the castors of their pianos sitting on four chips to keep them above the soil, yet these ladies seemed hopeful and happy. They were willing to face and calmly meet the asperities of life, when they could see a bright side to the future. They now reap the rich reward of independence, and are above the grasp of the iron hand of want. Now, reader, if you can do likewise, you will do for a pioneer to Hyde County; if not, stay at home and be governed by landlords, and remain poor.
W. C. CLARK.
An examination of the above testimony, with regard to the lands offered for settlement, we think will satisfy any reflecting mind—all wishing to seek new homes, to better their condition—that we offer better inducements than can possibly be found in any other direction.
In conclusion it may be added that not the least advantage of this section of North Carolina is, that it is a part of a State which contains a greater variety of scenery and productions than any other in America.
In the State of North Carolina, and in this alone, can be profitably produced every staple, agricultural, mineral and mechanical, of the American Union; and there is the best authority for asserting that the world presents no more inviting field for industrious settlers.
Any further information desired will be cheerfully given by addressing or applying at the office of the
SOUTHERN LAND COMPANY, 432 Broome Street, New York.
NEW ENGLAND OFFICE, 18 State St., Boston, Mass.
THO'S H. DUNHAM, Special Agent. J. P. SNOW, Manager.
FACTS FOR THE PEOPLE.
No State in the Union presents better or more available opportunities for the purposes of agriculture or manufacturing than North Carolina.
No fact is better known than that North Carolina has been for many years shut out from the observation and opportunities of its appreciation. The value of these lands, as before stated, are without comparison, among the very best to be found upon the American Continent, and we have no hesitation in saying to those seeking new and permanent homes, and who are disposed to avail themselves of this brilliant opportunity, that they will not be disappointed.
The lands selected for the Hyde Park Settlement possess natural advantages over any other portion of the State, and are specially noted for
Richness and Durability of Soil;
Ease with which the Soil can be Cultivated;
Luxuriance and Variety of Productions;
Accessibility to Market;
Geniality and Healthiness of Climate;
Elegance of its Natural Scenery;
Beauty and Utility of its Lakes, Rivers, and Canals;
Grandeur of its Forests;
Value of its Timber.
The low price of the lands, and the extra liberal terms offered, will enable every man of moderate means to become the owner of an elegant farm.
Eastern North Carolina. Natural Advantages.
North Carolina is conspicuous among the States of the Atlantic seaboard for advantages of position calculated to develop every feature of its natural wealth. Whatever it may produce through its fertility of soil, or its abundant growth of timber, is within easy reach of the best markets, and can be forwarded by the cheapest modes of transportation, without such risk of loss or waste as is inevitable in attempting to own, hold, or work productive property in the Western States.
North Carolina holds a position of equal advantage as regards its climate. It has that better phase of the temperate climates belonging in Europe to Italy and to Spain, giving it the capacity to produce half tropical products, while it is still exempt from tropical unhealthiness, and from the excess of heat or of moisture belonging to the Gulf Coast of the United States. Cotton is abundantly grown over nearly half the surface of the State, and the low country of the southeastern part is as rich in productions of the warm climates as any part of the coast south of it; yet all parts of even this low country are conspicuously healthy. The climate, in fact, really merges the almost tropical southeastern coast, with the Italian softness of the interior, and the temperate freshness of the mountains and the west. No other State of the Union has so great diversity, nor has any considerable diversity within such easy reach by ready means of communication.
Geographically, therefore, North Carolina is a half-way house for the Seaboard States, at any point of which the business man and business enterprises of the East are practically at home. Transportation of cotton, grain, lumber, fruits and vegetables is much easier to Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York, than from Cincinnati, Cleveland and Buffalo. The sailing vessels and steamer lines of the Atlantic Coast offer cheap and prompt transportation, and bring the whole much nearer to New York than Central Ohio is. This fact alone should concentrate attention on the natural wealth of the State, but when we add to it the difference of climate, which is as if the spring were to open nearly three months earlier, and fruits were to ripen in Ohio when they were blossoming in New York, we have a new value given to the productive lands, which it is reasonable to estimate at twice what they would otherwise be worth.
Eastern Carolina, for its geographical position, its climate, and its intrinsic capacity for production, possesses advantages over any other section of the country.