Today North Carolinians have modern appliances like gas-packs to heat their homes, electric stoves to cook their food, and refrigerators to cool and preserve food and provide ice. La Vere discusses the times before these conveniences when North Carolinians used coal for heating and cooking and imported ice from New England for cooling. Use of coal started after the Civil War and continued till around 1950. The first ice shipment from the north reached Wilmington in 1817, and shipments continued until 1902. Artificially made ice made importing it impractical.