Where and how 4-H clubs started is unknown since many states claim they started some club of this kind. In North Carolina, 4-H traces its official roots back to a corn club that was organized in Hertford County in 1909 to teach boys farming practices. Guided by Jane S. McKimmon, 4-H clubs for girls were being organized by 1911. Clubs for African-American youth formed in 1914. The various clubs became officially known as 4-H on January 1, 1926. By 1952, North Carolina led the nation in membership, with over 140,000 members enrolled in 2,280 4-H clubs. Westbrook discusses the focus of 4-H clubs through the years.