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Richard Dillard Dixon, Jr., Papers, 1870-1970

Manuscript Collection #601

Descriptive Summary Click here to collapse or expand the contents in this section of the finding aid

Title: Richard Dillard Dixon, Jr., Papers
Creator: Dixon, Richard Dillard, 1926-1993
Repository: ECU Manuscript Collection
Languages: English
Abstract: Papers (1946-1948) include copies of transcripts of International Military Tribunal held in Nuremberg, Germany, various manuscripts, press releases, and copies of the wall charts delineating the hierarchy of Nazi German government and military system. Other papers (1870-1970) concern the life of Edenton, N.C., attorney, insurance agent, wholesale oil salesman and civic activist Richard Dillard Dixon, Jr.
Extent: 1.32 Cubic feet, 3 archival boxes, consisting of transcripts, manuscripts, press releases, wall charts, correspondence, ephemera, and photographs

Administrative Information Click here to collapse or expand the contents in this section of the finding aid

Accessions Information

June 23, 1990, 1 cubic foot; Nuremberg War Crimes files and transcripts. Deposited by Mr. Richard Dillard Dixon, Jr., Edenton, NC

August 5, 2014, (unprocessed addition 1), 164 items, 0.45 cubic foot; Papers (1870-1970) of Edenton, NC, attorney, insurance agent, wholesale oil salesman, and civic activist, including correspondence; writings, including book review of Animal Farm and biography of Thomas Paine; clippings, North Carolina Oil Jobber's Association material; ephemera; and photographs of family members and homes. Deposited by Richard Dillard Dixon III, Samuel Bobbitt Dixon and Betty Bobbitt Dixon Pruden.

Access Restrictions

No restrictions

Copyright Notice

Literary rights to specific documents are retained by the authors or their descendants in accordance with U.S. copyright law.

Preferred Citation

Richard Dillard Dixon, Jr., Papers (#601), East Carolina Manuscript Collection, J. Y. Joyner Library, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA.

Acquisition Information

  • Loaned by Richard Dillard Dixon, Jr.
  • Loaned by Richard Dillard Dixon III
  • Loaned by Samuel Bobbitt Dixon
  • Loaned by Betty Bobbitt Dixon Pruden

Processing Information

  • Processed by K. Romer, January 1995

  • Encoded by Apex Data Services

Biographical / Historical Note Click here to collapse or expand the contents in this section of the finding aid

Richard Dillard Dixon, Sr. (1888-1952), of Edenton, NC, had just completed a four-year appointment by N.C. Governor J. Melville Broughton as a special superior court judge when he was sent to Nuremberg, Germany, in 1946, as a deputy secretary general to the U.S. chief of counsel office to assist in the Nazi war crimes trials. In May 1947 he was appointed an alternate judge to any of the tribunals of the war crimes trials and he presided over four trials. His son Richard Dillard Dixon, Jr., came to Nuremberg in June 1947 and stayed on until 1948 with his father.

Description Click here to collapse or expand the contents in this section of the finding aid

This collection contains papers belonging to Richard Dillard Dixon, Jr., related to the Nuremberg trials. These papers contain two opening statements, several final judgments, and the formal sentences passed by the International Military Tribunals against top leadership figures of the Nazi party.

Original War Crimes Trial The judgment (August 31, 1946) against and sentences of the remaining Nazi leadership including Hermann Goring, Rudolf Hess, and Joachim von Ribbentrop among others for crimes against peace, humanity, war crimes, membership in an illegal organization, removal of cultural icons from conquered countries, forced slave labor of imported peoples and POWs, persecution of the Jews, and the conquest of Europe are given. A history of the Nazi regime in Germany and its World War II policies are detailed in the judgment.

Case #1 Tribunal #1 This case resulted in judgments (August 1947) against top Nazi doctors including Karl Brandt, et al, for criminal experiments on POWs and foreign workers including: high altitude, freezing, malaria, mustard gas, sulfanilamide, bone,muscle, and nerve regeneration, sea water experiments, epidemic jaundice, sterilization, spotted fever, and experiments with poison bullets.

Case #2 Tribunal #2 These papers (April 1947) contain the judgment of crimes of Erhard Milch concerning medical experiments conducted at Dachau concentration camp; foreign labor, and use of POWs in German war production and defense; and whether Milch paticipated, controlled, or had the ability to put an end to it. Also a concurring opinion with a very detailed examination of the crimes committed is included.

Case #4 Tribunal #2 This judgment (November 1947) concerns Oswald Pohl, et al. Pohl was the head of the Main Economic and Administrative Department (WVHA) of the SS under Himmler. He and his department heads were responsible for all levels of SS activity including: transportation, concentration camps, finances, etc.

Case #7 The opening statement (July 1947) of this case details crimes committed by Wilhelm List, et al, in the military occupation of Southeast Europe including, but not limited to, Greece and Yugoslavia, their policy of retribution on hostages for acts of sabotage, and the Nazi hierarchy in that area.

Case #12 Tribunal #5 The formal sentences (October 1948) of Wilhelm von Leeb, et al are given without accompanying details of their crimes.

The war crimes trials lasted from December 1946 until March 1949 and included twelve trials. The collection also contains several manuscripts about post war Germany. An article by Gen. Mark Clark, "The Unhappy Truth," outlines Soviet policy intentions for Europe and America's need to stand for European democracy. Manuscripts on German occupation ("The Occupation: Von Weichs and Rendulic"), the German military system, German government and administration (by Werner Peiser), and concentration camps; various press releases of the International Military Tribunal; and a list and short biographies of the American judges are also included. The oversize folder contains copies of the charts which detail the hierarchy of Nazi Germany government and military.

Container List Click here to collapse or expand the contents in this section of the finding aid

Box 1#0601.1
Biography of judges, opening statements, final judgments
Box 2#0601.2
Manuscripts; Miscellany

Preliminary Inventory Click here to collapse or expand the contents in this section of the finding aid

Below is material taken from a preliminary inventory and represents content from the collection that is unprocessed.

Online access to this finding aid is supported with funds created through the federal Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA). These funds come through a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services which is administered by the State Library of North Carolina, a division of the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources. This grant is part of the North Carolina ECHO, Exploring Cultural Heritage Online, Digitization Grant Program.

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This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held in the Special Collections Division, J.Y. Joyner Library, East Carolina University. The materials described here are physically available in our reading room. None of the original documents in this collection are digitally available online at this time.
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