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15 results for North Carolina--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Prisoners and prisons
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Record #:
4223
Author(s):
Abstract:
Established in November, 1861, the Confederate Salisbury Prison held as many as 10,000 captured Union troops in an area designed for 2,500. Food, clothing, and sanitary conditions were miserable and got worse as the war continued. Salisbury Prison was destroyed in April, 1865, by Union troops who liberated it. A recent symposium, held in Salisbury in July, 1988, brought together scholars, scientists, and descendants of prison guards and POWs.
Source:
Our State (NoCar F 251 S77), Vol. 67 Issue 1, June 1999, p69-71, 73-74, il Periodical Website
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Record #:
8553
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Abstract:
This is the first part of two part series about the Immortal Six Hundred. The second part appears in Volume 50, Number 3. In 1864, the Confederate army held fifty Federal officers in a hotel in Charleston. In retaliation, fifty Confederate officers were sent to be held in a pen outside Fort Wagner, where they would be under fire from the Confederate army. Major General Samuel Jones of the Confederate army and Federal General J.G. Foster exacted a trade of the fifty men on August 3, 1864. Six hundred more Yankee officers were sent to Charleston in order to do more trading. However, on August 21, 1864, General Grant sent a letter to General Foster instructing him against all future trades. At the same time 600 Confederate officers were selected from Fort Delaware to be placed in a two-acre pen in front of Morris Island, exposed to Confederate shellfire. Of these Confederates, 111 were from North Carolina. Housed in “A” tents in parallel rows, the captives drank water from holes dug in the ground between the tents and ate spoiled meat. In contrast, war records show that the Charleston authorities provided rations of rice, beans, and fresh meat to their Federal captives. General Foster reported that up to 389 Federal officers took the oath of allegiance to the Confederacy as a result of the exemplary treatment paid them while held captive.
Source:
The State (NoCar F 251 S77), Vol. 50 Issue 2, July 1982, p18-22, il, por, map
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Record #:
8560
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Abstract:
This is the second part of a two part series on the Immortal Six Hundred. The second part appears in Volume 50, Number 2. This part recounts how 600 Confederate officers were held in a pen outside Morris Island under shellfire from their own army. Survivors of Morris Island were moved to Fort Pulaski and found living conditions to be just as bad. Often they stole and ate cats from their guards. Many of the men died and many were buried in unmarked graves because the Federal commanders would not allow markers. The officers were supposed to be sent to Richmond to be traded but instead were sent to Fort Delaware to receive medical treatment because their condition was so terrible. With the exception of survivor accounts very little has been written about The Immortal Six Hundred.
Source:
The State (NoCar F 251 S77), Vol. 50 Issue 3, Aug 1982, p21-22, 24, il, por
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Record #:
8987
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Abstract:
Lieutenant Colonel Tazewell Lee Hargrove and six other officers of the 44th North Carolina Regiment were taken prisoner by the Yankees following their defense of the South Anna Bridge. Taken first to Fort Norfolk and then to Fort Delaware, these officers joined about 600 other Confederate prisoners of war. In 1863, these men were placed in a stockade outside Yankee forces on Morris Island, then under fire from the Confederates. Hargrove survived the war and was released after taking the Yankee oath of allegiance. He was elected North Carolina Attorney General in 1872, and had a successful law practice. Ravages inflicted on his body during his years as a prisoner led to his death in 1889 at the age of 59.
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The State (NoCar F 251 S77), Vol. 48 Issue 4, Sept 1980, p26-28, 38, il, map
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Record #:
10628
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Abstract:
Prison overcrowding and the associated issues of housing, feeding, guarding, and caring for prisoners was a problem for both the North and the South during the Civil War. Relief came from a prisoner exchange agreement in July, 1862 that allowed for the exchange of prisoners within ten days of capture. President Jefferson Davis, CSA, broke this agreement over the issue of captured black soldiers and Major General Henry W. Halleck returned the favor in May 1863 by ordering that all prisoner exchanges were to be stopped. Afterwards, prison conditions on both sides deteriorated rapidly from overcrowding, leading to the deaths of more than 56,000 POWs during the war. The most notorious prisons were Andersonville (Confederate) and Fort Delaware (Union).
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The State (NoCar F 251 S77), Vol. 38 Issue 11, Nov 1970, p17-18, 24, il
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Record #:
10629
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Abstract:
The greatest maritime disaster in the history of the United States up to that time occurred on April 27, 1865 at approximately 2 a.m. A total of 1,238 passengers, 1,806 just released from the Andersonville, GA prison camp, were lost when the newly commissioned Mississippi sidewheeler SULTANA exploded and sank near Memphis, TN. Because of recent news regarding the surrender of Robert E. Lee and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, little publicity was given to the event at the time and it has been largely forgotten since. Designed to carry no more than 1,500 persons, the boat was overloaded with a total of 2,054 passengers eager to return to the North following the war.
Source:
The State (NoCar F 251 S77), Vol. 38 Issue 11, Nov 1970, p18
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Record #:
15237
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For the first two years of the Civil War captured soldiers were exchanged and allowed to return to their units. Soon commanders on both sides realized this was an untenable situation, and each made plans for a prison system. Gerard describes North Carolina's infamous prison at Salisbury, where over 15,000 prisoners were held in miserable sanitary conditions and food and clothing were scarce. Prisoners lived in holes dug into the ground. Over 5,000 died. On April 12, 1865, General George Stoneman assaulted Salisbury, liberating the remaining prisoners and burning the prison and the town.
Source:
Our State (NoCar F 251 S77), Vol. 79 Issue 5, Oct 2011, p66-68, 70, 72, 74-76, 78, il Periodical Website
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Record #:
15405
Abstract:
Cotton factory turned Confederate prison; in 1935 all that remained of the 40 acre Civil War encampment was a single cottage in the town of Salisbury, Rowan County. Around 1845, Maxwell Chambers built a large brick building to process cotton and six smaller structures to house mill workers. With outbreak of war, the factory was transformed for mustering grounds and a prison to hold Federal prisoners.
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The State (NoCar F 251 S77), Vol. 3 Issue 16, Sept 1935, p8, 22
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Record #:
15649
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Abstract:
Time spent in a Civil War prisoner of war camp was never pleasant for soldiers on either side. Sigma, the pen name of a Civil War Confederate soldier, recounts one of the few humorous incidents that occurred in a Federal prison camp. It appeared in The Tarboro Southerner on September 11, 1879, and describes the time Confederate soldiers captured the Fort Warren prisoner of war camp in Boston Harbor and held it for twenty-four hours.
Source:
The State (NoCar F 251 S77), Vol. 23 Issue 8, Sept 1955, p9-10, il
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Record #:
19456
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The article follows William Augustus Parvin, a Yankee by birth who moves to North Carolina and fights for the Confederacy during the war. Parvin's war career began with defending Fort Hatteras on the Outer Banks where he was captured and sent north. The author retells Parvin's daring and successful escape from Boston back home to Little Washington.
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Record #:
19574
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Randolph Shotwell served time at three different Federal prisons during his lifetime and recorded his experiences at each. Captured during the Civil War in 1864 he was first confined at Point Lookout, Maryland, then was moved to Fort Delaware where he remained until the end of the war. In 1871 he was convicted on false evidence in the Ku Klux Conspiracy and sentenced to six years at the Federal Penitentiary in Albany, NY before being pardoned by President Grant after serving two years. An examination of his time at Point Lookout is presented in this first installment.
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Record #:
19609
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Continued from April 1925, Vol. 2(2), pp. 147-161. Randolph Shotwell served time at three different Federal prisons during his lifetime and recorded his experiences at each. Captured during the Civil War in 1864 he was first confined at Point Lookout, Maryland, then was moved to Fort Delaware where he remained until the end of the war. In 1871 he was convicted on false evidence in the Ku Klux Conspiracy and sentenced to six years at the Federal Penitentiary in Albany, NY before being pardoned by President Grant after serving two years. An examination of his time at Fort Delaware is presented in this second installment.
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Record #:
19620
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Continued from July 1925, Vol. 2(3), pp. 332-350. Randolph Shotwell served time at three different Federal prisons during his lifetime and recorded his experiences at each. Captured during the Civil War in 1864 he was first confined at Point Lookout, Maryland, then was moved to Fort Delaware where he remained until the end of the war. In 1871 he was convicted on false evidence in the Ku Klux Conspiracy and sentenced to six years at the Federal Penitentiary in Albany, NY before being pardoned by President Grant after serving two years. An examination of his time at Albany is presented in this third and final installment.
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Record #:
24803
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Abstract:
Prisoner exchanges were a common part of military strategy during the Civil War. In 1864, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant halted prisoner exchanges in an attempt to subdue the South, but in 1865, allowed prisoner transactions to resume. Wilmington, North Carolina was chosen as the site to release Union prisoners. History professor and author, Chris Fonvielle, addresses a number of questions about this exchange, including why Wilmington was chosen site and what the North Carolina public and political response was to the prisoner exchange.
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Record #:
4883
Author(s):
Abstract:
The Confederate Prison at Salisbury was designed for 2,500, and the first Union POWs arrived in December 1861. Eventually the prison held 10,000. Food and clothing were scarce, and sanitary conditions were miserable. Things got worse as the war continued. Between four and five thousand Union soldiers died there. When Union General George Stoneman captured Salisbury in 1865, he ordered the prison burned.
Source:
Tar Heel Junior Historian (NoCar F 251 T3x), Vol. 40 Issue 1, Fall 2000, p32-35, il