Papers (1805-1968; bulk 1860-1916) consisting of correspondence of a political nature, family-related correspondence, speeches, financial papers, farm records, farm account books, clippings, photographs, a diary and printed material related to Elias Carr and other members of the Carr and related families. Elias Carr (1839-1900) of Edgecombe County, a member of the Democratic Party, was the governor of North Carolina (1893-1897) and president of the N.C. State Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union (1889-1892).
Elias Carr (1839-1900) was Democratic governor of North Carolina (1893-1897), president of the N.C. State Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union (1889-1892), member of the board of directors of Rocky Mount Mills, trustee of N.C. College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, commissioner of the N.C. Geological Survey, agriculturalist, and businessman. Born February 25, 1839, he was the son of Jonas Johnston Carr and Elizabeth Jane Hilliard Carr. He was orphaned at the age of four and was reared under the guardianship of John Buxton Williams of Warren County, N.C. He attended the University of North Carolina (1855-1857) and returned to his father's farm, Bracebridge Hall (Edgecombe County, N.C.), where he purchased his brother's interest. He married Eleanor Kearny in 1859 and was the father of six children: William Kearny Carr, John Buxton Carr, Mary Elizabeth Carr, Elias Carr, Eleanor Kearny Carr, and Annie Bruce Carr. Active in the farmers' movements of the 1880s, he represented N.C. in the Farmers' National Congress in St. Paul, Minnesota, in 1886; provided leadership in the founding of the Farmers' Alliance in N.C.; and represented N.C. at the Ocala, Florida, Farmers' Alliance Convention (1890). He was nominated by the Democratic Party for governor in 1892 and defeated the Republican candidate, Judge David M. Furches, and the Populist candidate, Dr. Wyatt P. Exum. Carr was also a commissioner to the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893. After his governorship (1893-1897), he returned to Bracebridge Hall. He died July 22, 1900.
Voluminous correspondence reflects every aspect of Carr's career with particular concentrations centered around farm and business interests, the Farmers' Alliance, and political activities. Early correspondence (1838-1842) from Carr's parents details family information and Carr's youth. Pre- and post-Civil War correspondence (1860-1888) is devoted almost exclusively to matters surrounding cotton production and sales, property control, dairying, and textile manufacturing. Late nineteenth century correspondence (1888-1898) reveals an increasingly prominent interest in farm organizations and Democratic Party political interests.
Early correspondence (1838-1842) is mostly from Elizabeth Jane Hilliard Carr to her sister, Tempy M. Williams, relaying weather, health, and family concerns. A letter from Jonas Johnston Carr hints at young Elias' life and the bilious fever that nearly claimed him.
Correspondence for 1860 through 1888 is primarily concerned with farm and business interests. The bulk of this material centers around Carr's cotton production and sales. Voluminous correspondence with various cotton merchants of the period reflects the depressed cotton market conditions; orders; drafts on account; charges for insurance, handling, and storage; the depressed European and Liverpool market; speculation demands and failures; bagging questions; closing of mills; and failure of some large houses. The merchants also request instructions, offer advice on sales, and forward possible advances and declines. Many of these letters contain financial statements, bills and receipts, and printed cotton market reports. The majority of the transactions are with A. T. Bruce and Co. of New York and later with Parker and Carr (W. C. Y. Parker and W. K. Carr, of Norfolk, Virginia). Carr was also involved in establishing a shipping company, The Tar River Navigation Company, to reduce shipping costs (1874).
Civil War era correspondence (1864-1865) concerns Carr and agricultural duties for the Confederate States. Private Elias Carr was exempt from military duty in 1864 as an agriculturalist. To fulfill his duty, Carr supplied agricultural products for the army. Correspondence with the Quarter Master and Subsistence Department concerns obligations and purchases of corn, oats, fodder, and meats.
Early post-Civil War correspondence concerns land purchases (1868); efforts to sell Carr's saw mill (1867); requests for loans; debt collections; problems with farm workers; a request for action by the Freedman's Bureau (1867); comments on farm production and the hard times for farmers; accounts of dairying and butter sales; supervision of the Swain plantation for David L. Swain and later for Swain's descendants, Smith D. Atkins and his daughters (1865-1887); and, politics and the "colored" voter (1868).
Personal correspondence for the period involves letters from family members primarily to Mrs. Elias Carr and requests for Carr genealogical material, including letters from Kemp P. Battle (1888). Correspondence from friends in the West contains comments on Missouri's growth, emigrants, railroad building, business and investment activities, and politics (1867-1868). Other letters comment on life in Arkansas (1879).
Late nineteenth century correspondence (1888-1898) increasingly concerns the workings of farm organizations and politics. Topics discussed for 1888-1889 concern Carr's activities with the Farmers' Association and as chairman of the Executive Committee of the N.C. State Farmers' Alliance. Early letters comment on opposition to the merging of the Farmers'Association and the Farmers' Alliance (1888), financial questions and constitutional rulings by Carr as chairman of the Executive Committee of the Alliance, the loss of labor in North Carolina to the West, and the need for the Executive Committee to meet after the legislature passes the Farmers' Alliance charter. More detailed discussions concern the work of the Farmers' Alliance and the founding of the State Business Agency. Correspondence on the Business Agency involves a proposed canvass directed by William A. Graham for the Business Agency Fund, the duties of the State Business Agent, the beginning of the agency, fears that the agency may fail, and the progress of the canvass and the Business Agency Fund. Numerous letters for the period also comment on the jute trust and the need for the Farmers' Alliance to select a substitute bagging for cotton. Carr became president of the N.C. State Farmers' Alliance in August, 1889, and voluminous correspondence after 1889 concerns constitutional rulings on cases of Sub and County Alliances, eligibility of prospective or present members, financial questions, requests for organizers and speakers, local disputes and cases within and between Sub and County Alliances, financial conditions, and general comments on the problems of the farmer and the role of the Alliance. Other letters comment on L. L. Polk's duties as president of the National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union (1889), state Thomas J. Jarvis's view on the need for N.C. to work with the "black" laborer, and reflect the non-partisan role of the Farmers' Alliance.
The bulk of the 1890 correspondence concerns the N.C. Alliance and its activities under Carr's presidency. Letters comment on the unconstitutional tax on members by Sub and County Alliances to support local business agents, opposition to the Conger bill, and encouragement for "colored" and Cherokee Indian alliances. The Alliance was also involved in the political campaign of 1890, and correspondence deals with the congressional elections, Alliance support for candidates, opposition to Zebulon B. Vance for Senator due to his opposition to the Sub Treasury Plan, and the progress of Alliance candidates. Numerous letters comment on the conflict between the Farmers' Alliance and the Democratic Party and opposition to Third Party efforts in N.C. Carr was chairman of the State Democratic convention and worked in the campaign for the Democrats. He favored all candidates in and out of the Alliance who supported the farmer. After the election, correspondence discusses instructions for Vance and plans for an Alliance caucus in the state legislature.
Correspondence for 1890 also concerns the National Alliance under L. L. Polk. Letters comment on the national work, the growth of the Alliance, the need for organizers, and financial problems. Other correspondence comments on the need to collect dues to finance national work, the meeting of cotton states to favor cotton bagging, conflict over the Sub-Treasury Plan, the need for a national Alliance newspaper with local branches, and the conflict between Polk and Rittenhouse and between Rittenhouse and C. W. Macune in the national offices.
State and National Alliance issues continued to dominate the correspondence in 1891. State Alliance topics include the fight against Josephus Daniels for State Printer by anti-Alliance factions, appointments to the Railroad Commission, plans to consolidate all State Agencies and Alliance stores in a National Union Plan, the loss of subscribers and support for the Progressive Farmer, work among the "colored" Alliances and their role within the Alliance, and the selection of Carr as delegate to the National Farmers' Congress in Missouri. State political topics deal with the growing dissatisfaction with Senator Vance and his instructions; the continuing conflict between the Alliance, the Democratic Party, and the Third Party effort; and the request for Carr to run for governor. One significant letter (May 22, 1891) by Carr reflects his view that the Alliance is not a political body, but is political in a higher sense by keeping the two parties in line with Alliance demands and reforms, an effort that is impossible with a Third Party.
National Farmers' Alliance topics for 1891 deal with the conflicts in the national office between Polk, C. W. Macune, and D. H. Rittenhouse; the work of the National Legislative Council for national financial reforms; the plans for an Alliance canvass in every congressional district and mass Alliance meetings in each state; and the need for a meeting of all farmers organizations. Political issues refer to the building strength of a Third Party effort, criticism of Polk for devoting too much interest to a Third Party, and Polk's threat of "an independent political action."
Democratic Party politics are of primary concern in the correspondence for 1892. Carr and other Alliancemen express opposition to the St. Louis platform of the Alliance. Resulting letters criticize Carr for his position, comment on the efforts of the Progressive Farmer to read Carr out of the Alliance, and request Polk to explain why the tariff was left out of the platform. Democratic Party matters deal with the nomination of Carr as the Democratic Party candidate for N.C. governor and his reluctance to accept; Carr's stand on the Ocala platform; the conduct of the campaign; expressions of congratulations and support; the offer of services by Josephus Daniels; advice to Carr in the campaign; fears of a strong Third Party; and confusion over the intentions of Polk and the N.C. Alliance President, Marion Butler. Other letters comment on criticism of the Progressive Farmer and the decline of support for that publication, charges against Marion Butler for violation of the Alliance, the appointment of a chairman of the State Democratic Party, and comments on the loss of prestige for the Alliance as a non-partisan organization.
With the beginning of Carr's term as governor (1893), North Carolina governmental affairs dominate the correspondence. Of major concern is the N.C. Shellfish Commission. Letters refer to criticism of the commissioners and their abuse of power, the importance of the oyster investment, and the detrimental oyster laws. Other matters deal with the reform bill for the N.C. penal system and its funds, the Railroad Commission, and plans for the transfer of the Virginia Dare statue to North Carolina. Correspondence also expresses apprehension for the future of the Democratic Party in N.C. and comments on the completion of the James Sprunt series on N.C. history, including studies on Civil War blockade runners.
Correspondence for 1894 deals primarily with political discussions and issues. Letters concern Thomas J. Jarvis's fears that he may be forced "to hide away" because of state conditions, efforts to save the N.C. Railroad from the income tax, criticism of Senator Ransom, and political issues such as a state bank and the tariff. One topic of interest is the conflict between Senator Vance and F. M. Simmons over Simmons's appointment and confirmation as Collector of the Eastern District of N.C. Other correspondence concerns Thomas J. Jarvis's appointment to the U.S. Senate seat left vacant by the death of Vance. Letters from Jarvis report on the tariff, political problems, and the campaign of 1894. Letters also reflect the family conflict over Vance's burial site and N.C.'s efforts for a Vance Memorial. Numerous letters deal with the campaign of 1894 in N.C. Campaign topics include an offer by William J. Bryan to circulate his Omaha speech, reports on local tickets and campaigns, comments on the need for the legislature to decide on Vance's successor and end the Republican and Populist alliance, and comments on the Republican victory in 1894. Miscellaneous letters include discussions of the railroad issue, the state treasurer's report for 1893 and estimates for 1895 and 1896, copies of letters from Helen Keller, Carr's appointment as a delegate to the Sons of the Revolution meeting, and Walter Clark's proposal for completing the Colonial Records series started by Col. W. S. Saunders.
Smaller portions of the collection between 1888 and 1894 deal with numerous topics. Agricultural interest continues to be of great concern; and letters concern information on silo building (1889), a fertilizer dispute with Royster and Strudwick (1889-1890), tobacco production (1890), cotton seed production (1891), business affairs with commission merchants, cotton sales and the depressed cotton market (1889-1894), and peanut sales. Numerous letters involve the operation of Bracebridge Hall by Elias Carr, Jr., during Carr's administration (1892-1894). Agricultural correspondence for this period also concerns the management of the Swain plantation by Elias Carr and Elias Carr, Jr. (1888-1894) for Smith D. Atkins. Agricultural letters are further concerned with debt collections by Jacob Parker and W. C. Y. Parker for Elias Carr (1888-1894). In addition, discussions are given on the N.C. Experimental Station and its activities (1888-1890); the N.C. Geological Survey under J. A. Holmes (1891-1894); the work of the World's Columbian Exposition (1890-1891); and genealogical information on the Carr family by Walter Carr, Julian S. Carr, and T. W. Carr (1890-1891). Financial matters of the Rocky Mount Mills and its director are also given (1889-1894).
A significant portion of the correspondence for 1889-1894 concerns the political, financial, and social comments of Carr's son, W. K. Carr, in Washington, D.C. W. K. Carr comments on the Sub-Treasury Plan fight in Congress and Senator Vance's role(1890), the money scare in Washington, D.C. (1890), and national financial reform (1890-1894). W. K. Carr advised Elias Carr in his administration and wrote numerous speeches for his father (1892-1894). He also comments on the silver issue, the efforts of the Populist Party, and the appointment of Thomas J. Jarvis as Senator from N.C. (1892-1894).
The bulk of correspondence between 1895 and 1898 deals primarily with Democratic Party issues, and reflects concerns over N.C. railroads and the threat from the Republican Populist fusion. On the national level the 1896 Presidential election and the debate over free silver are the main topics of concern.
Conflicts over leasing the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad and the North Carolina Railroad Company dominate much of the 1895-1896 correspondence. Letters comment on the need to have leases signed in order to remove the railroads from politics, the term of years each lease should be, state interests in the N.C. Railroad Co., reluctance of out-of-state stockholders to agree to a lease, and questions over the legality of the lease made with the Atlantic and N.C. Railroad. Additional topics include prospective buyers for the Atlantic & N.C. Railroad (1896), the N.C. Railroad vs. Southern Railway Case (1898), and accusations against Governor Carr. Other items deal with various business interests, reports to the stockholders, appointing new directors, the selection of railroad commissioners, the original charter of the N.C. Railroad Co., and the desire of private stockholders to maintain the railroad's tax exempt status.
Democratic Party political topics discussed in the 1895-1898 correspondence include the death of Secretary of State Octavius Coke (1895) and his replacement, requests for appointments in several counties, and the Atlanta Exposition. Political correspondence deals primarily with problems within the Democratic Party and the threat of Republican rule. Letters refer to displeasure with the party, the Raleigh Silver Convention of September, 1895, debates over the Free Silver Issues, and criticism of Democrats "trading" over the Railroad commission (1898). Partisan attitudes are reflected in such items as a poem sent to Governor Carr entitled "A Satire on Fusion" (Dec., 1895), discussion of fusionist lack of thrift, a suit brought against the N.C. Railroad Co. by Republican Populist elements, Democratic complaints of losing their jobs, criticism of Governor Russell using illegal tactics, and comments concerning the need to draw up impeachment articles against Governor Russell (March, 1899).
Other N.C. governmental correspondence between 1895 and 1898 deals primarily with state institutions, education, and municipal improvements. Topics discussed include extending the electric lighting system in Raleigh; paving the streets near the Capitol (1895); appointing A. Leazar Superintendent of the Convict Farm; Governor Carr's support for state Normal and Industrial schools; and suggestions for a mutual aid program between the Penitentiary, Convict Farm and the Institution for the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind to make them more self-supporting. Also of interest is a discussion of who should head the black A & M School in Greensboro (May 24, 1896) and comments on Baptist objections to state aid for the Oxford Orphan Asylum run by a Masonic Lodge (March, 1896).
A smaller portion of correspondence deals with National Politics. Various letters refer to the Democratic Presidential Convention; prospects of war with England (1895-1896); the scarcity of money (1897); the silver controversy; William Jennings Bryan's campaign; and opposition to Bryan's running mate (Aug., 1896).
Of particular note are W. K. Carr's commentaries and analysis of the silver issue. Between 1895-1896 several letters contain in-depth discussions of the economic arguments on both the silver and sound money sides of the issue. He refutes sound money arguments while sending a pamphlet which supported the gold standard.
From January to April 1896 the bulk of the correspondence deals with raising money for the Vance Memorial Fund. Innumerable letters pertain to details of Polk Miller's concert tour through North Carolina including the tour route, public relations, schedules, minutes of a meeting of the Vance Memorial Association, transportation, and arrangements for local managers in each town. Topics of particular interest pertain to Miller's performance and certain problems in the tour schedule such as competition by an evangelist, performing during Lent, and fears of small crowds on Saturday nights. One item of note is Sally Southall Cotten's letter (Feb. 26, 1896) in which she requests the use of the Governor's Mansion to read a poem on Virginia Dare.
Correspondence pertaining to agricultural problems and the Alliance deals with the plight of the farmer; low value placed on their crops; high costs and overproduction; distrust of business; and the ineffectiveness of the Alliance (1895-1896). Carr is asked to warn farmers about the Fertilizer Trust and its sway over the state chemist (June, 1897). Other topics include a charge against the Alliance of misusing funds (Sept., 1896) and the labor shortage in North Carolina. Also noted is the lack of reliable tenants; their destruction of farm land; and a preference for Scotch tenants, including an 1890 circular "North Carolina as a Home for Immigrants" (Jan. 11, 1899).
After Governor Carr moved back to Old Sparta in 1897, agricultural matters began to dominate the later correspondence. Agricultural interests relate to the continuing low prices for cotton and tobacco. Commentaries concern the advisability of growing peanuts; the public demand for certain crops (Jan., 1898); artesian well systems in Tarboro and Wilmington (April, 1899); and problems collecting rents.
Items of personal correspondence between 1895 and 1899 pertain to family genealogy, personal investments, and family matters.
Miscellaneous correspondence concerns a variety of topics, including Walter Clark's request for Carr to write a brief history of his Civil War regiment (April, 1895), a request for Carr's public endorsement of a mass rally on Freedom for Cuba, the indexing of the Colonial Records of North Carolina, and a detailed plan for colonizing westerners in the eastern part of North Carolina (Sept., 1895).
Correspondence (1899) is concerned mainly with farm matters, indicating the difficulty in getting white laborers, the disorder of the Bracebridge books and the dry humid weather. Of particular interest is a letter by J. Bryan Grimes (Jan. 11, 1899) related to the attraction of immigrants to eastern North Carolina, and a letter from State Geologist Joseph A. Holmes (April 13, 1899) on the feasibility of developing artesian wells near Tarboro, with comments on the troubles of the Clarendon Water Works of Wilmington. A more political letter from James W. Wilson (March 19, 1899) relates to the 1898 state congressional elections and contains commentary on Ben Aycock and the Goldsboro ring and the Russell-Mott-Daniels coalitions. Correspondence of a more personal nature reveals Carr's declining health, relations with his tenants, and his offer of a post on the Board of Education.
The correspondence (1900-1910) is primarily related to the proposed Carr-Battle lumber concern, including material on operations in Florida, the scarcity of cedar, shipping prices, and size specifications. Information on agricultural market conditions reflect cotton and tobacco prices (1902-1906). There is also commentary on the enthusiasm among Democrats in D.C. for the 1900 election, expressions of sympathy on the death of Carr, the genealogical information on the Carr and Blount families.
Undated correspondence is concerned with various topics, notably the Farmers' Alliance and the railroad leasing question. Material on the Alliance concerns proposals to reduce tobacco acreage and standardize warehouse charges, questions about dues and bonds, and reference to heavy opposition in the Winston-Salem area. Letters related to the railroad matter include one from James W. Wilson expressing fear of the results of leasing, and a telegram from A. B. Andrews warning Carr that the Russell crowd had filed an affidavit charging fraud in the leasing agreement.
Also of interest is an undated letter from Marion Butler claiming his election opponents were using railroad money and the Negro vote against him. Various letters reflect the fund drive of the Vance Memorial Association, particularly the series of Polk Miller benefits. A letter, written by Carr evidently in 1876, tells of his plans to take a steamboat to Philadelphia to celebrate the centennial. There are also religious observations by W. K. Carr, a description of a journey from Gordonsville to Luray, Va., and additional genealogical material on the Carr family.
Numerous photographs (1866-1913) offer images of Carr's later life and administration, including pictures of the Carr family, Bracebridge Hall, the State Hospital in Morganton, N.C., and the governor's mansion in Raleigh, N.C. Later photographs include images of Elias Carr, Jr., during his term as Secretary of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture (1909-1913). Undated images portray the Eiffel Tower and views of Paris, France, along with unidentified places, people, and a horse.
A library catalogue, record book, several diaries, and a letterpress book offer more insight into the personal lives and views of the Carr family (1872-1910). The Catalogue of Bracebridge Hall Library lists all the books held by the family (1875-1888), while the record book contains political musings and significant dates for the Battle and Carr families. One diary, from an undetermined source chronicles most of the first fifteen days in 1910 at Bracebridge Hall.
The second diary, a photocopy of an original belonging to Carr's wife, Eleanor Kearny Carr, covers the day to day life of Bracebridge Hall for a period of two years (1872-1873). An astute observer of the weather, Eleanor Carr gives a day to day forecast of the environment and significant happenings of Bracebridge Hall and the surrounding area from January of 1872 to December of 1873, complete with the births and deaths of livestock, the frequent landings of river boats, and the comings and goings of friends and relatives.
The letterpress book contains copies of Gov. Carr's outgoing correspondence (1893-1897). These letters contain expressions of his opinions on the railroad leasing question, the matter of railroad companies being exempt from taxation, and the increasing political role of the Farmers' Alliance. Carr comments on the generally depressed state of agriculture, poor cotton prices, and the failure of small landholders to increase proportionately with the population in North Carolina. He also makes observations on the role of the newspaper in party politics, the shameful dispute among the Vance family over the senator's burial site, peoples' approval of Vance's successor in Washington, Thomas J. Jarvis, and the late senator's opposition to F. M. Simmons.
The letterpress book also contains material on the Board of Penitentiary Directors, the renting of land along the Roanoke River for state prison farms, out-of-state ownership of North Carolina mineral property, the Virginia Dare statue, and Carr's political troubles with the Oxford Orphanage and the state Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Institute. Carr expresses his determination not to interfere in the Foust case and other questions of pardon, his dislike for President Cleveland, and his concern over the importance of clean drinking water and the swampland image as a hindrance to immigration to the state. In addition, there is material on the settlement of state attorney fees in the Baltzer v. N.C. case, Populist legislation against the Alliance Business Agency Fund stock, the effort of the N.C. Labor Bureau to avoid excess interference, and the experiments of the Geological Board with artesian wells in Eastern N.C.
Personal correspondence in the letterpress book reveals reflections by the governor on his youth in Warrenton and Raleigh, and as an orphan at boarding school. There is genealogical data on the Carr and Boddie families, material on tenant relations, and a congratulatory letter to the Democratic presidential nominee, William Jennings Bryan.
The collection of Carr's speeches spans both his term as president of the North Carolina Farmers' Alliance and as governor of North Carolina. Pre-1894 speeches include Carr's inaugural address (1893) and Gov. Holt's final message to the General Assembly (1893). Two speeches by Carr to the Farmers' Alliance describe the history of the state organization and note the need for legislation, education, unity among members, and for rotation and diversification of crops. Two undelivered speeches are included, one to have been given to the State Guard and the other on the 1892 Democratic victories. Contained in a student notebook is a sketch of Carr's life, in which he gives his views on national and state politics (including the St. Louis platform), and his preference for the farm over politics. Other items include an address by W. K. Carr on the progress of science and general intelligence in the latter nineteenth century, and a speech delivered by S. D. McCormick to the 1890 convention of the Butchers'National Protective Association, reviewing the cattle industry and noting the spoilation of the cattle pool.
Speeches (1894-1897) include Gov. Carr's biennial messages to the General Assembly (1895, 1897). A variety of topics are covered in other addresses, such as the farmers' need for good roads, the N.C. oyster industry, the dangers inherent in proposed state banks of issue, and the decline of American agriculture as a result of economic politics. In an 1894 speech, Carr discusses his campaign promises, compares recent administrations in N.C., and questions the rationale for the Populist desertion in the state. In an address on immigration, Carr advocates the continuance of the policy of attracting American settlers instead of foreigners because of an outbreak of Asiatic cholera. Also included is a speech by D. T. Caldwell on the railroad leasing question, charging Democratic lawyers with receiving bribes from railroad interests.
Among the special addresses are ones delivered at agricultural fairs in Concord and New Bern, concerning the evolution of fairs in America and the importance of New Bern as a fish market, with remarks on the necessity of scientific management of oyster beds. Several speeches pertaining to state educational institutions are included here, which relate the history of U.N.C.-Chapel Hill on its centennial celebration (1895), the state program for deaf mutes, the role of Gov. Vance in education, and the observation that N.C. public education facilities had kept abreast of the times. Also contained in this file are Carr's introductory remarks to a speech by Samuel A. Ashe on the cruiser RALEIGH, and an address delivered at the unveiling of the Holt Monument on the Guilford Courthouse Battleground, in which Carr describes David Schenk's recent history of North Carolina as part of a growing awareness of history in the state.
Financial papers (1856-1910) reflect Carr's personal finances and, for the years he was governor, those of the state institutions as well. Receipts and other materials reflect the prices of food, meat, crops (cotton and peanuts), clothes, education, transportation and freight rates, and services. Personal papers include bank statements, records of private debts and loans, taxes, hotel bills, the expenses of his three wards, and mortgages and indentures entered into (1877-1885). Individual items of note are the Governor's Mansion accounts (1893-1897), a statement of Carr's account with his cotton factors (1894), and an order for the purchase of Bracebridge produce by command of the retreating Gen. Joseph E. Johnston (April 10, 1865).
Among the institutional financial records are the statements of the N.C. Penitentiary Farm (1893); state appropriations for Negro institutions; a report on the finances of the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad (1893); and other railroad-related papers concerning stock, construction bonds, and the state lease. Other reports include those of the Wilmington and Wadesboro branches of the Bank of New Hanover (1893),the state treasurer on the conditions of N.C. banks (1896), the assets and liabilities of Rocky Mount Mills (1885-1910), and the Farmers' Oil Mills of Tarboro (1893). The file also contains the financial statement of the National Farmers Alliance (1890), fiscal reports of the series of Polk Miller recitals (1896) and other contributions to the Vance Memorial Fund, and a cotton market report (1894).
A large collection of checks and bankbooks (1866-1912) offer more financial insight into Carr's life. Among the numerous checkbooks and bankbooks to note are a bankbook (1891-1893) once owned by Gov. Holt, passed on with the office to Gov. Carr, and a Howell & Carr Bankbook, which includes deposit slips, a check, and letter indicating the need to balance the book among other financial concerns (1911-1912).
Farm records reflect day-to-day operations of Bracebridge farm and dairy, and include payroll books and account ledgers. Cotton-pickers records (1868-1916) detail amounts picked by and wages paid to individual hands, and the farm total as well as notations on cotton baled (1900-1907) and records of the Bracebridge ginhouse (1883, 1895, and 1905-1908).
Records of the dairy operations contain rotations of butter sales and total per cow yield (1888-1895). The farm journal (1883-1901) includes data on yearly dairy production and sales, rainfall and other weather conditions, horses, the genealogy of the Williams family of Pitt County, and accounts of trips taken by Carr to the Farmers' Congress in St. Paul (1886), to the Red River Valley, and to various Alliance meetings.
Time books consist of loose sheets of payroll records (1897-1909) and bound ledgers (1874-1917). There are also two small ledger books recording cash paid out on the plantation. Account ledgers (1876-1908) are indexed by name, and contain the balances of numerous hands and kinsmen to whom Carr paid and loaned money. There is also a book of wage earnings in peas and peanuts (1884-1891) along with a steam mill record book (1888-1889).
Records of dairy operations contain notations of butter sales and total per cow yield (1888-1895). The farm journal (1883-1901) includes data on yearly dairy production and sales, rainfall and other weather conditions, horses, the genealogy of the Williams family of Pitt County, and accounts of trips taken by Carr to the Farmers' Congress in St. Paul (1886), to the Red River Valley, and to various Alliance meetings.
The agricultural subject file includes agreements made between Carr and various individuals (1856-1894), such as land sales, leasing arrangements, contracts for cutting timber and building a kiln at Bracebridge, and the renting of the Swain plantation to J. J. Hearn (1894). Cotton market reports of several New York firms and issues of the "New York Cotton Exchange Market Report" (1875) and the "New York Price Current" (1867) reflect prices, exports, and production for 1867-1875.
Material on the N.C. Agricultural Experiment Station includes a pamphlet describing the general work of the station and a form letter from the director asking Alliance members how the station can best serve their needs (1890). There are also bulletins issued by the Kentucky station on corn experiments (1891) and the Illinois station on milk tests (1890). Miscellaneous items include a long dissertation on the importance of American cotton to the world market and the plantation as the Negro's realm of natural advantage, notes on different fertilizers used by croppers, and the program of the Tarboro Farmers' Institute (1907).
Clippings in this subject file relate to a variety of agricultural topics, such as the economic plight of the farmer, crop rotation, British scientific farming methods, the causes and cures of abortion in cattle, the use of cottonseed for fertilizer, and the importance of cultivating grasses. Included are specifications for building inexpensive silos, a history of the South Carolina cotton culture, the seizure by the state inspector of tobacco fertilizer, and a sketch of Hiram Smith of the Wisconsin Dairymen's Association.
Printed material in the agricultural file includes several bulletins by state experimental stations. Those of the North Carolina station (1891-1892) are concerned with fertilizer analysis and control, and the use of cottonseed hulls for beef cattle meal. Two bulletins of the Texas station contain general information on its program and describe experiments in the application of cottonseed meal in dairy rations (1891). Also included is a bulletin of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture (Jan., 1894) and an issue of The Jersey Bulletin (Nov., 1887).
Several almanacs are contained in this file, such as Landreths' Rural Register and Almanac (1867, 1869), Buists' Almanac and Garden Manual (1871), North Carolina Agricultural Almanac (1869), and Turner's North Carolina Almanac (1886). There are also catalogues and price lists of various firms, whose products include farm implements, fertilizer, seeds, and fruit trees. Miscellaneous printed material consists of the pamphlet of the first annual fair of the Cape Fear Agricultural Association (1870), the regulations and schedule of premiums for the 1878 exposition of the N.C. Agricultural Society, and a daily record of tobacco curing operations kept by T. B. Blalock of Oxford (1890).
Material in the Farmers' Alliance subject file includes official letters from President L. L. Polk concerning the need for loyalty and cooperation of members and urging attendance at a tobacco growers meeting in Henderson (1891), a bulletin on the organization of state and county branches, and an 1891 address by Polk entitled "The Protest of the Farmer." Items concerning national farmer organizations consist of a general circular by Ben Terrell urging the confederation of all producer associations, the declaration of principles adopted by the National Farmers Alliance at St. Louis (1889), the program of the Inter-State Farmers Association meeting in Montgomery (1889), a manifesto on principles of political economy adopted by the Morrow County, Ohio, alliance (1890), and the proceedings of the Virginia Legislative Council (1891). Protests against the Conger Lard Bill include a report of the New York Chamber of Commerce and the proceedings of the National Alliance meeting at Ocala, Florida (1890).
Other material on the N.C. Farmers' State Alliance consists of the quarterly reports of various county alliances with data on finance and membership (1887-1889); Alliance by-laws and sections from the charter, and the resolutions adopted at the 1889 convention in Fayetteville. Items concerning the Alliance Business Agency Fund include an appeal to members, the contract with trustee W. A. Graham, a letter from President S. B. Alexander (1888), and a share certificate.
Miscellaneous materials in the file include an article from The Progressive Farmer (1889) concerning Mississippi A & M College, a card of alliance demands to be given to candidates for public office, notices to members offering special rates on The Progressive Farmer and stock in the Norfolk Alliance Exchange, price quotations on butter, eggs, livestock, grain and poultry by the District of Columbia Farmers Alliance Agency (1890), mutual insurance for Alliance members, and articles on various trusts, such as jute and pine straw.
Newspaper clippings in the Alliance file relate to the organization's history and principles, the platform of the Independent People's Party (1892), the National Farmers Congress in Chicago (1887), the sub-treasury question, opposition to the fertilizer tax, and various trusts. There are also commentaries on speeches by Carr and Tom Dix (at Weldon), and on a letter from President Harrison to the chairman of the Kansas City Commercial Convention of 1891.
Printed material on the Alliance includes the proceedings of the annual sessions of the N.C. Farmers' State Alliance in Fayetteville (1889), Morehead City (1891), and Greensboro (1892); the constitution as adopted (1887) and as amended (1888-1892); and the act incorporating the state organization as ratified by the General Assembly in 1889. Proceedings of several conventions of farmer organizations are included, such as the sessions of the Inter-State Farmers Association in Raleigh (1888) and Montgomery (1889), the National Farmers Congress in St. Paul (1886), the 1890 meeting of the Supreme Council of the National Farmers' Alliance at Ocala, and the fourth annual meeting of the Virginia State Farmers' Alliance in Richmond (1891). Other items in the file consist of the constitution and statutory laws of the National Farmers' Alliance at St. Louis (1889), a booklet on Alliance ritual (1891), pamphlets on Alliance songs and the Stone-Hearn libel suit, the receipt book of the state organization's Business Agency Fund (1890-1891), and an 1891 address by Ben Terrell on the Alliance.
The subject file on economic issues contains newspaper clippings and printed materials touching upon various subjects. The clippings (1890-1895, n.d.) include articles on the tariff and silver issues, the income tax question, a new mortgage bill, the tax on state banks, the contraction of money, sectionalism in the U.S. financial system, the problem of getting the Southern cotton supply down to the level of demand, and a pro-silver address by W. K. Carr.
There is a battery of clippings (Oct.-Nov., 1892) from around the country concentrating on the 1892 presidential election. Most are concerned with the McKinleytariff and comments on European reaction to high American tariffs. Speeches of various politicians and economists are discussed, as well as the debate in Massachusetts between the New England Tariff Reform League and the Boston Home Market Club. Other election topics discussed include the silver issue, the Force Bill, the Democratic plank favoring wildcat banks and the repeal of the tax on them, charges of Republicans buying the election, the mass conversion of prominent Republicans to the Democratic ranks, and the Republican stand on the current prosperity of business, with statistics highlighting increases in industrial wages.
Printed material in the economic subject file includes several pamphlets on the tariff and silver issues. The file also contains the 1892 House report on the effects of the tariff upon agriculture, the constitution of the New York Tariff Reform Club (1889), an address by the Englishman A. J. Balfour on bimetallism (1893), and four issues of Tariff Reform (1888-1891).
The subject file on the North Carolina Railroad contains the charter, amendments, by-laws and revisions, mortgage, and lease of the N.C.R.R. (1887), a report of the expenditures of the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad Co. (1892-1895), the proceedings of stockholders meetings with committee reports (1893, 1895), and lists of the State Directors (1892-1893) and members of various committees (1893). Other items include an address by the directors defending their right to lease the railroad to the Southern Railway Company (1895), a memorandum by Carr concerning the charter provisions for election of directors, propositions for the state leasing of the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad (1896), a resolution for tax exemption for railroad companies, and Cram's Township and Railroad Map of North and South Carolina.
Material on the N.C. General Assembly includes copies of various statutes--those creating county circuit courts (1895), appropriating funds to the Deaf and Dumb Institution (1895), providing for the election of Justices of the Peace (1895), reducing the expenses of the State Guard (1895), and establishing the Bureau of Labor Statistics (1887). There are also bills concerning the State Penitentiary, colonial records, and the restoration of local and self-government. Chapters 52-90 of the "Acts of the General Assembly" (1895), a pamphlet of the Conger Lard Bill, and the report of the tellers in the election of penitentiary directors (n.d.) are also included.
Printed items in the political subject file consist of publications of the State Democratic Committee, including the history of the General Assembly (1895) and the party handbook (1894); and the Democratic congressional campaign book (1894), which contains tariff schedules and statistics on immigration, commerce, silver, and income tax. There are also pamphlets on the Force Bill and the tariff issue (1890). Clippings from state newspapers (1892-1896) discuss such topics as the failure of fusion in 1892, the Force and Land Bills, the defeat of legislation repealing the tax on state banks, and a report on the direct land tax. Various incidents of Carr's administration are reflected, such as the Winslow affair, the Harris pardon, and Sen. Vance's opposition to District Collector Elias. There are also commentaries on Carr's inaugural address, Bryan's speech in the House on free coinage of silver, the results of the 1896 election, and the Negro question. Other articles are concerned with attracting Western immigrants to the South and the need for a good public roads system, including the scheme of Gen. Roy Stone of New York for a federally funded interstate network.
The file on the World's Columbian Exposition, to which Carr was appointed an alternate delegate, contains material concerning the World's Columbian Commission, including the official directory (1890); lists of commissioners, alternates, and standing committees; minutes of its first, fourth, and fifth sessions (1890-1891); and committee reports on permanent organizations, rights and duties of the commission, rules of order and procedure, on grounds and buildings, and defining the powers of the Board of Lady Managers. Other material reflecting the labors of the Board of Women consists of the minutes of their meetings (1890), rulings by the Board of Control as to its status, and the brief of the secretary of the board (1891). There are also items concerned with preparatory activities of Chicago women, state appropriations, foreign displays, the problems of housing and transportation, rules for displayers and vendors, and the effort to attract European notice to the exposition.
Other documents in the Exposition file include the federal committee report and the joint Congressional resolution providing for the exposition, Carr's voucher of expenses, the proceedings of various interest groups concerning the Chicago fair, and a printed copy of a widely circulated letter by Patrick Walsh (1896) calling the Chicago and Southern States Exposition a golden opportunity for the South. The file also contains two issues of World's Fair Notes (1893) and one of World's Columbian Exposition Illustrated (April, 1891); a copy of Public Law 81, which provided for the official celebration of the quadro-centennial of Columbus's discovery; minutes of the joint conference of the Board of Control and the state and territorial boards (1891); and the rules and classification standards of the Mines and Mining exhibition.
The subject file on the oyster controversy contains the annual report of the state shellfish commissioner (1893), copies of the 1895 Oyster Law, petitions favoring the reappointment of W. H. Lucas as shellfish commissioner, and a pamphlet on the needs of the North Carolina oyster industry.
Material related to the Vance Memorial Association consists of lists of members of various committees and district vice presidents, and records of the series of Polk Miller recitals (1896), including the agreement between Carr and Miller's manager.
The publications files offer a large variety of material on various subjects throughout the later half of the nineteenth century (1864-1898) and is mostly comprised of governmental or historical publications. This material is primarily separated into two files; being North Carolina and U.S. related subjects, and the sections therein grouped, in turn, by general subject. There is also a section of collected catalogues (1866-1928) for a host of later nineteenth and early twentieth century items.
The North Carolina subject file consists of governmental, educational, environmental, and historical publications including briefs in the cases of Egerton v. Carr (1886), the report of the Adjutant General (1892), and biographical sketches of state officers and General Assembly members (1893). Educational publications deal with the Revenue Act of 1895, amendments (1889-1893) to the N.C. Public School Law, the report of the N.C. Board of Education (1890), and a copy of the essay How Far Should the State Educate? by Prof. B. Puryear, LL. D (n.d.), as well as catalogues from several institutions, including the first catalogue from North Carolina A & M (1890), two from U.N.C. Chapel Hill (1863, 1894)and one (1895) for Georgetown Academy of the Visitation Convent. Environmental material includes information on North Carolina's natural resources and tourist spots, including reports of the iron ore deposits and swamp lands in the state (1893) and Catawba Valley and Highlands by W. C. Ervin (1896).
North Carolina history publications (1874-1896) cover a variety of significant events in the history of the state. Topics of note include; the Mecklenburg Delcaration of Independence, The Continental Line of North Carolina and the Society of the Cincinnati, the history of Macon County, and the role of Chatham County in the revolution, and an issue of Our Living and Our Dead (1874). There are also several biographies on popular N.C. figures, including Col. Lawrence M. Adam (1894), Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock (1880), Prof. Washington Caruthers Kerr (1887), John Bailey Beckwith, M. D. and the Beckwith family of Smithfield (1893), Gen. Daniel Morgan (1895), and colonial Governor George Burrington (1896).
The U.S. topic publications (1870-1898) section covers a wide area of topics. Beginning with historical tracts such as Arbitration vs. War, The Example and Influence of America (1894), History and Condition of The Catawba Indians of South Carolina (1896), and Washington's Farewell Address, the section then leads into a selection of national historical society reports and by-laws including, among others, the 1898 membership register with the charter and by-laws of the N.C. Society of the Sons of the Revolution, and an 1896 Southern Historical Association brochure. World events take up a small section of the file, dealing with Central and South American postal and cable communication proposals and the Haitian question (1891). There is a brief U.S. religious and medical sections containing a sermon on lynch laws and rape by Rev. E. K. Love, a tract on baptism, and brochures for treatment of various diseases. A wide range of product catalogues and advertisements (1869-1928) such as the 1889 Illustrated Catalog of Photographic Equipment and Materials by E. & H. T. Anthony & Co. of New York offers insight into popular agricultural and non-agricultural items with an emphasis on buggies in particular.
In the periodical file are issues of various Southern agricultural journals, including The Southern Cultivator and Dixie Farmer (1882-1892), The Farmer's Register (1834), American Stock Journal (1869), The Jersey Bulletin (1887), The Maryland Farmer (1868-1886), The Carolina Farmer (1869), The Reconstructed Farmer (1871), Wood's Household Magazine (1873), The Southern States (1893), The Rural Magazine (1896), The Review of Reviews (1892). Several old editions of books are also in this file, including Silas Marner (1887), Sir Walter Scott's Rob Roy (1873), Ethan Allen's Washington, or The Revolution (1895), and Wanda, Countess von Szalias (n.d.) by Ouida.
The Carr family material file includes two autobiographical sketches by Carr; genealogical data on the Carr, Kearny, and Williams families; letters of guardianship; a Johnston/Carr family tree (1752-1843); agreements concerning land in Warrenton; and two songs by Mrs. C. P. Spencer on the University of North Carolina: "The Song of the Old Alumni," and "University Centennial Song," (1895). The obituaries of Elias Carr, John B. Carr, W. K. Carr, Elias Carr, Jr., and Mrs. Mary Hinton are included as is a Rocky Mount Telegram article about Bracebridge Hall. There are many miscellaneous clippings that reflect the personalities, humor, poetry, and wise sayings of the age, and touch on such matters as the lynch law, the Force Bill, North Carolina mineral deposits, and emigration. Other items of interest include a collection of calling cards, railroad and other passes; a book of newspaper clippings (mostly undated) from the late 1870's discussing social ways, everyday work chores, the issues of the day and clippings of poems and humorous anecdotes; a Memorial Day speech by Gen. Evans (1895); Raleigh (N.C.) Water Company Quarterly Rates with Rules and Regulations (1887); and a report by H. B. Battle of the N.C. Agricultural Experiment Station on the chemical examination of drinking water (1895). Also found here are copies of a scandalous correspondence (1814) between John Randolph of Roanoke and his cousin Annie Randolph (Mrs. Gouverneur Morris) with intimations of infanticide and husband poisoning; an appeal by Mayor T. W. Patton of Asheville for child-labor laws (n.d.); the program of the Raleigh ceremony honoring the late Jefferson Davis (1893); a petition to Congress urging the passage of the Tonnage Bill; an 1894 North Carolina A & M commencement program; an 1897 report card for Eleanor Carr from Georgetown Academy of the Visitation Convent; student notebooks of John B. Carr on math, pathology, and Latin, and a well-worn copy of Thompson's Pocket Speller (1892); and fashion clippings (1870-1876).
An oversized atlas (1814) belonging to Jonas Johnston Carr offers a unique look at the regional boundaries of the world in the early nineteenth century. Although the title page is missing, the volume appears to be Carey's General Atlas, Improved and Enlarged; Being a Collection of Maps of the World and Quarters. . .. As a part of extensive preservation work done on the volume, items such as receipts (1867-1868) for purchases and pages containing music excerpts from Godey's Ladies Book which had previously been glued onto some blank pages of the atlas were removed and are filed separately now.
Oversize folders contain over-large documents and newspapers (1873-1900). Overlarge documents include the pardon for Elias Carr from taking part in the rebellion with [stamped] signature of Andrew Johnson (1865); document designating Winfield Chadwick a director of the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad Company, signed by N.C. Governor Alfred M. Scales (1886); documents designating Elias Carr delegate to represent North Carolina in the Farmers National Congress, signed by N.C. Governors Alfred M. Scales, David G. Fowle, and Thomas H. Holt (1886, 1890-1892); documents designating Elias Carr a trustee of the North Carolina College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts, signed by N.C. Governors Alfred M. Scales and Daniel G. Fowle (1887, 1889); Approval of Appointment of Mr. Benj. Rice Lacy as Commissioner of Labor Statistics by Governor Elias Carr (1893); certificate of membership to the North Carolina Monumental Association for Gov. Elias Carr (1893); Certificate of life membership to the Albany Burgesses Corps. for Governor Elias Carr (1894); Home Insurance Company Premium No. 406 for Gov. Elias Carr (1892); World's Columbian Exposition Illustrated title page of April Issue (1892); a poster advertisement for Polk Miller and Leo Wheat; and a map of Bracebridge acres (1872) as well as maps of North Carolina by State Geologist W. C. Kerr (1882) and Rand, McNally & Co. (1892), and a map of Florida printed by Tropical Trunk Line (1890).
Oversize newspapers represent the many events and opinions from various regions of North Carolina (1873-1900), such as Asheville, Charlotte, Fayetteville, Goldsboro, Greenville, Hickory, Lenoir, Lumberton, New Bern, Raleigh, Salisbury, Tarboro, Wilmington, Wilson, and many other cities. Out-of-state newspapers are from Washington, D.C., Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia.
Gift of Mrs. Elias Carr III
Gift of Mrs. Fletcher B. Taylor, Jr.
Gift of Mr. William Carr Fillmore
Gift of Dr. Joan Fillmore Hooker
Gift of Mr. Edward R. Taylor
Processed by L. Parks; M. Elmore; K. Simpson; S. Parks, May 2007
Encoded by Apex Data Services
Literary rights to specific documents are retained by the authors or their descendants in accordance with U.S. copyright law. The CD containing images of photographs and documents related to the Carr, Fillmore, Inge and related families can only be used for educational purposes.