Handbook for Pitt County teachers. 1916-1917


"The only available measure of the
success of the work done in any par
ticular school is to be found in the
changes which are brought about in
boys and girls, young men and young
women, during the period of their
school life."


To Pitt County Teachers:

This handbook is prepared in the hope that it may be of some distinct service to you, and, though you, to the children of the county. Please study it carefully. It contains many important suggestions and announcements, most of which will not be repeated. A careful reading of it may save you trouble and inconvenience. Teachers will be held responsible for all information contained herein.

I welcome you to your work in the county, and sincerely trust that this may be a good year for all connected with the school work of the county. Please feel free to call on me for any help in my power I shall visit your school as soon and as often as possible, but the affairs demanding the attention of the superintendent in a large county like this one are so multitudinous that I cannot get around as often as I would like. There are about 150 other white teachers be sides yourself and 83 other white schools besides yours, to say nothing of an endless amount of office work. I shall visit you as often as I can, and shall be glad for you to write me freely about any matter that I may be able to help you with. I shall be glad to see you in my office any Saturday from nine to four-thirty. At teachers’ meetings, I shall be glad to confer with you about your problems, if there is time.

Again let me urge you to read this handbook carefully, and carry out all its suggestions.

May this be a good year for all of us—and for the children, who are the chief parties interested.

Faithfully yours,


County Superintendent.


Study carefully the Course of Study and the list of text-books prescribed for use in the public schools of the state. Use these books, and only these. Any other course is a violation of the state law. The superintendent was very much surprised in his visitation last year to find a few teachers using books that were discarded long ago. A teacher above all other persons ought to be law-abiding. Aside from the legal aspect of the case, we may believe that these books were selected by the State Text-book Commission because they were believed to be the best books for North Carolina schools. Shall we put our individual judgment up against that of the Text books Commission?

The changes made by the State Text book Commission do not go into effect until June 1, 1917. Please bear this in mind. There will be comparatively few changes even then.

The books recommended for supplemental use may be used at any time. Frye's Home Geography was recommended by the Commission for use in the third grade, to preceede Dodge's Primary Geography. I strongly urge the use of this book. It will enable your children to come to the study of the regular text very much better prepared.

The Aldine Language Course, First Book is another very valuable text for preliminary work in the third grade.

I am very anxious this year to see more attention paid to hygiene and sanitation and agriculture. Our schools are in a farming section; we teach boys and girls who live on farms. We ought by all means to make some effort to teach them something about the things around them. I shall expect every sixth grade class this year to begin the study of the adopted text in agriculture, with as much outside work as possible. We must teach sanitation too—and practice it.

In this connection. I wish to call especial attention to Brooks’ Story of Cotton, on the supplementary list for the seventh grade. It is splendid supplemental material for geography and history and it makes an admirable reader. I want to see a large number of classes using this book.


1. Pages 3 to 15 of the blank contain space for names of children between ages of 6 and 21. List parents’ name in first column, arranged alphabetically, with post office. Then give names of children. Put age of each child in proper column, and indicate whether male or female by a cross in the proper column.

2. On pages 16 to 22 list names of children from 8 to 12, (eight or

over and under twelve.) These names are listed once in names of those from 6 to 21 and again here.

3. On pages 23 to 25 list the names of all persons in the school district, male and female, over 21 years of age, who cannot read and write.

Pages 26, 27 and 28 contain space for listing Backward, Feeble Minded, and Idiot Children. Make this enquiry in a tactful way from members of the committee, or some one who can give the information for the whole community.

4. On page 29 list the names of blind children in the district, and on page 30 the names of deaf and dumb children. This is VERY important.

5. On page 31. list names of children from 12 to 21 who cannot read and write.

6. On the first page fill out township, district number, race and county, and give all the information asked for in the summary. This is very important. If you do not know the value of the school property, estimate it to the best of your ability, or ask the committee to do so. Fill in every blank on this page.

7. Sign the statement on the last page, date it, and if convenient, swear to it.

8. Be sure to get an accurate census this time. If you do not know where your district lines run, find out, or be sure to take name of every child who is supposed to go to your school, even if he goes to another school. Take names of all between six and twenty-one, even if they have finished school.

9. Be sure this census is taken before school begins. Have blanks filled out accurately and neatly. The teacher must keep one copy and send one to the county superintendent. These must be furnished before school begins. No voucher can be signed until the census is in.

10. The Board of Education asks that the teacher take the census, using one or two days before the opening of school for this purpose, and for the purpose of visiting all the homes and getting acquainted with parents and pupils. She will be allowed one dollar per day for this, for not more than two days. Do not add this to your salary voucher. Send a bill to the county superintendent, and he will send you an order for the money. It will be taken from the general fund, and not from the district fund. If there is more than one teacher, the principal may do this work, or the teachers may do it together. The County Suprintendnt will look to the principal to see that it is done.

Blanks will be found in the supplies furnished teachers.

Use pen and ink, and do the work neatly.


From the very beginning of the year, take care to see that the school register is properly and neatly kept. All work should be done with pen and ink. Study the explanations given on page 3. Note espectially the following directions:

1. The school census must be copied in the register.

2. The teachers’ contract must be copied.

3. The pupils should be enrolled alphabetically, surnames first. Age and sex must be indicated and names of parents given.

4. The child's record must show when he entered school, each day absent, when he left school, days present and times tardy during each month and for the whole year, and the grade he is in; also the grade he is promoted to.

5. In the first of the book, the progress made by each grade as a whole must be given.

6. In the “School Attendance Blank” must be set forth the information asked for.

7. Just after the roll, certain statistical information must be given for each month and for the year.

8. Following this, there must be a report of the enrollment by grades and the number of pupils sturying the various branches.

9. The last thing in the register is the most important “Yearly Summary of Each Pupil.” This information must be given for every pupil whose name has appeared on the roll at any time during the year. This is very important Be sure to name the text studied and the page reached. This must be a full report on every child. Do not omit anything.

Unlike the reports, a separate register will be kept by each teacher. Keep this correct from the beginning. Mistakes or omissions will delay your last salary voucher.

You will be given at the beginning of your work the register for last year. Return them both at the end of the year. This will be the permanent record for your school. Keep it correctly.


The following reports are required of teachers in Pitt County:

1. On Friday afternoon of the first week mail the postal card giving the attendance for each day of the week, with the number on the census. If you do not have this card, send for it at once.

2. At the end of each month, make a report on blank furnished by the superintendent, to the county superintendent and to the chairman of the local committee. This report shows facts as to census, enrollment and attendance. Every blank must be filled.

3. Monthly report to attendance officer. (Reports to attendance officer will be discussed under separate head.)

5. Final report to county superintendent at end of term.

These reports must be promptly and accurately made out, with pen and ink No vouchers will be signed until reports are in. If salary voucher comes in before report is in the hands of the superintendent, he will be compelled to hold it until report is received.

Take especial care with monthly report. Write all fractions as decimals, carried to three places. To get the average daily attendance for the month, divide the aggregate daily attendance by the number of days taught. Fill in all the blanks on this report blank.

In schools with more than one teacher, the principal will make reports for the whole school. (For convenience, each teacher will keep a separate register.)

Cards for pupils’ monthly reports will be furnished from the county superintendent's office. Parents have a right to know what their children are doing in school, and these cards are supplied for this purpose. Use them regularly. If for any reason you have not been furnished with the cards, write for them at once, letting the superintendent know how many you need.


The period for the enforcement of the cumpulsory attendance law begins in Pitt county with the first Monday in December, and continues, of course, for four months. During this time, every child between the ages of eight and twelve must be in school unless he has a legal excuse. Read the law carefully for a list of these excuses. Read especially sections 5 and 6 of the law, for the teacher's part in its enforcement.

This is a wise law, and is made to be enforced, of course. Last year it increased the attendance on North Carolina schools about ten per cent. Still, most of us will agree that it is better to get the children in school without having to fall back upon the law. By wise and tactful work, the teacher herself can get most of the children in school and keep them there. Let me urge that the teachers exhaust all of their personal resources before calling the attendance officer into the case. May I make some suggestions along this line? While some of them may not be the exact letter of the law, they are certainly carrying out the spirit.

Make an effort to get all the children between eihgt and twelve in school before the beginning of the compulsory period. Show them and their parents the advantage of beginning at the first of the session. Make them acquainted with the provisions of the law discuss it with them frankly, but show them that you want the children in

school for the good that they can get, and not simply because the law says they shall be there, but that the law is in existence and must be obeyed. Near the close of the week before the first Monday in December, go carefully over the census and make a list of those who come within the provisions of the law who are not in school. Go to see them and their parents again, and make a final effort to get them in. Exhaust persuasion before trying compulsion.

But we will imagine that the end of the first week of the attendance period has come, and John Jones is still not in school. The law says that the teacher shall serve a written or printed notice upon John Jones’ parents, and shall file a copy of the notice with the attendance officer immediately; and that if the parent does not render a satisfactory excuse, the name of the child and of his parents shall be reported to the attendance officer immediately. Frankly, I should serve this first notice on the parent without sending a copy to the attendance officer, letting the parent know that this was my final effort to secure the desired result and that next time I would report the matter to the attendance officer. I think this can be done without violating the spirit of the law. If this failed, I should let the law take its course next time. In that case, the course of procedure would be as follows:

1. At the eve of each week serve notice on the parents, sending a copy to the attendance officer.

2. Report to the attendance officer the names of all persons failing to render satisfactory legal excuse.

3. On or before the fourth Monday in the calendar month, report to the attendance officer and to the county superintendent the names of children who have been absent during the month without legal excuse, the number of absences for each child, and the name of his parent or guardian.

4. It is then the duty of the attendance officer to notify such parent or guardians to meet him at some designated place in the township on the following Saturday for the purpose of explaining the cause of absences. It is then his duty to prosecute those who fail to render legal excuse.

Necessary blanks and names of the attendance officers for each township will be furnished teachers before the beginning of the compulsory attendance period.


The school should have on hand an ample supply of satisfactory fuel before cold weather begins. Take this matter up with your committee and patrons early. Have the wood hauled to the school

and cut before the actual need begins. Otherwise, you and the children may be greatly inconvenienced. I believe, too, that in every district in the county this could be done without cost to the school if somebody would handle the situation right. Get your people interested, let everybody chip in and help, and get in the winter supply of wood without having to draw on the school fund. Guard that school fund as something sacred. Let every cent possible go into the actual work of the school.


Sanitary dustless crayon and erasers will be furnished this year by the Board of Education, without cost to the individual school, provided the teacher will send some one to the superintendent's office for it. Black boards will be kept on hand and delivered at actual cost. I wish every school in the county could be supplied with maps and globes. Quite a number of live and energetic teachers last year got these things for their schools by their own efforts aided by the children and their parents. Money for school supplies is easy to raise. Won't you have the enthusiasm and interest in your children to make the effort this year? I shall hope to have the pleasure of ordering numbers of maps and globes this fall.


School teachers in Pitt county are expected to “stay on the job.” Saturday and Sunday may very often be the most useful days of the week. The writer confesses to a poor opinion of the policy of spending Saturday and Sunday out of the community. These days may be made exceedingly fruitful in visiting, looking after absentees, etc., and in working in church and Sunday school.

Be a seven-day teacher!


It is possible for Pitt county this year to secure at least six original and six supplemental rural school libraries. See pages 48 to 51 of School Law for method of securing, and let us see which school will be the first to secure one. Nothing will enrich your school more. If the school has a library, be sure that there is a record book properly kept. If you can't find the record book that should be there, ask the county superintendent for another one. And if you have a library, encourage a liberal use of the books. They are put there for use, not for ornamentation.


We wish this year to make especial effort along these lines:

1. Water Supply.

2. Sanitary Privies.

3. Painting unpainted houses.

Every school in the county should be supplied with a pump, driven a sufficient depth to secure a wholesome water supply. If there is no pump, the general fund will bear half the expense of sinking one.

The general fund will also bear half the expense of building sanitary privies, provided they are built according to plans furnished by the county health officer.

In order to stimulate the painting of unpainted houses, the Board of Education will pay for the paint for any unpainted house if the people of the community will have it put on without expense to the school fund. Paint to be bought by the Board and not by the local committee.

In this connection, too, we urge the use of individual drinking cups. These can be had cheaply, and you should urge your pupils to secure them. If the situation is handled tactfully, that source of disease, the common drinking cup, may be banished from the schools of the county. We shall ask each of the book depositories in the county to lay in a supply of these cups.


You can do a great deal for the women of your community, for the school, and for yourself, by organizing the women into a Mothers’ Club, meeting regularly at the school building for social intercourse and for a discussion of school and home problems. They can help you, and you can help them. It would be a splendid thing to have such an organization in every school district in the county.


This ought to be a year of consolidation and voting of special school taxes in Pitt County. We have too many small, languishing schools. Our districts should be made larger by a judicious consolidation, so that the district may have more money, more teachers, more pupils, and more vigorous and effective work. Effective classification and effective teaching cannot be had in the one-teacher school. Let our aim be at least a two-teacher school in reach of every child in the county.


We are paying careful attention this year to the matter of teachers’

contracts. If by any chance, you have not received contract blanks, apply for them at once. Remember that you must hafe one conpy, and one copy must be filed in the office of the county superintendent.


Teachers should have their own copies of the books they are to tealh, and use these books in preparing and teaching the lesson. They will cost something, but they will more than pay for themselves in increased efficienry.


What constitutes a school day? The law says six hours. This is understood to mean exclusive of the noon recess, but inclusive of the other recesses. Every conscientious teacher will find plenty of work to use up the whole day. It is a dangerous practice to rush the lessons through and close school before the regular closing hour. The committee and the community will feel, and feel rightly, that the children are entitled to all the attention that the teacher can give them. They notice and condemn, and rightly so, the inclination to hurry the children home in order that the teacher may do something else.

Then too, the teacher should not be in too great a hurry to leave the building. She should stay on the premises until everything is in readiness for the next day's work and the children have gone. She should see that the building is thoroughly cleaned, and securely fastened before leaving.

Two recesses must be given, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. (Children in primary grades may have more than this, if the teacher desires and can arrange it.) At recess, the teacher must be out of doors with the children, except in bad weather, when both will remain in the house, of course. Children must not be “kept in” at recess. Both children and teacher need the relaxation that the recess affords. The teacher needs to be outside, supervising and directing the games of the children. Some of her most valuable work is done here. Make this an invariable rule: “Everybody out-of-doors at recess.”


A considerable amount of money was added to the different districts last year by various voluntary community activities. We should make even a better showing this year. The teacher must be the leader in this work. All of our schools need more money.

There is hardly a community in the county where the fund cannot be materially increased by popular subscriptions, entertainments, box parties, etc., if the teacher will take hold and make a definite effort. Every cent raised this way goes into the local fund, and it is easy money to raise. Pictures, desks, books, window shades, maps, globes, blackboards, or any necessary equipment may be bought, or the school term lengthened.

All money raised in this way should be deposited with the county treasurer, to the credit of the district, and paid out by voucher. In this way there is a record of the whole transaction. The teacher and the committee have absolute control of the spending of the money, but it ought to go through the treasurer's hand. This is the only business-like way.

In planning affairs of this kind, the committee should be consulted and their co-operation secured. It is bad policy to start enterprises of this kind without enlisting the support of the committee.


Meet regularly with your local committee at least once a month at the school house. Go over with them your plans and your needs. Let them know what you are doing, and enlist their support. Knowledge begets interest. Insist on this meeting. Present your report regularly at this time, and go over all affairs of the school with them.


The only holidays recognized by the Board of Education are Thanksgiving Day and either Good Friday or Easter Monday. In the case of teachers’ attending the meeting of the Teachers’ Assembly at Thanksgiving, two days will be allowed. The schools outside of special tax district will be allowed to close for one week only at Christmas. This time, of course, will be made up. Definite announcement as to the exact dates within which this week may be taken will be made later, but only one week may be taken, except in the case of special tax districts. In these districts the committee may fix the time for the Christmas vacation, not to exceed two weeks.

Please remember that these regulations are made by the Board of Education and no one else has authority to change them. They are made for good and sufficient reasons, and must be complied with.

Teachers are cautioned against dismissing school for any day or part of a day, expecting to make the time up. This will be allowed

only in case of sickness or other absolutely unavoidable cause, which cause must be passed on by the county superintendent.


The writer has an idea that in some of the schools employing more than one teacher in the past, there has not been the co-operation among the teachers that there should have been. It is earnestly hoped that this will not be true this year. Petty jealousies have no place in the make-up of a real teacher. We are all engaged in the same work, and it is a valuable work, calling for all that is highest and best in us. We cannot succeed if we are not ourselves united.

In this connection, it may be said that in these schools the school is the unit, and not the separate rooms or teachers. The principal is the official head of the school, and is responsible to the committee and the Board of Education. She makes the required reports; of course, the other teachers report to her. They should all work together freely and cheerfully.


If by any chance you have overlooked arranging for your certificate, do so at once. The mere fact that you have a certificate from another county is worth nothing if it has not been endorsed for this county. And a Pitt county certificate is worth nothing if it is out of date. Better look after this in time. If your certificate is not in force and recorded in the office of the county superintendent, he cannot, and will not, sign your salary voucher.


If you would be an efficient teacher, keep the most of your evenings free for preparation and self-culture. The teacher owes it to herself and to her school to have some relaxation and social enjoyment, of course. She also owes it to herself and her school to keep her work constantly in hand. Do not yield to the inclination to give too much of your time to social enjoyments. All things in moderation. The old-fashioned rule of having no company during the school week is a good one.


Bear in mind that the law defines the elementary school as the first seven grades. No high school subjects may be tought in one-teacher schools, and in two-teacher schools only after ample provision has been made for the pupils of the elementary grades. The reasons for this are apparent, and this law must be obeyed. No

committee has the right to require high suhool work in a one-teacher school, and no teacher has the right to give it. If you have been doing this, stop right now. The law is your authority, and none of us can change this law.

The County Supesintendent has been surprised to find this law occasionally violated. There must be no violation this year.


Some teachers have the idea that they may dismiss school for a day or so at any time, provided the day is made up. A moment's reflection will show that time lost in this way can never really be made up. It is not simply a question of making a certain number of days, it is a question of work really accomplished. If you see that it is going to be necessary to lose a day, at least do the county superintendent the courtesy to take it up with him in advance. Do not leave him to stumble upon the information accidentally. And certainly he should be consulted in the employment of substitute teachers. Of course in an emergency it may be impossible to consult him beforehand, but in such case he should be notified immediately thereafter. It would be better to close school for a day or two than to put in charge of it a person who is not prepared for it.


The superintendent in his visiting has noticed a great many school rooms with desks improperly arranged with reference to light. Practically all our school rooms have end and side light. The desks, of course, should be arranged so as to have the light come from the left and rear of the child. If they are not properly arranged, it should be the teacher's concern to make the correction. We cannot teach laws of hygiene which we violate ourselves, and allow to be violated in our school room.


Two valuable assistants in the educational work of the County are the Health Officer and the Farm Demonstration Agent. They will both visit the schools as often as possible and the teachers should make full use of their services. The health officer will inspect the physical surroundings under which the children work and examine the children themselves for physical defects. Give him your hearty co-operation. In the event of a case of contagious disease, notify him at Greenville and ask for instructions. Matters

of this kind come under his supervision. Write Dr. M. T. Edgerton, Jr., County Health Officer, Greenville, N. C.

Mr. B. Troy Ferguson, Greenville, N. C., is the farm demonstration agent. He will render valuable assistance in the organization and development of boys’ corn clubs, which are coming to be very valuable adjuncts to the work of the schools.

We want this to be a great year in the club work. Our enrollment in the county last year was nearly sixty as opposed to only eight the year before. Every school which has a boy between twelve and eighteen has an opportunity for this work. The fall is the proper time to begin talking with the boys about this highly important work. You could hardly do a boy a greater service than to get him really interested in this movement.


Teachers’ meetings will be held according to detailed announcements to be made later. One meeting of all the teachers will be held in Greenville in November, and another in the spring. The schools of the county will be divided into convenient groups and two meetings for each group will be held during the year. They will be held between the two general meetings, and will be on school days. Each group meeting will be held at some central school and the first part of the meetings will consist of an observation of the actual work of this school, followed by round table discussions. Teachers are expected to attend all these meetings unless providentially hindered. The renewal of certificates will be based partly on attendance on these meetings. The teachers will be notified in ample time, and the teachers are expected to make their plans to go. The matter is always called to the attention of the committeemen by the county superintendent in the beginning of the year, and they have always been glad to arrange for conveniences for their teachers.

In this connection, see Section 4140 of the School Law, which makes attendance on these township meetings obligatory.


Only first grade certificates can be renewed, and for only one year at the time. Renewal will be based on the teachers’ attitude toward her work, her attendance on the teachers’ meetings, and the reading of the books on the State Teachers’ Reading Circle. An examination will be required on the Reading Circle. This examination may be taken hereafter in March, and must be taken not later than the second Thursday in July. It must be passed with a grade

of at least 75. The right is reserved to require the regular county examination on any or all subjects of the course of study.

For conditions under which first grade certificates from other counties are endorsed, write the county superintendent, at Greenville. Only first grade certificates are endorsed.


Teachers in Pitt county are expected to make out a definite schedule of recitations, to be followed faithfully. Have one copy posted in the room, and send one copy to the county superintendent just as soon as it is completed, in no case waiting longer than the end of the first month. This is important, and must not be overlooked.


The most important task of the school, without a doubt, is to give the children the ability to read well. Poor work in every other subject follows inevitably poor work in reading. Be sure that this subject is given its full quota of time in all the grades. Be wise in your methods. Get some enthusiasm and feeling into the work. Know what you are doing, and do it well. Don't be satisfied with mere word-calling; let the children enter thoroughly into the feeling and spirit of what they read. This will call for wise planning on the part of the teachers.

There is not space here for a detailed discussion of the subject. Suffice it to say, as to method that we are no longer content with the “A. B. C.” method. Neither do we wish to be slaves to the phoentic, or any other method. We do believe, in Pitt county, in a wise use of the phonic method at the proper time. After the children have learned a few words by sight it is time to prepare them to increase their vocabulary by teaching them the phonic elements in the language. The ability to help themselves is what we want to give them. We can not do this by telling them all the words that occur in their reading—we must lead them to get most of these words for themselves, to be independent readers. Here is where phonics comes in. If parents object to this or other modern methods, remember that you are employed to teach the school because you are supposed to know about these things yourself. And you may be sure that if you show them results they will not find fault with your methods.


The old time Friday afternoon erercises had many valuable features and should be revived. Have a period for the children to “speak pieces,” read compositions, tell stories, have spelling

matches, etc. Invite the parents, and have the children to invite them. The county superintendent would be glad of an opportunity to speak to the people at occasions of this kind.

Let Friday afternoon be a kind of community rally day.


In some counties in this state, the school farm has come to be a very popular method of raising money for the school. The use of a piece of land near the school is secured from some friend of the school, the land prepared, and a crop cultivated by the larger boys of the school, the men of the community, and sometimes even the women. In Wake county the amount added to the local school funds in this way goes into the thousands. Why can not this be done in Pitt? Certainly the land can be secured, and there is hardly a man in the neighborhood that would not be willing to give a half day occasionally to this work. Who will be the first teacher to get this movement started? The money gained is not the only valuable feature of this movement. The fact that the people of the community are uniting their efforts in behalf of the school will be of untold benefit, in many ways.


Pitt county has made a very commendable beginning in the moonlight school work, but there is still much to be done. The last census credits us with six hundred male illiterates of voting age. Approximately one-sixth of them were reached during our first winter's work. There is still a great task ahead of us. Every teacher is pledged to undertake this work when conditions favor it. We are counting on you if there are adult illiterates in your community. The plan is to give three nights a week for four consecutive weeks to this work. We shall not insist on it, but simply put it on the consciences of the teachers. If you have some illiterates when you think you can reach, write for further suggestions.


North Carolina Education, published at Raleigh, is the State teachers’ journal, and a part of the Reading Circle. The price to teachers in clubs is fifty cents per year. Heretofore the county has paid half this for the teachers, but this arrangement will not be continued. The county superintendent will gladly send in your subscription for you if you will hand the money to him or to some one designated for this purpose at the first teachers’ meeting. This is very valuable publication and every teacher in the county should subscribe to it.


The school house should be the neatest and most attractive place in the community. It should set the standard for the neighborhood. Why is a clean floor any less objectionable in the school than in the home? Why should the windows not be curtained? Incidentally, is it not desirable to have the panes free from dirt and fly specks? The teacher who really has her soul in her work will have her school room and premises neat and attractive in appearance. The county superintendent, or any other visitor, can tell at a glance when he goes into a school what kind of teacher is in charge. What kind are you?

Handbook for Pitt County teachers. 1916-1917
Handbook for Pitt County teachers. 1916-1917. Greenville, N.C. : Office of the County Superintendent of Schools, [1916] 16 p. ; 21 cm. Cover title. S.B. Underwood, County Superintendent--P. [1].
Original Format
Local Identifier
LB1775.3.N8 H36 1916
Location of Original
Joyner NC Rare
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